Kant’s Autonomy in relation to Drug Use

Kant’s Autonomy in relation to Drug Use

Kant’s Autonomy in relation to Drug Use Assignment – Morality and ethics are like a reflection of what we believe where moral laws and tend to refine or improve what we believe in. In most societies, justifying the need to limit the use of drugs is always controversial as some people are of the view that they should be left to choose what is good for their bodies and what is not (Smith, 2002). Therefore, the legalization of drugs in some societies has been mandated on the grounds of helping people achieve their autonomy or exercise liberty.

However, there are always consequences associated with engaging in drug-taking activities where it is noted that drugs directly affect the self while indirectly impacting society (Altman, 2011). Therefore, the arguments for regulating the intake of drugs is centered around the consequences of taking drugs and the intentions to take drugs as well as the autonomy of the human being.  This brings the need to ask questions, is it right to regulate the use of drugs? Does an individual’s ability to choose limited through legislation, is this enslavement?

According to Kant, the individual or a person has a certain dignity that requires an individual’s respect. Kant notes that the reason showing why people are sacred stems from the idea that we are rational humans who can use logic (Altman, 2011). Kant also notes that human beings are autonomous beings meaning that one can act and choose freely. In this case, autonomy focuses on an individual’s ability to govern the self.

This school of through is therefore based on the ability to focus on the self as a way of determining what is moral and immoral instead of being influenced by the injunctions of other people (Kant’s Moral Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy), 2016). This, therefore, entails self-governance where an individual looks the self and hence pursuing the course of action that benefits the self despite the moral beliefs and norms revolving around the choice.

Further to that, according to Kant, an individual’s autonomy is compromised when the individual cannot make a decision individually. This is when an external body or external factors influence them may fail to be autonomous since the true self does not exist at this moment (Altman, 2011). For example, a child may have the inability to be autonomous as well as the disabled people or an oppressed individual as they may be having the inability to become autonomous.

This, therefore, presents autonomy as the ability to be fully aware of having authority over individual actions. Kant, therefore, calls upon the need to let the individual free will be the major guiding principle towards decision making rather than letting the socially developed principles and or laws and hence determining what is moral (Kant’s Moral Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy), 2016).

In this case, people should be guided by the maxims which they choose to abide by where such maxims can be regarded as universal by any being. Kant further notes that our emotions and subscriptions are external to the development of the will and therefore, they should not play a role in determining the ability to self-regulate (Altman, 2011).

Kant’s Autonomy
Kant’s Autonomy

In other words, Kant means that our feelings, habits, the emotions that we develop do not contribute towards the achievement of autonomy are they are seen as external. However, it is important to note that the idea of free will and making personal choices does not entail being governed by no laws, but is focuses on being governed by the laws that are developed by the self. In this case, the concept of autonomy works beyond being manipulated or manipulating other beings for the sake of our good (Smith, 2002). This, therefore, means that deception and lying are not okay since if I’m being deceived or manipulated, I cannot make an autonomous decision since the decision was based on false information.

Therefore, when it comes to the issue of drug use in relation to Kant’s arguments, it can be noted that if the decision to take drugs is personal and not influenced by other external factors, it can be considered as moral by the individual (Smith, 2002). The model by Kant promotes the idea that human beings have the right to do what they deem right to themselves provided that other factors do not influence it and it does not affect other people. in fact, people with freewill have the right to undertake what they need for their bodies including engagement in drug-taking provided that it is what makes them happy. Engaging in drug-taking can be likened to engaging in sports for one’s benefit (Altman, 2011).

However, engaging in drugs because you saw another individual looking good or because you heard that taking drugs gives you a good feeling may fail to be autonomous since your decision was influenced by the arguments of others (Smith, 2002). For the person taking drugs to benefits themselves or as per their own decision can be regarded as autonomous.

Therefore, the decision to both reject and or use drugs as long as it emanates from the self can be noted as autonomous — Kant’s theory given individual liberty to determine their maxim. Therefore, if you define your maxim, you get the ability to decide what is right or wrong. We also need to ask ourselves if we are doing something for our purposes, and if the answer to this is yes, then we are doing the wrong or rather an immoral thing (Altman, 2011). This is, therefore, majorly based on the issue of consent, where if an individual is aware of all the good and bad consequences of taking drugs, but they choose the standard or the maxim within which they wish to govern their lives.

Kant’s argument on autonomy focuses on people setting their standards and determining their fate, therefore, reducing an individual’s ability to choose what is right for them to hinders their autonomy. Despite the negative consequences of drug-taking, as long as I decide self-harm, then it’s okay. This, therefore, gives one the ability to discipline themselves and do whatever they want no matter the consequences. However, we should always take into consideration the maxim or the principle within which we act upon; this is by considering whether we would want to lie to be universally accepted (Smith, 2002).

The argument focuses majorly on the intentions of the individual rather than the consequences. In this case, if the intentions to take drugs was to satisfy the self-nourishment, then the decision can be determined as moral. The consequences, which include causing social disruptions or self-harm, in this case, are not taken into consideration. Kant notes that rationality and autonomy also entail the duty to make choices to harm oneself or choose death (Finnis, 1987).

Kant’s idea is much contested due to its focus on the concept of free will in some of the areas of an individual’s life.  Notably, when an individual’s actions are truly theirs, they should, therefore, not be forced by any external force, and in our lives, there are clear examples of various situations that are not autonomous (Smith, 2002). This is due to being governed by cultural laws and norms that influence the human to act in a given way, which, if let to make your own decision, you would choose to do it. Therefore, since the decision is influenced by an external factor such as a law, they fail to meet the conditions of being an autonomous decision.

That said, being compelled to make choices that do not resonate with our own beliefs and views would be enslavement. This would mean being forced to live as per another individual’s preferences, which would be unacceptable to people with different views about the use of drugs (Finnis, 1987).  Therefore, people with different drug preferences cannot agree on whether it is right or wrong to use drugs.

Kant’s Autonomy and Society

Therefore, according to Kant, any time we choose to do something, we are always influenced by our desire, and therefore there is a need to govern oneself without any external interference (Smith, 2002).  In this case, society cannot make decisions for an individual as people can define their standards. Governing the use of drugs would, therefore, be enslaving the people, and therefore Kant would not support the need to set government policies to regulate the use of drugs as it interferes with an individual’s autonomy (Finnis, 1987).

This is because any action that is conducted without being influenced externally had its moral worth, not because of its purpose but according to the maxim developed by the individual. Therefore, personal intentions or needs should not be weighed against the needs of the public since something good for me might be bad for the bigger population.

