Human Resource Planning Management

Human Resource Planning

Human Resource Planning and Management. The firm’s position in the particular industry that it operates determines whether the profitability of the firm can be defined to be above or below the average profitability in the entire industry. Making the profit level of any particular company be above the industry average is a long-term goal of any particular company regardless of the industry in which it operates. To gain long-term above-average profitability level, two types of competitive advantages can help the company rise to such levels.

The first one is either cost management or differentiation. When any firm can keep the cost as low as possible, it will be in a position to charge less and have a broad market base, a factor which is important in improving the long-term profitability levels. The course that is taken by any particular company depends on the leadership focus on either of the two kinds of competitive advantage. The two kinds of competitive advantages lead to four generic strategies that are aimed at ensuring the profitability of the organization rises above average in the long-term. Such includes the broad cost leadership, focused cost leadership, broad differentiation, and focused differentiation. The four Porter’s generic business strategies regarding the business focus affect the human resource planning management of any particular organization in some factors, including in the selection process, screening, training, and compensation among many other factors affecting human resource planning in any specific organization.

Leadership of any organization can decide to focus on any of the two factors of competitiveness depending on the environment in which they are operating as well as their goals. As noted by Pfeffer (2007), any of the generic competitive generic styles that are adopted in any particular organization have and influence on the staffing models adopted by the organization. A choice of one particular style will best fit one staff modeling, which may not be suitable for a different strategy. For example, a choice of one style can result in what Pfeffer (2007) describes as “…disengagement and diminished productivity is the pervasive and growing conflict between work and family…” (117). The style adopted, therefore, influences all the stages of the human resource planning from the selection to retention. The reason is that each style of leadership requires a different pool of employees regarding their qualifications, motivations as well as focus as described by Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller (2015).

Humphrey, Morgeson, and Mannor (2009) describe an organization to comprise of physical, financial and human capital. The three compositions are affected by the leadership choices and focus that are made by any particular organization. Mainly, the generic competitive strategy adopted by different organizations depend and what can be described as “workforce quality” as well as the “workforce quantity” (Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2015). The staffing strategy of an organization focuses on HR planning, recruitment, and selection, employment as well as retention of the employees. An organization that mainly focuses on the reduction of the cost will first of all look at the staffing strategy that will cost the organization the least amount of resources. Therefore, apart from just focusing on the operational cost of the organization, broad cost leadership strategy will include in cost of hiring and retention in the costs of the organization. Given that the staff pool of the organization has a major impact on the total cost of the organization, a broad cost leadership will pay attention to the total cost that goes to its human resource department.

Staffing strategies and staffing models of an organization have impacts on market share, environmental sustainability, deployment, customers’ satisfaction among many other determinants of profitability. Specifically, in the development of the organization’s staffing strategy and models, the leadership pays attention to the effects of these factors on the two kinds of competitiveness which are cost as well as differentiation (Terpstra and Rozell, 1997). For example, broad differentiation business strategy won’t pay much attention to compensation of the employees. This strategy will mainly focus on the quality that the employees bring to the organization without paying much attention to their pay demands. However, the broad cost leadership strategy will focus more on the pay demands of the employees and therefore go for the cheapest means through which they can achieve their objectives. The similarity between the two strategies is that the focus on a wide area as opposed to the focus strategy.

The focused cost leadership and the focused differentiation leadership have some unique characteristics that affect the human resource planning strategies that are adopted by an organization. Rather than focusing on the entire industry, this two generic business strategies pays attention to specific segments of the industry and then pay attention to either cost or differentiation in these particular segments. The main idea as noted by Humphrey, Morgeson, and Mannor (2009) is therefore that these two styles of leadership focus on a narrow competitive scope as compared to the “broad-based” leadership styles. Whether the leadership style in the particular segment focuses on cost or differentiation affects the staffing strategies and models just the same way the broad-based leadership affects this factors, but in a narrow scope for this case.

The cost focus strategy seeks to gains cost advantage in a particular segment of the industry. Therefore, in its staffing strategy, the management and the human resource department will look at the cheapest means to compose its employee’s pool. The screening and the selection process will mainly focus on employees that can help the organization reach its cost limits. Also, the training process of the employees will mainly focus on methods of reducing the cost of operations in the organization. Under this strategy, the organization will be willing to retain a small number of employees that will help in the reduction of the total cost that is incurred by the organization.

