This dissertation examines long-run purchasing power parity (PPP) between the United States and other competing countries and regions using monthly data from 1960 to 2019. Mainstream methods of PPP test and most influential researches are reviewed.
Three methods of PPP testing – Unit Root Test, Cointegration Test, Panel Unit Root Test have been applied in this paper. We identify that PPP holds between the US and a certain number of countries by analysing the test results. Also, the results of PPP test between the US and its top 10 trading partners have been specifically investigated and elaborated.
This dissertation highlights that both the Multivariable co-integration tests and the bivariable Cointegration tests are applied in order to find out the effect of prior restrictions on the results. Then, this chapter examines whether the PPP holds between the US and its top 10 trading partners countries minus China with the panel unit root test. Finally, in the sixth chapter, this paper concludes that PPP holds in 41 countries out of 176 countries, and among the US top 10 trading partners, only China, Canada and India do not have solid evidence supporting PPP.
The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory, as one of the most influential economic theories, has been widely used in macroeconomic analysis. It states that the price of the same commodity or a basket of products in two countries should be proportional to the exchange rate between the two countries. The exchange rate is crucial to the economic development of a country, not only because it affects the volume of imports and exports between countries, but also because it is highly correlated with other economic indicators, such as GDP and interest rate. Therefore, it is necessary to study the PPP theory to determine the equilibrium exchange rate as well as assist governments in adjusting exchange rates based on empirical evidence.
This dissertation will be structured in the following way. In chapter 1, this paper introduces the definition of purchasing power parity and then explains the significance of PPP studying. A brief history of the stages of the PPP study is also covered in this chapter. The second chapter is the literature review. It reviews the origin and evolution of PPP theory and common test methods. Sample testing results using different methods are also discussed in this dissertation and they also give us a broad view of PPP tests conducted for various countries using data from different time spans.
In the meantime, critiques and strengths of each test method are covered to provide a comprehensive view of each PPP test method. Besides, previous studies on the US are reviewed as well. In the third chapter, this paper presents a series of econometric methods and models to be used in this thesis, including unit root test, cointegration test and panel unit root test. In the fourth chapter, it explains the data source in detail. For EU countries that miss data due to the adoption of EUR, this paper also describes how the equivalent data is generated to fill the holes. The fifth chapter is the empirical analysis. This chapter first plots the real exchange rate for the US and its top 10 trading partners, and by presenting the graphs, the trend will be analysed.
In general, the purchasing power parity (PPP) theory works miserably when applied to real-world data. In other words, it is rare for the PPP relationship to hold true between any two countries at any particular point in time. In most scientific disciplines, the failure of a theory to be supported by the data means the theory is refuted and should be thrown out or tossed away.
However, economists have been reluctant to do that with the PPP theory. In part this is because the logic of the theory seems particularly sound. In part it’s because there are so many “frictions” in the real world, such as tariffs, nontariff barriers, transportation costs, measurement problems, and so on that it would actually be surprising for the theory to work when applied directly to the data.
Purchasing Power Parity Dissertation Contents
Chapter 1 – Introduction
Chapter 2 – Literature Review Two Versions of the PPP Theory Evolution of PPP Test Simple Static PPP Test Unit Root Test Cointegration Test Panel Unit Root Test Non-linear Test US & Related Tests
Chapter 3 – Empirical Framework Tests for a Unit Root in the Real Exchange Rate Cointegration Test Panel Unit Root Test
Chapter 4 – Data Description
Chapter 5 – Empirical Analysis Real Exchange Rate Observation Unit Root Test Cointegration Test Multivariate Cointegration Test Bivariate Cointegration Test Panel Unit Root Test Analysis of the US Top 10 trading countries’ Test Result
Contactless Payments Economics Dissertation – Has the Uptake of Innovative Payment Methods affected UK Student Spending Habits? Emphasis on Contactless Payments
This dissertation analyses the current payment landscape in the UK in a period of increased digitisation and use of contactless payment. The aim of this dissertation is to understand how innovative payment instruments like contactless cards and mobile payments, have affected the spending behaviour of students age 18 – 24.
