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Category: HRM Dissertations
Our sample HRM dissertations will prove helpful in formulating your own dissertation topic, objectives, literature review, methodology and analyses.
Our sample HRM dissertations are an ideal tool for any student struggling to start their own HRM dissertation. Human Resource Management is an essential part of any organisation and there are many components of HRM. Human Resources Management (HRM) can encompass a wide range of topics:
Training and Development, HR in Practice, HR Theory, Employee Welfare, Staff Turnover, Recruitment, Performance Management, Appraisals, Motivation, Strategic HRM, Job Satisfaction, Staff Retention, Culture and Diversity.
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Develop Your Writing and Research Skills
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Relevant Human Resource Management Dissertations Posts
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In recent years, cultural diversity has become a topic of interest for both researchers and policymakers. As a result, many studies have been conducted to measure and analyze cultural diversity and its impact across different sectors (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015). Cultural diversity brings together two different terms – culture and diversity – which, when combined, create a concept that has been a topic of discussion in many offices and classrooms for years (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015). The things and practices one is taught as they grow up shapes who they become in adulthood. Generally, culture is a broad term that comprises the beliefs, norms, values, and behaviors installed into us (UOP, n.d). It is defined as a ‘way of being’ or ‘way of life’ (UOP, n.d).
On the other hand, the term diversity has been used to infer different concepts depending on the context. Usually, it refers to any approach that recognizes differences, such as the difference in intercultural, feminist, and integrative education, with the primary sources of difference being gender, disability, and immigration (Dietz, 2007). Notably, this view of difference implies that there are clear-cut distinguishing traits, factors, or makers.
Consequently, Dietz (2007) notes that this ideology is being gradually replaced by the notion that diversity refers to overlapping the traits that bring about human variability. Using this approach, cultural diversity is seen as social and cultural variability, thus including multiple groups represented within any environment, e.g., at school or the workplace (Dietz, 2007). This has broadened definitions given by some scholars, such as Martin (2014), who recognized cultural diversity as the differences in race, religion, nationality, language, and ethnicity between individuals from different communities. That said, this research paper focuses on cultural diversity and its role as a topic in our current society.
Throughout the entire course, we have covered a different topic, including but not limited to communication, leadership, cultural diversity, global presence, and societal and personal mindsets. Indeed, all these topics were interesting and broadened my perspective on life and the global marketplace. However, I choose to write about cultural diversity for multiple reasons.
First, writing a research paper on cultural diversity gives me a chance to understand how cultural diversity looks like in our present society. Second, according to literature, as I grow up and go out into the world, I will come across different backgrounds and ethnicities. As a result, I decided to research cultural diversity to be easier for me to recognize when I come across it. I discovered that cultural diversity involves accepting that there is an extensive range of cultures out there. In a school setting, cultural diversity exhibits accepting applications from students from different parts of the world while simultaneously incorporating their religious and cultural practices into the school system (UOP, n.d).
Additionally, I decided to write on this topic because it expands my perspective on life. Reading about others’ experiences sheds light on a different life rather than the one I am used to, giving me multiple perspectives. This way, every time I listen to someone’s experience, it becomes easier to empathize and understand their point of view. According to O’Boyle (2020), learning about new cultures may change one’s values or mindset, which may be scary to challenge at a subconscious level. Most importantly, learning about other cultures may give one a flexible way of thinking. One gets to view life from different lenses and enjoy the unending sequence of possibilities that the diversity of perspective has to offer (O’Boyle, 2020).
Additionally, I choose to research cultural diversity because it is one of the current topics of interest in the country. Nijkamp & Poot (2015) noted that immigration and cultural diversity are interrelated. For decades, individuals from third-world countries have been seeking opportunities in developed nations, causing the populations of the host countries to become culturally diverse (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015
. While some immigrants tend to adopt the dominant culture in their host countries, others tend to retain their culture and pass it to subsequent generations (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015). Besides, natives also tend to adopt aspects of the foreign culture, with others feeling attached to multiple cultures (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015). Most importantly, people must appreciate that cultures are not static; instead, they evolve and adjust in migrants’ home and destination countries (Nijkamp & Poot, 2015).
Existing data shows that more people are moving out of their home countries (Dietz, 2007). Multiple reasons can be blamed for this, including increasing globalization (Dietz, 2007) and poor conditions in their countries of residence. According to data by the United Nations, by mid-2019, approximately 217 million people had left their countries, becoming one of the factors that are making modern societies culturally diverse (Brinks, Data & Data, 2019).
This number was a tremendous increase from the 152 million international immigrants who had been reported in the mid-1990s (Brinks, Data & Data, 2019). In addition, since President Biden’s inauguration, the US has recorded one of the highest numbers of immigrants being stopped at the border (Parker et al., 2021). An article by Washington Post earlier in the year noted that as many as two million immigrants had been stopped at the Southern border, making it the biggest immigrant surge in two decades (Parker et al., 2021). This is likely to intensify the language barrier problem already being experienced in the US, as in most Western countries (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).
My hope is that cultural diversity as a topic will have several outcomes. First, I hope that the students will gain an accurate representation and knowledge of different cultural groups. One of the problems facing underrepresented and marginalized communities is that their culture tends to be misinterpreted, even in textbooks. Hence, during lessons on cultural diversity, the knowledge taught should be neutral, with the students being encouraged to share the correct information on their traditions and beliefs.
Unfortunately, some students may not be familiar with their culture as they were brought up in areas that do not share their culture. Luckily, school becomes an important place for such students to learn more about their culture. Most importantly, other students, who are usually the majority, learn about other cultures, making it easier for them to accept and include them in their activities (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).
Furthermore, I hope that this topic on cultural diversity will enhance intercultural interaction and harmony within the school setting. Research shows that there is a high correlation between exposure to different cultures and attitudes towards the minority (Hjerm, Johansson Sevä & Werner, 2018). Simply put, someone who has a higher exposure to different cultures is more likely to have an anti-immigrant attitude (Hjerm, Johansson Sevä & Werner, 2018).
Besides, Hanson, Bangert & Ruff (2016) concluded that one way of achieving culturally responsive teaching is through teaching about diversity. This suggests that learning about cultural diversity enhances interactions between students from different cultural backgrounds (Hjerm, Johansson Sevä & Werner, 2018). Usually, students tend to distance themselves from persons they do not understand their culture as they do not know what is tolerable and what is not (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).
