Nursing Philosophy

Nursing Philosophy University Students – A nursing philosophy promotes the development of nursing knowledge and theories as well as its application. In my perspective, I believe that philosophy is an aspect that influences our attitude towards reality and life as well as our beliefs as nurses. Thus, with this understanding, I have the freedom to use my beliefs without depending on what other people say.

This article will be based on my arguments about various nursing perspectives. For example, most scholars argue whether nursing is a science or art. I think that nursing is both a science and an art, in that nurses use art to create a trusting relationship that facilitates the achievement of optimal care; and they must also understand the utilization of the technical resources and scientific concept of the physiology and anatomy of human body (McCutcheon, & Stalter, 2017).

The utilization of developmental and family-centered care is an example of nursing practice as an art. Therefore, my personal philosophy will use a holistic approach to explore the art of conveying nursing as a science and its dignity and compassion. This paper will address the four nursing metaparadigms as a basis of my philosophy; it will also focus on the nursing theories that align with my philosophy.

My nursing philosophy conceptualizes nursing as a discipline composed of four meta-paradigms which include health, environment, person, and nursing. I believe that the primary goal and role of nursing practice is to care for all people. Delivering care involves addressing all aspects of the patients not just a single health concern or illness (Branch et al., 2016).

Nursing Philosophy and Patients

As a nurse, we focus on improving our patient’s life by looking at all the aspects of his or her life. In addition to this, despite the patient being the central focus of the nursing practices, it is also essential to evaluate their environment. This approach is valuable to nursing as the patients are part of a community that significantly influences them; thus it is necessary to be aware of the different features that may be inseparable from the patient’s life as they are interrelated.

I also view health as a dynamic state that can quickly change from wellness to illness depending on how it responds to the environmental factors. Health is the backbone of a quality life. Being a Nurse, I have encountered individuals who live a traumatic life caused by multiple acute and chronic mental and physical conditions (Branch et al., 2016).

Lastly, I believe that nursing involves playing the role of a temporary caregiver by being involved with the community or individual patients. I think that nurses are influential and patients look up unto nurses for help with their various situations. For instance, it is our duty as nurses to try to make sense of the little details provided by the patients and find out how we can leverage the information for the benefit of the patients. Additionally, nurses need to create meaningful relationships with their patients as part of the care plan.

One of the theories that are in line with my nursing philosophy is the Peplau’s theory that aims at promoting the interpersonal relationship between the patient and the nurse. According to Peplau, both the nurse and the patient play a part in developing the relationship that should unfold between them.

Both parties are viewed as humans with unique perceptions and experiences that constitute their activities, expectations, assumptions, desires, feelings, and thoughts. Therefore, the interaction between the nurse and the patient is dependent on their actions, beliefs, and thoughts and it is a primary component of the nursing process (Deane & Fain, 2016).

This theory matches my philosophy because I believe that it is vital for the nurses to deliver quality care by implementing adequate interventions that will be helpful to the health of the patient as well as his or her entire well-being. Moreover, the relationship is constrained by the hospitalization time, and thus, the nurse is limited to addressing the healthcare needs of the patient.

Nursing Philosophy University Students
Nursing Philosophy University Students

Nevertheless, nurses should show compassion for their patient to create a comfortable environment. Hence, Peplau’s theory is in line with my philosophy because I believe that as I patient I would appreciate having a working relationship with my provider. Additionally, as a nurse, it is essential to recognize that patients are also part of the treatment process and they should be involved in the decision-making process in cases that might affect their health directly.

My personal philosophy also aligns with the Virginia Henderson’s theory which states that nurses should focus on promoting the independence of the client which will be important in enhancing progressive healing even after hospitalization.

Henderson defines nursing practice as a unique function to help person sick or well, to perform activities that aid in the recovery or the health of individual even in some cases to give a peaceful death. The nurses should help the patients carry out actions that they would perform themselves if they had the necessary knowledge, will, or strength (Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015). The Henderson’s theory indicates that a nurse can only successfully address the needs of the patients if he or she gets to know the patients better and understand their environment.

This theory matches my philosophy because I believe that nurses must attend to and interact with the patient depending on their unique needs and apply interventions that we help them cope with their post-hospitalized lifestyle. Combining the Henderson’s and Peplau’s nursing theories, it is evident that nursing practices are both an art and a science that involves the application of adequate nursing intervention, compassion, and critical thinking, to help the patients recover from the illness and move back to their personal homeostasis.

Conclusively, I believe that developing a personal philosophy in nursing can be a way of increasing an individual’s engagement in nursing practices and the development and utilization of specific nursing knowledge. Additionally, through a combination of my personal philosophy and the nursing theories, I have been able to reflect and understand the relationship between the issues currently in the nursing and the personal philosophical thought.

My personal beliefs were developed as a result of my understanding of the various aspects of nursing and how they interrelate with each other to promote optimum care for the patients. I believe that nursing incorporates the concept of social justice and metaparadigms that contributes to the enhancement of the nursing practice. From my personal philosophy, it is clear that nursing as a discipline is composed of four interrelated components which include the person, nursing, health, and the environment. Nurses should have an understanding of these four concepts as it will guide them in carrying out their daily duties. I believe that as a nurse having your personal nursing philosophy will also help you in providing quality care by exemplifying the beliefs in various situations.

References

Ahtisham, Y., & Jacoline, S. (2015). Integrating Nursing Theory and Process into Practice; Virginia’s Henderson Need Theory. International Journal of Caring Sciences8(2).

