Media and Culture Dissertation Press Freedom in Turkey

Press Freedom in Turkey

How free is the freedom of expression for the Turkish journalists in the Turkish press?

Dissertation Title: Press Freedom in Turkey. Freedom of the press is an invaluable part of a democratic society. Many liberal nations allow free exchange of information without restrictions. Over the recent years, a decline in press freedom was reported by international organizations in Turkey. Violation of international human rights and Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights in Turkey is one of the prime reasons of investigation. In this research, twenty-two journalists were interviewed to extract information on the freedom of the press in Turkey. The data was analysed using triangulation. The results indicate a growing dissident of the journalists union in Turkey due to the lack of reporting freedom on critical issues such as politics, religion and terrorism. Reports also suggest a global backsliding of the government to fulfil its promises of democratizing the country. The findings of this paper match with the observations of international whistle-blower organizations such as Amnesty International, Reporters without Borders and Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). The research performed in this paper helps to bridge the gap of understanding between media and the people of Turkey. The research highlights the effects of media bias on a society and presents recommendations to improve reporting freedom in Turkey.

Press Freedom Turkey Dissertation
Press Freedom Turkey Dissertation

The dissertation is written to conduct research among Turkish journalists and present the findings. The primary aim of the paper is to investigate the behavior of the government towards journalists in Turkey. This goal can be understood as the level of freedom, journalists have in writing what they want under observance of the Turkish press. Freedom of expression among journalists means that they are able to present the facts and figures without filtering any information and leaving it to the public to decide and create their own viewpoints. A comparative approach towards estimation of cases reported by international organizations and my personal observations, and field research with in-depth interviews and written interviews with journalists of the Turkish press will help to answer the hypothesis at the end of the research. Assuming that the challenges of working as an independent reporter in the Turkish press and media could have increased over the recent decade, the paper will present the findings in the later sections.

Apart from the primary question, researcher will form and present a list of secondary questions that create a strong case for the primary question and subsequent evaluation of the hypothesis. Secondary questions are developed to answer the primary question as they are more accessible and straightforward to analyze. The secondary questions are:

  • What is freedom of expression and why is it important and what entails it?
  • What is the current situation of Turkish journalists and how is the media landscape in Turkey evolving?
  • Are there any changes in the Turkish freedom of expression over in the last decade?
  • Are there sensitive topics to write about as journalists in Turkey and what are these topics?
  • What are the international rules and regulations when it comes to freedom of expression in the press?
  • Which legal sanctions are threatening freedom of expression and press freedom according to the Turkish penal codes?
  • What do international institutions and organizations say about freedom of press in Turkey?
  • What does Turkish journalist say about their own press freedom in Turkey?

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Promotional Mix Dissertation

Marketing Dissertation – The Impact of Promotional Mix Elements on Consumers Purchasing Decisions – A Case Study of M&S

Marketing Dissertation Title: Impact of Promotional Mix Elements on Consumers Purchasing Decisions. The promotion mix is one of the major elements of 4ps of marketing and day by day companies seem to be giving a lot of emphasis on the promotion mix. The main objective of using the tools of promotion mix is to influence the consumer’s purchase decisions. Influencing the purchase decisions of consumers is not an easy task as there are many variables like emotional variables that turn into brand loyalty or brand attachment. The way a customer beholds at the product greatly depends on the promotional mix. At first, a potential consumer must know there is a product or service that can fulfill the needs of the consumer after consuming the product.

The potential consumers are approached with promotion mix as from making consumers aware of keeping track of each and every consumer is done with the help of elements of the promotion mix. Thus, the issue related to the promotion mix elements’ effectiveness on the consumer purchasing process is quite a burning question to be answered.

Promotional Mix Dissertation
Promotional Mix Dissertation

For this dissertation, the research issue is related to the effectiveness of the promotion mix on the consumer purchase decision as companies adopt promotion mix to influence the purchase decision of the consumers. The literature review has helped the researcher to identify the dependent and independent variables. The dependent variable is consumer purchasing decision. The independent variables are advertising, public relation, personal selling and sales promotion.