In such situations, there is a strong likelihood of students to form an ‘us and them’ mentality as the underrepresented groups tend to separate themselves (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). Hopefully, this topic will help clear the air on some of the biases and stereotypes associated with some students, making it easier for students to interact. Consequently, this is likely to reduce bullying cases towards underrepresented communities (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).
Another anticipated outcome of this topic is to help underrepresented communities to feel included. Banks (2013) concluded that particular cultural groups remain underrepresented in the secondary and tertiary curriculum. He noted that the experiences of women and minority communities were barely recorded in the curriculum. Consequently, the underrepresented communities fail to relate to what is being taught in school, making them feel unwelcome and insignificant (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).
Learning material that is so foreign to their culture adds to their challenge of adopting foreign land and way of life (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). However, learning about cultural diversity is likely to spark the interest of these students, motivating them to learn and do better in their studies (Gay, 2013). Multiple studies have associated a multicultural curriculum with excellent academic results amongst the minority groups (Gay, 2013).
In addition, I hope that this topic will prepare the students for their future in a culturally diverse work environment. As noted by Martin (2014), increasing globalization has resulted in culturally diverse work environments. Besides, businesses are gradually recognizing the need to have a culturally diverse workforce in staying ahead of competitors (Martin, 2014). Indeed, having a culturally diverse workforce translates to perspectives and opinions from different angles, resulting in well-informed decisions that enhance company productivity and performance (Martin, 2014).
Indeed, research shows that a diverse workforce makes better decisions than a non-diverse one 87 percent of the time (Hedayat, 2020). Plus, a diverse workforce tends to be more creative and innovative, resulting in higher financial returns than non-diverse competitors (Hedayat, 2020). With this in mind, almost all work environments today are culturally diverse. Hence this topic should prepare the students for their future in the corporate world.
This topic has impacted me in several ways. First, I believe I have become a global citizen. By researching and learning about different cultures, I have learned the dos and don’ts when interacting with people from different cultural backgrounds in a global society. At the same time, I have gained a broader, more informed, and balanced life perspective, thus enhancing my social skills and deepening my understanding of the world. Finally, with these skills and knowledge at the tip of my hands, I believe I am well-prepared to be part of a global society, whether I am traveling to a strange land or working with persons from different cultural backgrounds (O’Boyle, 2020).
Cultural Diversity Recognition
Besides, it has become easier for me to recognize diversity. Even better, I appreciate that we are all different but unique in our very being. This made me respect other people’s uniqueness and anything that comes with it, including cultural practices, reactions, beliefs, and values (UOP, n.d.). Undoubtedly, learning and researching cultural diversity has made me less discriminatory against persons who are not like me. That is because, with continued exposure to people who are not like me, I have come to accept that the differences between us do not have to create barriers. As a result, I can admit I now relate with minority students better than I did in the past (O’Boyle, 2020).
Indeed, this topic has given me a richer life experience than I could have ever imagined. Diversity is a natural state of existence and makes us who we are (O’Boyle, 2020). Imagine a world where we all shared similar values, practices, and traditions. It would be boring to interact with people with whom you share a similar background, but it would be easier for humans to become extinct (O’Boyle, 2020). When people from a similar background come together, they are more likely to feel safe (O’Boyle, 2020). However, their thought process is more likely to be unidirectional and petty-minded (O’Boyle, 2020). Learning about how other people live, eat, and celebrate has expanded my worldview while simultaneously inspiring new ideas in me (O’Boyle, 2020).
Moreover, this topic has made me more compassionate towards those different from me, whether at school, work, or home. The more I learn about other cultures and their troubles (mainly discrimination), the more I understand them. Plus, I understood that we might be different, but we have one thing in common: our shortcomings. Therefore, it could be unfair to hold a mistake against someone, and worse, still associate it with their background.
Today, unlike in the past, I no longer impose my beliefs on people. Instead, I have learned to accept their traditions and practices without passing judgment. Besides, I have become more outspoken in matters concerning discrimination. In the past, I would brush off culturally insensitive comments as jokes. However, today I call out such persons and discourage them from undermining the minority cultures at work and school. Consequently, this has made it easier for me to interact with people from outside my culture. As a result, I have made multiple friends from other cultural backgrounds (UOP, n.d.). Some of them even invite me to their festivities. Surprisingly, we have more things in common with some of them than with people I have identified with all my life (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).
Cultural diversity is of interest to me because it helps create a critical thinking mindset on the same issues. Through learning and researching cultural diversity, I have realized that there is more to what we learn from the books. Our knowledge and experience with cultural diversity should not be limited to the classroom. Instead, as students, we should learn to apply the knowledge learned in class to the critical issues in our reality, such as homophobia and racism (Gollnick et al., 2009). It should help students critically assess day-to-day issues related to cultural diversity, such as the Black Lives Matter Movement, triggered by the death of George Floyd. With the knowledge learned on cultural diversity, it becomes easier to analyze such issues and understand why they exist hundreds of years after abolishing slavery (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).
Besides acquiring critical thinking skills, others should be interested in this topic because cultural diversity affects us. Usually, individuals use their culture as the standard to judge and discriminate against others for being different (Belfield, 2012). Culture is the lens through which we evaluate all that happens around us, terming it normal or weird, proper or improper (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). Indeed, if anyone is placed in a culture different from what they are used to, they are likely to be disoriented and confused (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).
Hence it is safe to conclude that we tend to judge others based on the fear of what we do not understand (Belfield, 2012). Notably, to understand and accommodate each other, Dr. Belfield suggests that we must first have a particular level of understanding of one another. This way, the biases and stereotypes we have of each will be dissipated, enabling us to co-exist more peacefully and harmoniously (Belfield, 2012). Since cultural diversity is in every aspect of our lives, from schools to workplaces (Belfield, 2012), it will make the world a better place to live in.
Most importantly, others should also be interested in this topic as it gives everyone a platform to learn how to support cultural diversity (Belfield, 2012). Learning about cultural diversity helps us identify and appreciate cultures that are not similar to ours (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). This way, it becomes easier to interact with individuals outside of our cultures (Cultural Infusion, n.d.).