Branch, C., Deak, H., Hiner, C., & Holzwart, T. (2016). Four Nursing Metaparadigms. IU South Bend Undergraduate Research Journal16, 123-132.

Deane, W. H., & Fain, J. A. (2016). Incorporating Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations to Promote Holistic Communication Between Older Adults and Nursing Students. Journal of Holistic Nursing34(1), 35-41.

McCutcheon, K. A., & Stalter, A. M. (2017). Discovering my nursing philosophy. Nursing201747(5), 68-69.

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Nursing Practice – Ethical and Legal Issues

Question: How have you handled nursing philosophy throughout your nursing career? Feel free to leave a comment below.

Nursing Practice – Ethical and Legal Issues

Title: Ethical and Legal Issues in Nursing Practice. Professional ethics involves the use of reasonable and regular communication, information, medical skills, emotions and doctrines in nursing practice. The mission of nurses is to provide health care of high quality and improving and maintaining public health. Ethics being a vital element of professionals in the healthcare department plays a major role in the moral behaviors of nurses to patients. This, in turn, influences patients’ health improvement.

Furthermore, the principles of nurses are to respect human rights, dignity and values. Nursing comprises three basic principles of caring, namely ethics, clinical judgement, and care. Nurses must adhere to ethical rules and carry out their duties according to governmental and governing statutes. Moreover, nurses encounter various dilemmas, ethical or legal in nature in the middle of performing their duties. However, other nurses may be unprepared to tackle dilemmas and be unable to answer questions pertaining to their conduct.

Ethics is a principle that describes what is expected in terms of right and wrong while a law is a set of rules that involves punishment in the event of an offence. A nurse often encounters the law through possible litigation in which the nurse may have unlikely involved in. Furthermore, a nurse can also encounter the law in case of the unlawful act is done like malpractice and negligence. Nurses undergo various situations and may be classified as ethically correct but not legally accepted, or legally unaccepted but ethically correct. Circumstances such as death, euthanasia, and abortion may put a nurse into a quagmire.

In the event of a nurse giving a patient incorrect medication, the nurse automatically hides the fact to protect himself or herself from being caught by the law. This scenario raises relevant questions focusing on the legal and ethical issues of nurses. Another circumstance that is ethical but not legal is whereby a patient is allowed to smoke bhang as a remedy for an illness. In addition to that, there is a situation that relates to ethical and legal issues focusing on a patient being forced to a drug or a test contrary to his or her will or without proper information.

Conflicts existing between the Law and Ethics in the Nursing Practice

When nurses are faced with dilemmas and need to make professional decisions, the nurses are held amid two contradictory sets of demands. The first set is from a professional mission and the second one is from lawful provisions. Healthcare professionals and nurses become entangled in civil or unlawful justice organizations. This occurs when nurses commit an unlawful act by not renewing the license for nursing in time.

Other unlawful actions may involve abuse of the substance, as in the case where nurses obtain medications by not following procedures within medical settings. Nurses ought, therefore, to differentiate morality and law as an action may be immoral but legal. For example, a directive to carry out resuscitation for a patient who is dying might be legal but immoral. However, an act might be illegal but moral like in a case where there is an emergency of a patient falling ill at home, a driver may pass the speed limits when taking the patient to the hospital and this may be considered as illegal but it is moral.

Conflict may emerge between the law and ethics in the case where a nurse decides that there is no reason for certain medical services such as therapy services. In such a case, the professional code of ethics states that no fees should be charged by the practitioner for such services. Meanwhile, nurses are legally obligated to render services to the patients indiscriminately. In relation to that, conflict in the nursing practice might arise from customer expectations and opinions such as a patient’s rejection of blood transfusion. In some instances, agreement with a legal obligation might look as unjust, harmful, or invalid.

Besides that, nurses stay away from an absolute agreement, particularly when the law seems as contradicting ethics. Sometimes, nurses are not ready to sacrifice own values or patient well-being to a system that is not perfect outlining regulations and rules. For example, the failure of nurses to adhere to professional responsibility in revealing private information. Additionally, conflicts may emerge between ethics and law in the process of making a decision for the dying and incompetent, as well as matters regarding people with disability and the right to life matters.

Nursing-Practice
Nursing-Practice

Ways by which Nurses can Negotiate Conflicts Existing between the Law and Ethics

Instances which conflict between the law and ethics might manifest might rotate around values such as fairness, patient choice, truthfulness, privacy, patient well-being, respect for life, confidentiality and privacy, and preserving commitments to oneself, patients, colleagues in nursing, a profession in nursing, and practice settings. The values remain importantly shared by the public. However, in the case where two of the set values can be applied to a condition, though supporting diverging courses of action, conflict emerges.

The ethics code defines the mission of nursing practice of meeting patient needs and answering to surrounding forces that may stem conflicts between law and ethics. What may put a nurse to a risk in the profession of nursing is when there is a conflict between a nurse’s ethical duty to a patient and the nurse legal duty to the employer.

There are no sufficient procedures in resolving the quagmires prominent in the practice of nursing. Nurses that acts as a patient advocate may not be legally protected by the ethical codes and might be abstract to put on with regularity. On the contrary, the government in some instances does not permit nurses to attend to certain individuals or carrying out their practice in certain manners. This is in contrary to the practice in the nursing, specifically on the grounds of responsibility to care for patients.

The nurses, therefore, are expected by the practice code to respect the conclusions taken by the patient, so long as it is well-versed consent. Sometimes patients or patients’ families may not follow recommendations provided or treatments by the provider which in turn brings conflict and a moral quagmire for the nurse. Moral dilemma comes from situations’ where two concise or more moral values apply, but they backup mutually varying foundations of action.

