Push and Pull Forces Driving Women’s Entrepreneurial Spirit in India Dissertation

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Women Entrepreneurs Dissertation – The aim of this dissertation is to explore the push-pull theory regarding women’s entrepreneurship in India. Similar to women in other parts of the world, Indian women are progressively broadening their horizons and gaining recognition in the professional domain. They are no longer confined to traditional domestic roles.

Various factors, including social, economic, political, psychological, and familial influences, are motivating women to initiate their own businesses and enter the entrepreneurial sphere. The motivation for women to engage in entrepreneurship is driven by a combination of push and pull factors. Some women are prompted by negative aspects such as the lack of suitable employment opportunities and dissatisfaction with existing working conditions. Conversely, others are drawn into entrepreneurship by their passion and creativity.

This research seeks to analyze these factors and assess the extent of their impact. It includes a comprehensive review of existing literature that explores the diverse factors influencing women in entrepreneurship, accompanied by relevant facts and figures. The push-pull theory is examined, supported by detailed charts and graphical evidence.

The central research question posed is “How does the push-pull theory influence women entrepreneurs in India?” The paper adopts an inductive research approach, exploring the emerging phenomenon of women entrepreneurship. The qualitative data collection and analysis method involve semi-structured interviews with women entrepreneurs in India. The results of the interviews are analyzed, followed by a comprehensive discussion on various aspects related to women entrepreneurship in India.

Dissertation Objectives

  • Investigate the social, economic, political, psychological, and family factors that have contributed to the transformation of women’s roles in India
  • Conduct a comprehensive analysis of both push and pull factors influencing women’s decisions to become entrepreneurs in India
  • Assess the impact of women’s entrepreneurship on economic development in India
  • Investigate the role of education in empowering women to pursue entrepreneurial ambitions
Women Entrepreneurs India Dissertation
Women Entrepreneurs India Dissertation

Dissertation ContentsWomen Entrepreneurs in India

1 – Introduction
Dissertation Aim
Dissertation Objectives

2 – Literature Review
Women’s role in business and entrepreneurship
Facts and Figures about Women Entrepreneurs in India
Push and Pull Theory

3 – Research Methodology
The research question: How does push and pull theory influence women entrepreneurs in India?
Research Philosophy – Interpretivism
Research Approach – Inductive
Research Method – Qualitative
Research Methodology – Phenomenology
Typology of Phenomenological Methodologies
Insider Research
Time Horizon and Sampling – Cross-sectional
Research Ethics
Data Collection and Data Analysis

4 – Findings and Analysis
Women in Entrepreneurship
Reasons for being in business
Duration in business
Number of employees
Level of education and entrepreneurship
Level of education of the women interviewed
The “man” factor in entrepreneurship
Country factor in entrepreneurship
Level of satisfaction from business
Exclusion of point of interest
Push-Pull Factors

5 – Conclusion


Survey Questions

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Women Entrepreneurs MBA Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurs Are Born and Not Nurtured

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Diversity Management Dissertation Topics

Diversity Management Dissertation Topics – Managers can take active steps to reduce the negative effects of perceptual problems and biases in organizations. An organization is market by the perceptions of its employees that they put forward while interpreting and judging their environment. Perception is basically defined as the, “Process by which people interpret the input from their sense to give meaning and order to the world around them”.

It has been seen that various perceptual problems arises through perceivers’ knowledge and biasing attitude. Often the characteristic of the target and the situation also affects perception. The main perceptual problems arising in any organization include sexual harassment (for both genders), race discrimination, career progression and hidden dealings etc. Such biased issues lead to faulty decision making and dissatisfaction among the employees.

The majority of the top management members consider themselves as the ruling power over every decision to be made in the organization. As quoted by Paul Brunton, “Every discussion which is made from an egoistic standpoint is corrupted from the start and cannot yield an absolutely sure conclusion. The ego puts its own interest first and twists every argument, word, even fact to suit that interest.”