What’s more, people learn ways to enhance inclusion in all aspects of their lives (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). Some of the ways that support cultural diversity include coming up with policies that favor all cultures involved and respecting their religious and cultural festivities (Belfield, 2012). According to Belfield (2012), cultural diversity gives us the impression that every living being can make a unique contribution to society despite their ‘differences.’ Therefore, in a world where cultural diversity is appreciated and honored, people would be empowered to be the best versions of themselves, making the world a better place to live because of the differences (Belfield, 2012).
Thanks to increasing globalization, cultural diversity has become a common phenomenon in almost all workplaces. What’s more, companies have become increasingly aware that organizations with higher levels of cultural diversity perform better than the rest by approximately 35 percent (Jackson, 2017). With this realization, top managers seek appropriate ways to effectively implement and adopt a culturally diverse staff and workplace (Vo, 2014).
Unfortunately, most leaders limit this role to a single program or initiative (Jackson, 2017). What such leaders do not understand is the crucial role played by the human resource department in managing cultural diversity at the workplace (Jackson, 2017). Most importantly, today, cultural diversity at the workplace demands a little more than ticking boxes and creating target ads (Vo, 2014). Instead, it requires the total commitment of an entire department to motivate the rest of the company into appreciating cultural diversity (Jackson, 2017).
That said, the human resource department takes up different roles on the cultural diversity issue at the workplace. First, the human resource department is in charge of cultural diversity training and development at the workplace (Vo, 2014). The goals of such training should be to increase staff awareness regarding cultural diversity (Vo, 2014). This way, employees learn how to handle the differences between them, making it easier to collaborate in work projects and learn from one another (Vo, 2014). Besides, the training should be purposed at equipping employees with as much knowledge and skills as possible on cultural diversity (Vo, 2014). The training modules should cover leadership and leaders’ capability to handle cultural diversity amongst the stakeholders (Vo, 2014).
Indeed, the training provides a platform for discussion on issues regarding cultural diversity. According to Vo (2014), creating a platform where employees can discuss their differences enhances trust and effective decision-making while opening doors to compromise. Vo (2014) notes that the company leaders, managers, and supervisors should be the primary target of the training.
Cultural Diversity in Modern Organizations
However, training sessions purposed to create cultural diversity awareness should involve all employees, enabling them to associate with each other and customers better (Vo, 2014). A highly experienced trainer should be hired for the job. The human resource department should most importantly ensure regular monitoring and evaluation to ensure the program is well-received (Vo, 2014). Plus, the feedback given will help in future planning and improvement (Vo, 2014).
In addition, any organization that hopes to accommodate a culturally diverse workforce should plan to accommodate diverse employees from the very start (Vo, 2014). Such a company should empower its human resource department to prepare on how to recruit employees from different backgrounds (Vo, 2014). Consequently, this translates to changing the organization’s recruiting strategies to ensure the recruited individuals are from a diverse pool (Vo, 2014).
Thus, the organization should consider its hiring lead time, where and how the job advertisement has been made, and its reputation for hiring persons from diverse backgrounds (Vo, 2014). One of the strategies that have worked for most companies is having a list of universities that historically have a large pool of underrepresented communities (Vo, 2014). However, having a list is not enough, as is recruiting the top talent in such institutions (Vo, 2014).
Once the strategies on bringing a diverse group of candidates have been developed and implemented, the next step is to evaluate the interviewers’ attitude towards the job seekers (Vo, 2014). Contrary to common belief, the recruitment process is usually not the entire objective (Vo, 2014). Unbeknown to many interviewers, assumptions, biases, and stereotypes may interfere with their decisions during the interviewing process (Vo, 2014). For instance, it is common to assume that the candidate should keep direct eye contact during an interview.
Anyone who fails to do so is disrespectful. Notably, while most Americans believe in this theory, some Asian cultures like my culture consider it disrespectful to look someone directly in the eye. In such a scenario, the interviewer is likely to dismiss a potential candidate and fail to listen to him/her on the belief that such a candidate is disrespectful. However, an interviewer who appreciates cultural diversity will understand this concept and instead focus on other body languages during the interview (Vo, 2014). Back in Thailand, I could not look at my teacher’s eyes while talking. It was disrespectful.
Most importantly, the recruitment team should be made aware of the questions to avoid during the interview. For example, questions on one’s race, religion, citizenship, place of birth, and marital statuses are discriminatory as they do not reflect a person’s ability to handle the task at hand (Cultural Infusion, n.d.). In addition, questions such as the number of children one has and how much they weigh reflect bias and leave the organization vulnerable to a lawsuit. However, with a human resource department that is serious about enhancing cultural diversity, such awkward situations would be avoided (Vo, 2014).
My topic of choice for this research is cultural diversity. This term has received different definitions depending on the issue at hand. However, according to Martin (2014), cultural diversity brings together the differences in humans, including race, ethnicity, religion, and background. Therefore, I choose this topic because it expands my view on life and global issues including working environment. Besides, with the increasing rise of immigrants in our country, cultural diversity is a significant concern across all sectors.
Additionally, I hope that this topic will help the underrepresented students to feel included while simultaneously preparing students for their future in a diverse workplace. Indeed, diversity has become a must for businesses that wish to remain competitive. Jackson (2017) notes that the human resource department plays a crucial role in implementing and adopting cultural diversity at the workplace. Cultural diversity at any organizations has changed the ways of HR policies and practices forever.
Banks, J. A. (2013). The construction and historical development of multicultural education, 1962–2012. Theory into practice, 52(sup1), 73-82.
Belfield, D., L. (2012, December 18). What is Cultural Diversity. Purdue University Global Inc.
Brinks, J., Data, E. U., & Data, E. U. M. S. Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2019 Revision.
Cultural Infusion. (n.d.). Six reasons why multicultural education is essential in our diverse world.
Dietz, G. (2007). Keyword: Cultural diversity. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 10(1), 7-30.
Gay, G. (2013). The importance of multicultural education. In Curriculum Studies Reader E2 (pp. 312-318). Routledge.
Gollnick, D. M., Chinn, P. C., Kroeger, S. D., & Bauer, A. M. (2009). Multicultural education in a pluralistic society (Vol. 90). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Hanson, J., Bangert, A., & Ruff, W. (2016). Exploring the Relationship between School Growth Mindset and Organizational Learning Variables: Implications for Multicultural Education. Journal of Educational Issues, 2(2), 222-243.