In conclusion, the argument concerning the need to regulate the use of drugs is a controversial one where people take different stands as per the philosophical argument they subscribe to. Looking into the consequences of drug use, it would only be good if the government uses its power to regulate the use of drugs to protect and keep safe the general population.

However, there is a need to consider the needs of the users and the ability for an individual to make personal decisions. Kant notes that there is a need to let the individual free will be the major guiding principle towards decision making rather than letting the socially developed principles and or laws and hence determining what is moral. In this case, an individual should not be forced to make decisions that do not resonate with our own beliefs.

References

Altman, M. C. (2011). Kant and applied ethics: The uses and limits of Kant’s practical philosophy. John Wiley & Sons.

Finnis, J. M. (1987). Legal enforcement of duties to oneself: Kant vs. neo-Kantians. Colum. L. Rev., 87, 433.

Kant’s Moral Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). (2016).

Smith, P. (2002). Drugs, morality and the law. Journal of Applied Philosophy19(3), 233-244.

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Transformation and Upgradation in Chinese Manufacturing Industry

Transformation and Upgradation in Chinese Manufacturing Industry

Chinese Manufacturing transformation and upgradation – Manufacturing is defined as the processing of raw materials obtained from the earth for the production of new, innovative, and useful products. Organizing and modernizing the manufacturing industries in a country promotes economic growth, eradicates unemployment and poverty, introduces advanced technologies and innovative products, and brings a lot of foreign exchange by exporting the local manufactured goods.

World’s most developed economies today have stabilized their industrial networks to encourage goods production at national level. In this way, these countries are generating large revenues every year by selling their products worldwide. According to Engels, industrial revolutions transform the living conditions of the community and lead to innovation. The modern technology and current progress in China is the essence of transformation and upgradation of its industries, which have captured the attention of industrialists across the world to make heavy investments in China’s manufacturing sector.

Since its appearance on the world map in 1949, China has been on the way of continuous progress and development. World Economic Forum report states that China is the world’s largest manufacturing economy today and considered to be the most competitive country with highly skilled and hardworking people (CEO Policy). Besides delivering low-cost labour and materials, China has now acquired a number of advanced drivers, such as infrastructure, favorable prices, and a well-established consumer-based supplier network (CEO Policy).

With the successful implementation of five-year plans, China has achieved most of the targets set by its financial representatives, but at the same time, many executives believe that the Chinese economic growth momentum has been weakened, and there is an ultimate need to spur a new round of progressive evolution (CEO Policy).

A recent report by United Nations Industrial Development Organization has provided some astonishing statistical figures on China’s industrial development (UNIDO). According to this report, China had manufacturing value added (MVA) share of more than 30% in comparison to that of developing countries, whose average share was around 11-14% (UNIDO).

The report also claims that in manufacturing employment, China had a share of 18-19%, while that of developing economies was 11-12%. China’s industrialization can be compared with collective industrialization of all the African countries due to China’s greater population (UNIDO). These figures show that with current progress, China will soon surpass the U.S. economy, which is currently the biggest economy in the world.

Chinese Manufacturing and Industrial Transformation and Upgrade Plan (2011-2015)

In 2011, the Chinese State Council released China’s Industrial Transformation and Upgrade Plan for the year 2011-2015 (Analysis on China’s Industrial Transformation). The plan proposed 8% annual increase in China’s total industrial added value, concentrating on emerging industries of strategic importance with a share of 15% (Analysis on China’s Industrial Transformation).

Moreover, the energy and water consumption per unit of industrial added value was to be reduced this by 21% and 30% respectively, while the carbon dioxide discharge was planned to decrease by over 21% (Analysis on China’s Industrial Transformation). The transformation plan had the following six transformational goals:

  • To transform the development mode to improve quality and profit margins;
  • To transform the development by innovating systems and processes;
  • To emphasize the proper utilization of available resources in order to ensure safety;
  • To decrease the percentage of carbon emissions;
  • To transform the current manufacturing models into digital, computerized, intelligent, and service technologies;
  • Proper adjustment of industrial designs to enhance working efficiency and employees’ coordination;
  • To change the macro-control practices on the basis of market force.

China Development Bank Industry Transformation and Upgrade Plan

In 2015, the China Development Bank (CDB) announced its industry transformation and upgradation plan, which was aimed to promote the “Made in China 2025” strategy and strengthen risk prevention and control as well as to boost the industrial development in China for successful implementation of the 12th Five-Year Plan (Industry Transformation). The key steps of the CDB plan are given below:

  • To introduce a diversified mechanism of foreign investment and provide loans to the manufacturing sector for industrial upgradation and technological transformation;
  • To provide financial support to key innovation strategies by particularly concentrating on high-tech industries;
  • To prioritize the large enterprises that are the backbone of economy in terms of support for research & development and systematic upgradation;
  • To endorse the “One Belt and One Road” plan by enhancing production capacity and providing loans for overseas megaprojects;
  • To upgrade the internal structure in industries and increase the regional coordination in China;
  • To ensure all the theoretical and practical assistance for innovative projects for the development of manufacturing industries and economic growth.

Open Up Policies and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

FDI is the investment made by foreign investors after analyzing the economical atmosphere in a particular country. This investment not only introduces the latest technologies but also provides various employment opportunities. China introduced its ‘open-up’ policies in 1979 so that more and more FDIs are brought to China.

The results of adopting these policies were exceptional as the FDI in China increased from US$ 1.23 billion in 1986 to US$92.40 billion in 2008 (Liu and Daly). In terms of aggregate FDI, China became the largest destination of FDI inflow among the developing nations and the second largest in the world following the United States (Liu and Daly).

The investor-friendly policies of China forced the investors from foreign countries to invest comparatively more in the manufacturing sector rather than the Agriculture and Service sectors (Liu and Daly). Consequently, more than 60 percent of total utilized FDI inflow was made in establishing manufacturing industries between 1997 and 2008 (Liu and Daly).

The most common reasons for large foreign investments in manufacturing were cheap labor and the relative low cost of materials in China (Liu and Daly). The increased FDI has enabled China to possess high technology, particularly in chemical, automotive, electronics, and petroleum industries.

Chinese Manufacturing Transformation and Upgradation
Chinese Manufacturing Transformation and Upgradation

China’s Five-Year Plans

Five-year plans are based on strategic planning for achieving specific goals and financial targets. A competitive advantage of FYPs is that they provide a clear direction to the financial experts and governments for their economical position in the future. So far, China has introduced 13 FYPs; the last one was published in October 2016 by Klynveld Peat Marwick Goerdeler China (KPMG). This article has discussed the 12th and the 13th FYPs and has analyzed the implementation of the 12th FYP in terms of accomplishing the set targets.