Human Resource Planning
Human Resource Planning

On the other hand, differentiation focus will seek to achieve differentiation in a particular segment of the industry. The differentiation focus, therefore, tries to make the products of the company look different from those of the competitors and therefore gain market advantage. Differentiation is an important factor in profitability, and therefore any particular organization must pay attention to it. According to Cole et al. (2004), the level at which the organization achieves product differentiation depends on the pool of employees that they have. Therefore, just as it is with the cost focus, the differentiation focus will also influence the staffing strategies and staffing models that are adopted by an organization. The organization will pay much attention to the “quality” of the employees that will help it in achieving the differentiation target rather cost. Since product differentiation can help an organization keep the prices higher but maintain the customers base, the organization using this strategy will therefore not pay much attention to the cost of establishing this strategy.

Human Resource Planning Strategy

The strategy that any business chooses to adopt has far-reaching effects the entire planning process of the organization. More specifically, the cost focus or differentiation focus of any organization will determine the steps and the processes that will be adopted in the human resource planning process. Human resources planning is defined by Clardy (2008) as the process of adjusting the flow of workers in any organization, both in and out of the firm. The goals of the organization will specifically affect the process of human resource planning as well as the aspects that the planning process pays attention to. The role of the human resources planning for this case will ensure that the organization has a workers pool that will help it achieve the kind of competitive advantage that it has chosen to focus on. The planning process will pay attention to the skills that it requires the employees to have, both today and in the future to achieve the competitive advantage that it requires.

The role of human resource planning is ensuring that the organization has the right number of employees as well as employees that have the right skills to drive the agenda of the organization. As defined by Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller (2015), human resource planning aims at ensuring that the right number of employees are at the right place, at the right time and capable of effectively and efficiently delivering the needs of the organization. It ensures that the organization achieves its objectives through having the right composition of employees. Therefore, human resources planning is essential for any particular organization. The process is greatly affected by the strategy that the organization decides to pursue. This includes all the processes of human resource planning ranging from the screening and selection to the retention stage. Whether an organization chooses to focus on cost or differentiation will affect the whole process of human resource planning, staffing planning, and diversity planning.

When an organization decides to pursue the low-cost strategy, the human resource planning will mainly focus or ensure the organization has the right pool of employees that will help the organization keep its costs as low as possible. Under the low-cost strategy, the firm is trying to take advantage of the prices and therefore have to focus on reducing the prices since this will help them in keeping the prices as low as possible. The main objective of this case is to earn a larger market share through specializing in reducing the prices of the goods and services that the organization offers. This is only possible is the human resource planning will be effective in ensuring that the organization a pool of workers that first understands the goal of the organization and secondly have the right skills to pursue this goal. For the cases of the organizations that focus on differentiation, the human resource planning process must understand that the employees in the organization are a key part of achieving the competitive advantage and differentiation that requires. Therefore, the human resources planning for the case of a firm that chooses to specialize in differentiation will focus on accessing the organization with the right pool of employees that will make the products and the services of the organization look different as compared to other competitors in the market.

Succession Planning

Succession management is important as the workers in the organization need to have certain competencies and skills that will help an organization in achieving its objectives. The human resource planning focuses on the succession management by ensuring that the organization gets the right pull of workers depending on whether the organization focuses on lowing the cost or making its products and services look different when compared to the services that are offered by their competitors. The human resources management for this particular case focuses on training and job security as well as employees’ loyalty, depending on their focus (Clardy, 2008).

The staff planning process of any particular organization is also affected by the strategy that is adopted by the organization. What the organization decides to pay attention to will affect all stages of the planning process. Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller (2015) define staff planning as the process of ensuring that the organization has the right skills at its disposal. Just as human resources planning, staff planning seeks to ensure that the organization has the right number of employees and at the right time and employees possess the required skills to fulfill the objectives of the organization. The staff planning takes into consideration both the internal and external factors and therefore is important in ensuring that the organization achieves its objectives. The recruitment and selection process in staffing and human resources planning deals with discovering the manpower requirement of the organization depending on what the organization wants to achieve. For this case, the selection and recruitment stage in the human resources and staffing process will pay much focus on cost for the low-cost strategy and differentiation abilities focus on the differentiation focus. The staffing planning will focus on attracting a large pool of workers so that it can have the liberty to select the best from the pool.

