Portfolio Analysis Project Management Techniques

Portfolio Analysis and Evaluation of Project Management Techniques

Portfolio Analysis Project Management Techniques – The techniques and tools are significant for the effective project management. The Project management techniques are specifically making the overall management of the projects effective and easier. The project managers, software of project management and a range of project management aspect take their own techniques and tools that are likely to helpful for the projects to save the maximum cost and time. The problems can also occur in the project management. These problems related to the management of the project must be tackling effectively to complete the project on time without any delay.

All of the problems and their substitute solutions set up some fundamentals of change in the project that must acclimatize. Projects are normally conventional to perform these changes the management of the project is responsible for the successful project completion. So, it is also important to know that each project is exclusive as far as the problems that occur are concern and the main concern and resources needed for it, the atmosphere in which it functions, and the attitude of the project manager to control and guide all of the activities of project. As a result, the project should be planned to fit all of the requirements of organization and the nature of the problems that needed to solve under the project (Seyr, 2019).

The techniques and tools to be used in the project also depends on the organizational structure because depending on the nature of the organization the project available project personnel, resource, priorities, laws, and other possibility can also change. Implementing effective techniques of the project management reduce the disturbance of regular resources of the business activities by placing under a particular control on all technologies, skills required to understand the project. The analysis of the portfolio level is a significant part of organization a derivatives portfolio. The common types of portfolio analysis are Aggregated Cash Flows, Total Value, Value-at-Risk, Stress testing and Risk Sensitivity all of which are essential for effective portfolio analysis.

Portfolio analysis in project management is a quantitative method for optimal portfolio selection that can balance between make the most of the return and reduce the risk in various indecisive environments. In this report there would be discussion regarding the tools and techniques and problems solving method in the project management (Rever, 2007).

Critical Analysis of Tools and Techniques

The project management is very demanding task with numerous complex responsibilities. Opportunely, there are a lot of techniques and tools are available to assist in tasks accomplishment and responsibilities execution. For example, some may need a computer with effective software, while in some of the projects the tasks can be management manually. Project managers need to select some techniques and tools for the project management that are more compatible with the style of management. There are some of the tools and techniques that can be applied to project management to optimize the overall operations of the project (Jackline, 2014).

PERT Technique in Portfolio Analysis

The PERT (Program evaluation and review technique) is a control and planning tool used for controlling and defining the responsibilities necessary for the accomplishment of project and is essential in effective portfolio analysis. The PERT charts are frequently used in the project. The PERT is an extensively used technique for development and large-scale projects coordination (Calmèset. al., 2021). PERT is essentially a tool for the management control and planning. It is also known as road map for particular project or program in which the most important elements have been totally recognized, with their equivalent interrelations’. The PERT charts are time and again built for a lot of projects, the end date is permanent and service provider has flexibility of front-end. A fundamental PERT-style planning element is to recognize the critical activities. 

Following are the main steps involve in PERT planning:

  1. Identify the particular milestones and activities. The activities are the project tasks. The milestones in the process are events that mark the start and the ending of all activities.
  2. Verify the appropriate activities sequence. This step is connected with above one because the sequence of activity is obvious for tasks. Other responsibilities in the project may need some investigation to resolve the accurate classification in which they must be carried out.
  3. Build network diagram. By using the information of the activity sequence, a diagram of the network can be drawn that show the series of parallel and successive activities. Arrowed lines in the diagram stand for activities and circles symbolize the milestones of the project.
  4. Estimation time essential for all activities. Weeks are normally used time unit for completion of the activity, but reliable time unit can be utilized. An individual feature of PERT is its aptitude to handle the uncertainty in completion of the activity. For all activities, the model typically comprises three-time approximation:
    • Most likely time – time of the completion with highest possibility.
    • Optimistic time – shortest time to complete an activity.
    • Pessimistic time – longest time for an activity to complete.

Critical Path Technique

The critical path method is project management technique for planning of all process and defines the non-critical and critical tasks of the project with objective of preventing problems of time-frame and bottlenecks of project process. The critical path method is preferably suitable for projects that consist of a lot of activities that interrelate in a composite manner(Cohen, 2018).

For critical path method implementation, there are quite a few steps that are as follows:

  • Define all of the required tasks and organize them in ordered list.
  • Create a diagram or flowchart that shows the relationship between different tasks in the project.
  • Recognize the non-critical and critical relationships between tasks.
  • Find out the projected execution or completion time for all tasks.
  • Devise or Locate substitute for the critical paths

In case a critical path is not right away obvious, it might be helpful to find out 4 timelines for all activities (Ray, 2018):

  • EF – Earliest Finish time
  • LF – Latest Finish time
  • ES – Earliest Start time
  • LS – Latest Start time

All of these times can measure by using the anticipated time for the activities. The initial finish and start times of activity are find out by forward working via network and formative the earliest time on which an activity can finish and start bearing in mind its predecessor actions.

Gantt Charts

Gantt charts in the projects are used to demonstrate task assignments of the calendar time in months, weeks and days. This tool utilizes graphic representations to demonstrate elapsed, start and finishing point times of task in any project. The Gantt charts are perfect for progress tracking in the project management. The days required to finish a particular task that achieve a goal can compared with the number that is either estimated or planned. The real workdays, from the start to conclude, are plotted underneath the days scheduled. In the project processes this information help in targeting the possible failure points or timeline slippage. These are also said to be the chats that serve as an important tool of budgeting and can demonstrate dollars spent versus dollars owed (Rever, 2007).


Histograms are said to be the tool that use in the project to make understanding of the project easier for the project team. It is a kind of bar charts that portray variables distribution over time. This symbolizes the mean distribution. This diagram can use different shapes depending on the distribution condition. The histogram used to calculate something next to time for example the histogram plotted with variable on the x-axis and time on the y-axis. The following histogram demonstrates company’s website number of hits on different day time. The x-axis demonstrates number of customers or users active on website and time of the day shows on the y-axis (Osha. gov, 2018).

Portfolio Analysis Flow Chart
Portfolio Analysis Flow Chart


 In the project management flowcharts are rational steps in logical organization to achieve an objective. By using the geometrical objects, the flow charts are drawn as rhombus, rectangular, activities, parallelogram, and points of decision in a process. Flowcharting in the project can also help to identify where on project the problems of quality occur and how problems take place. There are said to be a lot of tools are there today in market for flow charts drawing, for example MS Visio, project management software etc. These techniques and tools are supportive for project manager to incorporate it and understand it and convey a quality product (Hiles, Andrew, 2010).

Problem Solving

In the project management a lot of problems also raise and it is important to deal with them effectively in order to minimize the risk of project failure and complete the project on time. There are some of the problems solving techniques to be used by the project management for better project accomplishment (Nowak et. al., 2020)

1. Brainstorming. The first step in the project management to solve any problems is brainstorming, it means to think of different possibilities and techniques of solving the problems and what impact does selecting particular techniques would have on project.

2. Patience. It is also very important to not get panic over the problems, in some of the cases the project management become frustrates with the problems occurring that can further increase the tension. It is essential for the project management team to be patient at the time problem occur. A patient approach would also help keep away from any error that further increase the problem additional issues would also raise.

3. Apollo Root Cause Analysis. This is said to be the technique in the project management that acknowledge that the majority of the outcomes have numerous causes, and find out actions and conditions that might contribute to problem occurs.

3. Data collection. By collecting more information related to the problems and way of its solution, project team members can develop more appropriate response.

4. Consider the effect anticipated solutions for the problems in the project may have as a whole on project.

5. Pareto Analysis. It is the generalized economy rule that 80 percent of the outcomes are get through 20 percent of work. It can also say that 80 percent of problems are caused by just 20 percent of root causes. Pareto was an economist who first comes up with this rule and the analysis produce a table of incidence of every cause and plot it on a bar representing cumulative total(Bragg, 2003).

6. Process evaluation. Some of the Problems in the project management can be approach by dividing the systems into segment that can be investigate for the problem source.

7. Fishbone diagrams. These diagrams look like a fish skeletal structure and chart causes to recognize effects while defect analysis. There are different questions are there used to build Fishbone diagram cause and effect based on whether question related to the problem deals with services. By imagine all cause and connected effect; managers can easily recognize the problems source.

