# Statistics Project – Comparing Two Populations

Statistics Project – One of the most powerful platforms in existence today is social media. The use of social media is one of the primary things that distract us as human beings, and it may have a greater influence on our thoughts and the way we go about our lives daily than we realize.

By determining the average number of hours per day that males and females spend using social media, this study aims to assess the extent to which social media impacts men and women. The number of hours people spend on social media is broken out for you in this research.

You can tell from the responses that people gave how many spend more than ten hours daily on social media. To test the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the mean values of time spent on social media by men and women, online surveys and questions were posed to several colleagues in our college who are active on social media.

After categorizing respondents according to whether they were male or female, we next asked them a series of questions based on the average number of hours per day that they spent using various forms of social media platforms.

The data was also obtained by interviewing our colleagues in college after class. A two-sample t-test was used to examine the results of the responses. c since the p-value is less than the Alpha value.

This indicates that the null hypothesis is false and that women spend more time on social media than men do on average throughout the day. Based on this, we do not accept the null hypothesis, and there is adequate evidence to attest that this is the case.

## The Question

How many hours in a day do male and female people spend on social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram? Is it true that women spend more time than men do on social media?

The data that was collected by sampling 40 men and 40 women says that the mean average of hours spent by males is μ= 7.125.

The significance level used is 0.05 (Alpha value)

## Sampling

The sample deployed is convenience sampling because the data I obtained came from my colleagues in college. In other words, the sample comprises people who are easily accessible to the researcher. I could only collect some of the data I needed from school, so I decided to post the questionnaires online for my social media friends to fill the gaps.

I questioned a total of forty males and forty females, which gives me a sample size (n) of forty for both of the populations I was interested in. “How many hours a day would you say that you spend on social media?” was the question I posed to my friends on various social media platforms.

After I had collected some of my data, I started to inquire further by asking, “Which social networking app would you say you use the most?” This is a question I wanted to ask since I believed it would make the meaning more interesting. It would be more intriguing.

Surprisingly, the majority of the people surveyed, both male and female, claimed that Whatsapp is where they spend most of their time online. Except for the remaining subjects that I questioned my colleagues in school because they were a bit older, half of them said Instagram and Whatsapp and the other half couldn’t give an exact answer because they said that they spend the same amount of time on all of the social media that they have.

## Significance Test

H0: μ1 = μ2

H1: μ1 > μ2

μ1 is the mean number of hours men spend a day on social media

μ2 is the mean number of hours women spend on social media

Hypothesis 1: The study’s hypothesis is the difference in hours taken by men and women on social media platforms.

Ho denotes the null hypothesis

The letter H1 denotes the alternative hypothesis.

Ho: There is no difference between the mean values of males and females.

H1: There is a difference between the mean values of males and females.

Hypothesis 2: The difference between the hours spent on social media by men and women

Ho: Females spend fewer hours on social media than men.

H1: Females spend three more hours on social media than men.

## Hypothesis Assumptions

If the alternative hypothesis, H1, is correct, we can deduce that women spend more of their waking hours on social media than males. Assuming that the alternative hypothesis is correct, we may deduce from the data that the mean and average values are extremely different.

## P – Value

A statistical test will produce a p-value, a probability that informs you how likely it is that you found a particular data set, given that the null hypothesis is correct. This probability is determined by the test results (Pagano et al., 2022).

The P value for the study is 0.00837, which is less than the alpha value (0.05); therefore, we reject the null hypothesis. We conclude that the alternative hypothesis is correct.

## Significance Test Conclusion

Because the P-value is lower than the significance level, we have concluded that the null hypothesis should be rejected. We conclude that there is a significant level even though we reject the hypothesis known as the null hypothesis, which states that there is no difference between the means.

## Sampling Method Strengths

The sampling method used in this case was an effective one. By combining convenience sampling and online surveys, I could reach a large sample size of 80 people, both male and female. This allowed for the results to be more reliable and valid.

Moreover, by asking specific questions regarding the use of social media, I was able to obtain more detailed data and draw more meaningful conclusions. Overall, this sampling method provided the necessary data to analyze and draw conclusions.

## Weaknesses

The sampling method used in this case also had some weaknesses. The main weaknesses of this method are the lack of randomization and the lack of representative sampling. It could not access a representative sample of the population by relying mainly on convenience sampling and online surveys.

Furthermore, the lack of randomization meant that it could not be certain that the sample accurately represented the whole population. Additionally, it could not obtain data from certain groups, such as the elderly, which could have provided additional insight into the use of social media. Therefore, the sample used in this case needed to be more representative.