The way the research is designed and the results to a have a solution of the research problem identify the positivism as the research paradigm for this research work. This paper is conducted by deductive research approach. The research is a survey based case study and consumers of M&S are interviewed with predesigned questionnaire.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To critically find out the independent variables in the promotion mix of M&S
  • To critically investigate the variable in the promotion mix of M&S
  • To critically find out the relationship between the dependent variables and the independent variables
  • To find out a realistic set of recommendation on the findings of the research

Dissertation Contents

1: Introduction
Problem Statement
Background of the Research
Research Question
Rationale for the Study
Research Issue
Reasons behind the Issue
Research Aim
Research Objectives
Hypotheses

2: Literature Review
Definitions
Promotional Mix
Consumer Purchase Decisions
Advertising
Public Relationship
Sales Promotion
Personal Selling
The Breakdown of Promotional Mix
Types of Advertising and Advertising Media
Types of Public Relationship Management
Types of Sales Promotion
Types of Personal Selling
The Influence of Promotional Mix on Consumer Purchase Decisions
Conclusion

3: Research Methodology
Research Philosophy
Research Approach
Research Purpose
Research Method
Research Strategy
Data Selection
Ethical Considerations
Limitations of the Study
Future Scope for the Study

4: Results
The Measures for Central Tendency Measures
Coefficient of Correlation
Regression Analysis
Reliability Test with Cronbach’s Alpha
One-Way ANOVA

5: Findings of the Analysis

6: Conclusions and Recommendations
Conclusions
Recommendations

References

Appendix
Questionnaire

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Employee Benefits

Relationship between Employee Benefits and Employee Satisfaction at Google

This dissertation contains the findings of a research project that investigated the relationship between employee benefits and employee satisfaction at Google. The performance of an organization highly depends on how motivated the employees are as this directly impacts on the efforts of the employees. Satisfied and motivated employees would put in the right efforts that will help an organization achieve the set objectives and goals. Therefore, this dissertation explores the types of employee benefits at Google, employee satisfaction and the impact of employee satisfaction on the operations of Google. This study has centred on exploratory research process rather than analytical research as the topic under research is itself exploratory. The findings presented are based on exhaustive questionnaires and interviews with 70 respondents being employees and remaining 30 respondents being managers respectively.
Employee Benefits-Dissertation
Employee Benefits-Dissertation
The interviews were recorded, decoded and analysed using descriptive statistics mainly the SPSS. On the other hand, the questionnaires were issued to the employees and after being filled, they were analysed using the descriptive statistics. The findings in both cases were presented graphically for better and easier understanding. In terms of the sex and age of workers, the study showed that most workers are male with a higher percentage of 55 as compared to the female percentage of 45 although most of these workers are young with an age bracket of 31-40 years. However, 78.3% of employees believe that the various benefits offered by Google have helped motivate them in their duties. Nevertheless, most employees prefer the retirement plan benefits (38.3%) and workers  compensation plan (31.7%).

The aim of this dissertation is to conduct an investigation on the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google Inc. The business environment is quickly changing with increased emphasis being put on corporate growth and productivity. As such, job loyalty and satisfaction by employees have received outstanding attention from organizations. To achieve this, employee benefits motivate workers to be retained pending the investigation of the inquiry.

Research Objectives

  • To identify the various form of employee benefits offered by Google
  • To critically analyse the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google
  • To investigate the relationship between employee satisfaction and improved organizational performance at Google

1 – Introduction
Background of the Study
Problem Statement
Research Aim
Research Objectives
Research Hypothesis
Dissertation Structure

2 – Literature Review
Conceptual Framework
Forms of Employee Benefits
Workers Compensation
Unemployment Insurance
Social Security Taxes
Family and Medicare Leave
Health Insurance
Retirement Plans
Life Insurance
Dental Insurance
Employee Training
On-the-Job Training
Off-the-Job Training
Mini-Summary
Role of Employee Benefits
Employee Benefits and Satisfaction
Employee Satisfaction and Organizational Performance
Commitment
Motivation
Job Involvement

3 – Methodology
Research Process
Research Paradigm
Positivist Ontology
Positivist Epistemology
Research Approach
Research Strategy
Research Type
Methods of Data Collection
Primary Method of Data Collection
Secondary Method of Data Collection
Sample Size and Sampling Technique
Data Analysis Plan
Ethical Issues in Research