How Nursing Conflicts between the Law and Ethics were handled historically by the Nurses: Reacting to prejudicial rules

Conflicts arise in the event that a nurse encounters a burden that is reasonable, conscientious objection, a personal danger, and matters pertaining personal competence. A burden that is not reasonable manifests in the event that the nurse’s competence to provide safe care and satisfy Standards of Practice is challenged by expectations that are not practical, insufficient resources, and threats on personal welfare. Nurses are neither allowed to neglect their patients nor are they authorized to position themselves in circumstances where the care delivery would bring dangers that are not logical to their individual safety. This involves diseases that are communicable, violence, sexual, and physical abuse. In the case of personal competence, the expectation from nurses is that they should practice constantly and competently acquire new knowledge and skills within the surrounding environment of practice.

Nurses are only allowed to provide care that is not beyond their level of competency. In the rural areas, the nurse may encounter cases whereby he or she is requested to provide care beyond his or her capability hence the nurse often provides care that he or she is capable to offer. It is therefore appropriate for a nurse to seek advice from his or her employer in case of conscientious oppositions where a certain method of care conflicts with the nurse’s religious beliefs and moral. The nurse should, therefore, refrain at all cost to provide care. An individual judgement which conflicts with the patient’s lifestyle ought not to provide a basis for conscientious objection.

Historically, nurses have made use of the expert code of practice in resolving conflicts which emerge between law and ethics by polite communication, and the direction provided by the code of conduct in the nursing practice. This code comes from the common belief that the main roles of nurses involve preventing ailments, easing client’s suffering, and the safeguarding, promoting and restoring patient’s health among the caring of people, families, groups, and societies. Institutions that deals with healthcare are expected to offer multidisciplinary ethics committees that provide education, support and counselling on ethical matters.

Through this, a platform on which variable views are expressed, provide support for caregivers and reduce legal risks for the institution. Professional standards help the nurses to understand the conduct of professional nursing by making sure that the nurses are in the track of providing unique care for the sick, the nurses showing signs of commitment to the communities, outlining the essential ethical morals for professional conduct, offering guidance to the nursing professionals in their mission for self-regulation.

Conclusion

Nurses should therefore, apply the codes to practice in coming up with decisions of ethics by recognizing the patient’s right to competent, ethical and safe care. However, in some cases, the nurse’s personal rights and principles can be in contrary to the patient’s right to be given care. In such a situation, nurses are required to define the facts and point out the dilemma. Upon highlighting the dilemma, the nurses are required to simplify the dilemma, after which the nurses should implement options that are available and come up with a plan and ultimately implementing the suggested plan. Nurses should not contravene the set of ethical and legal standards in the nursing practice on the basis of satisfying client well-being. In the event of a group of nurses violating the set legal and ethical standards due to the conflict between held principles and the ethical obligations, it is important to guarantee that the nurses’ behaviors are rooted in sound legal judgment, instead of self-interest, rationalization, or prejudice.

References

Danjuma, A., Adeleke, I., & Ominiyi, S. (2015). Knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing ethics and law among nurses at Federal Medical Centre, Bida. American Journal of Health Research, 3(1-1), 32-37.

Dehghani, A., Mosalanejad, L., & Dehghan-Nayeri, N. (2015). Factors affecting professional ethics in nursing practice in Iran: a qualitative study. BMC medical ethics, 16(1), 61.

Zahedi, F., Sanjari, M., Aala, M., Peymani, M., Aramesh, K., Parsapour, A., & Dastgerdi, M. V. (2013). The code of ethics for nurses. Iranian journal of public health42 (Supple), 1.

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Dissertation CBT Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

Dissertation – A Critical Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapies for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

Research into the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders has previously mainly focused on adults. However, there has been an increase of research into the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for children and adolescents, albeit studies remain scarce. This dissertation aims to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapies available to children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.

This critical literature review analyses the available literature, offering a critical evaluation of the most used forms of cognitive behaviour therapy: group and family cognitive behavioural therapy, individual cognitive behavioural therapy and computerised cognitive behavioural therapy.

Dissertation CBT Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Dissertation CBT Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

Furthermore, this research outlines a range of key findings, identifying numerous difficulties found in treating children and adolescents with anxiety disorders as well as considering what is needed for cognitive behaviour therapy to be effective. Some of the issues found to affect the overall effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy include non-compliance, parental involvement, drop-out and the strength of the therapeutic relationship. The main conclusions propose that cognitive behavioural therapies for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders are effective from the outset, but upon further analysis, may not be as effective as many professionals suggest.

The aim of this dissertation is to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Through carrying out an extensive literature review using secondary data, this piece of research will gather and critically analyse evidence for and against the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for children and young people with anxiety disorders.

