Green Building Technology Dissertation

Technological Change in Construction Affecting Sustainability – Green Building Technology

Issues concerning construction and the environmental sustainability have been of great concern. Many technological changes have taken place in construction industries to attain a sustainable life. Technological improvement has emerged because of the impact of the construction with the environment. A major technological improvement that has taken place in the construction industry is green building technology.

Green building is a new technology that has been introduced in building and construction companies It is also referred to as sustainable building. The green building technology aims at increasing the efficiency in buildings with their site uses by using processes and structures which are environmentally friendly and resource efficient. The green building technology aims at changing the nature of operation, construction, maintenance, design, demolition, and renovation of buildings.

Green building technology aims at finding a sustainable balance between home and industrial building and the sustainable environment. For this to be achieved, it requires keen intervention in different construction sectors including the design team, the engineers, and the architects together with the project clients in each phase of the construction project. The green building technology is aimed at expanding and complementing of the classical system of building design which is concerned with the economical sustainability, their utility, comfort, as well as durability.

The green building technology is designed in order to curb the impact from the built environment to that of human health and natural environment in different ways. These ways include;

1. Sustainable water usage, energy and resources available.

2. Promoting the health of the occupants and improving the productivity of employees

3. Reducing resulting wastes, environmental pollution, and degradation.

Buildings have got a great impact on the environment if they are not checked. The impact caused by the construction of building also extends to the health of people within the building. The technological change in construction looks at the resultant improvement over a long period, which is the entire life-cycle in construction including its subsequent operations, disposal costs and the maintenance of the building.

Green Building Technology – Was it introduced as a cost-saving measure or for other reasons such as meeting building regulations or improving thermal performance, etc.?

As mentioned above, green building technology was introduced in order to achieve a sustainable environment. This including saving on the cost of construction, reducing the impact of construction to the environment, Sustainable water usage, energy and resources available, as well as minimization on the waste disposal which causes environmental pollution and degradation.

Building has an adverse effect to the health of individuals. The public health is affected by the construction, the building design and operation practices. The effects of buildings to health can be grouped in three main categories.

1. Effect on those occupying the building: various aspects on the building affect the health of the occupants, the staff, and visitors of a certain building. This includes indoor air circulation. The indoor air circulation of a building depends on the physical design of the building, which includes the ventilation, waste disposal locations, airflow, and pressure. Daylight access in the building also affects the occupant.

2. Effect on the health of the community surrounding the building: Health of the surrounding community is affected by the building. This can also result from waste material from the building. It also has an impact on the water management and air circulation to the neighboring community.

3. The effect of the entire global community: The health effect of the building extends beyond the immediate community. The production material of a building can constantly release toxic components to the environment. The components can cause severe effect to the larger community such as the effect of CFCs.

The goals achieved by introduction green building technology included energy efficiency, water efficiency, and material efficiency and improved indoor environment. On energy efficiency, the green building technology aims at reducing the total capacity of energy used in its construction and operation.

Green Building Technology Dissertations
Green Building Technology Dissertations

For this reason, buildings are constructed in a way that they will save on energy and avoid energy wastage through several ways such as siting a building in place where there is enough daylight to be used instead of electricity during the day. The houses are also fitted with solar water heaters to cut on energy use and cost in heating.

Sustainable building also aims at reducing the overall consumption of water. For this reason, water harvesting techniques have been incorporated in the construction of buildings to harvest rain water. Installation of water recycling and purifying machines is also put in place to ensure water efficiency and conservation. The technological changes in the construction industries have helped to achieve a sustainable environment which is necessary to reduce the impact caused by building to the people within them and the surrounding community.

References

PARAYIL, G. (2002). Conceptualizing technological change: Theoretical and empirical explorations. Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield.

SMITH, M. R. (1994). Does technology drive history? the dilemma of technological determinism. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press

TROY, P. N. (1995). Technological change and the city. Annandale, NSW, Federation Press.