It investigates the rationale for such behaviour and explores the differences that arise when using traditional methods such as cash. Using qualitative semi-structured interviews and questionnaire responses, this study builds on existing research and applies thematic content analysis to identify trends in student spending patterns when exposed to innovative payment methods.
Further illustrated by quantitative regression analysis, the use of contactless payment methods, significantly influenced student spending habits. Common themes apparent from the analysis included a subconscious accumulation of small, impulsive purchases, as well as a reduced sense of guilt when using contactless payments. This was primarily attributed to the theory that in comparison to using cash for payments, contactless transactions are intangible and therefore do not feel like using real or tangible money.
Chapter 1 – Introduction
Chapter 2 – Literature Review History of contactless payment Contactless Payment Technology Mobile Proximity Payment Adoption of Technology Model Consumer Payment Choice The Preference for Innovation The Transition to a Cashless Society Student Spending Habits Psychological Aspects The Pain of Paying
Chapter 3 – Methodology Research Design Research Style – Qualitative Semi- Structured Interviews Investigative Questionnaire Data Analysis Quantitative Analysis – Probit Regression Bank Balance Financial Fluency
Chapter 4 – Data Analysis and Discussion Description of Sample Qualitative results and Descriptive Statistics Initial Observations Payment Tangibility The Effect of Contactless Adoption on Spending Mobile Proximity Payment (MPP Adoption) Inhibitors to Contactless Adoption Student Debt Contributors Implications of a Cashless Society Quantitative Regressions Awareness of Current Bank Balance Financial Fluency Limitations of the Dissertation
According to UK Finance (2020). “We all tend to reach for the payment methods that we are accustomed to using, forming habits over time that can be quite strong. Once we have found a set of payment methods that we are comfortable using and that help us to manage our finances effectively, it can take a great deal for us to change to a different way of doing things. As a result, payment markets have historically tended to evolve slowly. Despite this natural inertia, technological change and significant innovation in payment methods have brought greater choice for people and businesses in how they pay for things.
This has been led by the popularity of the smartphone, which has revolutionised many aspects of modern life in just over a decade. Also, innovations such as contactless payments, mobile wallets, online banking and mobile banking have had a significant impact on the way that we now choose to pay for goods and services and manage our finances. As people have realised the value to them of doing things in a different way, so their payment habits have evolved, resulting in a gradual revolution in payments in the UK.
During 2019, card payments continued to grow as consumers and business increasingly used their cards to pay for things, whether online or in the ‘real world’. This growth saw card payments increase to the point of accounting for over half (51%) of all payments in the UK for the first time. Online and contactless payments continued to act as substantial drivers of this growth, with eight out of ten UK adults using contactless payments in 2019.
Strong growth was also seen in Faster Payments as both businesses and consumers increasingly used online and mobile banking to make payments and to transfer money. Mobile banking in particular continues to grow strongly, and users are continually widening the range of tasks that they perform using such services, exploring beyond checking their balances to also make one-off payments and manage other aspects of their finances” Source: UK Finance. UK PAYMENT MARKETS SUMMARY 2020.
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Predicting Economic Market Failure and Collapse in The London Housing Market and How It Compares to a Collapse in The Wider UK Housing Market – A VAR Approach
The general objective of this dissertation is to (i) test whether a collapse in the London Housing Market would affect the UK economy and (ii) see if its impact on the economy is more significant than the impact of a UK Housing Market shock. We use a Vector Auto-regressive model (VAR) to analyse how GDP, Inflation and Uncertainty might react to a shock in either the London or the UK Housing Market. To do that, we go through the Impulse Response Function (IRF) which helps us identify the sign, significance and duration of the responses of our variables to a simulated shock in one the Housing Market.
We then go through the Historical Decomposition which calculates the contribution of the housing markets to the different structural accumulated shocks of our variables; and, helps us estimate whether the results found through the IRFs make empirical sense. We expect GDP to fall, Inflation to slow down, and Uncertainty to be negatively affected. We also consider the possibility of a recession being created in the economy, if GDP growth is affected negatively for more than three quarters. Lastly, we suppose that the London Housing Market will have a more significant impact on the economy.