More specifically, this dissertation will critically analyse the effectiveness of the most widely used forms of CBT: family and group based cognitive behaviour therapy, individual cognitive behaviour therapy and computerised cognitive behaviour therapy. A comparison between approaches will be made in the discussion whereby suggestions will be made upon which form of CBT is the most effective for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Research Aims

2 – Methodology
Ethical Issues
Methodological Issues
Secondary Data Sources
Conclusions

3 – History and Development of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Children and Young People with Anxiety

4 – Family and Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Schools
Family Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Conclusions

5 – Individual Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Cognitive Techniques
Behavioural Techniques
Therapeutic Relationship
Drop-out Rates and Homework Compliance
Conclusions

6 – Computerised Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
BRAVE Online and Camp Cope-A-Lot
Compliance with Programs
Therapist Involvement
Conclusions

7 – A Comparison between Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Approaches
Similarities Between Approaches
Differences Between Approaches

8 – Conclusions and Future Recommendations

Bibliography

Appendix

Download This Dissertation Here: Dissertation – Effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapies for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

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Diversity Adaptation Inclusion Nursing Education

Diversity, Adaptation, and Inclusion in Nursing Education

This annotated bibliography will present analysis and review of some sources relating to adaptation, diversity, and inclusion in nursing education. Globalization has resulted in nursing schools experiencing diverse students’ population with learners who are culturally and linguistically diverse. The annotated bibliography will present measures that would enhance the adaptation of learners from culturally and linguistically diverse setting, challenges faced by these students and measures to improve the learning experience and performance. Also, the annotation will address diversity issues, policy implications and intervention measures for promoting workforce diversity through a diverse learning environment for nursing learners.

Gerrish, K. (2004). Integration of overseas Registered Nurses: Evaluation of an Adaptation Programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(6), 579–587.

Gerrish (2004) conducted a study to investigate adaptation program for nurses working oversea. These nurses normally experience challenges before adapting to new environment featured by different cultural setting and operational standards for nurses. With the current globalization trends, there has been increasing oversee nurse recruitment to address the significant staff shortage in United Kingdom healthcare sector that has resulted in theemergence of adaptation programs for nurses from other countries seeking experience and allow them to be acknowledged by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

Gerrish (2004) article collects data from different previous studies on independent evaluation of the adaptation programs for the overseas Registered Nurses who are offered by large acute healthcare facilities. Basing on the review, the study reported evaluation programs by focusing on objectives, overall success rate and outcomes from the stakeholders’ perspective.

Gerrish (2004) integrated a pluralist evaluation research model developed to facilitate the identification of the criteria that interested parties used in the judgment of success rate of adaptation programs. After identification of the success of the program, it is used in judging the program in question. Due to the nature of the study, a qualitative research method is applied to address the challenges faced in implementation of the program and measures to address the success of the program.

A focus group approach is preferred in data collection where in-depth interviews were set to collect the data for analysis. Gerrish (2004) targeted oversea nurses, senior nurse managers, educators and ward managers. The study took a period of 12 months to complete data collection where the analysis was done through the development of principles for dimensional analysis. Criteria of success approach were crucial in identifying the views from the stakeholders that guided in the development of overall success of the adaptation program. After the analysis of data, results of the study were developed which helped in creating a holistic view of the adaptation programs in the United Kingdom.

The results indicated that five success meanings were developed comprising of gaining professional registration, reducing the nurse vacancy factor, fitness for practice, promoting the organizational culture that is based on diversity value and equality of opportunity. Gerrish (2004) also found that organizational context, features of their work environment and level of support influences the ease of gaining United Kingdom registration and their integration into the nursing workforce.

From the article, Gerrish concluded that developed countries should take into account support for nurses sourced from the global market to facilitate their adaptation to environment featured by different social and cultural settings. This article is crucial in research involving nurses’ sourced from oversea by presenting challenges, opportunities and threats faced by the oversea nurses. The study provides crucial information relating to factors that are essential in enhancing the adaptation of these nurses through the provision of the necessary support. The article is also relevant in presenting different considerations that should be taken into accounting supporting adaptability of these nurses to the new environment.

Jeong, S. Y.-S., Hickey, N., Levett-Jones, T., Pitt, V., Hoffman, K., Norton, C. A., & Ohr, S. O. (2011). Understanding and enhancing the learning experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students in an Australian bachelor of nursing program. Nurse Education Today, 31, 238–244.

Jeong et al. (2011) conducted a study investigating measures of enhancing learning and performance of nursing students in a culturally and linguistically diverse environment.Nurses and nursing students are faced with the different cultural setting, which influences their adaptation and performance. The article review experience of nursing students in Australia who are from different cultural backgrounds. The challenges do affect not only the nursing learners but also the academic and clinical staff. A pilot study is conducted to review the perceptions from learners’ approach and another school academic and clinical staff perspective. This is crucial in identifying the challenges faced by clinical staff, academic staffs, and learners.

To attain the study objectives, Jeong et al. (2011) applied qualitative research methodology in collection and analysis of data. The article had its target as learners from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. The participants in the study comprised of learners classified as CALD who were attending their education in Australian universities. Academic staff who taught CALD learners were also integrated into the research. The study had a total of 18 participants comprising of 11 CALD students, four academic staff members, and three clinical facilitators. Qualitative research is appropriate when investigating aspects that require understanding the feelings and perception of the participants through a face to face interview where in-depth data is collected.

Jeong et al. (2011) developed interesting findings relating to measures that can address challenges faced by nursing students, clinical staff and educators with experience in learning or teaching in culturally and linguistically diverse environment. Focus groups were integrated into data collection process to enhance the quality of data collected. After the research Jeong et al. (2011) found that there were four themes crucial in addressing challenges under investigation. These themes comprise of English language competence level, isolation feelings and perception, limited opportunities in the learning process and inadequate of the university support. The effects of these challenges comprised of financial, social and intercultural contexts and political setting that learners experience. The article is significant when addressing the challenges faced by students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.