4 – Results
Part A: Descriptive Statistics
Part B: Inferential Statistics

5 – Discussion
To identify the various forms Employee benefits at Google
To critically analyse the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google
To investigate the relationship between employee satisfaction and improved organizational performance at Google

6 – Conclusion

7 – Critical Evaluation

8 – Self-Evaluation

References

Appendix
Questionnaire

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Budget Plans Controls

Critically Evaluate the Use Budgets in the Modern Business World

Research Title: Budget Plans. The Proprietors are always obliged to carefully plan and audit their find if they are to maintain their businesses regularly. For recognizing, measuring and calculating and reporting finance data, organisations rely upon accounting software. Moreover, there are others tools which incorporate planning, monetary proclamation, estimation and different apparatuses for the overseeing of finance data. Out of all the accounting tools used by organisations, businesses budgeting ones are the ones that are seen as the exceptional ones. What “Budget” entails is an incisive analysis of the organisation’s future spending strategy and plans.

Most organisations try to create their yearly budget plans on a yearly basis so that take into account every spending need in that office. A yearly budget plan entails that capitals assets that the organisation would try to acquire would not be easily done so because of the confines on the time. Small organisation differs from the big organisations in the sense that they are able to complete their budgets plans without having to consult experts in the field.

Knowing a budget means that you will not hastily spend money on operations that are relatively unimportant or of least priority, similarly having a budget ensures that the precious capital is properly used on only those economic resources that are worth your time and money. This naturally entails that the business organisations and owners may have to check for alternate sources of supply or vendors, and cutting down miscellaneous costs. Having a budget properly mapped out gives the company a sense of direction of how they are going. It will also mean that you are able to bring about a comparison with the budgeting that happened the previous year and where and how the discrepancies occurred and if there is a way to resolve them. In the case of a budget fluctuation that had occurred due to an unexpected incident, such as an increment in the sales income, then it is not necessarily a negative business circumstance, instead, it is an opportunity, for the organisation to create to recollect and build a monetary allowance sum for future deals and increments.

This is where the flexibility of the budgets comes into the limelight, as it is capable of being edited into a plan which prepares the organisation for any imminent development or extension. The money saved due to budgeting spending can be utilized in the way of injecting it into a store account which is used to finance the selection of new business opportunities. This type of planning ensures that when the scenario arises when you have to close a deal to ascertain a possible expansion in business operations, it can be done without having to scramble for finances. These extra capital saved can be utilized during times when there is a moderate progress for financing operational expenses. With the aid of an accounting or business program, organisation will be able to, more efficiently, create budget plans that allow them to plan their finances and monitor costs. Similarly, it is possible for them to create a better accounting plan or procedure that makes it possible for creating and overseeing spending plans, by virtue of data gathering. Therefore, software such as these is imperative for budgeting and data collection in a consistent and constant arrangement.

Budget Plans
Budget Plans

Critically Analyses the Figures Shown in the Cash Budget

After careful examination of the monetary proclamation of Ground Ltd, it is inferred that the records receivables are consistent at Euro 464,480; therefore, there is no visible variance or occasional ones in deals. There at least 6 turns of the record receivables during a year, or during regular intervals, they turn at least once. The Stock during this time is constant at about Euro 484, 480 and only turns over at regular intervals. On the other hand, the records payable have a tendency to turn over at least eight times a year, like clockwork. The time for records receivables is about 60 days and the equalization remarkable stays at Euro 484, 480, which gives the impression that Euro 464, 000 is the sum that is ought to be gathered on the receivables after 90 days. From such a point of view, a stock of Euro 1,000,000 at retail that turns on regular intervals and Euro 750,000 traverses the records receivable, and then it is imperative that about Euro 250,000 ought to be the amount that is sold on money premises alone.