The 12th Five-Year Plan and Chinese Manufacturing

China’s 12th Five-Year Plan focused on the emergence of seven strategic industries: energy saving and environmental protection, new generations of IT technology, biotechnology, high-end equipment manufacturing, new energy, new materials, and new energy vehicles (CEO Policy). The plan moved the Chinese economy in the right direction with the development of numerous new industries creating thousands of employment opportunities.

The World Bank China 2030 report proves that China has maintained and expanded its presence as one of the most competitive countries in the world (China 2030). Since the implementation of 12th FYP, China has posed an imminent threat to the developed economies in terms of economic competition.

Analysis of the 12th FYP

The article by Li, Wang, and He analyzed the implementation of China’s 12th Five-Year Plan in terms of its prospects for the next five years. An analysis of eight essential aspects related to economy, society, and ecological environment of the plan revealed that the achievements found in the plan implementation have consolidated the confidence for organizing an all-round well-off society of China by the year 2020 (Li, Wang, and He).

The authors concluded that most of the issues were controlled through appropriate measures (Li et al.). The research work also presented various useful suggestions for the preparation of the National Economic and Social Development 13th Five-Year Plan (Li et al.).

13th Final-Year Plan

China’s 13th Final-Year Plan for the years 2016-2020 was announced in October 2016 by Klynveld Peat Marwick Goerdeler China (KPMG). This plan had seven development priorities, which are listed below:

  • To develop an economic structure that is focused on innovations, industrial upgradation, and foreign investments in the manufacturing sector;
  • To enhance foreign investment for transformation and upgradation of all the industries in China;
  • To increase the mutual coordination for regional development by investing in service and operational infrastructure;
  • Introducing ecology-first mechanism in industrial development by promoting green finance, green development, and green technology;
  • To improve the quality of lifestyle of Chinese people by increasing public spending and bringing transparency in financial matters;
  • To escalate the global interaction by making investments in natural resources and importing technologies from different countries;
  • To expand the institutional and market-oriented reforms.

Current Status of the Chinese Manufacturing Sector

According to the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), 29 industrial divisions managed to increase their profits, while 12 out of 41 divisions have recorded a decline (China’s Industrial Transformation). Oil processing, cooking, and nuclear fuel-processing divisions had a substantial growth of 9.7 times, whereas the power and heat production, electrical machinery and equipment manufacturing, textile, and automobile manufacturing industries all grew in different degrees (China’s Industrial Transformation).

The Deputy Director of NBS reported that as a result of innovative and entrepreneurial activities and achievements, various new industries grew rapidly in 2015, and the value added of high-tech and equipment manufacturing industries reached up to 10.2% and 6.8% respectively (China’s Industrial Transformation). The growth is still continued, and with the implementation of “Make in China 2025” strategy, China is likely to become the world’s biggest exporter in the next decade.

Conclusion

Since technological advancement was necessary for improving manufacturing processes and the quality of products, the transformation of manufacturing industries in China showed remarkable achievements. During the early stages of the plan, country’s exports in manufacturing sector shared just 50% of the total national exports (Liu and Daly). These low values of exports were the result of traditional manufacturing techniques and less developed industrial productivity, which attracted only a few foreign investors to make investments in China (Liu and Daly).

In order to bring more and more foreign investments into the country, several foreign investment policies and upgradation plans were devised by the government, which increased the total share of manufactured exports from 74.4% in 1990 to 104.2% in 2012 (Zhang et al.).

Today, Chinese products are available in every corner of the world, and due to better quality with reduced price, customers prefer Chinese products to the national ones. To achieve further economic growth, China needs to develop energy-efficient manufacturing sectors, improve its property protection policies and innovation capabilities, invest more in training new talents, and increase spending in the research and development sector.

Though Chinese manufacturing has a competitive advantage of being a talented and hardworking nation, they still need to learn innovation in advanced future technologies and organize their own standards in engineering.

Works Cited

Analysis on China’s Industrial Transformation and Upgrade Plan (2011-2015). Hanking, n.d.,

CEO Policy Recommendations for Emerging Economy Nations. WEFORUM, n.d., 2016,

China 2030: Building a Modern, Harmonious, and Creative High-Income Society. Worldbank, n.d., 2012.

China’s Industrial Transformation and Upgrading: New Highlights in 2015. Xfafinance, n.d.,

Engels, Friedrich. The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844. Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1892.

Industry Transformation & Upgrade. CDB, n.d., 2015,

KPMG. October 2016 The 13th Five-Year Plan; China’s Transformation and Integration with the World Economy. KPMG, 2016.

Li, Shantong, Huijiong Wang, and JianWu He. Analysis of Implementation of China’s 12th Five Year Plan and Prospects of Its Next Five Years. Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 9, no.1, 2016, pp. 40-59.

Liu, Kelly, and Kevin Daly. Foreign Direct Investment in China Manufacturing Industry – Transformation from a Low Tech to High Tech Manufacturing. International Journal of Business and Management, vol. 6, no. 7, 2011, pp. 15-27.

UNIDO. Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development Working Paper Series. United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 2016.

Zhang, Xianhui, William A. Peek, Bohdan Pikas, and Tenpao Lee. The Transformation and Upgrading of the Chinese Manufacturing Industry: Based on German Industry. Journal of Applied Business and Economics, vol. 18, no.5, 2016, pp. 97-105.97-105.

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Leadership Dissertation Topics

Leadership Dissertation Topics

Leadership Dissertation Topics – Leadership is one of the vital functions of management which aids to accomplish organizational aims and objectives by maximizing the efficiency. A leader plays a significant role in concern’s working and encourages employees with both non-economic and economic compensation.

A leader not just supervises but rather carries a considerable mentoring role for subordinates by instructing them the way they are meant to perform. A project manager plays a role of primary leader who is responsible to manage project goals related to scope, cost, time and other operations effectively.

Scholars have for many years tried to differentiate and give the similarities between leadership and management. Leadership and management are two words that are intertwined together. Leadership defines a possessive quality that has to do with influencing, motivating and working toward set goals. Management on the other hand, is the desire to follow set rules in order to achieve set goals. Our collection of Leadership Dissertation Topics will help you better understanding of leadership theory.

Management involves giving order in contrast to leadership. The relationship between leadership and management is a basic problem in the theory and practice of organization management. Leadership and management are two basic functions of organization management.

The nature of the relationship between the two is the relationship between the leadership function and the management function. In general, leadership has been defined as doing the right thing while management is seen as doing the things right. This paper assesses the relationship between leadership and management, identifying the similarities, difference and the problems associated with identifying the actual relationship between leadership and management.