Risk Management in Portfolio Analysis

The risk management objective is to make certain security never redirect the attempt from the established goals of the business. It is also said to be the process that comprise the recognition, prioritization and assessment of risk to manage the impact probability. Here are some of the risk management techniques to use in the project management (Clarizen, 2018).


The reorganization is the initial process idea that is to describe and uncover risks that might affect the project outcome. The major question to ask here is the reason behind the lack goal specification and thinking of risk is misperception. Recognizing a problem and discussing it is key to risk management process beginning(Allan, 2002).

Qualitative Risk Portfolio Analysis

The Qualifying risks an analysis is the method that is used to quality any risk that can occur during the project under this method involves making a list of the potential risks, with ranking them. For risks assessing from qualitative aspect following are some actions to be used (Clarizen, 2018):

  • Probability and matrix and impact assessment: Rating and analyzing risks using possibility and its impact on like schedule, performance and cost.
  • Risk categorization: Risks grouping by general root causes to build up effective reaction.
  • Risk urgency: The risk ranking from the matrix probability mutual with importance can help place priorities of these risks.
  • Expert judgment: Expert opinion from people in field or with alike experience project can also help in the accomplishment of the project.

Quantitative Risk Portfolio Analysis

These are said to be the methods that deal with definitive probabilistic and measuring techniques of project management. The major risk is risk of money losing and qualitative systems cannot be use to count the overall cost of the project. The following are some of the ways that can be used to minimize the risk associated with the project (Rever, 2007):

  • Schedule and Cost risk analysis: Cost scheduling and estimates are used as values of input that are randomly selected for the iteration.
  • Expected Monetary Value analysis: Measuring the average scenarios outcome that may or may not occur.
  • Probability distributions: It can be used in the simulation and modeling to correspond to the values uncertainty in things like the task labor and costs.
  • Analysis of Sensitivity: This is very simple method to find out how the risk is affects the project of any organization.

There are a huge number of methods to “count” the project risk throughout the process analysis. Once measurement has happened, the planning final stages have to begin.

Conflict Management

Smooth/Accommodate Conflict Management

 The accommodate conflict management emphases agreement areas rather than difference areas; giving way one’s position to others needs to preserve relationships and harmony between the project team (Jackline, 2014).”

This method also is acquainted with the professional relationships’ importance towards the success of project. As far as the long-term projects are concern, strengthening and persevering becomes very important for the project team. Nevertheless, the members of the project team are continually emphasized on differences, on the project making more of the progress becomes very complicated (Rever, 2007).

Agreement areas to give emphasis to will also vary based on the situation. It can also be said that the project shared commitment and impacts of disagreement on others team members. The project management also needs to position agreement areas that surfaced throughout the project stages. Effectively using accommodating and smoothing requires considerate of the conflict between parties. For instance, are parties really distress about a project work being late. As a project manager, it is very important for successful accomplish the project to eliminate any kind off risk from the project (Rever, 2007).

Quality Management

The quality assurance process is connected with the nonstop analysis and development of process. Before this all levels of the quality must be verified, it is very important to have correct data; as there is an old saying, “garbage in, garbage out.” For that reason, the project team have to conduct a methodical analysis of measurement system to authenticate the integrity and accuracy of system of measurement and data. There are said to be a lot of components of the good measurement system (Clarizen, 2018):

  1. Precision – data is measuring precisely that is supposed to calculate
  2. Reproducibility – unlike appraisers same measuring item get the similar outcome
  3. Accuracy – the true value reflected by the data the property to be measured
  4. Repeatability – following measurements by same evaluator have to be the same

Effort and time have to be made by the project team and project manager to make sure the credibility and accuracy of the system of measurement. The future decisions credibility depends on vital step of the quality assurance. The overall process analysis is said to be the quality assurance key aspect. This process analysis also comprises all of the topics of value-added analysis and root-cause analysis.

Many of the project managers are well-known with the root-cause analysis, in particular use of fishbone diagram or cause and effect. This is very important to know that there is root-cause analysis is to take in five main categories: methods, people, measurement system, materials, machines, and setting when inspecting the sources of the problems occur in the project management. This is also very easy to focus on the greater part of improvement corrective and efforts measures on people. After all, administration decides on the procedures, methods, processes and materials so be confident about the investigation of the root causes in all of the above categories (Jackline, 2014).

Portfolio Analysis MBA Project
Portfolio Analysis MBA Project


Summing up the discussion it can be said that it is important to know that each project is exclusive as far as the problems that occur are concern and the main concern and resources needed for it. Implementing effective techniques of the project management reduce the disturbance of regular resources of the business activities by placing under a particular control on all technologies. PERT is essentially a tool for the management control and planning. It is also known as road map for particular project or program in which the most important elements have been totally recognized, with their equivalent interrelations.

The critical path method is preferably suitable for projects that consist of a lot of activities that interrelate in a composite manner. The Gantt charts are perfect for progress tracking in the project management. The days required to finish a particular task that achieve a goal can compared with the number that is either estimated or planned. The histogram used to calculate something next to time for case in point the histogram plot with variable on the x-axis and time on the y-axis. There are some of the problems solving techniques to be used by the project management for better project accomplishment. Some of the Problems in the project management can be approach by dividing the systems into segment that can be investigate for the problem source. Rating and analyzing risks using possibility and its impact on like schedule, performance and cost.


Allan, A. (2002). Innovation Management: Strategies, Implementation, and Profits. Oxford University Press.

Bragg, S. M. (2003). Essentials of Payroll: Management and Accounting. John Wiley & Sons.

Calmès, Christian, and Raymond Théoret. “Portfolio analysis of big US banks’ performance: the fee business lines factor.” Journal of Banking Regulation 22, no. 2 (2021): 112-132.

Clarizen, T. (2018, February 19). What Are Some Good Risk Management Techniques?

Cohen, E. (2018, April 18). How to Use the Critical Path Method for Complete Beginners.

Hiles, Andrew. (2010). The Definitive Handbook of Business Continuity Management. John Wiley & Sons.

Jackline. (2014). Quality Management Tools and Techniques.

Nowak, M., Mierzwiak, R., Wojciechowski, H., & Delcea, C. (2020). Grey portfolio analysis method. Grey Systems: Theory and Application.

Osha. gov. (2018). Process Safety Management Guidelines for Compliance.

Ray, S. (2018). Understanding Critical Path in Project Management.

Rever, H. (2007). Quality in project management–a practical look at chapter 8 of the PMBOK® guide.

Seyr, B. F. (2019). Portfolio Analysis in the Field of Strategic Knowledge Management. GAZDASÁG ÉS TÁRSADALOM, 2018(3–4), 54-66.

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Cultural Diversity Dissertation

Cultural Diversity

In recent years, cultural diversity has become a topic of interest for both researchers and policymakers. As a result, many studies have been conducted to measure and analyze cultural diversity and its impact across different sectors (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015). Cultural diversity brings together two different terms – culture and diversity – which, when combined, create a concept that has been a topic of discussion in many offices and classrooms for years (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015). The things and practices one is taught as they grow up shapes who they become in adulthood. Generally, culture is a broad term that comprises the beliefs, norms, values, and behaviors installed into us (UOP, n.d). It is defined as a ‘way of being’ or ‘way of life’ (UOP, n.d).

On the other hand, the term diversity has been used to infer different concepts depending on the context. Usually, it refers to any approach that recognizes differences, such as the difference in intercultural, feminist, and integrative education, with the primary sources of difference being gender, disability, and immigration (Dietz, 2007). Notably, this view of difference implies that there are clear-cut distinguishing traits, factors, or makers.

Consequently, Dietz (2007) notes that this ideology is being gradually replaced by the notion that diversity refers to overlapping the traits that bring about human variability. Using this approach, cultural diversity is seen as social and cultural variability, thus including multiple groups represented within any environment, e.g., at school or the workplace (Dietz, 2007). This has broadened definitions given by some scholars, such as Martin (2014), who recognized cultural diversity as the differences in race, religion, nationality, language, and ethnicity between individuals from different communities. That said, this research paper focuses on cultural diversity and its role as a topic in our current society.

Throughout the entire course, we have covered a different topic, including but not limited to communication, leadership, cultural diversity, global presence, and societal and personal mindsets. Indeed, all these topics were interesting and broadened my perspective on life and the global marketplace. However, I choose to write about cultural diversity for multiple reasons.