## What Could Be Done Differently?

If I were to do the study again, I could use a more comprehensive sampling method. Instead of relying mainly on convenience sampling and online surveys, I could use a combination of different sampling methods, such as stratified sampling and random sampling.

This would allow us to obtain a more representative sample of the population and ensure that the sample accurately represents the whole population. Additionally, I could use a larger sample size to increase the reliability and validity of the results. Furthermore, I could use a different set of questions or survey methods to gain a deeper understanding of the use of social media.

Overall, a more comprehensive sampling method would allow me to obtain more accurate and detailed data, ultimately leading to more meaningful conclusions.

## Extraneous Variables, Which Became an Issue

One extraneous variable I had yet to anticipate was the age of the subjects. As I relied mainly on convenience sampling and online surveys, I needed help accessing a representative sample of the whole population. This is because certain age groups, such as the elderly, were not included in the sample due to the lack of access.

Additionally, certain age groups may use social media differently from other groups, which could lead to inaccurate results. Furthermore, the lack of randomization meant that certain age groups may have been over- or under-represented in the sample, which could have impacted the results.

## How To Resolve

If I were to do the project over, I would use a combination of different sampling methods to obtain a more representative sample of the population. Specifically, I would use a combination of stratified and random sampling to ensure that the sample accurately represents the whole population.

Additionally, I would use a larger sample size to increase the reliability and validity of the results. Furthermore, I would also use a different set of questions or survey methods to obtain a deeper understanding of the use of social media. Overall, using a more comprehensive sampling method would obtain more accurate and detailed data, ultimately leading to more meaningful conclusions.

## Extrapolation

I am comfortable extrapolating my results to the population of young adults aged 18-25 years old. This is because this was the age group that was mostly represented in my sample. Additionally, this age group is most likely to be the main social media users, as they are more likely to be tech-savvy and use social media more frequently than other age groups.

Moreover, this age group is also the most likely to be impacted by the use of social media, as they are in the process of establishing their identities and are more likely to be influenced by the content they see online. Therefore, I am comfortable extrapolating my results to this population.

## Conclusion

This study found that males and females use social media differently. Women spend more time on social media than males, the research found. This means women are more influenced by social media and internet information. The study emphasized employing a broad sampling approach to get accurate results.

By combining sampling methods, a more representative population sample can be obtained, leading to more valid results. This study sheds light on social media use and its impact on individuals.

This study reveals gender variations in social media use. It shows the need for a comprehensive sampling approach and that males and females use social media differently. This study’s conclusions can be utilized better to understand social media’s effects on individuals and target messages and content to different groups.

## References

Pagano, M., Gauvreau, K., & Mattie, H. (2022). Principles of bio-statistics. CRC Press.

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# Global Impact of COVID-19 on the Balance of Economic and Political Power

The global outbreak of COVID-19 and the subsequent declaration of COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a global health emergency in January 2020 has caused a significant imbalance in the global economic and political powers. The first diagnosis of the virus in Wuhan, China has been followed by fast transmission of the virus to over 190 countries across the globe with focal points of the infection rapidly changing for China to Europe and now to the United States.

The outbreak of the pandemic has resulted in more than 2.1 million people across the world contracting the deadly viral disease with thousands of fatalities registered in different parts of the world (Sohrabi et al., 12). The economic sector has been hard hit. Based on the realism theory of international relations, the outbreak of COVID-19 can be understood as a factor that has been used by world political powers and economic giants to increase their political power and economic growth relative to others (Center for Strategic and International Studies 2). Both political and economic imbalance has been realized as possible consequences.

With the continued increase in the number of infections across the world daily, more than 80 countries have closed their borders to stop international flights from the countries that are hardly hit by virus infections. Several businesses have been closed and the population in many countries have been forced to self-quarantine. Governments have closed schools in all countries across the world and about 1.5 billion children have been forced to stay at home with their parents (Center for Strategic and International Studies 3).

Over the period from Mid-March 2020 to Mid-April 2020, the world economic structure and severe political imbalance have been experienced. Precisely, there have been rising cases of filed unemployment, insurance, and rising prospects of future economic recession. The rising prospects of future economic recession have led to an increase in the rate of unemployment across the world and this continues to harm global economic growth and goodwill.