Hedayat, M. (2020, June 24). Diversity In The Workplace Is Now More Critical Than Ever. Forbes.
Hjerm, M., Johansson Sevä, I., & Werner, L. (2018). How critical thinking, multicultural education and teacher qualification affect anti-immigrant attitudes. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 27(1), 42-59.
Jackson, H., G. (2017, September 27). Why HR Must Lead Diversity Efforts. SHRM.
Martin, G. C. (2014). The effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. Journal of diversity management (JDM), 9(2), 89-92.
Nijkamp, P., & Poot, J. (2015). Cultural diversity: a matter of measurement. In The economics of cultural diversity. Edward Elgar Publishing.
O’Boyle, T. (2020, June 20). 5 Reasons Why Diversity is Important in the 21st Century. AMP Global Youth.
Parker, A., Miroff, N., Sullivan, S., & Pager, T. (2021, March 20). ‘No end in sight’: Inside the Biden administration’s failure to contain the border surge. The Washington Post.
University of the People. (n.d.). What is Cultural Diversity and Why Is It Important.
Vo, K. H. (2014). Managing cultural diversity in human resource management.
Title: Stress Management. Identifying the relationship between stress level and physical activity in humans is one of the most useful strategies. It plays an important in understanding the root cause of the problem and knowing the best approach towards dealing with it or even managing it (Wang, Feifei & Silvia, 2019). Based on my stress inventory chart, my cumulative points stand at 358 points. A critical analysis of some of the issues leading to my high point accumulation reveals the most common stressors that a normal person would undergo and experience in the course of their growth and development.
In life, we are all faced with challenges such as losing our loved ones, financial constraints, first year and final year exams in high school as well as the death of our close friends or arguments with our siblings. These experiences induce the development of stress in us as humans and some of these occurrences or activities we may have little or completely no control over.
Stress Management and Physical Activity
In an adolescent life, for example, different situations can create stress in humans. For example, arguments with siblings or parents, death of our close friends, failure in an examination, or financial difficulty can lead to the creation of a significant amount of stress in adolescent life. The relationship between physical activity and stress is therefore evident. In most cases, an increase in physical activity reduces the stress level in humans (Chisholm, Leah, 2016).
When physical activity increase, there is increased production of endorphins which improve human’s ability to sleep and therefore leading to the reduction of stress levels. Therefore, the stress level can be managed by the implementation of physical activities into stressful daily routines. Some of the specific activities that seem interesting and worth finding time include running or going for a walk, playing at the park, doing some household chores, and taking the stairs instead of using the elevator. These are simple physical activities that do not leave a person overworked but burns a high number of calories and increase blood supply to the brain leading to the reduction of stress levels in human.
Having well-defined stress management techniques is a better approach to dealing with stress. There are many strategies that an individual can adopt in dealing with stress other than physical activities (Andersson, 2016). Some of these strategies include keeping a positive attitude in life, accepting the reality of some of the stressful events and experiences that we face as humans and acknowledging that we cannot control some of them, eating a healthy and well-maintained balanced diet, learning and practicing different techniques for relaxing our mind and body lie yoga and meditation as well as learning to be assertive in life instead of being too much aggressive (Mason, 2017). These are important strategies which when practiced effectively and efficiently, will lead to the reduction of stress level when we are faced with some of the stressful events or circumstances in our life.
Andersson, Siv GE. “Stress management strategies in single bacterial cells.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113.15 (2016): 3921-3923.
Chisholm, Leah, et al. “Physical Activity and Stress Incontinence in Women.” Current bladder dysfunction reports 14.3 (2019): 174-179.
Mason, Henry D. “Stress-management strategies among first-year students at a South African University: A qualitative study.” Journal of Student Affairs in Africa 5.2 (2017): 131-149.
Wang, Feifei, and Silvia Boros. “The relationship between physical activity, stress, life satisfaction, and sleep quality.” Journal of Physical Education and Sport 19 (2019): 227-234.
At the heart of every Human Resource Management (HRM) practice is a deep-seated concern regarding how human capital can be managed to derive the best results for any organization. One of the most critical functions and processes in HR is recruitment and selection. The importance of Human Capital and the impact it portends for companies and business organizations cannot be understated – it is the most crucial asset in every organization. As such, it follows that the mechanisms and procedures employed by organizations in recruiting talent among its ranks are an accurate presentation of how an organization intends to implement its mission and achieve its vision.
This paper examines the importance of this process in recruitment and selection, especially in the modern work environment. It does this by evaluating the standard frameworks of recruitment and selection before it explores the common trends as practiced in the modern era. It then examines the challenges faced by HR professionals within this context and concludes by highlighting some recommendations to address these challenges.
Recruitment and Selection – Getting it Right
The importance of the recruitment process in any organization is evident – recruiters ensure that an organization succeeds in achieving its goals and objectives by availing the best candidates whose competence and skills make them the best suited for the job. In this sense, recruiters are the filters that select the most appropriate candidates for organizational success. In the modern business environment—one that is continually evolving—the need to hire individuals who are knowledgeable, loyal, adaptable, dependable and skilled has become even stronger. As such, the recruitment and selection process is one of the core responsibilities of Human Resources (HR) in most organizations. This is because it is widely regarded as a process that fundamentally affects the potential for revenue growth and hence the profit margins of any profit-driven organization in comparison to other tasks like leadership development, onboarding, retention and talent management (Bhatia, 2013).
The theoretical framework under which this topic will be discussed in this paper is based on two theories – the human capital theory and Resource-Based View theory (RBV). The human capital theory contends that humans are the most important asset of any organization and that their market skills are a form of capital which essentially makes humans a type of investment (Buta, 2015). This point of view is critical especially in developing an understanding of the incentives as well as the structure of earnings and wages. The Resource-Based View theory is premised on the notion that an organization can develop a competitive advantage by creating a human resource capital which is unique to its organizational demands and which cannot be imitated by other organizations (Rothaermel, 2012). The representation is a graphic representation of the Resource-Based View theory framework.
In this paper, the task is to position the recruitment and selection process as a pivotal component of organizational success.