First, writing a research paper on cultural diversity gives me a chance to understand how cultural diversity looks like in our present society. Second, according to literature, as I grow up and go out into the world, I will come across different backgrounds and ethnicities. As a result, I decided to research cultural diversity to be easier for me to recognize when I come across it. I discovered that cultural diversity involves accepting that there is an extensive range of cultures out there. In a school setting, cultural diversity exhibits accepting applications from students from different parts of the world while simultaneously incorporating their religious and cultural practices into the school system (UOP, n.d).

Additionally, I decided to write on this topic because it expands my perspective on life. Reading about others’ experiences sheds light on a different life rather than the one I am used to, giving me multiple perspectives. This way, every time I listen to someone’s experience, it becomes easier to empathize and understand their point of view. According to O’Boyle (2020), learning about new cultures may change one’s values or mindset, which may be scary to challenge at a subconscious level. Most importantly, learning about other cultures may give one a flexible way of thinking. One gets to view life from different lenses and enjoy the unending sequence of possibilities that the diversity of perspective has to offer (O’Boyle, 2020).

Additionally, I choose to research cultural diversity because it is one of the current topics of interest in the country. Nijkamp & Poot (2015) noted that immigration and cultural diversity are interrelated. For decades, individuals from third-world countries have been seeking opportunities in developed nations, causing the populations of the host countries to become culturally diverse (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015

. While some immigrants tend to adopt the dominant culture in their host countries, others tend to retain their culture and pass it to subsequent generations (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015). Besides, natives also tend to adopt aspects of the foreign culture, with others feeling attached to multiple cultures (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015). Most importantly, people must appreciate that cultures are not static; instead, they evolve and adjust in migrants’ home and destination countries (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015).

Existing data shows that more people are moving out of their home countries (Dietz, 2007).  Multiple reasons can be blamed for this, including increasing globalization (Dietz, 2007) and poor conditions in their countries of residence. According to data by the United Nations, by mid-2019, approximately 217 million people had left their countries, becoming one of the factors that are making modern societies culturally diverse (Brinks, Data & Data, 2019).

This number was a tremendous increase from the 152 million international immigrants who had been reported in the mid-1990s (Brinks, Data & Data, 2019). In addition, since President Biden’s inauguration, the US has recorded one of the highest numbers of immigrants being stopped at the border (Parker et al., 2021). An article by Washington Post earlier in the year noted that as many as two million immigrants had been stopped at the Southern border, making it the biggest immigrant surge in two decades (Parker et al., 2021). This is likely to intensify the language barrier problem already being experienced in the US, as in most Western countries (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).

My hope is that cultural diversity as a topic will have several outcomes. First, I hope that the students will gain an accurate representation and knowledge of different cultural groups. One of the problems facing underrepresented and marginalized communities is that their culture tends to be misinterpreted, even in textbooks. Hence, during lessons on cultural diversity, the knowledge taught should be neutral, with the students being encouraged to share the correct information on their traditions and beliefs.

Unfortunately, some students may not be familiar with their culture as they were brought up in areas that do not share their culture. Luckily, school becomes an important place for such students to learn more about their culture. Most importantly, other students, who are usually the majority, learn about other cultures, making it easier for them to accept and include them in their activities (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).

Furthermore, I hope that this topic on cultural diversity will enhance intercultural interaction and harmony within the school setting. Research shows that there is a high correlation between exposure to different cultures and attitudes towards the minority (Hjerm, Johansson Sevä & Werner, 2018). Simply put, someone who has a higher exposure to different cultures is more likely to have an anti-immigrant attitude (Hjerm, Johansson Sevä & Werner, 2018).

Cultural Diversity Dissertation
Cultural Diversity Dissertation

Besides, Hanson, Bangert & Ruff (2016) concluded that one way of achieving culturally responsive teaching is through teaching about diversity. This suggests that learning about cultural diversity enhances interactions between students from different cultural backgrounds (Hjerm, Johansson Sevä & Werner, 2018). Usually, students tend to distance themselves from persons they do not understand their culture as they do not know what is tolerable and what is not (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).

In such situations, there is a strong likelihood of students to form an ‘us and them’ mentality as the underrepresented groups tend to separate themselves (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). Hopefully, this topic will help clear the air on some of the biases and stereotypes associated with some students, making it easier for students to interact. Consequently, this is likely to reduce bullying cases towards underrepresented communities (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).

Another anticipated outcome of this topic is to help underrepresented communities to feel included. Banks (2013) concluded that particular cultural groups remain underrepresented in the secondary and tertiary curriculum. He noted that the experiences of women and minority communities were barely recorded in the curriculum. Consequently, the underrepresented communities fail to relate to what is being taught in school, making them feel unwelcome and insignificant (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).

Learning material that is so foreign to their culture adds to their challenge of adopting foreign land and way of life (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). However, learning about cultural diversity is likely to spark the interest of these students, motivating them to learn and do better in their studies (Gay, 2013). Multiple studies have associated a multicultural curriculum with excellent academic results amongst the minority groups (Gay, 2013).

In addition, I hope that this topic will prepare the students for their future in a culturally diverse work environment. As noted by Martin (2014), increasing globalization has resulted in culturally diverse work environments. Besides, businesses are gradually recognizing the need to have a culturally diverse workforce in staying ahead of competitors (Martin, 2014). Indeed, having a culturally diverse workforce translates to perspectives and opinions from different angles, resulting in well-informed decisions that enhance company productivity and performance (Martin, 2014).

Indeed, research shows that a diverse workforce makes better decisions than a non-diverse one 87 percent of the time (Hedayat, 2020). Plus, a diverse workforce tends to be more creative and innovative, resulting in higher financial returns than non-diverse competitors (Hedayat, 2020). With this in mind, almost all work environments today are culturally diverse. Hence this topic should prepare the students for their future in the corporate world.

This topic has impacted me in several ways. First, I believe I have become a global citizen. By researching and learning about different cultures, I have learned the dos and don’ts when interacting with people from different cultural backgrounds in a global society. At the same time, I have gained a broader, more informed, and balanced life perspective, thus enhancing my social skills and deepening my understanding of the world. Finally, with these skills and knowledge at the tip of my hands, I believe I am well-prepared to be part of a global society, whether I am traveling to a strange land or working with persons from different cultural backgrounds (O’Boyle, 2020).

Cultural Diversity Recognition

Besides, it has become easier for me to recognize diversity. Even better, I appreciate that we are all different but unique in our very being. This made me respect other people’s uniqueness and anything that comes with it, including cultural practices, reactions, beliefs, and values (UOP, n.d.). Undoubtedly, learning and researching cultural diversity has made me less discriminatory against persons who are not like me. That is because, with continued exposure to people who are not like me, I have come to accept that the differences between us do not have to create barriers. As a result, I can admit I now relate with minority students better than I did in the past (O’Boyle, 2020).

Indeed, this topic has given me a richer life experience than I could have ever imagined. Diversity is a natural state of existence and makes us who we are (O’Boyle, 2020). Imagine a world where we all shared similar values, practices, and traditions. It would be boring to interact with people with whom you share a similar background, but it would be easier for humans to become extinct (O’Boyle, 2020). When people from a similar background come together, they are more likely to feel safe (O’Boyle, 2020). However, their thought process is more likely to be unidirectional and petty-minded (O’Boyle, 2020). Learning about how other people live, eat, and celebrate has expanded my worldview while simultaneously inspiring new ideas in me (O’Boyle, 2020).

Moreover, this topic has made me more compassionate towards those different from me, whether at school, work, or home. The more I learn about other cultures and their troubles (mainly discrimination), the more I understand them. Plus, I understood that we might be different, but we have one thing in common: our shortcomings. Therefore, it could be unfair to hold a mistake against someone, and worse, still associate it with their background.

Today, unlike in the past, I no longer impose my beliefs on people. Instead, I have learned to accept their traditions and practices without passing judgment. Besides, I have become more outspoken in matters concerning discrimination. In the past, I would brush off culturally insensitive comments as jokes. However, today I call out such persons and discourage them from undermining the minority cultures at work and school. Consequently, this has made it easier for me to interact with people from outside my culture. As a result, I have made multiple friends from other cultural backgrounds (UOP, n.d.). Some of them even invite me to their festivities. Surprisingly, we have more things in common with some of them than with people I have identified with all my life (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).