Keywords: Leadership, Management, Organization Management, Organization Function, Leadership Dissertation Topics.

Introduction

Abraham Zalezmek first described leadership and management as two separate terms in publication in 1977 [1]. In literature, leaders are seen to possess skills that are termed visionary and being right. Management on the other hand, is termed task-orienting and doing things right. While many authors try to find the difference between leadership and management, few are of the opinion that both leadership and management are the same [2]. Leadership is often described as the feature or quality that differentiates a great manager from a good one.

The terms leadership and management make up the skills and abilities necessary to describe an individual’s hunger for team success. This goes further to say that leadership and management can be interchanged especially when explaining their performance in organizations. According to [3], leading describes who you are as a person whereas managing is skill-based, a craft that can be learned and describes what you can do. This suggests that leadership is an identity that can be cultivated within a person and management, a set of characteristics that are demonstrated to show competency.

However, the description of leadership as the development of personal goals and management as the mastery of a craft is misleading and oversimplifies human and organizational development. In businesses, effective leadership is seen as the most essential part through which the business sustains itself in the face of challenges caused by rapid growth of the economy [4]. As a means to validate this, be sure to visit our leadership dissertation topics for material that will help you with your studies.

Leaders take charge and control the operations of an organization. Good leaders set achievable goals and objectives and guide the course towards the realization of the goals through effective strategies [5]. In addition, good leaders have the ability to influence their employees and encourage them through a positive organization culture and generous employee benefits such as leave allowances, healthcare insurances and others.

Leadership focuses on the general influences for inspiring people and gain their trust. On the other hand, management deals with planning, organizing, problem solving, influencing and controlling. In organizations, when performances appear to be bad, managers tend to understand the key reasons and what effective measures to take to mitigate the problems but would always wait for the leaders to come forward [6]. This reflects the division between leadership and management in organizational practice.

This division causes a misunderstanding between leadership and management. Leadership is process-oriented in the same way as management and both are similar in several ways. In one way, managers lead and leaders manage people and both of the work with people to achieve goals. This paper is one of many leadership dissertation topics available on our website that presents the relationship between leadership and management and the impact of this relationship in business.

Firstly, the leadership and management are discussed separately. Secondly, the functions and impacts of leadership and management further elaborated. Furthermore, the different aspects of leadership and management are discussed highlighting their roles in the growth of organizations and lastly, the relationship between leadership is discussed.

Leadership

Leadership refers to the process of influencing other people to do their duties with confidence and out of their own will. Leadership is focused on achieving specific goals through people by motivating them to direct their energies toward attaining the set goals. A leader equips, trains and influences followers with diverse abilities and skills to focus their energies willingly and enthusiastically to achieve organizational mission and objectives [7].

The concept of leadership does not only talk about the willingness of the followers but also their zeal and confidence [8]. The term leadership has been widely discussed in many literatures and many scholars have defined it differently each explaining it in his own way. Currently, there are more than 400 definitions of leadership [9]. Leaders influence people positively and make them strive out of their own will to achieve the organizational goals.

Be sure to visit our leadership dissertation topics. The role of a leader in an organization is vital in terms of creating a vision, mission, objectives, policies and strategies that help to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently as well as directing and coordinating the organizational activities [10]. The lack of effective leadership may cause problems related to unethical practices, high labor turnover, and poor financial performance among others in an organization. The main aim of many businesses is to achieve their set goals thus, the need for effective coordinate and motivate employees [11].

Leadership Qualities and Roles

Leaders play very important roles in the growth of organizations. The qualities of leaders help them to identify realizable goals, devise strategies to reach those goals, and motivate and provide direction for the team to follow to achieve the set goals. It is vital for the leader to recognize the value system that operates in a variety of work group and situation.

  • Objective: A good leader always examines all situation before making decisions. Objectivity is ability to rationally assess problems and issues without being biased.
  • Perception: Perception entails the ability discover the realities in one’s surroundings. Organizational leaders are required to have knowledge of the organizational goals and objectives and work towards achieving them.
  • Establish and follow priorities: This is the ability to recognize what is important and what is not and arrange goals in the order of their importance. Leaders should know what is important and worthy of consideration
  • Interpersonal relationship: All leaders work with people. A leader should have good human relation attitude. This is very important for leaders who have their jobs done through subordinates. The human relations theory states that jobs should be designed and scheduled in such a way that workers have a sense of responsibility as well as opportunities to participate in decisions affecting their job [8].
  • Manages crisis: In all organizations, disputes always exists among the workers. Leader should be capable of settling disputes or differences among their subordinates.
  • Decision-making: Decision-making is one of the most important roles of leaders. Effective decision-making involves defensive avoidance, collecting more and more information about the cost and utility of each alternative and comparing them systematically in order to choose the most effective costs.

Management

As defined by Katz in 1955, management is exercising direction of an organization through executive, administrative and supervisory positions [12]. In the above definition, management is seen as a task-oriented responsibility and involving the development of staff, mentoring high potential personnel and resolving conflicts at the same time reserving ethics and discipline [12].

Management was defined by Kotter as the job of taking care of planning, organizing, budgeting, coordinating and monitoring activities for a group or organization [13]. In general, management is the process or means of achieving organizational goals. In Northouse definition, management is the means through which objectives and goals are realized through the efficient use of resources [14].

The most important resource managed by managers is the human resource. The aim of managers is to reach short-term goals, avoid risks and establish standards to improve standards [15]. While carrying out their activities, managers focus on directing and controlling their assistants, resources, structures and the entire system.

Functions of Management

The functions of management include planning, organizing, influencing and controlling. Managers must perform these functions to enable them perform their duties effectively.

Planning

Planning is the first aspect of management. Planning helps to choose the most appropriate method for performing important task to help achieve organizational goals. The sole focus of planning is achieving objectives. The activities of the organizational team, managers or employers toward achieving desired objectives and achieve success are defined through planning. In general, planning increases the efficiency of organizations because it leads to short-term success and in the long-run shapes the organization’s long-term future [16].

Organizing

Organizing involves assigning task to people that was done during planning. Organizing helps creating a process that converts plans into incidents or products [17]. In general, the organizational employees are assigned some tasks, which meet or contribute towards achieving important organizational goals.

Tasks need to be organized, in such a way that every employee’s performance should add to the departmental and organizational success. Divided labor reduces workload and optimizes the utilization of resources; therefore organizations need to manage their people and processes [16].

Influencing

Influencing is also seen as motivating, directing or leading. It means guiding the organization members to accomplish tasks in a way that helps an organization achieve its goals [16]. Influencing has a major purpose, which is enhancing productivity.