As explained by MacKenzie, Klaas, and McClendon (2012), the organizations that focus on low cost will focus less on the selection and recruitment process. The organization will try as much as possible to keep the recruitment budget as low as possible. The recruitment processes will mainly use the mouth to mouth and online application to try and reduce the cost of recruitment and selection. However, when the organization decides to focus on differentiation as its tool of differentiation, the recruitment and the selection process will pay attention to different factors. The process will focus on employees that have a large pool of skills and competencies, a factor that is essential in ensuring that the products and services of the organization are slightly different from those of the competitors.

Diversity planning is also important in an organization. The diversity planning focuses on ensuring that the organization has the right mix employees. The process is vital in ensuring that the organization achieves its current and future objectives. Diversity planning will pay attention to the composition of the workforces on numerous factors including the skills mix, sustainability as well as flexibility of the workforce. The diversity palling process is directly affected by the focus of the organization. Whether the firm decides to either focus on cost or differentiation will affect the mix of the employees that the organization would like to have (Highhouse, 1997). For example, for an organization that chooses to focus on differentiation, it would wish to have a more diversified workforce as compared to an organization that pays attention to cost. The low-cost strategy will focus on a mix that that lowers the cost while the differentiation strategy will focus on developing a diverse workforce that will ensure that the organization achieves either perceived or real differentiation.

Under Porter’s generic business strategies, the firm chooses either to focus on cost or focus on differentiation. Also, the firm chooses whether to focus on the entire market or a specific section of the market. The focus of the organization has major influences on the human resource planning management and staffing policies that are adopted by the organization. More specifically, whether an organization decides to focus on a particular segment of the market or the entire market affects that assessment processes as well as the reliability and validity of the assessment process.

Broad differentiation leadership target a large market area and aims at gaining market advantage through differentiation across the entire industry. The strategy concentrates on one or more criteria in the market, and the strategy is always related to creating a premium price in the market. The differentiation strategy is about creating a premium price and then convincing the customers on why they should prefer such products as compared to the products of the other producers, through their prices may be low. This focus will affect the selections process as well as the reliability and validity of the selection assessment processes (Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2015). The selection assessment process for this case will focus on creating differentiation in a large area, and therefore the selection process will mainly focus on skills and competencies that will enable the organization achieves this objective. The differentiation criteria that can be used include superior products, branding, wide distribution channels as well as constant promotion, specifically focusing on a larger area for the case of broad differentiation leadership.

HRM Dissertation Topics
HRM Dissertation Topics

Under the differentiation focus, the organization divides the market into segments and decides to focus on one segment of the market. Therefore, for this case, the organization would both pick a small area in the market or a single product and then decide to focus on that area or product. The choice of the company will influence the selection assessment methods that will be applied by the firm. The organization will focus on the segment since they have seen an opportunity in the provision of goods and services in such an area and believes focusing on differentiation on the region will help the organization achieve competitive advantage. The difference between the broad differentiation and focus differentiation leadership is the target market, with the broad differentiation focusing on a large market while the focus differentiation pays attention to a segment of the market. Such specialization will have an impact on the employees’ assessments methods in the selection process (Clardy, 2008). The methods are mainly affected by what the methods decide to concentrate on. The concentration of the particular selection assessment methods will dictate how valid or reliable the methods used are.

As noted by Highhouse (1997), the organization is in fierce wars of getting the most talented workers from the labor market. They invest large sums of money with the aim of getting the best employees from the available pool of employees in the labor market. The strategies used include job advertisements and recruiting strategies. This is due to managers understanding that the pool of employees is essential to achieving the objectives of the organization. On this note, depending on the strategy of the organization, the organization will select a selection assessment that they feel is best for identifying employees that best fit what they are looking for. Numerous selection methods can be used by an organization depending on whether the organization has decided to focus on a larger market or specialize in a single segment of the industry. For organizations that mainly focus on differentiation, formal assessment methods are used. This is because the firms are keen on getting the right pool of employees that will push the agenda of the firm forward.