Cultural diversity is of interest to me because it helps create a critical thinking mindset on the same issues. Through learning and researching cultural diversity, I have realized that there is more to what we learn from the books. Our knowledge and experience with cultural diversity should not be limited to the classroom. Instead, as students, we should learn to apply the knowledge learned in class to the critical issues in our reality, such as homophobia and racism (Gollnick et al., 2009). It should help students critically assess day-to-day issues related to cultural diversity, such as the Black Lives Matter Movement, triggered by the death of George Floyd. With the knowledge learned on cultural diversity, it becomes easier to analyze such issues and understand why they exist hundreds of years after abolishing slavery (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).

Besides acquiring critical thinking skills, others should be interested in this topic because cultural diversity affects us. Usually, individuals use their culture as the standard to judge and discriminate against others for being different (Belfield, 2012). Culture is the lens through which we evaluate all that happens around us, terming it normal or weird, proper or improper (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). Indeed, if anyone is placed in a culture different from what they are used to, they are likely to be disoriented and confused (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).

Hence it is safe to conclude that we tend to judge others based on the fear of what we do not understand (Belfield, 2012). Notably, to understand and accommodate each other, Dr. Belfield suggests that we must first have a particular level of understanding of one another. This way, the biases and stereotypes we have of each will be dissipated, enabling us to co-exist more peacefully and harmoniously (Belfield, 2012). Since cultural diversity is in every aspect of our lives, from schools to workplaces (Belfield, 2012), it will make the world a better place to live in.

Most importantly, others should also be interested in this topic as it gives everyone a platform to learn how to support cultural diversity (Belfield, 2012). Learning about cultural diversity helps us identify and appreciate cultures that are not similar to ours (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). This way, it becomes easier to interact with individuals outside of our cultures (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).

What’s more, people learn ways to enhance inclusion in all aspects of their lives (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). Some of the ways that support cultural diversity include coming up with policies that favor all cultures involved and respecting their religious and cultural festivities (Belfield, 2012). According to Belfield (2012), cultural diversity gives us the impression that every living being can make a unique contribution to society despite their ‘differences.’ Therefore, in a world where cultural diversity is appreciated and honored, people would be empowered to be the best versions of themselves, making the world a better place to live because of the differences (Belfield, 2012).

Thanks to increasing globalization, cultural diversity has become a common phenomenon in almost all workplaces. What’s more, companies have become increasingly aware that organizations with higher levels of cultural diversity perform better than the rest by approximately 35 percent (Jackson, 2017). With this realization, top managers seek appropriate ways to effectively implement and adopt a culturally diverse staff and workplace (Vo, 2014).

Unfortunately, most leaders limit this role to a single program or initiative (Jackson, 2017). What such leaders do not understand is the crucial role played by the human resource department in managing cultural diversity at the workplace (Jackson, 2017). Most importantly, today, cultural diversity at the workplace demands a little more than ticking boxes and creating target ads (Vo, 2014). Instead, it requires the total commitment of an entire department to motivate the rest of the company into appreciating cultural diversity (Jackson, 2017).

That said, the human resource department takes up different roles on the cultural diversity issue at the workplace. First, the human resource department is in charge of cultural diversity training and development at the workplace (Vo, 2014). The goals of such training should be to increase staff awareness regarding cultural diversity (Vo, 2014). This way, employees learn how to handle the differences between them, making it easier to collaborate in work projects and learn from one another (Vo, 2014). Besides, the training should be purposed at equipping employees with as much knowledge and skills as possible on cultural diversity (Vo, 2014). The training modules should cover leadership and leaders’ capability to handle cultural diversity amongst the stakeholders (Vo, 2014).

Indeed, the training provides a platform for discussion on issues regarding cultural diversity. According to Vo (2014), creating a platform where employees can discuss their differences enhances trust and effective decision-making while opening doors to compromise. Vo (2014) notes that the company leaders, managers, and supervisors should be the primary target of the training.

Cultural Diversity in Modern Organizations

However, training sessions purposed to create cultural diversity awareness should involve all employees, enabling them to associate with each other and customers better (Vo, 2014). A highly experienced trainer should be hired for the job. The human resource department should most importantly ensure regular monitoring and evaluation to ensure the program is well-received (Vo, 2014). Plus, the feedback given will help in future planning and improvement (Vo, 2014).

In addition, any organization that hopes to accommodate a culturally diverse workforce should plan to accommodate diverse employees from the very start (Vo, 2014). Such a company should empower its human resource department to prepare on how to recruit employees from different backgrounds (Vo, 2014). Consequently, this translates to changing the organization’s recruiting strategies to ensure the recruited individuals are from a diverse pool (Vo, 2014).

Thus, the organization should consider its hiring lead time, where and how the job advertisement has been made, and its reputation for hiring persons from diverse backgrounds (Vo, 2014). One of the strategies that have worked for most companies is having a list of universities that historically have a large pool of underrepresented communities (Vo, 2014). However, having a list is not enough, as is recruiting the top talent in such institutions (Vo, 2014).

Once the strategies on bringing a diverse group of candidates have been developed and implemented, the next step is to evaluate the interviewers’ attitude towards the job seekers (Vo, 2014). Contrary to common belief, the recruitment process is usually not the entire objective (Vo, 2014). Unbeknown to many interviewers, assumptions, biases, and stereotypes may interfere with their decisions during the interviewing process (Vo, 2014). For instance, it is common to assume that the candidate should keep direct eye contact during an interview.

Anyone who fails to do so is disrespectful. Notably, while most Americans believe in this theory, some Asian cultures like my culture consider it disrespectful to look someone directly in the eye. In such a scenario, the interviewer is likely to dismiss a potential candidate and fail to listen to him/her on the belief that such a candidate is disrespectful. However, an interviewer who appreciates cultural diversity will understand this concept and instead focus on other body languages during the interview (Vo, 2014). Back in Thailand, I could not look at my teacher’s eyes while talking. It was disrespectful.

Most importantly, the recruitment team should be made aware of the questions to avoid during the interview. For example, questions on one’s race, religion, citizenship, place of birth, and marital statuses are discriminatory as they do not reflect a person’s ability to handle the task at hand (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). In addition, questions such as the number of children one has and how much they weigh reflect bias and leave the organization vulnerable to a lawsuit. However, with a human resource department that is serious about enhancing cultural diversity, such awkward situations would be avoided (Vo, 2014).


My topic of choice for this research is cultural diversity. This term has received different definitions depending on the issue at hand. However, according to Martin (2014), cultural diversity brings together the differences in humans, including race, ethnicity, religion, and background. Therefore, I choose this topic because it expands my view on life and global issues including working environment. Besides, with the increasing rise of immigrants in our country, cultural diversity is a significant concern across all sectors.

Additionally, I hope that this topic will help the underrepresented students to feel included while simultaneously preparing students for their future in a diverse workplace. Indeed, diversity has become a must for businesses that wish to remain competitive. Jackson (2017) notes that the human resource department plays a crucial role in implementing and adopting cultural diversity at the workplace. Cultural diversity at any organizations has changed the ways of HR policies and practices forever.


Banks, J. A. (2013). The construction and historical development of multicultural education, 1962–2012. Theory into practice, 52(sup1), 73-82.

Belfield, D., L. (2012, December 18). What is Cultural Diversity. Purdue University Global Inc.

Brinks, J., Data, E. U., & Data, E. U. M. S. Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2019 Revision.

Cultural Infusion. (n.d.). Six reasons why multicultural education is essential in our diverse world.

Dietz, G. (2007). Keyword: Cultural diversity. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 10(1), 7-30.

Gay, G. (2013). The importance of multicultural education. In Curriculum Studies Reader E2 (pp. 312-318). Routledge.

Gollnick, D. M., Chinn, P. C., Kroeger, S. D., & Bauer, A. M. (2009). Multicultural education in a pluralistic society (Vol. 90). Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Hanson, J., Bangert, A., & Ruff, W. (2016). Exploring the Relationship between School Growth Mindset and Organizational Learning Variables: Implications for Multicultural Education. Journal of Educational Issues, 2(2), 222-243.