The Recruitment and Selection Process
Human talent is without a doubt, one of the most sought-after commodities in the 21st century workplace. Therefore, the process of searching, isolating and recruiting these talents is at the heart and soul of all organizations. Within the professional realm of Human Resources, recruitment is defined as the ‘process of searching out and attracting qualified job applicants’ (The Strategic Importance of Recruitment, 2012). Naturally, this begins with identifying the position that needs to be filled and ends when an adequate number of candidates have submitted their application forms or resumes. The strategic plan of the organization dictates the identification of job openings. In some instances, these needs can arise unexpectedly due to factors such as terminations, natural attrition, or resignations.
Once the need for hiring has been identified, the next step is to select an appropriate method that will facilitate an effective recruitment process. Some organizations prefer to recruit from within while others prefer to widen their selection pools by going outside the organization’s talent pool. Each of these methods has their advantages and disadvantages. For example, when an organization hires from within, it enhances the morale, commitment, and performance of its employees. However, when a company’s existing pool of talent does not meet the required standards, it is common for such companies to search outside. Studies show that most entry-level jobs are mostly filled by candidates sourced externally (The Strategic Importance of Recruitment, 2012). Because of the advances in technology that inform HR processes, online recruitment is increasingly becoming a popular strategy for getting external talents. Job fairs and co-operative education programs are equally powerful recruitment methods.
Once the recruitment process had ended, the next step selection involves choosing the most suitable candidate from the pool of recruiting. Methods of selection usually vary from one organization to the other depending on their demands and culture. Regardless, this process is usually complex and involves a lot of decision making. The structure of the selection process typically depends on a lot of things such as the urgency, number of potential candidates, and so on. Irrespective of the structure of the selection process, the main objectives of selection tests are: (a) prediction, (b) diagnosis, and; (c) situational behavioral assessments. (Opayemi & Oyesola, 2013).
The Selection Process
The overall selection process can be made up of several stages. This is exemplified in the diagram shown below. It is, however, instructive to understand that the steps in a selection process vary depending on many factors that will be discussed herein.
According to Alsabbah and Ibrahim (2013), Kamran, Dawood, and Hilal (2015), the structure of the selection process differs from one organization to the other and mostly depends on a company’s needs. In most cases, however, the selection process comprises several stages which are:
Evaluation – the evaluation stage entails applicants submitting their applications usually in application forms. The information contained in these forms include the name of the candidate, age, education, experience, expected salary, hobbies, and references, etc. the applicants who apply are the called shortlisted candidates.
Preliminary interview – in this stage, the shortlisted candidates are invited for the interview. Their personal interests, career goals, objectives for applying, and general attitudes are evaluated. Those who meet the basic standards proceed to the next stage.
Selection tests – in this stage, the candidates are subjected to written examinations. Different types of selection tests can be used depending on the nature of the job, responsibilities, and the number of applicants. Some of the typical selection tests are intelligence, personality, attitude, interest and professional examinations. Qualification and skills are also assessed in this stage. The goal is to select candidates who meet the minimum requirements.
Selection interview – this interview usually is more comprehensive compared to the preliminary interview. In this stage of the selection process, the candidates are subjected to face-to-face interactions where critical aspects such as speech delivery, intelligence, motivation, and the capacity to understand a problem are evaluated. The candidates are interviewed on questions directly related to the job to gauge their suitability. These interviews can be structured, semi-structured or unstructured.
Reference check – this is a background information check usually done to confirm the information provided by the candidates are true.
Decision-making – this is usually the final step in which candidates who have succeeded in the above steps are presented with appointment letters. These letters contain information on job description, salary, benefits, accountability, authority, and etcetera.
Validity and Credibility of Selection Tests
The validity and credibility of the selection tests go a long way in determining the caliber of employees that will be hired. The overall goal is to hire employees who are the best fit in relation to the job and for this reason, it is imperative that the selection tests are rigorously analyzed using up-to-date credibility tests. In this regard, the reliability of selection tests can be examined using three different methods (Opayemi & Oyesola, 2013):
Over time – the outcome should be the same throughout the testing period.
Across different sample – the outcome from a group of employees ought to be the same during the testing period.
Across different rates – this test compares the results from two (or more) independent raters. A consistent rating throughout the testing period indicates that the selection test is reliable.
Similarly, validity tests simply evaluate the correctness of the selection test. The practice is that the candidates who emerge with the best results should be able to perform equally as well in real working environments. In other words, validity tests measure job relatedness. The commonly used validity tests are: (a) content validity, (b) concurrent validity, (c) predictive validity, and; (d) construct validity (Bertua, Anderson, & Salgado, 2005). The details of these validity tests are beyond the scope of this discussion and therefore will not be discussed herein.
The Importance of Recruitment and Selection
Since a comprehensive summary of the recruitment and selection process has been provided in the preceding paragraphs, this paper now focuses on the importance of the recruiting and selection process. As such, the proceeding analysis will categorize the four significant implications for the recruitment and selection process into (i) costs, (ii) retention, (iii) productivity and loyalty, and; (iv) legal issues.
A common perception among HR professionals is that a lot of money and effort goes into managing employees and this sometimes leads into a situation where organizations end up over-staffing or understaffing for its organizational needs. Logically when the number of employees in a department is higher relative to the need for which they were employed, then the company will incur higher operational costs in maintaining such as department (Ekwoaba, Ikeije, & Ufoma, 2015). In the long run, this will diminish the earnings of the company. Conversely, when an organization understaffs a department such that critical positions are left unattended, then the organization also faces the risks of incurring losses because of reduced revenue earnings.
Today the traditional concept of hiring where all job vacancies were treated equally has shifted to one that prioritizes the hiring process as one based on criticality. The objective of this style is to create a perfect balance between work that needs and employees in a manner that is sustainable for the company. Moreover, the process of recruitment and selection places more emphasis on selecting and ultimately hiring the candidates that exhibit the highest level of competency and skill (Ekwoaba et al., 2015). As such, the cost of hiring a candidate has a direct implication on the company, and as demonstrated in most cases, weak hiring mechanisms do place higher costs on the organization (Ekwoaba et al., 2015).
A weak hiring system is likely to bring in employees with high failure rates. This happens when a newly hired employee(s) voluntarily quits or is terminated within a few months irrespective of their performance. Weak hiring systems thus create a situation where a company can repeat the recruitment and selection process for the same position repeatedly – a scenario that increases the costs of damages incurred by the organization (Ekwoaba et al., 2015).