Generally, the accomplishment of tasks, which are labor-intensive and require teamwork and result in generating high production levels in the long-run rather than the situations, in which people have to accomplish individual tasks because most of the people find task-based working conditions as uncomfortable or tedious[17].

Controlling

According to [16], controlling is the fourth managerial function, and it plays the following roles:

  • Information collection for performance evaluation.
    • Deciding the performance norms and compare the current performance with the previous performances.
    • Make a new action plan, and modify the existing plans to achieve the desired objectives.

Controlling is a continuous function of managers [16]. Controlling assures that the targets are achieved, and the desired changes have been made. The functions given above are major management functions; however, they need to be performed simultaneously in order to run the organization in a profitable way.

Relationship between Leadership and Management

In Jarad’s view, leadership exists as a subset of management and both leadership and management are important to facilitate organizational performance [20]. Management deals with planning, budgeting, controlling, and structuring while leadership refers to a process of directing, visioning, and motivating including coordinating and the development of individuals.

Additionally, management and leadership roles are distinctive in terms of internal and external roles [21]. According to [22] the goals of managers come from necessities whereas the goals of leaders come from a place of active attitudes. This means that leaders inspire people to be creative and innovative about problem solving under less supervision. On the other hand, managers give instructions to ensure that the organization’s day-to-day business is completed.

The creativity of leaders can sometimes be suppressed by managers’ desire for order, and while managers avoid risks, leaders take calculated risk [22]. In addition, a leader has soul, the passion and the creativity while a manager has the mind, the rational and the persistence [23]. A leader is flexible, innovative, inspiring, courageous and independent whereas, a manager is consulting, analytical, deliberate, and authoritative and stabilizing [24].

Furthermore, management works to establish security and order, as leadership promotes change and fluidity within organizations. In as much as individual can be a great leader, a great manager, or both, he still needs the mastery of slightly different skills and competencies. The mastery these skills helps the individual to successfully navigate the fields of both management and leadership. There is no doubt our collection of leadership dissertation topics will help you in this field.

Leadership and management may overlap, but they are not the same [26]. Leadership is a multi-directional influence relation, while management is a unidirectional authority relationship [25]. Zaleznik argues that organizations need both effective managers and effective leaders in order to reach its goals, even though managers and leaders have different contributions [1].

He further stated that leaders promote change, new approaches, and work to understand people’s beliefs to gain their commitment, but managers promote stability, exercise authority, and work to get things accomplished. Consequentially, leadership and management need different types of people [1]. Watson in 1983 stated that management means taking care of structure and system, but leadership focuses on the communication, motivation, and shared goals [27].

To further state the difference between leaders and managers, Watson mentioned in his book “Leadership, Management and the Seven Keys” that strategy, structure, systems, shared values, skills, and style (the 7S) are more effective for leaders than for managers.

Leaders have vision, goals, strong values and work to ensure that his followers are on the same page [28]. Hull and Ozeroff described leaders as good communicators because they spend more time with their followers [28]. In addition, leaders are aware of their team members’ professional strengths, weaknesses, emotional standings, their place in the organization, which allow them to know how to motivate them [26].

Understanding the nature of leadership requires you to consider the broader notions of leadership and management. Leaders have followers, and must influence their followers in the right ways [25]. Managers on the other hand, follow the laid down process, and seek stability and control and in a way, instinctively try to resolve problems quickly. Organizations need both managers and leaders to achieve the goals and objectives. Table 1 gives the summary and comparison between leadership and management.

Table 1: Summary and comparison of the relationship between leadership and management

Leadership Dissertation Topics - MBA Projects

Leadership Dissertations

Problems associated with Understanding the Relationship between Leadership and Management. Leadership Dissertation Topics

  • Understanding correctly the notion of leadership and management: Many scholars have defined leadership and managements in more than 350 different ways [18]. These definitions bring about inconsistency in understanding the concept of leadership and management.
  • The inequivalent relationship between leadership and management, and leaders and managers: According Warren Bennis, a manager is someone who does things correctly and a leader is a person who does the correct thing [19]. The evaluation of the definition by Bennis, the leadership and management behaviors cannot exist in the same person. It goes further to say that leaders mainly perform the leadership function of a certain level in the organization, but the management function of this level cannot be ignored, otherwise leadership function will be ineffective.Conversely, managers can mainly perform the management function of a certain level in the organization, but the leadership function of this level cannot be ignored, otherwise it will lead to inefficient or ineffective management functions [20].
  • Understanding the nature of the relationship between leadership and management: The function of leadership mainly concerns the right direction and the value of organizational activities, whereas the function of management deals with stability of order and efficiency of organizational activities [20]. Leadership and management functions in different levels in an organization and together constitute management system and management system of the whole organization management. Consequently, the nature of the relationship between leadership and management is the relationship between leadership function and management function. Therefore, the description of leadership and management by Warren Bennis should be the mission of the leadership function is to ensure doing something correct, and the mission of the management function is to ensure doing something correctly [20].
  • Understanding the relationship between leadership and management to be different from the relationship between their disciplines: The relationship between leadership and management disciplines is based on the need of discipline construction, and they both have different emphasis. Nonetheless, this emphasis should not deny the unity of the organization management. The means that the discipline itself is independent, but its independence is relatively independent in the theoretical system of the organization management [20]. The two disciplines have strong complementary both in theory and in practice.
  • Understanding that the need of theoretical research cannot cover the need of the practice of organization management: Several scholars see leadership as one functions of management. This is from the viewpoint that management functions include planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Other scholars are of the viewpoint that management belongs to the leadership, because leaders’ function is more prominent in the organization management. These viewpoints distort the relationship between leadership. However, the relationship between leadership and management should be analyzed according to the natural state of the organization management practice.

Conclusion and Leadership Dissertation Topics Toughts

Logically, the concepts of leadership and management are different but have some similarities. An attempt to break the relationship between leadership and management by considering only the differences that exists between them cancels the meaning of organization management. This project can be found in our leadership dissertation topics section and we have highlighted that both leadership and management are important for every business or organization to achieve success.

Practically, once leadership or management breaks away from the organization management, its mission, the whole organization management becomes meaningless, and the whole organization management system will operate in a low level. If this happens, it will eventually lead to inefficient integration of the organization resources and poor organization performance.

Having discussed the relationship between leadership and management under the concept of organization management. It is believed that the nature of the relationship between leadership and management is the relationship between leadership and management functions. This research can help to address the problem that leadership and management face especially in their combined contribution to organization goals and business growth. In practice, leadership and management are interrelated and therefore go hand in hand in organization management.