Hedayat, M. (2020, June 24). Diversity In The Workplace Is Now More Critical Than Ever. Forbes.

Hjerm, M., Johansson Sevä, I., & Werner, L. (2018). How critical thinking, multicultural education and teacher qualification affect anti-immigrant attitudes. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 27(1), 42-59.

Jackson, H., G. (2017, September 27). Why HR Must Lead Diversity Efforts. SHRM.

Martin, G. C. (2014). The effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. Journal of diversity management (JDM), 9(2), 89-92.

Nijkamp, P., & Poot, J. (2015). Cultural diversity: a matter of measurement. In The economics of cultural diversity. Edward Elgar Publishing.

O’Boyle, T. (2020, June 20). 5 Reasons Why Diversity is Important in the 21st Century. AMP Global Youth.

Parker, A., Miroff, N., Sullivan, S., & Pager, T. (2021, March 20). ‘No end in sight’: Inside the Biden administration’s failure to contain the border surge. The Washington Post.

University of the People. (n.d.). What is Cultural Diversity and Why Is It Important.

Vo, K. H. (2014). Managing cultural diversity in human resource management.

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Carl Jung Theory Assignment

Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung is the full name for Carl Jung, Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and a psychologist who was the founder of analytic psychology. He was also a major contributor to the development of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis. Carl Jung was born in Kesswil, Switzerland on 26th July 1875. Jung was also a major contributor in other fields like religious studies, archaeology, literature, and physiology. Due to his innovation, he created the introvert and extrovert personalities, collective unconscious, and archetypes. Carl Jung was a talented and blessed individual as he was also a proficient writer, artist, and craftsman.

Carl Jung Background

Carl Jung was the youngest and first son of Paul Achilles Jung, his father was a pastor and a philologist. During his childhood days, he was an introvert and a lonely child. However, he was very observant as he observed the behaviors of his teachers, parents, and friends, he was a problem solver. When his father failed in his religious belief, Jung tried to help him as he told his father how he related to his God and how he felt about the issue. From the beginning, Jung tried to search for his purpose. Unfortunately, Jung’s father could not understand him because Jung was always on the front line to resolve problems. He was also very kind and humble.

During his childhood Jung had some of his father’s character, this made people think that he may also become a minister; some members of the family were ministers of the Word of God. Jung was a very observant boy majority thought he would copy the footsteps.

At first, Jung aspired to study archeology, however, this was not possible as his parents could not afford to send him to a better University. Jung went to Basel University where archeology was not offered. During his teens, Jung decided to study philosophy and read it in depth. During his childhood Jung suffered a condition which he could faint and pass out, however, this problem did not stay for long and was able to eventually get healed.

Due to this challenge, he faced in his childhood, Jung abandoned his passion to study archeology and went against the family traditions and decided to become a psychiatrist where he studied medicine. This is what he was searching for as the course was spiritual and biological. A year later after joining the University of Basel where he was studying medicine his father passed on. This was very unfortunate as he was the breadwinner of the family but Jung’s relatives were very supportive and contributed to his studies.

Jung moved to Zurich University after he completed his studies, he was very fortunate and was employed at the University’s Burgholzili psychiatric hospital, where he was under the supervision of Eugen Bleuler who was the inventor of what is today known as metal illness studies. While he was working there, he gained a lot of experience in this field and was able to conduct researches like association tests which were developed by other researchers. He specialized in the study of how humans respond to a stimulus where he discovered that it was caused by emotionally charged clusters (Dunne, C. (2015).

Jung got married to Emma Rauschenbach in 1903 and gave birth to two children. During their marriage, the couple was able to start a business, which was managed by his wife. 

Carl Jung Theory

Carl Jung developed the personality theory which formed the basis of universal types of human personality. The types of theories which are categorized by the theorist are all found in all human beings. However, some of the types are predominant when compared to the normal mode of organizing lives. Carl Jung also pioneered the theory of personality. His theory is one of the types of theories of personality. It mainly involved the introversion and extroversion typology.

He developed the theory referred to as analytical psychology. He viewed the libido not as sexual instinct which was outlined by Freud, but as generalized life energy. One of Jung’s biggest contributions was the ideology of collective consciousness, he deemed as the universal version of the “Freud’s unconscious, holding mental patterns, or memory traces, that are common to all of us” (Boundless, 2016).

The archetypes which Jung referred to them as ancestral memories are represented by the universal themes which are expressed through various art and literature work as well as the dreams of the people. Jung contrasted the idea of Freud’s ego, id, and superego by suggesting archetypes are the shadow reflects of the deeper elements of an individual psyche, whereby latent dispositions are common to us all. Archetypes are also reflecting something which was once spilled from people during the early management of the objects in our lives.

The route to communication has been linked to the “Amina (female) and the Animus (male) with the collective unconscious analogy. The true self is represented by the “Anima/animus” and is opposed to the masks the people wear each day and which is the source of our creativity. The part that connects and is part of the universe is the self. It is the universal thing that unifies both the unconsciousness and the consciousness The nirvana and the ecstatic harmony also represent the latter. Jung narrates that persona serves as the compromise between who we are (the true self) and what the community expects us to do and be. People usually hide the parts of themselves which are not in line with society or community expectations behind the mask.


Introverts are majorly people who prefer their world of dreams, thoughts, feelings the fantasies and mostly they prefer their private space. “Interaction drains their energy whereas being alone energizes them”. They are the opposite of the extroverts.

Psychologist Carl Jung pioneered and was the first to describe the introvert personality. It was first coined in the 1960s. However, these personalities have to do interchange their characters and sometimes the extrovert will act more like the introverts and the introvert will be more of the extroverts.

Traits of an introvert person according to Carl Jung

He/she prefer personal time

The ideology of being alone is more compelling and never taxing. The health and happiness of an introvert person are depended on the periods of solitude (Jung, C. G, 2014). The times do not matter to them whether they are engaged to something or just spending time to rest. Their main thing is being in solitude. They mostly enjoy reading, gardening writing, and any other activities which don’t require people to attend.

They are drained by social interactions

The introverts will never want to engage in party-like concerts. Most of the time they know they have masked out of them and there is a need to refuel their batteries. That’s not to say all introverts will flake out of parties they can and do enjoy them as much as an extrovert but at the end of a long night, introverts need to escape to recharge and reset.


For quite some time, many psychologists have used the extrovert personality trait to try and have a better understanding of how people differ. Many people use this term to describe people who are more talkative and more comfortable with social situations. They are the outgoing type. 

Traits of an extrovert

Problem solvers

With their ability to talk and have the issues on the table with other people, the extrovert is in pole position to offer hand solutions.

Extroverts Love talking

Extroverts love to strike new conversations with new and total strangers. They don’t enjoy talking to friends, or the family members and mostly the co-workers. They love to meet new people and learn more about their lives. Unlike introverts who put their thoughts first before speaking, extroverts tend to speak while exploring and organizing their thoughts and ideas. Their circle of friends tends to be wider

One of the greatest criticisms of Jung was his work; this is because his work is termed as unscientific. These criticisms first occurred in 1913 when Jung did split with Freud. However, the way Jung interpreted dreams and believed in spirits also caused him to be highly criticized. Some of these interactions made him be isolated from the community (Jung, C. G, 2014). Due to this criticism, his book was termed as rubbish at some point. Even though Jung studied medicine the majority of his work gained a lot of criticism and was termed as unscientific.

Some of his works and concepts like synchronicity and archetypes cannot be scientifically proven. The collective unconsciousness that is based on an outdated understanding of evolution concerns of the archetypes. Jung interpreted archetypes as primordial images that appear rapidly in symbols, myths, and other personified forms. Some critics have also justified that Jung might have agreed with the notion that lamarckianism evolution might be existing through the various attempts to define archetypes.

Some critics also argue and criticize that the emotional theory in question has no definite answer. Through this writing it is evident that Jung had not contacted spirits which he claimed her mother used to experience during the night, it shows he was always in contact with ordinary reality. However, contemporary critics see mysticism and occultism as irrational and too much at work in the part of Jung’s theory. Critics point out that Jung seems to have protected his theory from scrutiny by never settling on any specific explanations for evil.