London Housing Market Dissertation Contents
Chapter1 – Introduction
Chapter2 – Literature Review
Chapter3 – Analysis Objectives Methodology and Data Empirical Model and the Data Identification Strategy Results Impulse Response The London Case The UK Case Historical Decomposition Comparing the London case with the UK case Sensitivity Analysis Robustness Analysis Changing the order Replacing Uncertainty with other variables Dividing the sample Results prior to 1992 Results following 1992 Comparing our two sub-samples results Critics and limitations of our model
It is the biggest plunge since the 7.0% annual drop recorded in August 2009, says ONS. “House prices in London have fallen at their fastest pace since the financial crash a decade ago as the capital bears the brunt of the nationwide torpor in the property market. Amid a dearth of potential buyers, the cost of a home in London was 4.4% lower in May than a year earlier, according to the latest official snapshot of the market from the Office for National Statistics.
The ONS said it was the biggest drop in London prices since the 7.0% annual fall recorded in August 2009 – a period that included the near-meltdown of the global banking system in the autumn of 2008” (The Guardian, 2019).
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Falling Oil Prices and their Long-term and Short-term Impact on Ordinary Investors
Falling Oil Prices – Oil prices for the better of human history have been subject to various factors like economic recessions and booms. All one has to do is to use history as a reference to ascertain whether these prices are likely to change when taking into account the prevailing global aspects like the change in the United Stated presidency. On the same note, it is undeniable that OPEC has acted to influence oil prices and hence the global economic setup. Bottom line, the crude oil industry experiences ups and downs and can only be treated as volatile.
It is for this reason that the effects of falling and low prices on investors ought to be interrogated in the sense that it is only prudent to assume that oil prices eventually influence investment decision makers. After all, oil prices have been found to have a tendency of affecting almost every aspect of the economy and hence both future and current investments. At the current global age, oil prices have experienced a dip and stand to remain so for a considerable time into the future according to economists and other stakeholders (Degiannakis, Filis & Kizys, 2014).
It is for this reason that OPEC, with its powers, has concentrated their efforts on ways and mechanisms to use in raising these oil prices including lowering production and hence prices. When there is a shift in oil prices, in this case, a downward shift, it means that they are losers and gainers. Thus, from a critical analysis point of view, there needs to be a careful and clear interrogation of the concept.
The purpose of this study paper is to investigate the impact of long term and short term implications of falling oil prices on the ordinary investor. The objectives of the study were to have a deeper understanding how this affects both energy dependent and independent investors. The study established that as oil prices continue to decline, it is crucial for ordinary investors to be long sighted in making their decisions. Though falling and low prices are a temporary phenomenon, it so happens that their effects can never be overlooked.
For example, low prices mean that oil and oil products consumers have a greater disposable income to spend on other products. This means that retail outlets experience a sense of business boom (Bohi & Montgomery, 2015). The same case applies for motor vehicle manufacturing industry whereby low oil prices induce prospective customers and consumers to indulge in buying more vehicles. Taking into account that the motor vehicle industry is rather a crucial sector of the global economy, it is only evident that oil prices have a causal effect on quite a large chunk of the economy.
The study further established that low oil prices have both macro and microeconomic effects which equate into more fiscal and monetary policies by stakeholders. For example, federal governments have to come up with such policies like increased tax rates due to the low revenue they get from low oil prices. Increased tax rates automatically affect ordinary investors. It is for this reason that such countries have to perform macroeconomic adjustments to cushion for these impacts. In so doing, falling or declining oil prices effects must be remedied by running substantial and rising fiscal deficits.
Additionally, falling oil prices results in reduced commercial activities around oil producing regions or areas in that such companies like truck retail and construction companies often reduce their investments due to low returns. This paper employed qualitative research methodology. Data was collected by reviewing relevant peer-reviewed economic literature on oil prices and the economy. Data was presented as a narrative essay and utilized convenience sampling method.
Statement of Problem
Though there have been numerous efforts geared towards understanding oil prices in the economy, the process has not been impressive so far. This is particularly so because ordinary investors may not be able to comprehend the underlying economic jargons, models and policies. More so, history have acted to teach investors lessons on investments in such cases where they are not sufficiently equipped to adapt to these oil changes. It has become increasingly important to have a better understanding and hence this study paper.