References

  1. A. Zaleznik. Manager and leaders: are they different? Harvard Business Review, 1977, vol. 55, pp. 67-78.
  2. A. Neelam, PhD, H. A. Glenn Jr, PharmD, B. Amie, PharmD, G. Oscar, PhD, MBA, C. O’Neil, PharmD, S. M. Misty, PharmD, S. L. Jenelle, PharmD. Leadership and Management Are One and the Same. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2017, vol. 81, no. 6 Article 102.
  3. E. Andersen. Manage or lead? Do both. 2012.
  4. I. Cabeza-Erikson, K. Edwards, and T. Van Brabant. (2008). Development of leadership capacities as a strategic factor for sustainability. Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Höogskola.
  5. J. H. Moo and, Dr. Y. Rashad. How Effective Leadership can Facilitate Change in Organizations through Improvement and Innovation. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: An Administration and Management, 2015 vol. 15, no. 9.
  6. L. Yaokui. Analyzing the relationship between leadership and management based on the concept of organization management. Advances in Social Sciences Education and Humanities Research, 2016, vol. 63, pp. 156-160.
  7. E. Bruce, K. P. Winston. An Integrative Definition of Leadership. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 2006, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 6-66.
  8. U. I. Abbas and O. D. Cross. Impact of leadership on organizational performance. Int. J. Bus. Manag. Soc. Res, 2019, vol. 06, no. 02, pp. 367-­374.
  9. L. J. Mullins. Management and organizational behavior (5th Edition) Britain: Pearson Educational Ltd, 2012.
  10. G. Y. Xu and Z. S. Wang. The impact of transformational leadership style on organizational performance:   The intermediary effects of leader-member exchange. Long Beach, CA, USA, IEEE Xplore, 2008, pp. 1090-1097.
  11. E. Vigoda-Gadot. Leadership style, organizational politics, and employees’ performance: An empirical examination of two competing models. American Journal of Business and Management, 2012, vol. 36 no. 5, pp. 661- 683.
  12. R. L. Katz. Skills of an effective administrator. Harvard Business Review, 1955, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 33-42.
  13. J. P. Kotter. What leaders really do? Harvard Business Review, 2001, vol. 79, no. 11, pp. 85-96.
  14. P. Northouse. Leadership theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications 2007.
  15. J. Kotterman. Leadership vs Management: What’s the difference? Journal for Quality & Participation, 2006, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 13-17.
  16. Bateman & Snell. Management: The New Competitive Landscape. (6th edition) Mcgraw-Hill (Tx) 2004.
  17. R. H. E. Hassan. The Relationship between Strategic Management and Leadership: A Critical Literature Review. International journal of scientific and technology research, 2019, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 58-62.
  18. Z. Li-Yan. Administrative leadership, 3rd edition. Publishing House of Renmin University of China, Beijing, 2015, 26.
  19. A. Y. Gary. Leadership in Organizations, 5th edition. Translators: Wenzhao Tao. Publishing House of Renmin University of China, Beijing, 2004, 6.
  20. G. H. Jarad. The construction manager leading characteristics for the success of construction projects in the Gaza Strip. Master’s Thesis, the Islamic university of Gaza, 2012.
  21. I. J. Price. The Conception and Operationalization of leadership in construction companies, Masters Degrees Thesis, UNISA, 2009.
  22. A. Zaleznik. Managers and leaders: Are they different? Harv Bus Rev, 2004, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 74-82.
  23. J. P. Kotter. Leading change: A conversation with John P Kotter, 2001, vol. 25 no. 1, MCB UP.
  24. M. Liphadzi, C. O. Aigbavboa, and W. D. Thwala. A theoretical perspective on the difference between leadership and management. Procedia Engineering, 2017, vol. 196, pp. 478 – 482.
  25. Dr. A. Ali. Are Leadership and Management Different? A Review. Journal of Management Policies and Practices, 2014, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 71-82.
  26. C. W. Watson. Leadership, Management and the 7 Keys. Business Horizons, March–April 1983.
  27. S. R. Covey. Principle Centered Leadership. New York: Franklin Covey Company, 2003.
  28. T. Hull and P. Ozeroff. The transitioning from Manager to leader. New York: Harper and Row, 2004.

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Netflix Consumer Behavior

Netflix Consumer Behavior

Netflix consumer behavior – This assignment focuses on a branded service – Netflix on the basis of co-creating value. Netflix is the leading American brand known for streaming services. In this case, Netflix is the brand and streaming is the service. Therefore, of focus in this assignment is developing a brand-image – various brand associations; brand-congruency by determining the level of congruency between the typical user’s image and brand-image.

The assignment also focuses on explaining the brand attitude of Netflix’s target audience, social-cultural influences, identifying any artefacts and rituals associated with the branded service, and the recommendation of the various ways of creating value for the customer. In general, this assignment is a piece communication, which provides the service brand (Netflix) manager with information about their socio-cultural, brand, and normative influences affecting and co-creating value for the target audience.

Brand Image

To begin with, it is hard to imagine a living room or boardroom where Netflix (branded service) requires an introduction. Currently, the branded service boasts of over 70 million subscribers across over 40 countries worldwide. Netflix has spurred hundreds of cable cancellations every day. This kind of growth for Netflix in recent years is partly attributed to the brand service’s image out there. According to Park & Lee (2005, p. 40), the success of a company stems, partly, from delighting customers in margin-enhancing, customers in hard to replicate ways, which ended up creating the kind of brand-image that is unique.

When it comes to Netflix’s brand-image, what comes to mind is authenticity and sustainability. The brand image has been built with the human spirit, and not necessarily ad campaigns (Pittman & Sheehan, 2015, p. 1). To the management, what comes to the mind of the consumer in reference to Netflix is that it provides streaming services, and the branded service is largely known for its positioning model. Park et al. (1991, p. 186) pointed out that the brand image is the unique story, which consumers recall when they think of a brand (PowerPoint Presentation Week 5, n.d. Slide. 26).

To the management, therefore, Netflix’s brand-image has points of parity, which are also the same as other brands in the same industry or different industry (Pittman & Sheehan, 2015, p. 1). These points of parity include innovation (also associated with the car brand – Tesla), reliability – also the case with Honda, and convenience (similar to Amazon). On the other hand, the points of difference for Netflix include the streaming TV shows, original content, and movies.

Brand Congruency

Brand congruency is made up of product brands and user-image. Brand congruency refers to a scenario where all the elements and touch points of the brand, in this case, Netflix, appears to have been cut from the same cloth. According to Stach (2015, p. 675), the brand congruence between the self-image of the consumers and the attempt of the brand image to explore consumer choices, for example, purchase intentions, preference of the brand, and usage and loyalty.