Additionally, the article utilizes an adequate number of participants which helps in identification of appropriate research data for analysis. The research is crucial to educators, clinical staff and policy makers relating to insights that facilitate the development of effective learners’ adaptation initiatives to promote an efficient environment for all culturally and linguistically diverse learners. The sample size for this article was efficient considering that qualitative studies require in-depth analysis, which is possible with a small sample of participants. The choice of research method in the article presents an opportunity for addressing challenges that students may suffer in silence, which would lower the productivity and performance of nursing students during practice. The article forms a foundation for further studies on the perspective of adaptation initiatives for learners in a cultural and linguistically diverse environment to aid both learners and academic staff.

Boughton, M. A., Halliday, L. E., & Brown, L. (2010). A tailored program of support for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) nursing students in a graduate entry Masters of Nursing course: A qualitative evaluation of outcomes. Nurse Education in Practice, 10, 355-360.

Boughton, Halliday, and Brown (2010)conducted a study investigating the significance of support programs for learners from culturally and linguistically diverse setting. The article defines the common support programs initiated to address the challenges faced by learners and teaching staff. Nursing learners enrolled for a program in culturally and linguistically different environment experience challenges that affect their learning outcomes and performance. The target population in the article were nursing students who were enrolled in 2-years accelerated Master of Nursing program from the faculty of nursing, University of Sydney. Also, the article aimed at examining the pedagogical aspects that affect the delivery of educators and nursing clinicians. The research identified gaps in the literature relating to the integration of CALD training in the learning process to improve the learning outcomes of learners from culturally and linguistically diverse environment.

Boughton, Halliday and Brown (2010) identified that learners from culturally and linguistically diverse settings are sometimes entitled to a program to facilitate their adaptation to the new environment. For the purpose of the article, the authors integrated their research into a program involving CALD interventions that took place during semester 1 in 2008 run by three academic staff members from series of workshops aimed at addressing challenges faced by learners from CALD setting. The article drew findings from both primary and secondary sources taking account evidence in existing literature. Selection of the research participants was on a voluntary basis where a total of 34 participants from different countries who were willing to join the program.

A qualitative research method in collection and analysis of data allow the researcher to collect non-verbal feelings of the participants that help in the acquisition of crucial data regarding the participants. The qualitative method requires in-depth analysis that helps in establishing reality concerning the research aim and objectives. Positive results were collected relating to the impact that CALD program had on students’ adaptation to the Australian culture and language.

To evaluate the impact, the researchers grouped the participants depending on the benefits that they got from the CALD program regarding enhancing their academic potential, students learning experience and clinical placement initial experience.

Diversity in Nursing Education
Diversity in Nursing Education

In the discussion, Boughton, Halliday and Brown (2010) integrated results from the primary data and critical analysis of existing studies. The in-depth literature review from the article helps in the acquisition of data that from secondary sources, which is crucial in the analysis. Integrating literature review to empirical evidence facilitates in identifying deviation of the primary results by using the previous studies as a datum.

Additionally, qualitative studies involve in-depth analysis of data. This method was appropriate for this study to determine the significant impact that perception and feelings have on the research. Furthermore, the choice of the interview as data collection tool facilitates in seeking clarifications from the participants in case of an ambiguous answer and questions during the research process.

Bleich, M. R., Macwilliams, B. R., & Schmidt, B. J. (2015). Advancing Diversity Through Inclusive Excellence In Nursing Education.Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(2), 89–94.

Bleich, Macwilliams and Schmidt (2015)conducted a study investigating the measures of promoting diversity through enhancement of nursing education. With increased global movement of professionals in search of employment and nursing education, there is need to develop a diverse workforce that can serve employees from different cultural settings. However, only a few studies integrate the inclusion during recruitment and retention strategies for the improvement of academic learning outcome. The article addressed the organizational initiatives that promote diversity and inclusion in nursing education as supported by Association of American Colleges and Universities.

The article addresses the inclusive excellence that builds an effective learning environment for diverse learners’ needs. There are six strategies for diversity and inclusion that are investigated basing on the authors’experiences, behavioral and structural concerns such as admission processes, community absence, invisibility, tokenism, promotion and tenure, and exclusion. The article was aiming at identifying behavioral and structural adaptations that are within the nursing education setting for the advancement of inclusion and diversity. Identifying different factors that inhibit or enhance an organization with diverse learners is significant in the current study.

The study integrates secondary data retrieved from previous studies in drawing the discussion and conclusions. In-depth analysis of the factors that influence diversity in the nursing education are analyzed. The study integrates step by step procedure of development an inclusive setting for nursing education. The study is crucial in presenting the step-to-step procedure of development of the effective framework for implementation of diversity in nursing education.

Bleich, Macwilliams and Schmidt (2015) presented strategies for promoting diversity and inclusivity comprising of improving the admission process, reduction of the inevitability of the underrepresented cohorts, the establishment of support community, enhancing equity in the promotion and the tenure structures, and discouraging tokenism. These initiatives are drawn from different past studies that took into account the crucial elements of diversity.

Even though recent studies play a critical role in the research process, it should be accompanied by empirical results that improve the quality of data presented. Reliance on previous studies maybe misleading since the earlier studies could measure different elements that are not significant in the current study. Despite these challenges in the article, it present information that is crucial in the development of a foundation for more in-depth studies that incorporate primary sources of data. In studies relating to measures of enhancing diversity and principles in nursing education, the article by Bleich, Macwilliams and Schmidt (2015) is crucial in determining gaps in the previous studies that future research should address.