Many examples of perceptual problems can be seen prevailing in the companies among less educated staff, women, older people and minorities especially. They are seen to be set one step behind while making necessary decisions; in formal and informal discussions; in recruiting processes; while granting incentives and awarding promotions etc. The minorities are seen to be treated with bias without considering its negative effects on the company’s production and progress.

Managers within an organization have an authority to handle such issues and devise strategies to nullify the negative effects of such perceptual problems and biased behavior and fight them back by promoting equality and diversity. They can do so by practicing following steps:

  • Firstly, the managers should educate the employees and provide proper regarding diversity.
  • The managers need to have a self-insight of their perceptual skills and abilities while solving perceptual issues.
  • They have the right ability to analyze the situation. They have the proper knowledge of the layered infrastructure comprising of varied organizational culture and the employees of varying cultures, races and gender etc. They can better know the needs, thinking and motivational entities of their employees.
  • Managers have the ability to motivate, inspire and lead their people. They can do so educating the work force with diversity policies and equality. They can properly guide the employees by thorough training for avoiding perceptual issues.
  • Managers can predict the abilities of its employees and thus know how better one is or can perform. They can award incentives, promotions etc. for the talented ones, whether they are among minorities or not.
  • They must take the authority of hiring people regardless of their race, culture, gender, age or disabilities.They must deal and solve the perceptual issues and direct them for justified conclusions to higher authorities and executive committees.

As a matter of fact, currently many of the organizations, either local or international, are going through diversity changes. Every company has sensed the need of removal of the perceptual biasing issues and is trying their level best to promote healthy working environment.

Diversity Management Dissertation Topics
Diversity Management Dissertation Topics

It has been that the companies having perceptual issues are going through more turnover ratios which thus result in less employee satisfaction. Present world is the world of knowledge at one’s door step. Every person is well aware of his/her abilities, expertise, importance and need. Every employee needs a job satisfaction and justice and equality in his/her profession.

The importance of manager’s role can be well identified through their power of controlling the working environment and the perceptions of its employees. It is highly suggested that they must acknowledge their importance in fighting back such biased issues and promote equality among their employees.

They must devise diversity and equality policies and educate every employee so that there runs no prejudiced behavior among the organization. The managers must take active parts in removing all such issues starting from the top management and then cascading down the lower staff ones. The managers hold the power of educating other’s minds to provide a biased free working atmosphere. As quoted by Robert Anton, “We all only see that which we are trained to see.”

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Change Management Dissertation Topics

Change Management Dissertation Topics

Change Management Dissertation Topics – Organizational change, significance of the organizational change, different theories used by the management in implementing organization change and the benefits derived by an organization from change implementation. Change is difficult to pull off and despite individual success; most of the organizations find it difficult to implement change with 70% of the change initiatives being unsuccessful.

Most change initiatives fail since managers often rush to implement change and lose focus and become mesmerized by all the available advice on-line and imprint and fail to identify the best strategy to use in change implementation. Most managers apply Theory E and Theory O without resolving the tension between them, something that is likely to lead to failure in change implementation.

Below is a collection of change management dissertation topics that will assist you with your studies all of which are available on our website.

Change Management Within the Retail Banking Sector

Using Change Management to Improve Turnaround Time and Quality Processes in a Clinical Laboratory Environment

Is the Human Resources Function Essential in Achieving Successful Organisational Change

A Review into Project Theoretical Concepts and Models in Regards to the Management of Change and Conflict

Some of the change management dissertation topics discussed include; Leadership, a successful change management requires strong leadership from the managers. Managers should, therefore, inspire employees through the change process. Engaging the people below, most often change is unsuccessful since managers fail to involve those below them.

Change Management Dissertation Topics
Change Management Dissertation Topics

However, persuading the employees of the need and the effects of change would be vital for successful change implementation. Need for consultants to educate the employees and coach leaders to ensure everyone understands his role and involvement in the change process. Motivation, managers, should evaluate the fears of the employees and consider appropriate incentives that may motivate them.