VLANDIS, P. (1999). The impact of technological change on construction management. Thesis (B. Build. Construction Management) University of New South Wales, 1999.

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Question: Have you encountered any technological change relating directly to green building technology? Feel free to leave a comment below

Modern Slavery in Construction Supply Chains

Modern Slavery in Construction Supply Chains Dissertation

There is recognition that the UK construction industry is a danger sector for harbouring Modern Slavery abuses. While contractors are unlikely to be directly employing any slave labour, complex supply chain systems, can be found to be hiding a wide range of abuses. The UK government has already issued the Modern slavery act 2015 which provides a legislative means to deal with modern slavery perpetrators.

Modern Slavery Construction Supply Chains Dissertation
Modern Slavery Construction Supply Chains Dissertation

This dissertation investigates how contractors can eliminate the problem by successfully detecting (i.e. Identify, trace and eliminate) Modern slavery construction supply chains. In a critical review of the literature, the challenges of slavery to supply chain management are conceptualised, focusing on what makes construction a vulnerable industry. The paper then presents the findings from an extensive programme of interviews with UK Industry and labour welfare groups, which investigate the issues surrounding modern slavery in the UK and help obtain an understanding of the role contractors can play in the elimination of modern slavery within the supply chain. Eventually proposing a multi-stakeholder system contractors’ can implement to detect slavery.

This aim is broken down into the below dissertation objectives which guides the research:

  • Understand state of the art knowledge on MS and how it relates to the UK construction industry
  • Determine how well the industry has responded to the 2015 MS Act
  • Identify the challenges to detecting MS in multi-layered supply chains used by contractors
  • Assess the current MS detection methods used by contractors and identify which are most successful
  • Develop proposals on how contractors can improve their detection of MS in construction supply chains

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Background to the problem
Rationale
Aim
Objectives
Research overview and approach

2 – Literature Review
Definitions
The construction industry
Supply chain management
Traditional Slavery
MS and labour exploitation
Constituents of slavery
Migrant workers
Forced labour
Human Trafficking
Bonded Labour
The problem
Employment and the slavery business model
The Informal Economy
Traceability, Transparency and Multi-layer Supply Chains
Current Solutions
Legislation
Detectors
Prevention and Compliance

3 – Research Methodology
What is research
Narrowing the research topic
Literature review
Rationale
Sources
Research strategies (quantitative and qualitative)
Discounted Strategies
Data collection approach
Interview
Structure
Interview design
Development and Piloting
Sample Selection
Thematic Data analysis Method
Ethics and risks

4 – Data Collection
Background
Understanding the scope of MS
Awareness of MS
Prevalence of MS in Construction
Contractor responsibility
Impact of the 2015 MS Act
Vulnerabilities in the industry
Industry characteristics contributing towards vulnerability
Future MS detection techniques
Difficulties in detecting MS
Mechanisms For Detection and Prevention

5 – Discussion
The Understanding and Awareness of Modern Slavery
Collaboration and Supply Chain Relationships
Effective detection techniques
Impact of legislation

6 – Conclusions and Recommendations
Project overview
Key findings
Recommendations to the industry (contractors)
Limitations to research
Recommendations for further research

References

Appendix

Access This Dissertation Here: Modern Slavery Construction Supply Chains Dissertation

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Project Control Construction

Project Control

Project control is vital since it ensures that resources, budgets, and time are used effectively. In addition, the project control is significant as it enables the project manager to evaluate the progress of the project and adjust on the shortcomings and risks that are encountered during the completion of the project as discussed below.

Earned Value Management Techniques

As a project manager of a 5000m2 retail development construction project, the project control measures are very vital in the quest to achieve the goals. Control of this project can be conducted using the Earned Value Management, EVM. The EVM evaluates the progress of the project embracing the objective approach (APM, 2013: 7). This technique is very significant as it enhances the control work which can be conducted at any period, hence, determining the current status of the project. The EVM embraces the use of a baseline project plan to control the desired outcome. In this method, the cost management as well as the schedule of the project evaluations are conducted in an integrated manner (APM, 2013: 9).