In addition, the article could be effective in the presentation of effects of failing to integrate diversity principles in nursing education where diverse cultures are present. Strong self-awareness and self-esteem are crucial for learners within a diverse society to be incorporated into an efficient learning environment and demonstrate effective learning and productive environment.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2015). The Changing Landscape: Nursing Student Diversity on the Rise. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing(AACN) (2015) present review of policy on diversity in American nursing colleges. The report compiles evidence based on recent studies and available policies on the significance of cultural diversity understanding in the nursing workforce in the development of culturally sensitive patient care observing crucial patients’ safety and service quality. The data and analysis are dependent on the U.S. Census Bureau that classified differential cultural settings in the United States where groups that are racially underrepresented forms more than a third of the entire population. The report expresses the commitment of American Association of Colleges of Nursing in promoting diversity and inclusion in all nursing colleges.

The report presents a valuable source of data from primary sources like government websites relating to diversity in nursing education. To ensure the validity of data submitted, the AACN present results of previous reports from reliable sources that cite issues relating to diversity in American nursing colleges.

To address the initiatives by the government, AACN present two reports compiled by NAS in 2004 addressing measures to improve the diversity in the healthcare sector. Also, AACN also reviewed a report by NAS in 2010 on advancing nursing through enhancement of its leadership role through the development of the competent and diverse workforce. The research also presents the trends in changes in the level of diversity across learners undertaking Baccalaureate, Masters,Ph.D. and DNP programs in nursing for the period between 2011 and 2015. Also, the report presents diversity trends across all the states in the US. This helps the future studies in identifying the diversity trends across the American States diversity commitment in promoting the needs of all learners.

Apart from variations in diversity from 2011-2015 and regional diversity levels, ACCN report took into account variations in diversity across programs, which is crucial in informing researchers and policy makers on the degree of diversity in nursing education in the United States depending on the extent of learning. Furthermore, the report presents the diversity on gender-based variations. The report also illustrates the measures that the Federal and local governments would integrate into nursing schools to promote diversity in learning institutions for nurses.

From 2006 to 2015, the research cites that there has been a drop in grant funding programs.  Understanding these challenges and opportunities relating to diversity in nursing education will enhance in effective decision-making regarding policy interventions appropriate to address the diversity issues in nursing education. This report is essential in developing valid arguments relating to interventions for diversity in American nursing education. The report presents a valuable source of information on trends based on annual grants allocation, gender, and level of study, which will guide the development of policy measures to encourage diversity in nursing education.

In conclusion, the five studies identify the nursing discipline as a complex profession that entails the harmonization of work culture, private life, societal obligations, and work schedule. Collectively, the authors concur that professional nurses and nursing students specialize in a demanding profession. The health care industry demands that the practitioners commit themselves to the responsibilities by preparing to work for extended hours under congested schedules.

Therefore, the work environment prompts the governing institutions to consider improving expertise and the support infrastructure in order to enhance the efficacy of the healthcare service providers. In spite of the incongruousness in specific and general objectives, the studies converge into a common point of focus involving manipulating the parameters of interest to improve the performance of nurses. Jointly, the authors view the quality of nursing as a function of dedicated endeavors to establish support institutions, education programs, and cultural learning.

Nurses are mobile in nature as the occupation dictates. The interventions would enable the medical professionals to adapt new environments and avoid culture shock. New work environments expose the nurses to challenges in learning the ways of life of the inhabitants. The situation grows severe in workstations where the health care seekers subscribe to a foreign language.

At this point, intervention programs and special education programs tailored to specific settings are vital to improving the performance of the personnel within the restrictive workplace. Additionally, the studies venture into using qualitative approaches to explore the parameters of interest. The commonality portrays a similarity in the five research works highlighting that most elements in nursing are non-quantitative.

As long as the authors agree on the complexity of the discipline, discrepancies emerge pertaining to the most suitable intervention strategies. The influence of the studies on the nursing practice significantly relies on an integrated method of implementing the findings. In other words, the observations made from each of the studies are solely dependent on the contributions of the rest.

Furthermore, the authors base the studies on different scopes and parameters. Focusing on culture, education, and support programs exposes the incongruousness underlying the pursuit of knowledge. Through the principal areas of focus, the general objectives of the research works differ considerably from one study to another. The specialization undermines the view of mutual relationships in the rudiments of nursing.

The five articles are exclusively vital in enabling efficient nursing services. The diverse objectives pursued by the researchers present nursing practice as a multi-disciplinary subject comprising of equally important parameters. In a real sense, nursing profession describes a collection of medical subjects that equip the facilitators with immense knowledge essential for dealing with a myriad of scenarios in the healthcare industry.

More important are the elements that the articles discuss as significant in enhancing nursing. Education denotes one of the traditional methods of knowledge acquisition. Training remains a viable approach to improve professionalism. Nursing professionals require excellent training to improve the quality of the service.

The education programs enhance the adaptation mechanisms of the medical personnel to various environments. As nurses move from one workstation to another, the environmental setting changes drastically prompting swift adjustment. Cultural learning denotes one of the most vital considerations since nurses interact with culturally diverse populations. The support institutions formulate and implement policies and programs aimed at enhancing the workplace for nursing professionals. Therefore, the articles discuss valuable factors essential for facilitating exemplary therapeutic services.

References

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2015). The Changing Landscape: Nursing Student Diversity on the Rise. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing.

Bleich, M. R., Macwilliams, B. R., & Schmidt, B. J. (2015). Advancing Diversity Through Inclusive Excellence In Nursing Education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(2), 89–94.

Boughton, M. A., Halliday, L. E., & Brown, L. (2010). A tailored program of support for culturally and li nguistically diverse (CALD) nursing students in a graduate entry Masters of Nursing course: A qualitative evaluation of outcomes. Nurse Education in Practice, 10, 355-360.