This study paper investigates and establishes the long-term and short-term impacts of falling oil prices on ordinary investors. The paper seeks to help have a better understanding of oil prices impacts on the economy by reviewing both fiscal and monetary policies that are taken in accommodating these oil price changes.
Significance of the study
Findings of this paper may be used by relevant stakeholders to help curb negative effects of falling oil prices and encourage ordinary investors to enjoy the benefits that come with the same.
Review of Literature
Effects of Falling Oil Prices on Currency Devaluation and Investments
Currency exchange rate is the value which one currency is measured against another currency. With low and falling oil prices, there tends to be push-up domestic inflation due to high import prices. It is undeniable that investors require higher returns to compensate for the inflation. It the follows to compensate for inflation; the federal bank has to raise interest rates to curb inflation. With the government attempting to curb inflation, various steps are followed including Open Market Operations and Cash to Liquidity Ratio for banks (Nazlioglu, Soytas, & Gupta, 2015). The effect of raising the interest rate on loanable funds can be explained by the following economic model:
From the above analysis, it is evident that an increase in interest rate leads to a reduced supply of loanable funds and hence low investment from ordinary investors.
The aggressive measures are aimed at reducing the supply of currency in the economy by making its supply low thus increasing its value. In so doing, the interest rate in the economy automatically increases meaning that the government is in a bid to discourage banks to lend loans and funds to the consumers and discourage investors from accessing such loans and finances. Consequently, it results to reduced investments. On the same note, it is important to note that currency value is a crucial factor in attracting foreign investments (Sadorsky, 2014). Thus a low currency caused by inflation acts towards discouraging ordinary investors from investing in such countries with low currency.
In the bond market, there is an inverse relationship between bond prices and interest rates such that if a currency crash was to happen, there is a likely hood of the bond market crash. High-interest rates caused by low or falling oil prices usually results into low bond values making it unattractive to ordinary investors including foreign investors who may be willing to invest in international government bonds.
The effects of declining oil prices in the economy have never been clearer. Falling oil prices mean that countries have to cut public budgets. This, in turn, has resulted into serious social and political ramifications that have been found to have a direct relation with investments. For example, in Russia, the ruble suffered significant devaluation with falling oil prices. Consequently, the stock-market prices tend to fall. The effects of declining oil are better understood when such factors like federal or central banks reserves shrinking, capital flight, low exports and low foreign investors are taken into account (Brown,Chan, Hu & Zhang, 2017).
Furthermore, when falling oil prices are significant enough, they tend to downgrade a country’s bond value to almost junk levels which are mainly done by credit rating agencies thus acting to discourage ordinary investors. Due to oil price weakness, Consumer Price Index has shown inflation might be incumbent in the long-run if oil prices are to continue into the foreseeable future. However, falling oil prices act like a tax cut for consumers such that they can spend other than oil and energy.
Currency devaluation in some cases may be a voluntary concept whereby a country may devalue its currency to make its exports competitive in the world market. In the recent past, China devalued its Yuen currency reaching an almost six year low (Basher & Sadorsky, 2016). Consequently, it resulted into the low crude oil. As the oil market is characterized by the dollar currency and hence dollar peg, countries have to act within and beyond their limits to maintain currency levels competitive against the dollar. As of the year 2016, the IMF urged Nigeria to devalue its currency as low prices hit the economy. Being an aggressive strategy, it was a viable option in attracting investments after the currency stabilized in the long-run.
In the Nigerian case study, the government sought to restrict access to foreign currency and ban quite a wide range of imports. Though this was viewed as being detrimental by the IMF, it was a measure to curb the effects of low oil prices and inflation (Alfaro, Bloom, & Lin,2016). The effects of the same were also felt by the common consumers and ordinary investors.
The Nigerian government was of the view that it was better to restrict access to foreign currency and limit certain imports into the country rather than devaluing their currency. This, of course, had a negative effect or impact on investors who dealt with this line of imports. Similarly, restricting access to foreign currency meant that local and international investors would not transact in certain currencies limiting their diversification both in stock and currency trading. Furthermore, in such a country which is import dependent in terms of food, it meant that investors had to get less for their money (investment returns) or had to charge consumers for their products.