The degree of congruency between the brand image and typical user’s image is based on the brand evaluation, which relates to promotion message. In this case, Dolich (1969, p.5) pointed out that reminding consumers of their self-images, under the promotion message, there are positive considerations of brand congruencies given by the same consumers.

Accordingly, the degree of congruency between your self-image and the typical brand-user image is based on how the consumer uses the brand as a symbol; in this case, consumers consider brands with images or personalities, which are congruent with their self-image or brand personality (Stach, 2015, p. 674). In summary, the brand-image congruency involves self-schema, and it comprises of brand personality that is measured in terms of brand attitudes.

Brand Attitudes and Consumer Behavior

The brand attitude of the customer comprises of two main components – the strength of positive or negative relation/association, which the experiences of the customer towards a specific brand as well as the conviction of the accuracy of the brand (Gonzalez-Jimenez, 2017, p. 69). In this case, there are various brand attitudes towards the branded service – Netflix. For instance, Netflix consumer behavior has succeeded in creating a positive attitude towards its brand.

Here, the branded service has created the belief that it can either succeed or fail based on its ability to maintain and drive subscriptions (Malcolm-Boulton, 2016, par. 7). When it comes to emotions, Netflix comes with a feeling from the consumer that exhibit dynamism, excitement, and modern enthusiasm of subscriptions other than cable services.

Accordingly, Netflix services also trigger nostalgia as the branded service has managed to revive nostalgic shows such as the Gilmore Girls that is no longer available in cable services (Gonzalez-Jimenez, 2017, p. 68). Therefore, the brand attitudes directed to Netflix comes with excitement, curiosity, nostalgia, and a sense of control of specific shows to subscribe.

The Social-Cultural Influences

Netflix did not focus more on the sociocultural influences their services would have on individuals. In this case, Netflix’s social influences have led to the reduction of jobs; for example, Roettgers (2015, p. 1) observed that Netflix beat competitors operating retail outlets by embracing streaming services. There is the issue of identification influence where consumers have been influenced by Netflix because of its modernity, convenience, unique services, and the confidence it projects to the public (Wang, 2014, par. 16).

Identification influence, in the case of Netflix, is based on what Pittman & Sheehan (2015, p. 1) termed as “binge-watching.” “Binge-watching” is a representation of a radical shift from the 21st-century media consumption. This kind of influence comes with the unique services of the branded service, which means it can also be associated with Netflix’s normative influence.

As a result, because of the continued evolution of various manners of accessing the content of the program and the soaring dependency on various Internet devices, it is evident that Netflix’s normative influence has since been felt, and is evident in the “New Golden Age.” Additionally, Netflix consumer behavior has had a massive impact on the television viewership culture, which can be identified as a normative influence – social influence resulting in conformity (Merikivi et al., 2018, p. 113).

The branded service’s revolutionary recommendation system has also influenced how consumers conform to the norm and, in turn, has seen consumers shift to the company’s streaming services (Sheinin, 1998, p. 138). These influences have, in turn, result in various ethical considerations related to job opportunities and increased levels of unemployment that the branded service had to consider.

Rituals and Artefacts

There are rituals associated with the branded service – Netflix. One of the rituals is getting the Netflix subscription. There are steps to be followed in this ritual. First, it is important to identify the right devices that are compatible or support Netflix. These devices range from Apple TV, PS3, PS4, Android, Kindle, Xbox, and Microsoft Windows, among others. This is followed up by clicking the button – Start Your Free Month, followed up by creating the account which often requires a viable email address.

Once the password is created, it is important to choose your plan identified as Regular, Standard, and Premium plans (Roettgers, 2015, p. 1). These plans vary in quality and are followed up by entering your billing information and, thus, requires a credit card and billing information. It is also important to rate the sample selection, which involves selecting the film titles. This means using the Netflix DVD website for set-ups of specific orders. Once this ritual is done, you can watch the Netflix streaming services.

Netflix Consumer Behavior Essay
Fig 1: Part of the Netflix’s subscription stages/rituals

There are artefacts associated with the branded service. First, there is compression artefact, making up the error code, involves an adverse effect of image degradation where the complexity of the image exceeds the necessary rate of recording. This artefact is associated with the branded service and is known for impacting the asset’s technical quality. In this case, Netflix, Inc. (2018, p. 1) noted that the customer experience is impacted negatively by the degraded image.

As a result, further downstream compression can massively exacerbate artefacts, which are found in the source. Accordingly, there are the artefacts under severity structure, and one of them is the News-Review – a minor blocking or artefact found at the sub-block or back region (Netflix, Inc., 2018, p. 1). Secondly, there is the Needs Fix, which is a macro-blocking or minor artefact, and normally appears as visible parts of the image. Therefore, these artefacts have negatively impacted the customer’s experience and perception of Netflix and are one of the issues the branded service is aware of.

Conclusion

Of focus in this study has been the branded service – Netflix, and is based on co-creating value. In this case, the study has determined the brand image of the streaming services company to be established by the human spirit, and not an ad campaign.

There is also the issue of brand congruency and has been on the basis of the distinct differences between the consumers’ self-image and image of the brand attempt to determine consumer choices namely purchase intentions, brand preference, and usage and loyalty. Accordingly, there are issues of brand attitudes, the socio-cultural differences such as normative influences, as well as the artefacts and rituals. Artefacts include compression artefact, Needs Review, and Needs Fix.

Recommendations

Following the above key elements of value regarding the branded service, Netflix, the manager should co-create value by understanding the various customer attitudes towards the brand. In turn, the manager should work towards modelling the values of the branded services to suit the customer preference and expectations. Secondly, the manager can co-create value by putting in place a team that can reduce the number of artefacts to improve the customers’ perception (Merikivi et al., 2018, p. 114).

Accordingly, the manager can co-create value by establishing a quirky customer service, which will give the branded service an edge; should focus more on being customer-centric, which will allow the company to fix search, browsing, and level of discoverability, and allow DVDs to fix its content gaps (Park & Lee, 2005, p. 44). Lastly, the manager can co-create value by ensuring that it informs its customer beforehand of the upcoming shows and films for better preparation on the side of the customer.

Bibliography

Dolich, I. J. (1969). Congruence Relationships between Self Images and Product Brands. Journal of Marketing Research, 6,1, 80.

Gonzalez-Jimenez, H. (2017). The self-concept life cycle and brand perceptions: An interdisciplinary perspective. Ams Review: Official Publication of the Academy of Marketing Science, 767-84.