Gerrish, K. (2004). Integration of overseas Registered Nurses: evaluation of an adaptation programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(6), 579–587.

Jeong, S. Y.-S., Hickey, N., Levett-Jones, T., Pitt, V., Hoffman, K., Norton, C. A., & Ohr, S. O. (2011). Understanding and enhancing the learning experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students in an Australian bachelor of nursing program. Nurse Education Today, 31, 238–244.

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Conquering Dyslexia Dissertation

Beneficial Methods for Conquering Dyslexia

This paper considers the treatments that work most effectively for teaching people with dyslexia how to read confidently. I will begin by reviewing the background of dyslexia. Relying heavily on sources I surveyed, I will briefly explore the benefits of early intervention while providing hope of treatment for those the system already failed. Finally, I will examine treatments that successfully aid young dyslexics in conquering their disease and suggest implementing these in all kindergarten classes.

Introduction and Diagnosis

Dyslexia is a major problem for many children who desire to read but cannot break the reading code. Peer pressure that results from the inability to decipher words into speech can even lead third graders to contemplate suicide (Berninger, 2000, p 183). Yet, Shaywitz estimates twenty percent of all school age children have the disorder. Sadly, in the same experiment she discovered only one-third of these children were in special education programs (Shaywitz, 2004, p 30). Every child who desires to read has the right to learn; however, many children on the edge of reading disabilities never receive remedial treatment until they fail multiple times. While the older dyslexic has the ability to conquer the disease, intervention at earlier ages is more effective and saves the child from stigmatization.

Although early diagnosis is a key factor in recovery, many disagree on how to identify children with the disability (Scruggs, T., Mastropieri, M., 2002; Stanovich, K., 2005). This delays treatment, reducing the chances of remediating the child to fluent reading. Intelligence tests and multiple years of academic failure are the most widely used methods of diagnosing dyslexia, but lead to widespread over- and under- diagnosis (Scruggs, T., Mastropieri, M., 2002). Genetic research is more accurate, but it is an expensive method of identification. However, researchers have not identified all the genes responsible for dyslexia. Additionally, while genetic influence exists (Taipale, M., Kaminen, N., Nopola-Hemmi, J., Haltia, T., Hannula-Jouppi, K., Kere, J., 2003), twin studies show it is not a determining factor as to whether or not a child will develop dyslexia (Shaywitz, 2004, p 99), and children without any genetic markers develop the disease from poor instruction.

MRI imaging is one of the most accurate diagnostic tools, but it also is costly and only available to researchers. It allows one to see which areas of the brain are active during language processing. The pictures clearly show the difference between those who have broken the code, dyslexics and dyslexics that have compensated for the disease. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis does not outweigh the cost in time and money of performing the test.

When children are unruly in class or difficult to teach, teachers often refer them for testing. Shaywitz points out the large percentage of boys diagnosed with dyslexia while very few girls receive this identification. Her reassessment of children in several schools found the number of boys was actually equal to the number of girls (Shaywitz, 2004, p 32). This creates more of a problem by placing children in classes where they will bore easily or by leaving children in classes that do not meet their needs.

Dyslexia Dissertation
Dyslexia Dissertation

In addition to under- and over- diagnosis, one also finds the problems of late diagnosis and not seeing the need for diagnosis. Some believe students must be over the age of eight before a proper identification of dyslexia is possible. Shaywitz argues that between four and five are the ideal ages for intervention. Conflicts arise over whether the learning disabled label will brand the child for life with a negative image, or whether the child will be allowed to fall through the cracks once labeled as dyslexic.

The school told the mother of a girl I once tutored that she should not have her child tested to eliminate the possibility of the child being stuck with the label. Additionally, because dyslexics and average readers learn on the same curve, some in education still assert children outgrow the disease or that there is no reason to change the child’s current reading program. While it is true that the curve is similar and dyslexics even make a slight gain on their peers, dyslexics always score far below good readers (Shaywitz, 2004, p 34).

Important Terms

Before addressing the question of how to solve the problems of diagnosis and treatment, we must first explore some terms common in dyslexia. The term as defined by the International Dyslexia Association is:

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge (August, 2002).

The phoneme is “the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word forms another” (Shaywitz, 2004, p 41). The phonological module is “the functional part of the brain where sounds of language are put together to form words and where words are broken down into their elemental sounds” (Shaywitz, 2004, p 40). Because the major problem with dyslexia is a breakdown in the ability to recognize phonemes contained in words, these terms are all important to any discussion of the disease.

If dyslexia is a breakdown in the ability to distinguish phonemes, it logically follows that increasing the amount and quality of phonemic instruction will aid the child in overcoming the disease. Parents and educators must realize the need for intervention and actively pursue it. Important to consider are the dyslexic’s developmental age at the time they begin supplemental instruction. Equally as important is to develop a program that focuses on the child’s strengths and interests.

To begin to aid a child in understanding the relationship between sounds and words, one must introduce the child to the sounds of language. Books filled with rhyme and alliteration such as Chicka Chicka Boom Boom or One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish are excellent choices (Shaywitz, 2004, p177 – 182). After spending time reading these books for pleasure, it is important for the teacher or parent to draw attention to which words rhyme and what rhyme is. They should have the child think of other words that begin or end in the same way. Children need to realize that words are related through sound before identifying that those sounds are represented alphabetically. All elementary teachers should spend time each day reading to their students just as parents should spend time each day reading to their children. Connecting words we speak to the phonemes that create them is essential to all readers.