Some of the goals of the 5000m2 retail development construction project include maintaining budget and minimizing costs. This necessitated the allocation of specific amount of the resources including the human capital. In this regard, project control enables the project manager to have a control of how the project progresses considering the time taken for each activity undertaken (APM, 2013: 9). More so, the cost of the project is controlled using EVM is necessary to evade the misuse of the resources and finance allocated for the project which could jeopardize the outcome. Apart from that, EVM project control is vital since there is absolute need to deliver positive results which are useful in answering the business case (APM, 2013: 7).

Project Control Measures

Using measures such as the evaluation of the performance reports can be of great importance in ensuring that project scope including project plan, schedule among others are helping the project manager deliver the goals of the project as stipulated before the project commenced (Fleming and Koppelman, 2010: 54-55). As the project work progresses, the project manager should be informed about the achievements made as well as the cost that has been used by the time performance reporting was been conducted. EVM also enables the manager to have an estimation of the final cost of the project together with time that is likely to be consumed (APM, 2013: 9). The EVM gives a clear overview of the progress and the status of the project which is essential for the project management since the resources as well as activities are arranged in logical sequence. This ensures that the activities are at as planed in the baseline project (APM, 2013: 9).

Project Control Dissertation
Project Control – Roland Wanner

Project Control Risk Planning Initiative

As a manager, it is necessary to initiate the risk planning so that the risks that are encountered in the project can be handled (APM, 2013: 60). The progressive evaluation of the status of the project vividly indicates the risks that the project faces. In addition there is a clear forecast of the future risks that the project might encounter. Therefore, planning for the risk is inevitable in a construction project. The previous projects can be used to evaluate the project risks.

In addition, benchmarking on similar projects can be a useful technique under the EVM control of risks. Moreover, the risk management software can be incorporated to deduce both the cost risk analysis as well as the schedule risk analysis (APM, 2013: 68). This is because the construction project’s completion time is usually scheduled and there is a need to manage the time so that the project does not run behind the schedule. Moreover, the finances and other resources are allocated in a sequential and logical manner. Hence, conducting schedule risk analysis ensures that the project status is as outlined in the baseline project (APM, 2013: 69).

More so, any discrepancies are managed using the appropriate methods that does not cause cost variance. This is because the allocation of finances is done when the project plan is made. Furthermore, the change control management is vital so that the risks mitigation processes can achieve the desired goals of the project (Fleming and Koppelman, 2010: 206).

Controlling the Project Plan and Schedule

As  project manager, it is necessary to ensure that the baseline project and project plan are achievable and useful in supporting the business case. In this regard, the project plan can be changed if the project manger determines that there are shortcomings to its effectiveness and validity. In addition, if there are some external and unplanned forces such as the political instability, the project plan can hence be altered (APM, 2013: 73).

One of the possible ways is the EVM Compass Maturity Model (APM, 2013: 73). This model is necessary as it ensures that capability project control is improved. This is done through rating the progress of the project on a scale of 5 with 5 as the highest score. Therefore, project manager and stakeholders evaluates the EVM attributes such as cost, time, resources, and finances, among others and rate their performance relying on the realistic and evidence based approach (APM, 2013: 73-74). On the other hand, the baseline review is another method that can be used to control the project plan and schedule. The baseline reviews can be conducted by an independent firm hence giving reliable information about the status of the project, the project manager can thereafter act accordingly.

Data trace assessment is another technique embraced under the EVM since all the data carried out in the project is evaluated and a detailed and valid status of the project (Fleming and Koppelman, 2010: 211). In addition, tracing the resources will help in project control as the will safeguard the time schedule of the project. Tracing resources is another technique which shows the progress of the project as it evaluates the distribution of resource within the different areas of the project. This is necessary in ensuring that time is effectively managed as well as ensuring that the resource use is matching their viability (APM, 2013: 75).