The specialization that the firm chooses to focus on regarding differentiation affects the job analysis in the selection process. There are procedures as noted by MacKenzie, Klaas, and McClendon (2012) that are used in the development of the selection criteria. The procedures are affected by the size of the market that the organization decides to focus on. The competencies and skill that each strategy looks for are different, a factor that affects the selection assessment procedures. One of the most used assessment methods is the Cognitive Ability Tests. The methods mainly focus on measuring the mental ability of the prospective employees.

Other criteria measured under the test includes the reasoning ability, reading comprehension as well as mathematical abilities. The cognitive selection assessment criteria have been used as a predictor of the job performance of the employees. For the case of this test, the broad differentiation leadership will focus on employees with higher mental abilities that can help the organization achieve competitiveness through differentiation in a larger segment of the market. On the other hand, as observed by Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller (2015), the focus differentiation leadership style will focus on abilities that will help the organization focus on a particular segment of the market. Whether the organization focuses on the larger area or a segment of the market will also affect the applicability of this selection assessment method. The broad differentiation strategy mainly relies on this selection criteria since it focuses on the ability of the employees to deliver the competitive criteria of the organization. The reasoning, mathematical and verbal abilities of the employee are essential for this strategy.

Other selection test Personality Tests, Biographical Data test, Integrity Tests, Structured Interviews, and Job Knowledge Tests. The job knowledge test is another selection test that is influenced by the strategy that is used by any particular firm. This selection assessment method measures the knowledge area that is required for a person to perform a certain job effectively. For this case, the broad differentiation technique will be paying attention to employees that can deliver differentiated products focusing on a large area.

For the case of focus selection assessment methods, it will pay much focus on the ability of the employees to focus on a given section of the market. The reliability and validity of this selection criteria are also affected by the strategy that the organization seeks to pursue. This criterion is mainly used by firms that seek to focus on a given region (Kulik, Roberson, and Perry, 2007). The firms under this test look for the best employees that know the particular segment. Therefore, this method is more valid and reliable under the focus differentiation leadership as opposed to broad differentiation leadership. When used under the broad differentiation leadership, the test focuses on employees who know a bigger segment of the market, which the firms seek to sell the differentiated products and services. Therefore, as shown by the analysis of the cognitive selection assessment and the job knowledge test, the focus of the organization regarding differentiation significantly influences the selection assessment methods as well as the reliability and validity of the methods.

References

Clardy, A. (2008). The strategic role of human resource development in managing core competencies. Human Resource Planning Development International, 11(2), 183-197.

Cole, M., Field, H., Giles, W., & Harris, S. (2004). Job type and recruiters’ inferences of applicant personality drawn from resume biodata: Their relationships with hiring recommendations. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(4), 363-367.

Heneman III, H., Judge, T., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. (2015). Staffing Organizations (8th Edition). Middleton, WI: Mendota House/McGraw-Hill.

Highhouse, S. (1997). Understanding and improving job-finalist choice: The relevance of behavioral decision research. Human Resource Planning Management Review, 7(4), 449-470.

Humphrey, S., Morgeson, F., & Mannor, M. (2009). Developing a theory of the strategic core of teams: A role composition model of team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology,   94(1), 48-61.

Kulik, C., Roberson, L., & Perry, E. (2007). The multiple-category problem: Category activation and inhibition in the hiring process. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 529-548.

MacKenzie, Jr., W., Klaas, B., & McClendon, J. (2012). Information use in counter-offer decisions: An examination of factors that influence management counter-offer decisions. Journal of Labor Research, 33, 370-387.

Pfeffer, J. (2007). Human Resource Planning from an organizational behavior perspective: Some paradoxes explained. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(4), 115-134.

Terpstra, D., & Rozell, E. (1997). Why some potentially effective staffing practices are seldom used. Public Personnel Management, 26(4), 483-495.