Once the child can rhyme, the program must begin to help the child break words into all their sounds. Beginning with two sound words like key, bee, or it, the educator can teach the child to break the words into their respective phonemic units. Introductory work on syllables can begin. After the child realizes that words separate into smaller parts, the adult may teach three sound words like cat, seat, or call. At the same time, it will be useful to reinforce what the child already learned by asking questions like “What do you get if you put the /s/ sound in front of the word key?” or “What does /m/… /o/ …/m/ make?” All these things build phonemic awareness and are useful to all children learning to read.

Once the child has a basic understanding of phonemes, the instructor should introduce decodable texts that use relatively few phonemes to create stories. These books, such as the “Bob Book” series, slowly build confidence in the child’s reading ability. As the child begins to enjoy their ability to read, new books and sight words should be introduced. Sight words must be memorized. Children can make their own flashcards with words like is, are, was, one, and two. This allows them to read and write the word.

The child must practice writing to build legible handwriting and further establish phonemic awareness. Practice is the only way to learn. The more a child practices making letters correctly and sounding out words on paper, the better the child will become at it. All children should be given many chances even at the beginning of kindergarten to practice writing. Word cards with tracing paper clipped to them will aid in early instruction. In writing, having the child practice forming the letters correctly should be stressed. Allowing children to write four pages of a’s (for example) backward is not as useful as having the child trace one page of the letters correctly.

By the end of kindergarten, children should be practicing spelling skills. While children at this level should not be expected to spell well, invented spelling is an important step on the road to recognizing the phonemic roots of words. The more chances children are given to attempt to sound words out for themselves, the more they will master breaking words apart into their letters, and in return, the better ability they will have to decode written words.

As with all kindergarten children, teachers need to read enjoyable books and surround children with literacy. When children recognize the joy of reading, they desire to read. When teachers and parents read to children, they encourage larger vocabularies. Children who know the meaning of words like “ink” will have a better time decoding it when they come across it in texts they are reading (Shaywitz, 2004, p192).

Finally, it is important for children to develop self-confidence. Children should make progress as they go through an intensive phonics program. Tests can be performed to make sure they understand what was taught, but tests are teaching tools that evaluate teachers not students. When a student does not understand something, it should cue the teacher to reintroduce it in a new way. Additionally, children should not repeat a grade if they have failed to decode reading by the end of kindergarten (Shaywitz, 2004, p196).

Conclusion

Many teachers will look at the plan for educating dyslexic kindergarteners and think, “That is what I do for my class already.” This is because what Shaywitz proposes is an intensive phonics program. Others like Beringer (2000) utilize the same style of reading program to teach dyslexics. The two major differences between intervention reading and a standard kindergarten program are that many kindergarten programs try rushing phonics training and that intervention work is created around a theme of interest among the students.

Implementing this program for all kindergarten students would not lower the education they receive. However, if all schools focused on intensive phonics training for their kindergarten students, dyslexia could be conquered without extensive testing to discover which children have the disorder. When schools use tests to evaluate what they need to teach instead of how well students are learning, they can resolve many learning issues. Some may argue that children without learning disabilities will become bored with intensive learning, but often the children that learn to read too quickly develop other learning problems later on that could be corrected by skills learned from intensive phoneme training (Shaywitz, 2004, p196).

While dyslexia is a major problem that needs to be addressed, it can easily be eliminated from the classroom. Shaywitz and others have show through MRI’s that even dyslexics can conquer the disease and rewire their brains if they are instructed in intensive phonemic awareness. Because of the difficulty in recognizing the disease early and intervening, it is imperative schools adapt an aggressive stance on this learning disorder.

References

Berninger, V.W. (2000). Dyslexia the Invisible, Treatable Disorder: The Story of Einstein’s Ninja Turtles. Learning Disability Quarterly, 23(3), 175-195

Glenn, H.W. (1975). The Myth of the Label Learning Disabled Child. The Elementary School Journal, 75(6), 357-361

Lyon, G.R. (August 2002). International Dyslexic Association. Washington, D.C.

Scruggs, T.E., Mastropieri, M.A. (2002). On Babies and Bathwater: Addressing the Problems of Identification of Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(3), 155-168.

Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia. New York: Knopf. Qtd. Lyon

Stanovich, K.E. (2005). The Future of a Mistake: Will Discrepancy Measurement Continue to Make the Learning Disabilities Field a Pseudoscience?  Learning Disability Quarterly, 28(2), 103-106.

Taipale, M., Kaminen, N., Nopola-Hemmi, J., Haltia, T., Mylltluoma, B., Lyytinen,

H., Muller, K., Kaaranen, M., Lindsberg, P.J., Hannula-Jouppi, K., Kere, J. (2003). A Candidate Gene for Developmental Dyslexia Encodes a Nuclear Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain Protein Dynamically Regulated in Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(20), 11553-11558.

Temple, E., Deutsch, G.K., Poldrack, R.A., Miller, S.L., Taillal, P., Merzenich, M.M., Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2003). Neural Deficits in Children with Dyslexia Ameliorated by Behavior Remediation: Evidence from Functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(5), 2860-2865

Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K., Simmons, K., Laughon, P. (1990). Identifying Phonological Coding Problems in Disabled Readers: Namin, Counting, or Span Measures? Learning Disability Quarterly, 13(4), 236-243

Dyslexia Dissertation

Did you find any useful knowledge relating to Dyslexia and Learning Disabilities in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.