Reviewing Collected Data and Acting

Acting on the collected data is vital as the possible and necessary changes for the project are enhanced. Reviewing the schedule performance index determines how far behind or ahead the project is running which enables time management. Moreover, the cost performance index which represents the cost of the earned value to the total costs of the project helps in budgeting trace which controls the finance management (APM, 2013: 80). Comparing the current performance of the project is a suitable way to forecast and plan for the future.

Evaluating EV Reports

The test of project reasonableness can be conducted through evaluating the Earned Value reports. These reports can be produced progressively as the project work advances. The EV reports are vital as they enable the project manager to improve on the management techniques so that the project goals as outlines in the plan are realized (APM, 2013: 90). More so, evaluating these reports ensures the current risks are encountered as well as laying down concrete plans for the forecasted risks.

In addition, setting the cost and variance a threshold ensures the parameters such as cost and schedule of the projects are analyzed effectively (APM, 2013: 105). If the variance or the cost is above the threshold at any given time then there should be drastic changes. The project manager controls the project to ensure that reasonableness is always maintained (Fleming and Koppelman, 2010).

References

Association of Project Management HandBook (2013) Earned Value Management ISBN 13: 978-1-903494-47-9

W Fleming and Joel M Koppelman (2010) Earned Value”, Project Management, Fourth Edition – ISBN – 978-1-935589-08-2

Roland Wanner (2014) “Earned Value Management”, The most important methods and tools for an effective Project Control by Roland Wanner 2014 – ISBN – 978-1500850234

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Project Management UAE Construction Industry

Assessment of the Application of Project Management in the United Arab Emirates Construction Industry

Subject: Project Management in UAE Construction Industry. This dissertation aims to critically analyze the application of project management for successful project completion in the construction industry. Literature review covers extensively the development history of project management since the old ages to modern era project management techniques.

The first three objectives are covered during the desk study of reviewing different literature available. Major reasons of project failure in achieving designed project goals are identified and how the market slowdown is affecting the construction industry of United Arab Emirates. The role of project Management becomes essential when complexities such as introduction of new technologies, tasks to perform which are inter dependent, large and distant teams spread across different departments, different projects or sometimes different parts of the World and constraints of time, quality, cost are imposed.

Modern project management tools and techniques are discussed in detail and use of new technology to improve the performance of project management hence construction industry is highlighted. These findings of literature review are used further in research methodology to develop an online survey questionnaire (quantitative) to evaluate the aims and objectives set for the research, e.g. the level of awareness of PM tools and techniques and to investigate if the current industry demands are met by project management and to discuss any potential improvements/features that can lead the construction industry to achieve better results in project success.

Conclusions are drawn from the analysis of data received based on online questionnaire from professionals in the industry and the aim of dissertation is achieved by meeting all the objectives set for this dissertation. In the end, recommendations are made that can lead the construction industry to achieve better results in project success.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To critically analyze the available literature on project management development history; addressing the demand of the construction industry, and how it has been assisting the industry in managing projects of extensive nature
  • To identify the major reasons of project failure in UAE construction industry in achieving the designed project goals
  • To identify how the market slowdown is affecting UAE construction industry
  • To investigate the level of awareness of new project management tools and techniques
  • To investigate if the current industry demands are being met by Project management techniques, and to identify any potential improvements/features that can lead the construction industry to achieve better results in project success

UAE Construction Industry Dissertation
UAE Construction Industry Dissertation

Dissertation Contents

1: Introduction
Rationale
Aim
Objectives
Research Methodology
Dissertation Structure