Installments

It is estimated that the costs for money installments is 150,000 Euros for the coming 90 days. One can easily check this figure if they were to allude to the pay articulation costs. If there happens to be a measure of the money costs that is relatively unpleasant, so to speak, then it can be acquired by a deft utilization of working costs minus non-money costs, i.e., devaluation. In a scenario where there is no regular variable at work, then it is often the case, that he aggregate sum is divided by four, which will in turn keep an eye on the sum planned for the subsequent 90 days. Cash budget, will have an estimation of the anticipated sources as well as the purpose and use of the future cash costs. This purpose of the budget is to give a measurement of the cash needed to meet anticipated money necessities. If it is not possible, then it is up to the administration to find new sources of income and cash, and the inputs are only gathered from a small collection of different budgets. When the trade spending plans is spent upon, all that remains will be used for the financing the future budget, that in turn organizes ventures, debt, interest salary and expenses.

 There are two areas of the cash budget – the sources of cash and the uses of cash. The former consists of the starting money equalization, cash money receipts, debt claim collections, and offer of advantages. The former consists of arranged money uses, start spawn from material budget, direct work budget, overhead budgets and expense budgets that is part of the selling. It will also contain a multitude of details for settled resource purchase and profits to shareholders.

In the unlikely possibility that there exist certain bizarre and extensive trade equalization, they are adequately maintained in the financing budget plan that shows the any possible ventures for them to consider. Similarly, if there exists any negative parity inside the cash budget, then it is inside the financing budget, a clause that details how to manage these equalization by means of stipulating a certain time and measure for this obligation.

In the illustration given, we found that an expert spending plan of organization proceeds here with the planning of calendar of expected money accumulations. The business figures are acquired from the business budget of the organization. 70% of offers are relied upon to be gathered in the quarter in which deals are made and the rest are required to be gathered in the following period. Bad debts are insignificant. Also, an exorbitantly substantial profit installment in the second week of the budget plan, combined with a vast resource buy in the next week, puts the organization in a negative money position. Paying out such an extensive profit can be an issue for banks, who don’t prefer to issue credits with the goal that organizations can utilize the assets to pay their shareholders and along these lines debilitate their capacity to pay back the advances. In this manner, it might be more astute for the organization to consider a little profit installment and maintain a strategic distance from a negative money position.

Ways in Which Cash Budget Can Be Improved

Balancing cash will occur quite impressively inside a solitary accounting period that will entail the concealment of cash which is often quite fatal for many organisations. In order check the arising of such situations, then it is necessary for maintain a cash conjecture on a weekly basis. These transient plans are sensible for only a month, but then the ability to anticipate any occurrence of delays quickly vanish, and then the organisation is coerced to plan on a month to month basis. What happens during this tumultuous time is that the plan created is lost in significance after a month and to a great extent absolutely erroneous after two months.

In its least complex structure, income is the development of cash all through your business. It is regularly portrayed as the procedure in which your business utilizes money to create merchandise or administrations for deals to your clients, gathers the money from the deals, and after that finishes this cycle once more.

There are few ways to improve cash budget like making ordering your product for customer easy and by improving commitment and handling well the shipping process. Accelerating the trade change period out this region requires that you utilize the fastest method for conveying your items or administrations to your clients. Superfluous deferrals in the transportation and treatment of your items or administrations can include countless to your money transformation period, also the negative effect this can have on your client connections.

Another important way to improve cash budget is the completion of the invoice properly. Your absence of consideration in this stride can accidentally protract the money transformation period. Your receipt really starts the money gathering process for your finished deals. You’ve presumably made sense of at this point most clients don’t pay without first getting some type of receipt for the products or administrations you sold them. Receipts serve as a suggestion to your clients that your products or administrations have been conveyed. Receipts additionally serve as a suggestion to your clients that they have a commitment to pay you. Apart from this, you can give some credit considerations to your client. With existing clients or customers, it is best to envision bring up in their credit limit at whatever point conceivable. This can be done by taking a gander at the client’s present credit point of confinement and contrasting it and your normal levels of business with them. You can maintain a strategic distance from postponements in satisfying their request on the off chance that you can settle on your credit choice well in front of the client’s solicitation for an adjustment in their credit limit. Foreseeing existing clients’ credit needs can fundamentally diminish your money transformation period, and awe the clients in the meantime with your eagerness to expand their credit limit.