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Many academics agree that change is inevitable in any organization. However, managers should clearly understand the need for change and the best strategy to implement the desired change. This post and the links are relevant in that it provides an in-depth analysis of how effective combination of Theory E and Theory O can lead to successful change. The article could be applied to a career as it provides insight into the change process and how to ensure effective change as a manager.

The current global market is quite competitive and as such the success of the organization will largely depend on effective change management strategy formulation. The ability of the organization to choose an appropriate generic business strategy would prove to be the point of difference between different players in the market.

The generic business and change management strategies adopted by the organization determines the direction of the organization as well as its ability to effectively compete in the market. The businesses executives have the responsibility to integrate the generic business strategy with the organization culture as well as the formal organization structure.

Successful integration of generic business strategy along with the organization culture and structure creates an enabling environment for the organization to achieve its effective change management goals. Business leaders should ensure the adoption of the appropriate culture within the organization that can support the business strategies, organizational structure as well as effective change management.

Change management refers to the processes, tools, and techniques used to manage the people side of change in an organization. It involves planning, communicating, and implementing changes in a way that minimizes resistance and maximizes the likelihood of success. Change management is essential for organizations that want to stay competitive and adapt to new circumstances.

There are several key principles to successful change management. First, it’s important to communicate openly and honestly with employees about the need for change and the rationale behind it. Second, it’s important to involve employees in the change process by seeking their input and feedback. Third, it’s essential to provide training and support to employees to help them adjust to the new way of doing things. Finally, it’s important to measure the success of the change and make adjustments as needed.

There are many resources available to help organizations with change management, including books, articles, and training programs. Here are five references that may be helpful:

  1. Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Harvard Business Press.
  2. Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage Learning.
  3. Beer, M., & Nohria, N. (2000). Cracking the code of change. Harvard Business Review, 78(3), 133-141.
  4. Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.
  5. Hayes, J. (2018). The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan.

These references provide a comprehensive overview of change management and offer practical advice for implementing successful change initiatives in organizations.

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Challenges of Brexit

Challenges of Brexit: Luxury Concierge Business in the UK

Challenges of Brexit: Luxury Concierge Business in the UK

Challenges of Brexit – The UK public voted to leave the European Union on June 23, 2016. The leave is termed as Brexit and carries along with numerous speculations of potential effects to businesses within the UK and the world over. Lawyers and legal experts have had mixed reactions where a section argues of the potential risks to businesses while the remaining section argues of the potential benefits (Cooper, 2016, p. 414; Redelinghuys, 2016, p. 24). However, the Brexit calls for a negotiation between UK and Europe. The vote does not have legal effects on the laws of the UK and EU. As a result, the UK will remain part of the EU until an agreement to exit is signed or in a period of two years after the UK government issues a formal notice of exit (McLaren, 2016, p. 29).

The Brexit denies the UK some of its rights to participate in EU processes and thus has potential implications on the businesses in the UK. This report will analyze the possible implications of the Brexit on the luxury concierge businesses in the UK. Luxury concierge business is a customer service-based business that attends to visitors through the arrangement of luxury services such as hotel bookings, hotel servings, and air tickets (Som & Blanckaert, 2015, p. 90). The business encompasses many institutions such as hospitals, office buildings, airports, malls, colleges, corporations and apartment buildings. The luxury concierge business in the UK has in the previous past recorded an extraordinary growth. The business is however affected by the Brexit since it deals with several customers from several countries outside the UK (Sinn, 2016, p. 42). Besides, the article will review the possible strategic plans that the luxury concierge businesses can take to address the potential effects of the Brexit.

The UK legal framework for its EU membership and the processes through which it fulfills its EU obligations is found in the European Community’s Act 1972. The EU law includes the principle of direct effect meaning individuals and business can invoke an EU provision for a particular country or with another individual (Fichtner et al., 2016, p. 359; Sked, 2015, p. 41). The EU treaties of the direct effects explain further that the obligations are unconditional, precise and do not require additional measures at either the national or European level. The EU precedence principle is also advantageous to business enterprises. The principle states that the EU laws are superior to the national laws of the member states and that the member states may not exercise a national law that contradicts the EU law (Laughlin, 2016, p. 49). The exit from the EU implies that the EU courts have no control over the UK issues. The luxury concierge business, therefore, does not enjoy the benefits of the above two principles with significant effects on the business.