Critics also found out that Jung’s work has an impact on social science’s invaluable ways. It was highly criticized because it has very strict measurements of extroversion and introversion. The critics do not accept the notion an individual is extensively either an introvert or an extrovert they consider the test too simplistic.

Unlike Freud, Jung seemed aware of the possible dangers of the psychological imbalance presented within the ideology of culture centrality much as each individual in his thinking has a prominent mode whether thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuiting so a given group consciousness might present the same. Among Jung’s numerous hypotheses is the collective unconscious. As per Jung, the human aggregate oblivious is populated by impulses and by models.

Carl Jung Theory
Carl Jung Theory

In conclusion, Jung devoted the rest of his life to developing his ideas especially those on the relation between psychology and religion. In his view obscure and often neglected texts of writers in the past shed unexpected light not only on Jung’s dreams and fantasies. According to this research curl, Jung was a good theorist due to his good writing skills. During Jung’s corroboration with Freud, the two worked hard in hard to try and solve and answer some questions through their theories (Dunne, C, 2015). Despite, their separation and criticism among themselves they will still be termed as one of the best psychologists of all time.

Thought Jung’s career he was able to win various prizes for his good work in research and writing. Although Jung faced a lot of challenges when perusing the career, he never gave until he achieved and became one of the greatest theorists of all time. In 1943, Jung became a full medical professor of medical psychology at the University of Basel but later resigned due to health problems. Jung continued writing and publishing books the rest of his life, in 1961, Jung wrote his last book, Jung died on 6 June 1961 after a short illness. Most of Jung’s work was published at his death. 


Jung, C. G. (2014). Nietzsche’s Zarathustra: Notes of the Seminar given in 1934-1939 by CG Jung. Routledge.

Jung, C. G., & Pauli, W. (2014). Atom and Archetype: The Pauli/Jung Letters, 1932-1958-Updated Edition. Princeton University Press.

Dunne, C. (2015). Carl Jung : Wounded healer of the soul. Watkins Media Limited.

Jung, C. G. (2019). History of Modern Psychology: 1933-1934. Princeton University Press.

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Management Accounting Systems Dissertation

Management Accounting Systems Dissertation

Management Accounting Systems (MAS) comprise of firms’ internal systems that are employed to evaluate and measure their accounting operations. Generally, companies employ accounting methods such as TQM, JIT, and ABC to monitor their financial transactions such as expenses, income and sales, accounts payable and funding. Further, MAS provide an opportunity for companies to generate various organization statistics that provide interested parties or management with a wide variety of information to assist in processes of decision making in an organization. Presently, both Company-A and Apple Inc. have integrated management accounting systems to foresee their accounting operations. The firms use computer-based or automated systems that use cloud-based or specialized services. This report; therefore, highlights the outcomes of two research articles covering application of MAS in manufacturing companies considering three key management accounting methods: TQM, JIT, and ABC.

The terms information and information system are viewed to have increasing effects on the enterprises, occupying model fields and management analysis. Economic information contains news from different fields and information as found in any other system. In most cases, this information is derived from the economic database. Resources are relatively scarce and limited and so management in most cases finds itself confronted with the decision-making problem.

In this regard, good accounting information should be accessible to offer suitable and precise decision-making that could lead to maximization of profitability of an organization and utilization of scarce resource optimally. Accounting is normally viewed as the language used in all businesses. In simple terms, it is a tool used by business enterprises to record, report, evaluating economic events & transactions that normally affect its operations (CONG, 2017).

Accounting takes the role of processing all financial performance documents from payroll, cost, capital expenditure and all other obligations of owner’s equity and sales revenue. Information is provided from accounting about how a business relates to the internal and external users, including, investors, managers, and others. One of the most important features that saturate organizations is management decision and it shows its failure or progress in achieving already set goals and objectives.

Identification of any three specific examples of the different types of management accounting methods and/or techniques from the case

Total Quality management (TQM)

According to Watts, Yapa & Dellaportas (2014), Total Quality Management is an accounting approach whose primary aim is to embed the awareness of quality in all the operations taken in a given organization. TQM is a philosophy of management that requires the change of organizational culture. It is a philosophy of management whose primary purpose is to strive in making the best utilization of opportunities and resources in a given constant environment.

TQM entails all the efforts in the organization in establishing a permanent accounting climate through which the organization can continuously improve its capabilities in ensuring there is the delivery of high-quality accounting to the organization. Skipworth (2018), pointed out that the support of management leadership and process of statistical control ensures participation and loyalty of employees. Likewise, focuses on planning and product design processes, quality control and involvement of customers and suppliers. Therefore, the major sphere of interest is organizational factors such as cultural change, leadership for change, employee training and cost of quality.

According to Hall & O’Dwyer (2017), organizations must be accounting focused rather than product focused. It also lays emphasis on the use of statistical methods, continuous training of workforce and top management commitment to constant improvement in quality. Therefore, Total Quality Management impacts the creation of systems in an organization that help in learning, cooperation and facilitating the implementation of different management practices to ensure performance is enhanced. This results in improved performance on products, processes and services and also the fulfillment of employees’ motivation in the organization.

Laureani & Antony, (2016), noted that the implementation of Total Quality Management in organizations creates improved performance by engaging activities of management leadership, strategic planning, engaging training programs and ensuring knowledge and process management are implemented.

Just-in-Time (JIT)

According to Prakash & Chin (2014), Just-In-Time production and inventory refers to a wide-ranging system for guiding the production flow in a multi-stage manufacturing setting. It is an idea of total waste elimination. The simple meaning is “only what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed” to eliminate waste, inconsistencies, and unreasonable requirements, resulting in improved productivity (Prakash & Chin, 2014).

A company’s values can be greatly enhanced by adopting JIT system especially in savings the inventory carrying costs, reduced storage and handling costs. Also, the chance of spoilage and obsolescence and theft and opportunities costs associated with having excessive inventories will be reduced. Besides, the pull method of JIT enables the needs of the customers can be addressed more quickly and effectively and therefore the market share will be increased directly.

JIT system can be performed by anybody in organization especially within the production line. For example, demand for new raw materials is signaled when there is a need in Work Cell Stage for more of these inputs. This triggers the purchasing activity. Demand for the production from Work Cell Stage is signaled when there is a need in Sub-Assembly Stage for more of these inputs.

This triggers the manufacturing activity in the Work Cell Stage (Nie, Bai, Jiang & Pang, 2014). Also, demand for the production from Final Assembly Stage is signaled when there is a need for the finished goods orders by customers. Therefore, noted that the involvement from the purchasing department to manufacturing department and finally until Sales and Marketing departments are greatly needed and proved that JIT system covers all aspects of the production process.

Activity Based Costing

Currently, business environment is changing due to the development of technology. The company’s management accounting system should find out a right accounting tool to dispose of an optimum cost control. The Activity-Based Costing (ABC) is known as the most popular management accounting tool of last twenty years and it is also known as the revaluation of managerial accounting in the circumstance of the development of techniques (Hoozée & Hansen, 2018).

This is because it could give more accurate, traceable cost information and simply by growing the number of cost drivers used in costing system while the traditional cost accounting system represent product cost distortion and it could lead to inappropriate strategic decisions.

The components of company-A’s management accounting system include; reports of income expenses and income, and sales analysis. These components are based on Activity costing that is determined by the organization production activities. In addition, the components provide an organization with the required information useful for making decisions and planning.

In addition, the company uses the components of a management accounting system to delete or add information from its product portfolio (Watts, Yapa & Dellaportas, 2014). Further, the company incorporates the components of the system to make a decision of the best production process or line that can be used for various products. The managers of the firm use these components to make an analysis of the major manufacturing processes in the organization. The components of the management accounting system for Company-A include budgets, reports about investments, and reports of standard costs.

According to Watts, Yapa & Dellaportas (2014), the firm uses these components to perform organization decision such as financial management, organization spending, total cost evaluation and many others. The company incorporates these components to estimate their total costs of production. The management calculates its cost values by measuring the rate of an activity and its drivers.

The components help an organization to overcome overhead expenses in business operations which may limit their labor input. Also, the organization incorporates the components with the intention of diversifying its products tastes. In addition, these components of management accounting systems help Company-A to obtain factual information or data that is in line with the organization’s budgeted and actual figures thereby allowing the managers and owners of the organization to incorporate the appropriate measures of controlling risks.