As technology continues to be more and more integrated into the management of businesses, most companies are going the extra mile into not only using job recruiters who possess business acumen, astute judgement, and an ability to foresee the crucial factors that will likely impact the growth requirements of their organizations, but also supplementing their effort with talent management and recruitment software to facilitate the efficacy of the recruitment and selection process (Bhatia, 2013). The use of tried and tested technology is thus a practical recommendation that is expected to reduce the inefficiencies of human-led recruitment and selection processes significantly.
Productivity and Loyalty
These two entities are linked – an employee who feels connected to the organization will work hard to help it achieve its objectives. On this basis, it is the recruiter’s responsibility to ensure that they get as much details from potential employees in order to sufficiently analyze their strengths and weaknesses. These pieces of information can be obtained from the candidates if the recruitment and selection process employs strategic mechanisms for achieving this goal. In general, loyal employees demonstrate a track record of competitiveness, innovation, excellence which cumulatively results in increasing the profitability of the business.
The most common legal problem that arises from recruitment and selection processes is discrimination. Discriminatory practices often have dire consequences on the reputation of an organization and sometimes can also have financial implications. In the United States, for instance, the department of labor expressly prohibits discrimination based on religion, race, sex, political affiliation, and many other features that have often been used in facilitating discriminatory practices (Saez, 2018). In the end, recruiters are required to implement checks and balances to ensure that their methods are beyond reproach. For example, most organizations advertise only the basic requirements for the job. In recent years, the practice of listing language proficiencies and physical capabilities has gradually been phased out unless they are inherently vital in the position (Heneman III, Judge, & Kammeyer-Muller, 2015). Some organizations also encourage the recruitment and selection process to be run by more than one recruiter.
Practices and Trends in HR
The standard practice in many HR functions seems to be that most organizations do not concern themselves with the Return on Investment (ROI) especially when it comes to their human capital. Most organizations are guilty of perpetuating a recruitment process that does not measure the impact that its employees have on the organization. This is compounded by the trend among organizations not to document or make reports on their recruitment process. Furthermore, there is no accountability on HR regarding the opportunities missed and the costs incurred during the recruitment (Cascio, 2016). But as focus on strategic activities of HR departments continue to increase, an ever-increasing number of organizations are becoming more interested in calculating ROI on recruitments. As such, the activities and functions of HR are increasingly being assessed in a bid to quantify their outcomes and results.
Admittedly, calculating the ROI on recruitment is not an easy process because of the high numbers of variables involved. But since it portends critical implications on the activities of the whole organization, this is a task that every recruitment manager needs to perform. To achieve this, the manager should (Thoo & Kaliannan, 2013):
Define the objectives of the recruitment in terms of the results that should be achieved.
Devise mechanisms to accurately measure critical aspects of the recruitment process such as time of hire, the effectiveness of recruitment source, and the cost-of-hire.
Establish a precise estimate of the costs of the recruitment project.
Calculate the intangible and tangible benefits the organization will accrue, including payback period, from the recruitment.
Ensure that recruitment managers are well trained.
The ability to evaluate the recruitment process in terms of ROI is fundamental for organizations that desire to strengthen their HR processes. This is because it significantly improves the recruitment function and develops a strategic human capital advantage for the company (Thoo & Kaliannan, 2013). But even as employers pile the pressure on HR professionals for increased accountability, experts contend that recruiting trends are getting more and more competitive. The main trends that have dominated talent acquisition in recent years are branding, repairing the potential candidate’s experience, maximizing talent analysis, and venturing into untapped sources (Maurer, 2016). They are also aware that getting real talent is getting harder and this is forcing companies to reinvent their strategic approaches to talent acquisition. The year 2015 beckoned the beginning of thoughtful attitudes in recruitment, but this approach will only pay off for companies and organizations that focus on important success determinants.
Employers are expected to improve their branding if they are to attract highly qualified job seekers who themselves are becoming increasingly selective about companies. The onus is on employers to make themselves attractive to potential employees, and this means availing as much information as they can about the organization, its culture as well as corporate values. Some organizations have taken this a notch higher- they are using employees’ photos to showcase their culture, training opportunities, and key benefits associated with working with them (Maurer, 2016). This practice is supported by the notion that employees are the best brand ambassadors any organization and as such, their stories do much more compared to the company’s mission statement.
Another trend that is expected to continue is the use of talent analytics. Talent acquisition professionals are under increasing pressure to demonstrate ROI in the recruitment process. This has forced them to move away from traditional methods of recruitment that were primarily based on instincts and instead focus on techniques that can convert everyday data into actionable information that can guide decision-making (Maurer, 2016). With the advent of HR data scientists, data science in HR has become a fundamental aspect of the recruitment process.
Most companies are going beyond routine operational measurements like cost-per-hire, source-of-hire, and time-to-fill to mine more in-depth metrics on talent (Morgan, 2018). Some organizations have turned to data analytics to analyze competitors’ talent pools with the aim of finding the candidates with the skill-set that they want and which can be convinced to join their organizations. The use of talent data analytics essentially captures the whole-person analysis in determining whether potential employees have the experience, competencies, drivers, and traits to bring additional value to an organization.
Employers have widened the scope of their talent search by venturing into new sources. Cross-industry hiring, for instance, is believed to make persons who have worked in various fields acquire experience that could come in handy. These types of employees also carry with them a wealth of cultural diversity that is especially appealing for new companies (Maurer, 2016). Nevertheless, internal hiring is likely to be embraced going forward because of the advantages it has over external hiring. According to Bryne Mulrooney, the CEO of a company that specializes in recruitment, internal sourcing has a shorter hiring-to-productivity time and considerably lowers staffing costs, which in the long run translates into better financial performance. This system also promotes talent development – a feature that keeps employees motivated as they become more valuable to the organization as the knowledge they acquire compounds with time (Maurer, 2016). The consensus is that the hiring process has changed fundamentally and in addition to personality and aptitude, experience is increasingly being seen as one employee feature that can be adjusted.
Repairing the candidate experience is another trend that most organizations are quickly catching up on. They try to create positions that can be filled with candidates with the right combination of skills and competence. Failure to maintain contacts with employees, minimal engaged by recruitment during the recruitment process, and tedious and lengthy application process do leave candidates and employees feeling unappreciated.