## COVID-19 and the WHO

After the declaration of COVID-19 as a world pandemic by WHO on March 11, there have been indications of a negative impact on global economic growth. For example, the global trade, as well as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of many countries, have been forecasted to decline sharply with a probability lying within the first half of the year 2020. The international economic and political structures have been imbalanced in terms of policymaking and trade activities.

Different sectors of the economy have been destroyed and severely affected such as the tourism and hospitality, the supply of medical facilities and equipment across the globe, the global value chains have been destroyed, consumer markets inconvenienced, financial and energy markets, transport sector, food as well as sports and recreational activities have all been severely affected(Fernandes 10). The effect of social distancing which is meant to enhance social interaction among people as a strategy to flatten the growth curve of the disease also has serious implications on business and the daily activities of people across the globe.

As a result of all these, the economic costs of survival have greatly increased across the world, with the situation being worse in developing countries.

Source: World Economic Outlook, International Monetary Fund, April 14, 2020

The outbreak and spread of COVID-19 have also had a significant impact on global politics. From a critical perspective, it is argued that the pandemic has severely changed the status quo of partisan politics in terms of political conversation and this has affected international relations and international political economies as well.

For example, superpower countries such as the United States of America have been accused, through President Donald Trump, of showing little concern and taking meager measures towards containing the pandemic (University of South Carolina 1). This accusation has farther shaped the internal politics of the United States and their trade relations with China, Iran, Russia, Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, and North Korea. The politics of the pandemic have also affected the conversations between the United States and the United Kingdom on Brexit and other issues regarding the efforts of containing the virus.

The break of the pandemic across the globe can also cause significant changes in the national political conversations on matters such as healthcare provision and coverage and this can affect several health workers across the globe. For example, recently, President Donald Trump stopped financial support to the World Health Organization and this continues the hot debate on whether the United States is concerned about ending the pandemic across the globe.

Besides, this is likely to affect the healthcare systems across the globe farther affecting international relations (University of South Carolina 2). There have also been concerns on the rise of authoritarian governments across the globe that have used the crisis as an avenue to tighten their grip of political powers and this continues to shape global politics in handy.

In conclusion, the political and economic imbalance resulting from the global outbreak of COVID-19 can be explored and understood from the realism theory of international relations. While global agencies such as WHO strives to contain the virus, other superpowers and world economic giants such as the United States have refused to show concerns over the efforts aimed at containing the virus.

This is politics of supremacy which continues to make the virus spread uncontrollably in many parts of the world. With the steady shift in the viral epicenter from Asia to Europe and now in the United States within three months since its outbreak in Wuhan, China, there have been severe economic impacts and political orientation in terms of the political conversations between the United States and other parts of the world. The prospects of world economic recession are expected to be severe than the 2008-2012 world economic crisis. The worst is yet to come!

## Works Cited

Center for Strategic and International Studies. “COVID-19: New Reality.” Center for Strategic and International Studies, 15 Mar. 2020,

Center for Strategic and International Studies. “The Global Economic Impacts of COVID-19.” Center for Strategic and International Studies, 10 Mar. 2020,

The University of South Carolina. “COVID-19 Impact: How the Pandemic is Affecting Politics.” University of South Carolina, 14 Apr. 2020

Fernandes, Nuno. “Economic effects of coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on the world economy.” Available at SSRN 3557504 (2020).

Sohrabi, Catrin, et al. “World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19).” International Journal of Surgery (2020).

# Airbnb as an Economic Space

Title: Airbnb as an economic space. An economic space is either physical or non-physical system that creates a model through which people can design and interact with financial values. There are numerous platforms that can be classified as economic spaces including social websites such as Airbnb and Facebook. These platforms create spaces for people to gather and interact. Basically, the interaction of individuals within an economic space is determined by its structure and design. Each economic space has specific behaviors and traits associated with the social systems it forms. Airbnb has numerous benefits as an economic space because of its scale, allowing people to list and book accommodation from any part of the world.

## Airbnb as an Economic Space

Airbnb is platform that allows peers to list and reserve housing around the world. Individuals with vacant rooms are allowed to register on Airbnb as hosts in order to list their properties. Similarly, guests enroll on the platform as hosts and are permitted to verify their identity using their online profiles or government-issued documents before they are allocated an accommodation. The platform is accessible through mobile application and websites. Recently, I interacted with Airbnb as a guest and experienced the numerous benefits associated with the space. It is easier, cheaper, and accessible from every part of the world. The listed properties are of diverse sizes and prices and are in locations that allow tourists to stay with the local people during their travel period. Airbnb is global in terms of scale because like many internet-based platforms, it is utilized by a global audience (Coe, Kelly, & Yeung, n.d.). Guests have the option of choosing the listing based on diverse criteria such as region, city, price, date, and features of property.