In choosing not to devalue the naira, the Nigerian decision makers risked severe foreign exchange that could potentially lead to decreased foreign investment and hence an increase or surge in the black-market sector (D’Ecclesia, Magrini, Montalbano & Triulzi, 2014). Thus, this is a direct attack on the business sector especially considering that oil is just but one commodity affecting all other range of consumable products and services.
Falling Oil Prices and Increased Tax Rates
In a bid to recover tax revenues lost through falling oil prices, the federal or central banks usually takes upon increasing tax rates in the economy. Changes in the top marginal tax rates influence peoples’ decision especially in terms of consumption trends. From the argument of libertarians and economists at large, tax increase dissuades ordinary investors from economically viable projects. An increase in tax caused by falling oil prices automatically reduces the amount of disposable income for consumers meaning that they will spend less or forego certain products and services meaning such investors who had invested in those product lines experience a dip and form and revenue accruing from their operations. Additionally, when corporate taxes are high, it acts to derail additional investments. High tax rates mean that there is the low after-tax rate of return on investment hence low investment esteem.
High taxes in the economy results into low personal and house hold savings. Such savings would have otherwise been used for investment purposes in the long-run or even spent on goods or services at a future date (Brunetti, Büyükşahin, & Harris, 2016). When tax rates are increased, it means that there is a strong correlation between tax, interest rate, saving and hence investment. Taking into account that increased tax rates go hand in hand with high-interest rates, the effect of the same can be explained by the model below.
In increasing taxes, it has become a common phenomenon for federal and central banks to allow for tax credits. They have been found to be more favorable than tax deductions whereby the latter rarely occurs with falling oil prices. The value of a tax credit depends on the type of credit either given to individuals or individuals. In such cases where the government offers tax credits, it enables investors to continue investing in certain sectors of the economy to balance between high taxes effects and increased investment all the same. On the other hand, non-refundable tax credits are directly deductible from the tax liability (Enriquez, Smit & Ablett, 2015). Any excess of the same potentially reduces tax liability further. This has been found to negatively affect low-income earners because they are not able to enjoy and utilize the entire credit amount. Refundable tax credit is favorable and tends to promote expenditure and investment which is a good thing for ordinary investors all the same.
Falling Oil Prices, Local Investments and the Stock Market
With falling oil prices, it is a common phenomenon that business activities in oil producing regions tend to decrease. For example, construction companies benefit less from these low prices as oil mining and refinery companies have to cut and lower their production capacity in a bid to maintain high prices. The powers that OPEC has in dictating and influencing oil prices are quite shocking. According to the author, OPEC members’ oil production account for almost forty percent of the global oil supply which puts a considerable amount of power in their hands.
By acting as a united front, they would act to shape the future of the oil industry and more so regarding influencing oil prices to their advantage (Diaz, Molero, de Gracia, 2016). The underlying question is what would happen if these countries were to hold on and stop their oil exports for some time.
As of last year, oil producing countries including Russia and Saudi Arabia acted towards ensuring high oil prices. This was meant to reduce cut-throat competition and price under cutting proving that OPEC has the ability and power to increase prices. However, this was done by reducing the production levels and hence low supply into the market (Heitner, K. L., & Sherman, 2014). It is important to note that such countries like Venezuela have a binding agreement not to increase production significantly making the agreement even more strong in pushing the oil prices high.
With reduced supply and operations, local business suffers significantly. Ordinary investors in the housing sector feel the impact whereby the demand for housing units ultimately takes a deep. With reduced operations, there will be reduced workforce and hence a low demand for housing units. It is practical that with the opening of oil companies in a certain region, local businesses and investments sprout up. Thus, such investors like shareholders have to make a careful decision on the type of portfolio they are to invest in.
For companies being quoted in the stock market, it means that their shows trade less as they are less attractive to invest in. It has been established that there is a correlation between oil prices and the stock market (Javan & Vallejo, 2016). Such factor prices in the economy like wages and interest rates tend to offset energy costs. In reading future trends of the market, investors have to factor in factor prices. With increased consumption of oil product, prices in the market might rise.