In addition, these components help an organization to attain timely feedback that is in line with the current activities of the organization thereby helping it re-evaluate its operational decisions. Therefore, these components of management accounting systems help the organization to make its financial decisions to monitor its business operations during the production processes.

ABC is especially useful for the complex environment organization. In this case, Company-A has nine divisions with different strategies. Therefore, ABC is a best management accounting tool for Wesfarmers in order to obtain their target. Based on the Wesfarmers’s strategies that was discussed above. The ABC model could have many benefits that could help the company to achieve their strategies. First, it could assist the top management of Company-A, in pricing, deleting and adding the products, selecting outsource and in-house items.

In this case, the ABC model is primary to support management decision or it is known as the strategic tool to help Wesfarmers to obtain the competitive advantage. This is because it could help the company identifies the elements that impact on the cost dynamics in long term and minimum the cost for particular job to improve Company-A’s competitive position (Watts, Yapa & Dellaportas, 2014). Subsequently, it will reduce the cost product due to better design and improvement of product process. Furthermore, it is easy for ABC to determine which overhead cost should be assigned in the product to minimum the price of product. Then, the buyers can be benefited from this strategies.

Additionally, ABC model can help Company-A in distribution cost. For example, the managers may rely on this model to choose the profitable channels or alter the distribution channels due to the overhead allocation. Another advantage of ABC is that it could help the top management of the company to identify the unprofitable product lines and accurate costs. Hence, it could improve the efficiency of operation as well as the profitability to build in competitive cost advantage and add value to its stakeholders and its customers.

Management Accounting Systems are relevant to contemporary organizations citing evidence from the case company

When the term MAS are mentioned most people think of manufacturing companies. This is because of their long association with giving management explanations for the intrinsic management functions, specifically in the manufacturing zone. This may have narrowed its utilization in the utilities industry as a tool to be used to improve financial performance where intrinsic and extrinsic trade advice could be required for strategic planning.

Other purposes of MAS in the contemporary organizations include organizing, controlling, motivating and decision making. Current ingenious MAS practices for example total quality management, performance evaluation furnish beneficial management accounting explanations for customer management and the improvement of a competitive advantage for an organization as it is revealed in Company-A. According to Karpova, Serikova & Tyschenko (2019), some MAS practices equip firms with strategies so that it can make a variety of clients to have eternal preference for an organization’s products and utilities.

The adoption of MAS practices and approaches can furnish an organization with continuous performance and growth. MAS’ practices in the contemporary organizations include ABC, total quality management, budgeting, variance analysis, advice for decision-making, strategic analysis, balance scorecard, among many others (Karpova, Serikova & Tyschenko, 2019).

In order for an organization to ensure effective creation of information and better organization, it is supposed to transmit new information by implementing management accounting systems. These management accounting systems contribute to t innovation process in a number of ways depending on the organization. First, owners of Company-A prompted to hire mid-career managers who can be in the position to ensure effective creation of information by creating diversity or counter-cultures within an organization.

By doing so, the company has been in the position to attain internal development of products. This has been as a result of making a “policy of hiring mid-career personnel from other firms” who recommend a firm to make diversification in various field such as “Plain paper copier”. Second, management accounting system helps Company-A proposer again with increased average growth of about 20 percent. With the help of management accounting system, the firm has become well equipped to overcome various challenges in the projects of product development as a result of using diverse and large staff.

Therefore, by using management accounting systems, the organization is in the position to ensure effective interaction and accumulation of this personnel with different technology potentials. In addition, management account provided Canon Inc. an environment that addressed tension in the business operation hence resulting into creation and synthesis of new information. For example, Company-A employs SAP in decision making process in regards to accounting operations. Also, Apple Incc. Has utilize MAS to come up with new products that are cost effective.

Comparison of this finding with one other journal article about management accounting systems in another real-life company or companies

From the findings of Watts, Yapa & Dellaportas (2014), MAS has helped the managers of Company-A to obtain information about their technological trend. By training information ion an organization, the company is in the position to prepare its self for battle with its competitors in the market. This helped the organization to build a new production line as an organizations innovation.

In addition, by adopting management accounting system, the company was in the position to make use of different features which supported their computer machines which were faster, expensive and smaller(Watts, Yapa & Dellaportas, 2014). Therefore, management accounting helped Company-A to realize its competitors and mistakes thereby designing new innovation processes such as designing new computer features.

In comparison to Nwogugu (2015), that highlights Apple Inc. management accounting system. MAS has enabled Apple to realize many business ideas which were very important were ignored as a result of limited information transmission. With the help of management accounting system, the company is in the position to understand vital business jobs that were not considered earlier.

For example, “in the decision regarding the use of the 5.25 inch or 3.5-inch floppy disk, Jobs wanted the slower, lower-capacity 5.25-inch floppy disk, even though the engineers insisted that the 3.5 inches would be better (Nwogugu, 2015).” The outcomes of the 2 articles provide similar findings on how the companies employ MAS in decision making and product invention. However, the second article emphasizes more the invention aspect of MAS while the first one provides the MAS techniques and their application in manufacturing thus, differing a little on the deeper side.

Conclusions about the relevance of Management Accounting Systems in today’s competitive and (in most cases), uncertain business environment

MAS avails schemes for both manufacturing and utilities zones. Utilization of MAS practices not only increase e management competency but it also increases employees’ competency. It also facilitates aim determination, helps in plan preparation, and facilitation of better services to customers, it makes it easy to take judgment, enhance performance measurements, furnish effective management control, and make it possible to maximize profits, safety and security from trade cycle. All of which are important in ensuring that the companies thrive exceptionally well in their processes.

Management accounting systems keeps advancing and its involvement in the management of the organization has increased. It is therefore essential that management accountants comprehend not only how to account for MAS practices for example ABC, but also how to be aggressive in their implementation and management in order to achieve maximum benefit for the organization. In their study they investigated if the thirty finance managers of the Company-A knew of the significance of adopting the MAS practices.

The study also sought to establish the type of link between strategic initiatives and advancement in the manufacturing sector. Any firm should aim to obtain and enhance financial benefits and having empiric facts of the effectiveness of MAS practices should be vital for any organization. The findings indicate that twenty six point eight per cent of the manufacturing firms use a minimum of one of the MA practices. Furthermore the evidence shows that there was a higher consciousness level of the value of using the MAS practices among the finance managers, although the high level was not liked with the usage level of those practices.

Their study revealed a strong affirmative association between using MAS practices and advancement in organizational performance. From the above the articles, it is clear that MAS practices affect the organizations in one way or the other. However, the variables considered are not similar for every organization. Internationally, the lack of adoption of advanced MAS practices as reported by the studies, but incompatible with respect to single techniques. Therefore, a strong affirmative alliance between using MAS practices and organizational activities results in innovation and maximum production.

Specific outcomes or lessons learned from each of the two articles’ research findings that will be useful for management accountants in Australian companies to learn from

According to the first article by Watts, Yapa & Dellaportas (2014), management accounting systems are important tools in the creation of new information in an organization that arises from social interaction. In addition, the article indicates that the firms are responsible for creating a process which provides their structure. The article also indicated the interactive nature of the two firms in project development composed of different people from various backgrounds operating in intense continuous communication.

Watts, Yapa & Dellaportas (2014), indicated that companies develop different products. In this case, the four major lessons or outcomes from the research findings of management accounting are explained below in accordance with every organization. First, the research on Company-A, indicated that an organization’s management is based on syntactic data or information like profit analysis and ROI which create meaning or emergency in the information.

In addition, this system is supposed to create an organization’s meaning made up of stagnant bureaucracy. Further, the research indicates that different channels that are created for syntactic information communication are not recommended for transmitting semantic information. Therefore, research indicates that “In a syntactic channel, semantic information is interpreted as merely “fluff” without pragmatic use.” This implies that Australian companies should have a well-visualized structure that helps in the flow or transmission of an organization’s information without meeting barriers. By doing so, companies will be confined as being Number One (or Two) in every business we are in” or “keeping ROI above some arbitrary number”(Watts, Yapa & Dellaportas, 2014).