Nonetheless, the platform can be categorized into several scales that include a global, regional, national, urban, and local scale. One aspect of the platform that should be noted is that it is operated from a particular region although it is global. The listing of the products occurs from any place in the globe and hosts can easily update if their space is already booked.

Airbnb is fascinating because complementary economic activities are occurring concurrently at multiple scales (Coe, Kelly, & Yeung, n.d.). The accommodation services enabled by Airbnb are part of the sharing economy where users share assets and services using digital intermediaries. The difference between Airbnb and the traditional accommodation services is in the way of delivering these services. Because of the unique model utilized by Airbnb, there are numerous advantages for the hosts, the guests, and the populations at local levels. While searching for a suitable accommodation based on the available budget, I interacted with numerous hosts and the diverse properties available to clients across the globe. Basically, the actions of both the guests and hosts are shaped by the design of the platform, with each having a personalized interface to mediate the interactions.

## Airbnb Interventions

Regarding interventions aided by Airbnb, it is not easier to isolate one scale of the system because the processes at a particular scale depend on the activities at another scale. The decisions that lead to the success of the business model are made at different levels of the systems. In this context, the human effort is augmented by digital structures. Each of the consumers is beneficiaries of the knowledge invested in the web platform. In the contemporary economic spaces, technology is the main tool to enhance the efficiency of the everyday activities. However, it is apparent that Airbnb platform does not overshadow the essence of ordinary work in the physical sense.

The design of the platform reveals what is an economic space and what it can do. Airbnb is a hallmark of economic globalization that braved the traditional methods of looking for accommodation. Consumers across the globe can choose from a variety of available spaces. Airbnb is a unique form of economic geography that has rationalized the tourism and travel industry (Walker, n.d.).  Essentially, the analysis of Airbnb as an economic space is not confined in a singular scale but rather understanding that different scales are performing and active at the same time. When the platform is considered in one scale, we create a restricted and ambiguous understanding of the digital model used (Coe, Kelly, & Yeung, n.d.).

## Conclusion

Airbnb is popular because it allows efficient and easier listing of properties that serve a global clientele. It is a digital system that allows people to undertake economic activities in a worldwide scale. There are numerous economic benefits associated with Airbnb because of the several scales that allow economic activities at the individual, local, national, and international level. The platform can be accessed through the website or mobile application and lists properties of diverse features, prices, and location. At all scale levels, the activities occur simultaneously. Listing and booking of accommodation occurs from any part of the world and the activities of one scale depend on the performance of the other. Airbnb is different from the traditional accommodation services because it offers benefits to people at different scales of the economic hierarchy simultaneously.

## References

Coe, N. M., Kelly, P. F., & Yeung, H. W.-C. (n.d.). Thinking geographically. In Conceptual Foundations.

Walker, R. A. (n.d.). The geography of production.

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# What Are The Characteristics And Challenges Of Parent Professional Collaboration For Education Of Children With Autism In Mainstream Primary School?

## View This Dissertation Here

The aim of this case study research was to explore the dynamics of parent professional collaboration for education of children with autism in a mainstream primary school. Effective partnership between school and parents is gaining currency in the legal documents concerning inclusion of children with special educational needs. Partnership with parents of children with autism is especially vital considering the core difficulties of children with autism in communication and socialization. Parent-professional collaboration can contribute tremendously in increasing the effectiveness of any educational program for children with autism. Moreover lack of collaboration between parents and professionals may cause a delay in achieving developmental progress in children with autism. This research was conducted in a special autism unit within a mainstream primary school in London. The participants of the study were a Special Educational Needs Coordinator (SENCO), 5 teachers, 5 teaching assistants (TAs) and 5 parents of children from the autism unit within a mainstream primary school. The use of questionnaires, observation and interviews aided in ‘data- triangulation’ that enhanced the validity of the study. The findings of the study were grouped under three core themes namely autism, inclusive education and parent-professional collaboration. Firstly, the findings indicate that the autism unit within mainstream school supports inclusion of a very low percentage of children with autism in the mainstream school. It was clear that those children with mild behavioral and learning difficulties had a greater possibility of being included in the mainstream.