Challenges of Brexit and Effect on Trade

The effects of the Brexit have caused market volatilities and ongoing uncertainty about the future of the businesses in the UK. The luxury concierge business thus requires putting in place contingency plans and developing strategies to address the uncertainties (Mcloughlin & Aaker, 2010, p. 79). The business corporations should identify the aspects of their businesses likely to be affected by the Brexit. The corporate should consider forming teams that report to the senior management to assess the potential impacts of the Brexit on the businesses (Bianchi, Cosenz and Marinković, 2015, p.84). The companies cannot yet conduct a detailed long-term planning at the period of the post-Brexit regime. However, the companies are better placed when the management knows where the issue lies as that will give an idea of the planning process (Shackle, 2016, p. 13).

The luxury concierge business enterprises also need to assess their position on the Brexit whether the enterprises will comment actively or contribute their views relevant to the luxury concierge industry (Fichtner et al., 2016, p. 301). The enterprises may also consider their participation in the initiatives that shape the post-Brexit regime (Simms, 2016, p. 26).

At the moment, there are three exit models following the referendum vote to exit the EU. The Norway model will see the UK join the European Free Trade Association and European Economic Area (EEA). The condition will allow the UK to access a single market and the EU trade without restrictions and tariffs (Harris, 2016, p. 43; McDonnell, 2016, p. 20). However, the UK will be barred from accessing the critical EU trade agreements. The Swiss model provides that the UK can join the European Free Trade Association only and enter bilateral agreements with the EU in specific sectors (Shankar & Carpenter, 2012, p. 47).

The process is, however, lengthy and complex in addition to costly. Finally, the totally out model suggests that the UK assumes the same position as any other member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) (Smith, 2016, p. 20). The position implies that the UK can negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU after seven years of negotiation between the EU and Canada.

With the perceived challenges of Brexit and the above three models, the luxury concierge businesses can consider reviewing the industry terms dealing with licensing, cross-border operations, a forum for disputes, tax, and terms dealing with material adverse effect (Rieth, Michelsen & Piffer, 2016, p. 577). The enterprises should moreover consider Brexit as a risk factor in contracts. Therefore, the enterprises must enter into the contracts very carefully to avoid the unintended consequences given the uncertainties of the post-Brexit conditions.

It is imperative for the luxury concierge businesses to have conversations with the customers, suppliers, and clients, especially those in the EU to make clear the contractual relationships in this post-Brexit period. The businesses should examine their supply chain for any vulnerability such as an increase in import costs that will likely be transferred to firms.

Challenges of Brexit has made the UK no longer bound by the EU’s VAT directives thus giving the UK government more flexibility to set the rate of sales tax and the items subject to each rate. The administrative burden for the luxury concierge business will rise as a result of reduced access to the EU’s coordinated vat tax collection system (Chipman, 2016, p. 36; Doherty, 2016, p. 12). The enterprises should, therefore, engage with the government and with the EU to help shape their priorities in the European and domestic context. The businesses should pay greater attention to the decisions around infrastructure, taxation, digital policy and immigration since the areas significantly affect the enterprises. Finally, the businesses need to put arrangements to prevent the uncertainties of complying with different laws in the UK and the post-Brexit EU (Millett, 2011, p. 88).  

The challenges of Brexit and associated risks can strike anytime. The effects will affect the exports because of the wide array of commercial links that the luxury concierge business has with the EU across the B2B and B2C space. The UK government will have to negotiate trade agreements with more than 50 countries that it enjoyed preferential treatment with while in the EU. The government may not have the capacity to open many new large-scale negotiations with other countries equal to that of the EU thus necessitating the businesses to have a defined strategy to address the challenges as they will occur.