Elaine Orler, the CEO of a talent acquisition consultancy firm based in San Diego, opines that every touch point starting from the application process to the interactions with the schedulers to interviewers’ preparedness to turnaround time, creates an impression in the candidate about the employer (Maurer, 2016). The well-coordinated these experience are the higher the acceptance rates of a firm considering that highly skilled candidates will most likely be juggling job offers from different companies. In short, recruiters are expected to give candidates white-glove treatment whether they succeed for the job or not for it increases the interest of the candidate to apply when another opening comes up.
Technology is slowly but gradually being integrated into the talent acquisition processes. Cross-platform expansion and technology consolidation are becoming increasingly streamlined as organizations shift from multiple vendor systems to conflating their tracking systems, management of their human capital, and video conferences into one platform (Maurer, 2016). While this process is admittedly coming along at a slow pace, its impact in HR processes stands to be significant. Nonetheless, conventional talent management suites have also been expanding and increasing their recruiting potential. But while the recruitment and selection would seem, in principle, to be a straightforward HR process, the reality is much different in practice. The following section outlines some of the common challenges faced by HR recruiters and the possible solutions that have been proven to help in alleviating some of these problems.
Common Challenges in HR Recruitment and Selection
The recruitment process is widely seen as a procurement activity designed to identify and hire the best candidates for a job. On the part of recruiters, this directs attention to their expertise, business perspective, and ability to make decisions that are beneficial to both the organization and the individual. The challenges start from the type of recruitment method to use – whether to use internal or external talent pools. The ever-evolving job market dynamics with regards to technologies, recruitment sources, competition and etcetera compounds the range of problems that HR professionals encounter. Furthermore, in a job market that is already saturated, recruiters are constantly faced with new challenges that they ultimately need to overcome in order to get the best candidates in line with the requirements of the organization. While these problems are unmistakably unique to every organization, the primary challenges faced by recruiters are:
Adapting to globalization – the HR professionals are typically required to keep pace with changes happening in the within the realm of Human Resources across the world (Thoo & Kaliannan, 2013).
Minimum motivation – the view of most HR professionals is that recruitment is a thankless job because they seldom get the appreciation and recognition they believe they deserve for getting the best candidates and top performers for the company especially when the impact of these candidates is tangible across the performance spectrum (Thoo & Kaliannan, 2013).
Process analysis – most companies demand a flexible, responsive, cost-effective and adaptive recruitment process that is timely and able to cater to the company’s requirements (Thoo & Kaliannan, 2013). Nevertheless, such companies might not be investing in attaining such systems.
Strategic prioritization – HR professionals are often required to make strategic moves when performing their recruitment and selection functions. This is to enable them to exploit the opportunities that arise from the challenges that come with new systems (Thoo & Kaliannan, 2013). As such, reviewing staffing needs and prioritizing tasks in line with markets demands has in recent years emerged as a critical challenge for these professionals.
Workforce diversity – while ideally, diversity is a good aspect of an organization’s workforce, sometimes integrating people from different cultures and backgrounds do present significant challenges for HR professionals (Kamran et al., 2015). If this aspect is not managed correctly, it does escalate conflict levels in an organization and ultimately impairs the ability of the organization to achieve its goals.
Government policies – this is an external challenge that most HR departments have to acknowledge. Government policies can limit the operations of HR and certainly has implications for organizational demands and needs (Kamran et al., 2015).
The recruitment and selection process varies from one organization to the other, and this variance can be as a result of many factors such as the size of the company, corporate culture, objectives, and etcetera. Be that as it may, the importance of the recruitment and selection process in helping in the attainment of organizational goals and objectives has been adequately substantiated in this paper. The fundamental role of the recruitment function is to avail the best candidates for the organization, and the benefits that are associated with an effective recruitment process are numerous ranging from cost reduction, elimination of potentially catastrophic discriminatory practices, enhanced employee productivity and retention, and compliance with legal requirements.
However, recruitment is not a simple, straightforward exercise – it is hampered by a wide array of challenges that make the role of HR professionals increasingly tedious. The current trends in HR practices as discussed in this article enumerate some of these bottlenecks and the potential ramifications they portend to any organization. Furthermore, as the job market becomes more and more saturated, talent acquisition is becoming a much harder objective to meet. HR recruiters have been forced to employ somewhat unconventional methods to keep up the ever-evolving corporate landscape. And as these challenges continue, HR professionals are facing increased calls for accountability – an aspect that has created a need to adopt more empirical-based approaches in the recruitment function as more organizations demand favorable ROIs on the investments on their human capital. With this in mind, below are some of the recommendations that could significantly address the issues in HR recruitment.
At the elementary level, recruitment and selection process should be well-defined in order meet its critical objective – tapping the best talent. It is also vital that the response time during the whole recruitment process is reasonable relative to the time frame provided in order to minimize the chances of losing potential employees to rival companies. The methods used in this crucial process should be versatile but effective. With the advent of social media and the World Wide Web, there are numerous sources of talent pools that can be exploited by recruiters.
The conventional stage-by-stage interview like the one discussed in this paper are time-intensive and are less cost-effective. A practical interview strategy like panel interviewing would portend better returns in the short term since it is less time-consuming. However, it might not be effective in identifying the most appropriate candidate. A well-structured recruitment process that is clear on the type of candidate the organization wants and which is within the cost and time constraints may be a better alternative. The uniqueness of organizational needs and demands means that there is no one-size-fits-all strategy with regards to recruitment and selection.
Some challenges such as lack of motivation, strategic prioritization, and process analysis boil down to organizational policy. But HR professionals should be able to demonstrate that with better corporate policies, their processes can yield better ROIs for the organization. As such, HR should play a core function in the design and implementation of these policies. The integration of technology in recruitment should shift focus to empirical-based methods rather than the traditional methods which were more instinctive.
Alsabbah, M. Y., & Ibrahim, H. I. (2013). Recruitment and Selection Process and Employee Competence Outcome: An Important Area for Future Research. Human Resource Management Research, 3(3), 82-90.
Bertua, C., Anderson, N., & Salgado, J. F. (2005). The predictive validity of cognitive ability tests: A UK meta‐analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(3), 387-409.