Secondly, the findings suggest that there exists a good level of communication and co-operation between the professionals and parents of children in the Key Stage 1 of the autism unit. However the level of contact with parents of Key stage 2 was poor. The reasons behind poor interaction between school and parents of the key stage two were not very clear. Finally, the study revealed that TAs appear to be excluded from the process of collaboration with parents. The TAs were not equally included in the process of collaboration and therefore shared different views about parents as compared with teachers. Overall, the results of the study indicate that there is a need to generate and reinforce holistic collaboration between parents and professionals, among professionals and between special autism unit and mainstream school for mainstreaming children with autism. Thus, holistic collaboration can be considered a key aspect in the process of inclusive education.

## Dissertation Objectives

Having discussed the background and rationale of this research study this section spells out the research questions that directed this research. This study was carried out in an autism unit within a mainstream primary school in London. The research questions presented below were aimed at understanding the nature of parent–professional collaboration for education of children with autism. The special focus of this research was on autism however some sub-questions do not contain the phrase ‘for children with autism’ to keep the length of the questions short.

• What is nature of the difficulties of children with autism and how are they included in the mainstream school?
• To what degree are the views of parents and professionals working in collaboration similar and to what degree are they different?
• What channels do parents and professionals use to communicate for collaboration and what is the quality of communication?
• What strengths and problems are perceived by teachers and parents in the process of collaboration?
• What suggestions do teachers and parents propose to improve the partnership?

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# The Media during a Crisis Situation

With the advent of television sets in our rooms, computers, smart phones and tablets the media has become omnipresent. Often termed as the fifth estate, importance of media in our lives has steadily risen. According to Internet World Stats, there are over 2 billion internet users in the world and the number with an access to a television is even higher (Miniwatts Marketing Group, 2012).

Social networking sites (referred to as Social Media) such as Facebook and Twitter had started as a mode through which individuals could communicate with each other. Today, it has evolved to a phenomenon through which important information can be communicated across millions of users in a fraction of a minute. Consequently, this new media has become a critical element in emergency and crisis response. Nielsen and NM Incite report that Social Media sites and blogs reach 80% of all active US Internet users. The figure for global users is not too different (Laad & Lewis, 2012). The role played by the media during Hurricane Katrina, Russian shootouts, earthquake in Japan, political unrest in the Middle East is proof to the fact that the media cannot be ignored today (Constitutional Rights Foundation, n.d.).

## Role of Media in Disaster Management

The role of media is the dissemination of information (Excerpts from the Davide Commission Report, n.d.). Primarily the media uncovers and distributes / spread the information that is connected to a disaster. Answers to questions such as the number of causalities suffered from the earthquake or war? The number of displaced people and those that need refugee status are all answered by the media. Also, one can get an impression of the disaster magnitude, how to rise above the situation as well as information regarding the type of aid required, in so doing aiding in fundraising.

“You need to be prepared for today’s media culture, in which a tweet can become newsworthy and a news interview can become tweet-worthy” (Concina, 2013). Acknowledging the rising importance of print and digital media, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) became the first International NGO to implement humanitarian mass communication program in all of its covering areas to amass firsthand and authentic information (IOM, 2012). Furthermore, many of the disaster management organizations have formulated their own mass communication programs such as International Rescue Committee, Red Cross International, Oxfam International, US AID and UK AID.

## Disadvantages of the media in a crisis

A Congressional research service report by the Federation of American Scientists illustrates that false, inaccurate or outdated information, has been circulated through social media in disasters (Lipowicz, 2011). During the Japanese tsunami, several appeals for help were repeatedly retweeted although the victims had already been rescued. An additional concern is that certain organizations or individuals may on purpose give information that is inaccurate so as to disrupt, confuse, or frustrate response efforts (Lipowicz, 2011). This can be a result of a terrorist activity or a prank. Concerns also arise on the security and privacy of personal information that is collected during a disaster response through social media (Lipowicz, 2011).

## Conclusion

In conclusion, media plays a significant part in relaying information more so during moments of crisis, particularly social media with its ability to reach a mass audience within minutes. The media has a key role as well as a moral responsibility to relay information in an accurate and timely manner during a crisis.

## References

Concina, F. (2013) Crisis Management – Francesca Concina | PR & Communications.

Constitutional Rights Foundation. (n.d.). The Media in Times of Crisis.

Excerpts from the Davide Commission Report. (n.d.). The role of media in crisis situations – News.

IOM. (2012) International Dialogue on Migration.

Laad, G., & Lewis, G. (2012) Role of social media in crisis communication.

Lipowicz, A. (2011) Social media: A mixed blessing for disaster response.

Miniwatts Marketing Group. (2012) Internet users in the world distribution by world regions.

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