Bianchi, C., Cosenz, F. and Marinković, M., 2015. Designing dynamic performance management systems to foster SME competitiveness according to a sustainable development perspective: empirical evidences from a case-study. International Journal of Business Performance Management 31, 16(1), pp.84-108.

Chipman, J 2016, ‘Why Your Company Needs a Foreign Policy’, Harvard Business Review, 94, 9, pp. 36-43, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Cooper, B 2016, ‘See EU later: Brexit and us’, Governance Directions, 68, 7, pp. 414-417, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Fichtner, F, Steffen, C, Hachula, M, & Schlaak, T 2016, ‘Brexit decision is likely to reduce growth in the short term’, DIW Economic Bulletin, 26/27, pp. 301-307, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Fichtner, F, Steffen, C, Hachula, M, Junker, S, Kirby, S, Michelsen, C, Rieth, M, Schlaak, T, & Warren, J 2016, ‘Brexit decision puts strain on German economy’, DIW Economic Bulletin, 6, 31, pp. 359-362, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Harris, P 2016, ‘Bracing for Brexit’, The National Interest, 143, p. 43, Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Laughlin, LS 2016, ‘WHERE TO INVEST AFTER A BRITISH BREAKUP’, Fortune, 174, 2, pp. 49-52, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

McDonnell, J 2016, ‘Do we want to drift towards a Tory Brexit, or make the case to end austerity across Europe?’, New Statesman, 5317, p. 20, Literature Resource Center, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

McLaren, L 2016, ‘Cleaning up the mess: the job of rescuing Britain from post-Brexit chaos will fall on women politicians–including the new PM’, Maclean’s, 29-30, Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Mcloughlin, D., & Aaker, D. A. (2010). Strategic market management: global perspectives. Hoboken, N.J., Wiley.

Millett, S. M. (2011). Managing the future: a guide to forecasting and strategic planning in the 21st century. Axminster, Triarchy.

Redelinghuys, P 2016, ‘BREXIT: Blessing or balls-up? (Cover story)’, Finweek, pp. 24-27, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Rieth, M, Michelsen, C, & Piffer, M 2016, ‘Uncertainty shock from the Brexit vote decreases investment and GDP in the Euro Area and Germany’, DIW Economic Bulletin, 6, 32/33, pp. 575-582, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Shackle, S 2016, ‘A city left behind: post-Brexit tensions simmer’, New Statesman, 5327, p. 13, Literature Resource Center, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Shankar, V., & Carpenter, G. S. (2012). Handbook of marketing strategy. Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar Pub.

Simms, B 2016, ‘A new balance of power: is full political union of the eurozone the only way to stop the disintegration of Europe after Brexit?’, New Statesman, 5322, p. 26, Literature Resource Center, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Sinn, H 2016, ‘A Brexit Lesson: Is a Single Currency Not Worth the Gamble?’, International Economy, 30, 3, pp. 42-70, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Sked, A 2015, ‘The case for Brexit’, Challenges of Brexit and The National Interest, 140, p. 41, Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Smith, G 2016, ‘THE BREXIT CRISIS THAT WASN’T’, Fortune, 174, 5, p. 20, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Som, A, & Blanckaert, C 2015, The Road to Luxury: The Evolution, Markets and Strategies of Luxury Brand Management, Singapore: Wiley, eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost, viewed 18 October 2016.

Doherty, C. 2016, “Forever friends?”, Financial Director, pp. 12-13.

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Outsourcing Low Cost Countries

Benefits and Risks of Outsourcing to Low Cost Countries

Apparel and luxury value chains have come up with strategies so as to be cost competitive, increase the income, and expand the market for their goods. Outsourcing the end-to-end supply chain means that activities of an organization are carried out by an external company that specializes in these activities (Pickles et al., 2015). More so, a company can pay attention to its key competencies satisfy consumers, and be more flexible in maintenance and operation of its supply chain.