With falling oil prices, the motor vehicle and other related oil energy industries experience a surge in their revenues and hence their share prices. The same case applied to the transport sector. However, there has not been an explicit correlational explanation as to the relationship between oil prices and overall stock market. It has been identified that in surprising cases, stock markets may fall with falling oil prices. In such cases where oil and stock prices go hand in hand, it is as a result of softening global aggregate demand. The relationship between stocks and oil is rather volatile. Prices may move in the same or opposite direction. As it stands, both prices seem to move in the same direction.
Time Value of Money and Falling Oil Prices
Time of value is an accounting concept that deals with what monetary benefit one would rather enjoy now rather than later. This concept has been so far been used in valuing investments and more so in the field of oil and accounting when such factors like interest rate and rate of return are put into account. Thus, the underlying question is, should one invest now or later in the oil industry as according to time value of money.
As previous research has shown, it is advisable to invest when oil prices are high because the interest rate is low and so is the tax rate. Thus, it can only be held that with the changing oil prices, investors should invest when oil prices are high to increase the returns in terms of present and future value of money.
The research methodology used in this dissertation was qualitative, Triangulation/Mixed Review study utilizing convenience sampling research methodology. This research method involves data integration in that illustration, triangulation (convergent validation) and deep analysis are undeniable in this study paper. Mixed method of research involves combining aspects of both quantitative and qualitative research methods through triangulation whereby data from different sources are compared and analyzed to come up with the most reliable and appropriate conclusion and recommendation.
Triangulation, in this case, involves the use of diverse data and combining various research methods. This would go hand in hand with convenience sampling where convenient and pertinent data to the study will be analyzed. It is the most applicable method in studying real life scenarios through a detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of conditions or relationships.
The study design involved went hand in hand with the triangulation of different data sources in relations to a specific issue, phenomenon or situation with an aim to deeply understand and explain it of characteristics and other aspects like rationale and distribution. It combines the strengths and reduces weaknesses of using a single method. Through triangulation, convergence and divergence of data can be established thereof.
Discussion, Conclusion, and Recommendation
From the above analysis, it is only true to hold that falling prices have both short-term and long-term impacts on ordinary investors. Falling prices tend to result in high taxes, high-interest rates and more so a change in the stock market. It is thus important for investors to have a clear understanding of oil prices changes and the corresponding effects in that it ultimately affects the general economy in various ways. This paper should prove useful for ordinary investors and other stakeholders who are willing to seek information on oil industry and investments.
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Title: Community Economic Development. Effective public administration is key to promoting community economic development. Community economic development is term used to describe collective action by members of a particular community to generate common solutions to their economic problems. Such initiatives may involve both small and large groups (Green & Haines, 2012). Public administration on the other hand refers to civic leadership of community affairs that is held directly responsible for executive roles (Calabrò & Della Spina, 2014). Public administration aims at promoting respect and contributing to the enhancement of the worth, dignity, and potential of members of the public. Effective public administration enhances the success of community economic development initiatives.
The model of the community development process, also often referred to as the asset model of development provides mechanisms to manage community based and development infrastructure. It is mainly concerned with the management of human resources (Patterson, Silverman, Yin, & Wu, 2016). It provides processes and practices that are aimed at promoting the effective and efficient management of human capacity in public service (Loh & Norton, 2015). The model also champions the making of human resource management (HRM) decisions that are accurate, fair, transparent, and free from political influence (Green & Haines, 2012). There are six major components of the model of the community development process. These include strategic planning, organizational design and classification, competency profile development, resourcing, learning, development, and certification, and leadership development.
Strategic planning requires that the business needs of a community be identified first before any investments are made. The community economic development program that is developed should target these gaps and needs. Strategic planning requires that all decisions be made based on existing facts (Christens & Inzeo, 2015). As a community developer, one should engage members of the public to determine their needs and work with them to develop solutions that best satisfy these needs. For example, the needs of an urban community vary from those of a rural society. Subsequently, programs to be rolled out in the two areas should vary to some extent.
Organizational design and classification is the second component of the model. It requires that standardized services and products be developed with the aim of providing an integrated and consistent approach to staffing. Subsequently, well defined and or organized job positions and streams are developed (Green & Haines, 2012). In community development, organizational design and classification is important since it helps in the division of work. Different persons are given specific responsibilities (Majee, Goodman, Reed Adams, & Keller, 2017). For example, a engineer working in a community development project should have clearly defined responsibilities.