Malcolm-Boulton, C. (2016). The good, the bad and the binging: How Netflix has impacted on modern society.

Merikivi, J., Salovaara, A., Mäntymäki, M., & Zhang, L. (2018). On the way to understanding binge watching behavior: the over-estimated role of involvement. Electronic Markets, 28,1, 111-122.

Netflix, Inc. (2018). Compression Artificing.

Park, C.W, Jaworski, B.J. & MacInnis D.J. (1986). Strategic Brand Concept-Image Management. Journal of Marketing, 50, 135-145.

Park, C. W., Milberg, S. & Lawson, R. (1991). Evaluation of Brand Extensions: The Role of Product Feature Similarity and Brand Concept Consistency. Journal of Consumer Research, 18, 185-193.

Park, S. & Lee, E. M. (2005). Congruence between Brand Personality and Self-Image, and the Mediating Roles of Satisfaction and Consumer-Brand Relationship on Brand Loyalty. In AP – Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research Volume 6, eds. Yong-Uon Ha and Youjae Yi, Duluth, MN: Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 39-45.

Pittman, M., & Sheehan, K. (2015). Sprinting a media marathon: Uses and gratifications of binge-watching television through Netflix consumer behaviorFirst Monday, 2010.

Sheinin, D.A (1998). Positioning Brand Extensions: Implications for Beliefs and Attitudes. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 7(2), 137-149.

Stach, J. (2015). A conceptual framework for the assessment of brand congruent sensory modalities. Journal of Brand Management, 228, 673-694.

Wang, U. (2014). How the Netflix model impacts the environment, economy and society.

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Global Impact of COVID-19 on the Balance of Economic and Political Power

Global Impact of COVID-19 on the Balance of Economic and Political Power

The global outbreak of COVID-19 and the subsequent declaration of COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a global health emergency in January 2020 has caused a significant imbalance in the global economic and political powers. The first diagnosis of the virus in Wuhan, China has been followed by fast transmission of the virus to over 190 countries across the globe with focal points of the infection rapidly changing for China to Europe and now to the United States.

The outbreak of the pandemic has resulted in more than 2.1 million people across the world contracting the deadly viral disease with thousands of fatalities registered in different parts of the world (Sohrabi et al., 12). The economic sector has been hard hit. Based on the realism theory of international relations, the outbreak of COVID-19 can be understood as a factor that has been used by world political powers and economic giants to increase their political power and economic growth relative to others (Center for Strategic and International Studies 2). Both political and economic imbalance has been realized as possible consequences.

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With the continued increase in the number of infections across the world daily, more than 80 countries have closed their borders to stop international flights from the countries that are hardly hit by virus infections. Several businesses have been closed and the population in many countries have been forced to self-quarantine. Governments have closed schools in all countries across the world and about 1.5 billion children have been forced to stay at home with their parents (Center for Strategic and International Studies 3).

Over the period from Mid-March 2020 to Mid-April 2020, the world economic structure and severe political imbalance have been experienced. Precisely, there have been rising cases of filed unemployment, insurance, and rising prospects of future economic recession. The rising prospects of future economic recession have led to an increase in the rate of unemployment across the world and this continues to harm global economic growth and goodwill.

COVID-19 and the WHO

After the declaration of COVID-19 as a world pandemic by WHO on March 11, there have been indications of a negative impact on global economic growth. For example, the global trade, as well as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of many countries, have been forecasted to decline sharply with a probability lying within the first half of the year 2020. The international economic and political structures have been imbalanced in terms of policymaking and trade activities.

Different sectors of the economy have been destroyed and severely affected such as the tourism and hospitality, the supply of medical facilities and equipment across the globe, the global value chains have been destroyed, consumer markets inconvenienced, financial and energy markets, transport sector, food as well as sports and recreational activities have all been severely affected(Fernandes 10). The effect of social distancing which is meant to enhance social interaction among people as a strategy to flatten the growth curve of the disease also has serious implications on business and the daily activities of people across the globe.

As a result of all these, the economic costs of survival have greatly increased across the world, with the situation being worse in developing countries.

Global Impact of COVID-19
Figure 1: Gross Domestic Product, Percentage Change

Source: World Economic Outlook, International Monetary Fund, April 14, 2020

The outbreak and spread of COVID-19 have also had a significant impact on global politics. From a critical perspective, it is argued that the pandemic has severely changed the status quo of partisan politics in terms of political conversation and this has affected international relations and international political economies as well.

For example, superpower countries such as the United States of America have been accused, through President Donald Trump, of showing little concern and taking meager measures towards containing the pandemic (University of South Carolina 1). This accusation has farther shaped the internal politics of the United States and their trade relations with China, Iran, Russia, Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, and North Korea. The politics of the pandemic have also affected the conversations between the United States and the United Kingdom on Brexit and other issues regarding the efforts of containing the virus.

The break of the pandemic across the globe can also cause significant changes in the national political conversations on matters such as healthcare provision and coverage and this can affect several health workers across the globe. For example, recently, President Donald Trump stopped financial support to the World Health Organization and this continues the hot debate on whether the United States is concerned about ending the pandemic across the globe.

Besides, this is likely to affect the healthcare systems across the globe farther affecting international relations (University of South Carolina 2). There have also been concerns on the rise of authoritarian governments across the globe that have used the crisis as an avenue to tighten their grip of political powers and this continues to shape global politics in handy.

In conclusion, the political and economic imbalance resulting from the global outbreak of COVID-19 can be explored and understood from the realism theory of international relations. While global agencies such as WHO strives to contain the virus, other superpowers and world economic giants such as the United States have refused to show concerns over the efforts aimed at containing the virus.

This is politics of supremacy which continues to make the virus spread uncontrollably in many parts of the world. With the steady shift in the viral epicenter from Asia to Europe and now in the United States within three months since its outbreak in Wuhan, China, there have been severe economic impacts and political orientation in terms of the political conversations between the United States and other parts of the world. The prospects of world economic recession are expected to be severe than the 2008-2012 world economic crisis. The worst is yet to come!

Works Cited

Center for Strategic and International Studies. “COVID-19: New Reality.” Center for Strategic and International Studies, 15 Mar. 2020,

Center for Strategic and International Studies. “The Global Economic Impacts of COVID-19.” Center for Strategic and International Studies, 10 Mar. 2020,

The University of South Carolina. “COVID-19 Impact: How the Pandemic is Affecting Politics.” University of South Carolina, 14 Apr. 2020

Fernandes, Nuno. “Economic effects of coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on the world economy.” Available at SSRN 3557504 (2020).

Sohrabi, Catrin, et al. “World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19).” International Journal of Surgery (2020).

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