2: Literature Review
Project Management
Project Management History
Concept of Modern Project Management
Project Management Process Groups
Initiation
Planning
Executing
Monitoring and Controlling
Closing
Major Causes of Project Failure
Facts about Projects Failure
Causes of Projects Failure
Project Management Associations, Standards and Applications
Need for Project Management in Construction
Why Project Management
Benefits of Project Management
UAE Construction industry and Market Slowdown
UAE Construction Set Back
UAE Construction SWOT Analysis
Competitive Environment during Recession in UAE
Development of Project Management Tools and Techniques
Project Management Software
Over View of Prevalent Software Products
Evolution / Merging of Primavera with Oracle

3: Research Methodology
Objectives of Research Data anthology
Research Approaches
Quantitative Methods (Deductive Approach)
Qualitative Methods (Inductive Approach)
Mixed Methods
Research Strategy
Questionnaire Design
Questionnaire Sampling

4: Survey Data Analysis and Results
General Introduction Questions
Project Management General Understanding
Performance of Construction Industry in UAE
Modern PM and UAE Construction Industry
Further Improvements

5: Conclusions and Recommendations
Conclusions of the Objectives
AIM of Dissertation
Recommendations
Limitations of the Research

References

Appendix
Questionnaires

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Dissertation UK Construction Joint Ventures

Effectiveness of UK Construction Joint Ventures

In recent years there has been an increase in UK construction companies forming Joint Ventures (JV) in order to compete for construction projects. JVs are an arrangement where companies combine their expertise, capital, property, skills and knowledge in order to execute a specific project. Despite the rise of Construction Joint Ventures (CJV), it has been reported that Joint Ventures are often problematic and result in disputes between the partners.

There is an abundance of research which focuses on different countries like China, Japan, and UAE, but there is very limited research that examines CJVs in the UK construction industry. This research aims to examine this CJV formation in the UK. It will identify the motives of UK companies forming Construction Joint Ventures, the reasons of failure, the factors of success. It also investigates the spike of UK CJV formation.

Initially, a literature review was carried out on the existing body of knowledge. Then a series of interviews were conducted with professionals that have been involved in different lengths with UK CJVs. The interview questions addressed all the aims and objectives of the research. Following an in-depth discussion of the literature and the data findings, it was revealed that the main motives that companies have to form a joint venture are to gain enough financial strength, exchange expertise, satisfy client needs, share risk and enter new geographical markets within the UK.

Construction Joint Ventures Dissertation
Construction Joint Ventures Dissertation

It was identified that the main risks of failure are choosing an unsuitable partner and inefficient collaboration. The study found that the spike of CJVs is due to the recession of 2008, the ‘Egan reports’ and client demand. The factors of success that were found are partners having common aims and objectives, clear procedures and being compatible with each other. In conclusion, the study provided an insight into the formation of CJV in the UK that did not exist previously.

Dissertation Objectives

  • Identify the motives of companies to form a CJV
  • Identify the risks and reasons of failure of CJVs
  • Investigate the increase of CJVs in the UK construction industry
  • Provide an updated account on factors of success of UK CJVs

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Aim
Objectives
Research Need
Research Method
Dissertation structure

2 – Literature Review
Definition of Joint ventures
Difference between JV and CJVs
Operation of CJVs
Motives to form Joint Ventures
Risks and reasons of failure of CJV
Determinant of Success
Factors of success of CJV in different industries
Differences between Industries
Common Trends throughout the Literature
CJVs in the UK industry

3 – Methodology
Quantitative research
Qualitative research
Comparison of types of research
Interviews
Interviewees Profile

4 – Data Analysis
Interview Responses

5 – Discussion
Key objective 1: Identify the motives of companies to form a CJV
Key objective 2: Identify the risks and reasons of failure of CJVs
Key objective 3: Investigation of increase of CJVs in the UK construction industry
Key objective 4: Provide an updated account on factors of success of UK CJVs

6 – Conclusions
Aim of the research
Research Objectives
Limitations
Recommendations

References

Appendix

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