Bhatia, T. (2013, June 13). Recruitment and selection – The most important HR function.
Cascio, W. F. (2016). Managing Human Resources Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Education.
Ekwoaba, J. O., Ikeije, U. .., & Ufoma, N. (2015, March). The Impact Of Recruitment and Selection Criteria on Organizational Performance. Global Journal of Human Resource Management, 3(2), 22 – 23.
Heneman III, H. G., Judge, T. A., & Kammeyer-Muller, J. (2015). Staffing Organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kamran, A., Dawood, J., & Hilal, B. S. (2015). Analysis of the Recruitment and Selection Process. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management (pp. 1357 – 1375). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Maurer, R. (2016, February 1). 5 Recruiting Trends for 2016. Retrieved November 11, 2018, from Society for Human Resource Management.
Morgan, D. (2018, November 6). Top Skills of High Performing HR Data Scientists. Retrieved November 8, 2018, from Human Resources Today.
Opayemi, A., & Oyesola, T. (2013, August). Perception of selection interview, selection test and employee performance: An empirical analysis. Journal of Public Administration and Policy Research, 5(4), 95-101.
Saez, A. (2018). Importance of Effective Recruitment & Selection. Retrieved November 10, 2018, from azcentral.
The Strategic Importance of Recruitment. (2012, November 21). Retrieved November 10, 2018, from Human Resource Students Association.
Thoo, L., & Kaliannan, M. (2013). International HR Assignment in Recruiting and Selecting: Challenges, Failures and Best Practices. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 3(4), 143 – 159.
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Gender stratification is the unequal distribution of power, wealth and privileges across genders. It is usually characterized by sexism, sex roles, patriarchy, feminism, the glass ceiling, and institutionalized sexism. Gender and sex are two unmistakable words that have been misjudged and abused in the community today. Gender means the social and cultural behaviors whereas sex refers to the biological characteristics of men and women. Stratification by gender is exchanged starting with one age then onto the next as these practices are acquired. This paper focuses on the social construction of gender, evidence of gender inequality and the implication of how we see gender.
Gender impacts control dispersion of power distribution and how we organize our society. Roles according to gender determine how women and men should speak, think and interact with society. These roles are adopted during the early growth of babies, they spread until adulthood and influence people in every aspect of life (Ridgeway, 2011). Home is where children are ensnared to gender values, standards and esteems. At the moment a child is born he or she is assigned sex immediately and thus shapes how they should be treated, the opportunities they should be given and how they should behave. Girls have their own colors, toys, and interests as compared to boys. For example, in the summary, we see that Harry did like pink shading as well as drew himself as a young lady and also trusted that he was a girl. This is contrary to how boys are expected to behave and hence it’s against the norms of society.
Patriarchy is commonly practiced among many societies where men have more power in regard to other genders. Patriarchy contributes a lot to rise in gender inequality as women are seen as the minority. In some developing countries, ladies are denied the privilege to cast a vote and leadership positions. Notwithstanding when there is no boundary for the female to take the position of leaders, the community cannot vote for them as they are seen as week and inferior (Christopher , Mendelberg, & Shaker 2012). Developed governments have put in place regulations that ensure that 3% of the leaders must be women. There are also leadership positions secured for women only and men are not allowed to participate. Families which do not have a man or a boy are considered as weak and needy in the society hence showing the extent of gender inequality as a result of patriarchist.
Gender Stratification in the Workplace
Gender stratification is also evident in the work environment where there is a lot of inequality between men and women. Normally employed women end up doing a ‘second shift’ as they do housework and take care of the children after returning from work. There is a great disadvantage as women don’t have time to concentrate on their carrier a compared to men due to pregnancies and marriage. There is also a high salary gap between men and women due to several factors such as education choices, distinct job preferences, and skills required on the job (Greene, Marie & Smith, 2015). Many technical companies tend to prefer men during employment as men seem fitter than women. Currently, women have tried and re willing to take male occupations such as doctors, mechanics, and engineers. Contrary, there are very few men that are willing to take female occupations such as nursing as such jobs are vied to be light and only women can take them.
The glass ceiling is another contributor to gender stratification. This alludes as an undetectable hindrance in the general public that keeps the feeble gender from acquiring high-level positions. Despite women having achievements and qualifications higher than men, they cannot be promoted as those barriers always exist when factors such as experience, education, and ability are considered (Beeghley, 2015). The effects of glass ceiling are more evident with higher income occupations and high-powered jobs hence there are very few women holding these positions. As a result of women being denied these positions, the effects of gender inequality increase as men get more superior than women.
At last, education imbalance is a typical factor in establishments and the community. In many upcoming nations, ladies are denied the rights to education since they are considered for marriage and dealing with the youngsters (Williams & Christine, 2013). This is clear as there is a low populace of young ladies in the instruction institutions because of early pregnancies and early marriages. There are causes that require time and commitment hence it is hard for women to per sue them. A boy in a family is expected to choose a cause that is said to be that of men while a girl is expected to choose the one said to be that of women (Hacker, 2017). Currently, there is an availability of birth pills hence can avoid pregnancies and can give themselves time to chase their careers.
In conclusion, it is observed that gender stratification is an enemy to the development and should be avoided at all costs. The society should be educated on gender inequality and its effects through social protection programs and how it should be avoided. Women should fight for equality to be given the same opportunities as men. Furthermore, men should acknowledge the power of women, skills and treat them with fairness. The world cannot move forward without gender equity hence women should be empowered in society.
Ridgeway, C. L. (2011). Framed by gender: How gender inequality persists in the modern world. Oxford University Press.
Williams, C. L. (2013). The glass escalator, revisited: Gender inequality in neoliberal times, SWS feminist lecturer. Gender & Society, 27(5), 609-629.
Karpowitz, C. F., Mendelberg, T., & Shaker, L. (2012). Gender inequality in deliberative participation. American Political Science Review, 106(3), 533-547.
Beeghley, L. (2015). The Structure of Social Stratification in the United States, The, CourseSmart eTextbook. Routledge.
Greene, B. M., & Smith, R. A. (2015). Gender Inequality in the Workplace.
Hacker, S. (2017). Pleasure, power and technology: Some tales of gender, engineering, and the cooperative workplace. Routledge.
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