Apparel and luxury industry is very volatile today, frequent changes in expenses, risks, and demands for materials and goods as well as the changes in factors like international business environment are some of the challenges affecting the end-to-end supply chain. Anything that halts or reduces the movement of material, as well as the apparel and luxury goods, are considered a problem to the supply chain (K3SoftwareSolutions, 2017).

Outsourcing Benefits

Apparel and luxury companies have been able to expand their supply chain to many different countries and migrating to outsource manufacturing which has seen reduction in the cost of production. This strategy has promoted division of labor throughout the end-to-end supply chain by allowing company to concentrate on principal business undertakings. The organization is allowed to concentrate on its core competencies while specialist suppliers are given non-core undertakings (Handfield, 2017).

Suppliers who can carry out the processes more efficiently are tasked with this role and therefore outsourcing in low cost countries helps make the supply chain more effective. International brands have been allowed to create a completely responsive supply chains as well as bringing apparel and luxury products of low price to the shelves of stores (Handfield, 2017). Low priced goods are as a result of using external company’s expertise, knowledge and links to make cost-effective plans. Besides, time is economized since the time taken in designing, and delivering new clothes and luxury products to the market has been reduced from over a year to only a few weeks (Handfield, 2017).

Through outsourcing in low-cost countries, companies have been able to achieve effective processes, low-priced goods, and consumer satisfaction leading to outstanding performance and strategic advantage. Supply chain also becomes more flexible as the company has freedom to choose who they can do business with. Also, outsourcing enables the end-to-end supply chain of the organization to be more traceable (Robinson, and Hsieh, 2016).


Outsourcing Risks

Despite the benefits, an organization exposes their brands to great risks through outsourcing because it becomes a supply chain against supply chain. When going after cheap labor, apparel and luxury companies have been putting immense pressure on the suppliers who in turn are ready to reduce their invested capital to have low costs (Handfield, 2017). So as to compete with other businesses in the low-cost countries, suppliers forwent investments and labor practices that reduces the safety standards in a company and this is likely to damage the brand image of the apparel.

Poor working conditions in the apparel and luxury industry so as to maintain common local codes in low-cost countries is a disadvantage to the supply chain (Handfield, 2017). Another challenge to the supply chain is the abroad manufacturing delays. Apparel and luxury stores that are in western countries are progressively relying on the clothes and accessories from countries like China. Most newcomers to the industry may be found off guard by the delayed manufacturer (K3SoftwareSolutions, 2017). Moreover, damaged shipments and some that get lost is another menace to the apparel and luxury industry. Possible unseen costs such as inflated shipping price can result.

Besides, there are possible setbacks to the supply chain for instance late receiving of inventory leading to consumer dissatisfaction, loss of income and problems in the end-to-end supply chain. Problems may also arise during integration of the two Apparel and luxury companies affecting supply chain. If the hired company economize, use cheap materials or even fail to assess risk fully, the supply chain will be affected due to decreased sales and brand equity (Meeken, 2013).


Outsourcing in low-cost countries helps Apparel and luxury companies be more efficient in their operations because they concentrate of core competencies and they can produce cheaper clothes and accessories as well as satisfying consumers, therefore, affecting supply chain positively. However, there are risks involved such as pressuring suppliers to reduce investment capital to keep low costs. More so, companies adopt common local standards which can ruin the brand image and problems in the hired company can also affect the organization negatively.


Handfield, R. (2017, August 23). Needed: A New Way to Manage Risk in Low Cost Countries. Supply Chain Resource Cooperative.

K3 Software Solutions, (2017, December 8). Supply Chain Challenges in Apparel Industry and How You Can Fix Them. Fashion ERP.

Meeken, Z. (2013, June 13). The Risks and Benefits of Outsourcing Supply Chain Management. Business.org.

Pickles J, Plank L, Staritz C, Glasmeier A (2015) Trade policy and regionalisms in global clothing production networks. Camb J Reg, Econ Soc 8(3):381–402

Robinson, P. K., & Hsieh, L. (2016). Reshoring: a strategic renewal of luxury clothing supply chains. Operations Management Research, 9(3-4), 89-101.

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