Competence profile development is the third component of the model. It champions the development of competency based products that help define and support job success. As such, public administration managers are in a position to use profiles for the purposes of staffing (Majee et al., 2017). At the same time, employees are in a position to identify that which is required of them for them to get promotions (Calabrò & Della Spina, 2014). A community developer should be involved in the designing of learning programs fill the skill and knowledge gaps of the human resources. These programs should target all fields.
The fourth component of the model is resourcing. It involves the launching of collective recruitment and staffing programs. This helps increase access to qualified human resources. At the same time, it ensures that vacant positions are filled in a quick, effective, and efficient manner (Green & Haines, 2012). The model enables community developers to understand the need to have fully staffed team at all times. For example, it would be not make sense to run a community development program whose agenda is housing without an architect, an engineer, and an accountant.
Learning, development, and certification is the fifth component of the model. It develops programs that are aimed at enhancing the skills and capabilities of human resources (Patterson et al., 2016). It ensures that employees have access to all the programs and tools they need to improve their competencies and skills (Christens & Inzeo, 2015). As such, they are in a position to advance in their careers. A community developer must understand that change is inevitable. As such, they must always seek to update the skills and knowledge of their teams.
The last component of the model is leadership development. It involves expanding the capacity of individuals to enable them perform leadership roles (Patterson et al., 2016). In community development, this is important since it provides persons with the right attitudes and abilities to influence others positively (Calabrò & Della Spina, 2014). A community developer must understand the need to create strong leadership. They must mentor leaders who are to guide the implementation and maintenance of community based project (Majee et al., 2017). This is important to ensure the sustainability of these community economic development programs.
Zoning and Community Economic Development
Zoning and comprehensive planning continue to be important tools for community development. Zoning is a development regulation tool. It involves the division of the existing land into zones. Each zone is dedicated to a specific purpose. In community development, zoning is key in ensuring that the goals of the comprehensive plan are implemented in an effective and efficient manner (Green & Haines, 2012). Public administrators must be keen to ensure that zoning guidelines are adhered to. Through zoning, developers can improve their communities by encouraging the use of the existing land resources in a sustainable manner (Loh & Norton, 2015). Zoning promotes sustainability of development programs since it allocates land resources for all the needs of a community. For example, zoning ensures that members of a community have adequate land for residential, farming, and economic purposes.
Comprehensive planning is the process through which the goals and aspirations of a community are determined. It results in the development of a comprehensive plan. In community development, a comprehensive plan dictates public policy and in matters land use, housing, recreation, public utilities, and transportation (Green & Haines, 2012). Comprehensive plans may cover either a small or large geographical area (Loh & Norton, 2015). As a developer, one can use comprehensive planning to improve their communities by assessing their needs and working with them to seek appropriate and sustainable solutions (Christens & Inzeo, 2015). A developer must be keen to involve all members of a community in the planning process. This ensures that their comprehensive plan created has the support of all members of the community. Subsequently, the implementation process tends to be easy.
Calabrò, F., & Della Spina, L. (2014). The cultural and environmental resources for sustainable development of rural areas in economically disadvantaged contexts-economic-appraisals issues of a model of management for the valorisation of public assets. Advanced Materials Research, 869(1), 43-48.
Christens, B. D., & Inzeo, P. T. (2015). Widening the view: situating collective impact among frameworks for community-led change. Community Development, 46(4), 420-435.
Green, G. P., & Haines, A. (2012). Asset building and community development (3rd edn.). Newbury, CA: Sage Publications.
Loh, C. G., & Norton, R. K. (2015). Planning consultants’ influence on local comprehensive plans. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 35(2), 199-208.
Majee, W., Goodman, L., Reed Adams, J., & Keller, K. (2017). The We-Lead Model for Bridging the Low-Income Community Leadership Skills-Practice Gap. Journal of Community Practice, 3(1), 1-12.
Patterson, K. L., Silverman, R. M., Yin, L., & Wu, L. (2016). Neighborhoods of Opportunity: Developing an Operational Definition for Planning and Policy Implementation. Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, 22(3), 143.
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