References

Steven, M 2003, ‘ Budget Economics: Principles in action’. p. 502. ISBN 0-13-063085-3.

Panagariya, A 2008 ,’The Emerging Giant’ p. 514. ISBN 978-0-19-531503-5

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Leadership Styles

Leadership Styles in HR Management

The process of globalization is acting to enhance many changes in everyday life of the population of the world, and leadership is considered one of the main means to achieve the desired results in the most effective way. Application of leadership styles in health care organizations is considered extremely important, as human life is the greatest value, as well as those health care workers who apply various leadership styles in order to contribute to people’s health maintenance and as a consequence, to life safety. Examining the concept of leadership, it is very important to distinguish several styles that can be noticed in the modern practice and also provide a clear explanation of traits of successful leaders. Description of real world leaders and their styles and practice would be useful for better understanding of the results of the concept application.

However, first of all, a clear definition of the concept of leadership needs to be provided. Leadership is not a passive theory, but it is a process which represents actions of people. It is important to pay attention to the fact that organization, hospital in this particular case, cannot represent a leader, but only a person can perform this function, as leadership is based on interactions among people (Leedy, Ormrod, 2010).

Leadership is directed to a person or a group of people whose behavior is aimed to be changed. After the aim is reached, these people become the followers and their present is an integral feature of leadership.

As a process, leadership means that some people should be influenced, and there are several ways to act so. First of all, the followers can be changed by intellectual activity; secondly, emotional influence can be applied, and finally, the leader might cause behavioral influence.

Being a complex concept, leadership does not only allow the leader to apply various modes to influence people, but it also gives the leader an opportunity to apply various leadership styles.

Leadership Styles
Leadership Styles

Three main styles of leadership can be defined. These are authoritarian, democratic, and free reign style. The first one is used when the leader tells the subordinates what should be done. For example, it takes place when a registered nurse tells their subordinates what actions need to be taken to provide a better health care or follow the rules of the hospitals. This style is appropriate when the leader has enough information and skills and also when the subordinates are well-motivated. Time limitations are acceptable for the style and do not make any significant difference when decisions of the leader take into account real opportunities of the subordinates.

Democratic leadership style is especially popular now. It is applied when the leader believes that it is better to work together with the team. Nevertheless, despite the common work, the leader is the person to make the final decision. However, this style of leadership is applied when it comes to internship in health care settings, as the leader does not possess enough information or skills. Such leaders are not required to have some sophisticated skills, so they start working with other employees who have better qualification. Such style is considered mutually useful, as it enables the leader and the team to make more reasonable decisions.

Free reign style is also applied at health care settings, especially when it comes to the work of nurses. Today their roles are increasing and they perform more and more functions. Some of them, such as medication prescription, are allowed to be performed without control of physicians and this example might serve to illustrate the style. It is important to notice that, despite the fact that representatives of the team make various decisions, their leader is the one to be responsible for them. The style is used only when health care providers are able to analyze the situation on their own and identify what should be done and how it should be done (Service, 2009).

Regardless of the fact which style of leadership is chosen, the leader needs to possess the following traits:

  • Being self-balanced
  • Being ambitious
  • Decisiveness
  • Enthusiasm
  • Being self-confident
  • Realism
  • Desire to learn
  • Being just and fair
  • Being creative, and so on.

The list of the traits can be continued, and it has been proven by Linda Aiken and Geraldine “Polly” Bednash who were recognized to head the list of the nursing leaders. These two nurses have outstanding experience in terms of teaching, research, and clinical practice; they have received numerous honors and credentials for their contribution to the world of medicine and health care provision (Fralic, 1999).

Thus, it is possible to conclude that leadership is extremely important to be applied in every health care organization. The history knows numerous leaders who provided health care and contributed to the health of population, and all of them possessed a range of skills. These are being improved and made more advanced under the influence of the process of globalization.

References

Fralic, M. (1999). Nursing Leadership for the New Millennium: Essential Knowledge & Skills. Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 20 (5).

Leedy, P.D. and Ormrod, J.E. (2010). Practical research: Planning and design. (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Service, R. (2009). The leadership Styles Quotient: Measuring toward Improve. Business Renaissance Quarterly, 4 (1).

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