 Second, the research on Company-A Watts, Yapa & Dellaportas (2014), indicated that synthetic rules should not be miss taken by employees in an organization so as to achieve the business objectives and motivation of leaders. In case, Australian companies don’t put this issue into consideration, they will not be in the position to fix or minimize the risks that may arise in an organization’s rank and file. In addition, the situation may lower down an organization’s breakeven point hence limiting the creation of information which may affect the growth of a company. Therefore, Australian companies should consider these two findings obtained from the research concerning Company-A.

According to the other article by Nwogugu (2015), an organization’s leader helps in maximizing the creation of information for an organization. In addition, Nwogugu (2015), indicated that the leader of an organization not supposed to behave like a military commander but instead be a catalyst for better business performance. Further as per Nwogugu (2015), a leader in an organization is supposed to create a way of selecting useful people in an organization by at times making arguments with them and also assisting them to overcome different barriers thereby helping them attain their vision.

Therefore, leaders in Australian companies should be in the position to effectively perform their roles in the organization so as to ensure effective information transmission (Nwogugu, 2015). Finally, Nwogugu (2015), indicates that a small group of managers in an organization can create up a difference in the innovation processes. For example, Apple computing Inc., incorporated a small number of people to integrate the company’s software and hardware systems so as to ensure effective operations. With the help of intense interaction, the company was in the position to ensure effective information transmission. Therefore, Australian companies are supposed to ensure intense interaction between its members as a way of exhibiting their commitment.


CONG, Z., 2017. Discussion on the Rationality of “Accounting Standard for Business Enterprises No. 3 – Investment Real Estate”. Destech Transactions On Economics, Business And Management, (emem).

Hall, M., & O’Dwyer, B., 2017. Accounting, non-governmental organizations and civil society: The importance of nonprofit organizations to understanding accounting, organizations and society. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 63, 1-5.

Hoozée, S., & Hansen, S., 2018. A Comparison of Activity-Based Costing and Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing. Journal Of Management Accounting Research, 30(1), 143-167.

Karpova, V., Serikova, T., & Tyschenko, V., 2019. Management of the development of the accounting and tax accounting system for forward and futures contracts. Development Management, 17(2), 17-25.

Laureani, A., & Antony, J., 2016. Leadership – a critical success factor for the effective implementation of Lean Six Sigma. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 29(5-6), 502-523.

Nie, L., Bai, Y., Jiang, X., & Pang, C., 2014. An Approach for Level Scheduling Mixed Models on an Assembly Line in a JIT Production System. Applied Mechanics And Materials, 697, 473-477.

Nwogugu, M., 2015. The Case of Apple Computers, Inc.: Failed Strategic Alliances, Corporate Governance and Risk Management. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Prakash, J., & Chin, J., 2014. Comparison between production controls in multi-stage multi-product manufacturing environments: two case studies. Production & Manufacturing Research, 2(1), 477-500.

Skipworth, S., 2018. Empower employees to step away, with the greater goal of enhancing leadership. Enrollment Management Report, 22(2), 8-8.

Watts, D., Yapa, P., & Dellaportas, S., 2014. The Case of a Newly Implemented Modern Management Accounting System in a Multinational Manufacturing Company. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 8(2), 121-137.

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Media Culture Contemporary Approach

Media Culture

Media culture focuses on investigating factors or processes that shape today’s world. With the rapidly evolving technology and the changing times, media culture plays a significant role in addressing some global emergencies such as climate, health, and structural inequalities. The reason is that the media can reach a broad audience and is instant. Today, the climate is a big global crisis that significantly affects political, economic, and social lives worldwide. More so, the media is also playing a big role in addressing structural inequality.

Structural inequality refers to the situation where certain privileges are not provided equally to all social groups or all institutions. Allocation of resources such as health is biased, which means that some groups or some institutions have more advantages than other groups.

Another factor that the media has had an impact on is the health sector. The World Health Organization has highlighted several health emergencies that should be prioritized and insists on the importance of public health (Anderson et al., 2012). This paper will focus on these three factors and evaluate how media culture has helped address these emergencies.

The media has greatly helped in sensitization on matters of climate change. This has affected the public’s opinion on the climate crisis that the global continent is facing. Without a doubt, the media is at the center of fighting climate change. It has helped raise awareness and bring to an understanding of the environment or climatic changes encouraging friendly environmental behavior (Anderson, 2017). With the media providing informative information about climate change, policymakers can make the right decisions and take the appropriate steps to handle this emergency.

Additionally, media culture helps provide a translation of information given by scientists and activists to the general public in a more understandable way. On the other hand, the media has helped people understand their rights by holding the people in power accountable for the climate crisis. This has led to media personalities interviewing government officials on what they have done in order to combat the crisis.

Such questions or interviews with politicians allow the public to evaluate the government’s initiatives and decide whether they chose the right leaders. Finally, the media emphasizes and airs the impacts of climate change and how they affect human beings. For example, by covering news of areas in which people have been swept away by floods, the media sensitizes people on the need to be more cautious and take more care of the environment to reduce climate change impacts

Media Culture and Society

The significant role of media in the health sector cannot be disputed. The media has played a huge role in ensuring that the public is well-educated on health issues. Media has been the biggest catalyst to help promote healthcare. For example, during the Coronavirus, pandemic media has been the Primary educator on rules and regulations that need to be followed to avoid contracting the disease.

Besides, it also helps bring together different partnerships, private sectors, non-governmental organizations, volunteers, and professional organizations worldwide to solve a certain health crisis (Moorhead et al., 2013). For example, it has brought together different stakeholders from different countries in an effort to find a vaccine for coronavirus disease.

Media Culture and Society
Media Culture and Society

Additionally, the media has also helped health workers reach disadvantaged groups in rural areas. Health workers can also keep the public updated about certain immunizations or offer guidance on measures that should be taken on emergency health complications. Apart from just education, the media also informs the public about the general health situation worldwide

It is the media’s role to provide correct statistics and correct information on the number of people infected by a certain disease or the people who are more vulnerable to infection. The media should also inform the public about geographical areas that have been affected or are more likely to be affected by a certain disease.

The fairly widespread inequalities have posed a question and need for concern as they are a potential threat for social disruption. As a result, the media has come up to play a crucial part in making the public aware of their rights and addressing inequality issues. Search inequalities include education inequality, health inequalities, ethnic inequalities, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and employment discrimination (Childress & Nault, 2019). Such discrimination has led to conflict and violence in the past few years. Entertainment, politics, and news media all influence the public’s opinion on inequality.

Awareness of Media Culture

However, while the media has been used to promote awareness about inequalities, it has also been at the center in promoting inequality. This is majorly because most of these media channels are owned by private individuals. The channels mostly release news based on their customers or where they are located, which means that they will definitely want to give their consumers what they like to hear.

Sometimes political members even bribe the media to hide relevant information that could have been useful to the public. For example, in the case of employment, employers may employ only their family members and collaborate with the media to avoid exposing the employed list to the public. This is clear evidence that rich people or relatively high-class people have the power to manipulate information that is released to the media.

In conclusion, it is without a doubt that media plays an integral part in emergency response. On the media, it is easy to influence the public, mobilize the public, raise funds, and hold campaigns to manage an emergency. This is because it reaches information fast to the people who need it most. With advanced technology, media culture has the ability to manage emergencies, unlike in ancient times when there was no internet or technology. Nevertheless, government and media organizations deem to improve the dissemination of information. It is their role to ensure that the news released is accurate, responsible, and reliable.


Anderson, A. A. (2017). Effects of social media culture use on climate change opinion, knowledge, and behavior. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science.

Anderson, P. D., Suter, R. E., Mulligan, T., Bodiwala, G., Razzak, J. A., Mock, C., & International Federation for Emergency Medicine. (2012). World Health Assembly Resolution 60.22 and its importance as a health care policy tool for improving emergency care access and availability globally. Annals of emergency medicine, 60(1), 35-44.

Childress, C., & Nault, J. F. (2019). Encultured Biases: The Role of Products in Pathways to Inequality. American Sociological Review, 84(1), 115-141.

Moorhead, S. A., Hazlett, D. E., Harrison, L., Carroll, J. K., Irwin, A., & Hoving, C. (2013). A new dimension of health care: systematic review of the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication. Journal of medical Internet research, 15(4), e85.

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