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MBA Operations Management Degree

MBA Operations Management

MBA Operations Management students will learn that in business there are always individuals that are responsible for the managerial and supervisory activities. For a business to operate in the most efficient and conducive manner, the mode of operation needs to be advanced and even overseen by someone else. The research described these individuals as managers. The core objective of all the business or organizations is always to maximize profit. For these to take places, all the operations of the firm need to be correctly managed. Each business is managed through various business functions in which each function is responsible for managing a certain aspect of the business and as I had said earlier the core objective of all businesses is to provide the correct and appropriate requirement to the customers by offering goods and services (Stevenson & Hojati, 2007). The president or the CEO of a company is faced with a daily marketing, operational, financial and information tasks. Marketing is a sector responsible for the generation of customer demand, sales and understanding customer’s wants and needs. Finance is responsible for the management of capital investments, the flow of cash and current assets. The information sector, on the other hand, is in charge of the constant stream of information in and out of business. The operating divisions are responsible for the management of the goods and services (Chase, Aquilano & Jacobs, 1998).

Importance of MBA Operations Management

Therefore it is imperative for the manager to equally distribute the available resources in the business so has to ensure all the sectors are covered. Some of the cited sources will agree with my line of thought if I argue out that all the areas of management are to be treated evenly since they depend on each other. However, in this essay, we are going to discuss a lot about operational control answering all the questions in short subtopics. The essay will begin with the introduction to the body and finally to the conclusion.

Describe the Role of Operations Management in the Firm and How This Role Can Lead To Competitive Advantage and Profitability

Operating management by definition refers to act of administering business practices to establish a high level of efficiency in business (Fitzsimmons, Fitzsimmons & Bordoloi, 2008). The method involves the conversion of labor and other factors of production into goods and services that are efficient enough to raise a maximum profit. An MBA Operations Management team has the duty to identify which of the factors of production best suits the company. They also work under a close surveillance and ensures that the cost of production is achieved once the products have been sold. Modern researchers refer to the task of being an operating manager as one of the hardest and the primary duty of an organization. Despite having other sectors, operation management forms the main reason why a business was created. It involves a lot of functions such as planning, coordination of activities, organizing and planning all the resources as they are channeled to goods and services as the end product.

A few scholars also argue that being that operating management has a management function; it, therefore, means that it can also be involved in managing equipment’s, people and technologies that are needed in the production process (Chase, Aquilano & Jacobs, 1998). Operation management includes two very core aspects or rather two terms that need to be wee understood before engaging into being an enterprise manager. The two terms are the supply chain management and the logistics both of which will be covered in the MBA Operations Management module.

MBA Operations Management student will learn that the two terms act as the foundation for the business management and to out compete other competitors; one is expected to understand what exactly is meant by the terms. Take for example following the trends of supply and chain management globally; this will enable the team to strategies accordingly thus meeting the customers demand. While in logistics, it is critical to understand the use of resources in a cost effective way since there has been a trend where the resources are scarce, and the demand of the customers is skyrocketed (Cases & Case, 2004).

Often writers and employers confuse the skill required for efficient operation management and those that are needed in the logistics and supply chain management (Fitzsimmons, Fitzsimmons & Bordoloi, 2008). One of the abilities that would be much appreciated is the consummate organizational skills. The completed organizational skills enhance efficiency and drive the productivity to another level as well. One must be able to understand the operations and coordination of activities in the firm to show effectiveness. However, operational management is a broad spectrum sector in a business and when well managed can lead to a lot of advantages to the firm. The scopes of executive management include decision making. Decision making involves making decisions on what type and kind of goods to be produced and with quick decision-making process the entire production process will be efficient and fast thus creating a lot of profits (Stevenson & Hojati, 2007).

Adding on the objective of the operation system, a complete operational objective must aim at a competitive advantage (Krajewski, Ritzman & Malhotra, 1999). A business or an organization is considered to have a competitive edge when its profitability is greater than the average profitability of the other competing companies of the same set of customers – This will be explained in the MBA Operations Management module. This can be achieved by emphasizing on specific areas of operation with the intent of meeting the client’s request. A good operating management should be able to perform the following; adaptability advantage, reliability advantage, and service delivery advantage. Through these, the company can make significant profits and become more efficient as expected.

Discuss Systems To Take Advantage Of Capital, Location, And Labor Differences So That Profits Are Maximized. MBA Operations Management

MBA Operations Management students will appreciate that the core objective of every organization is to make a profit and to minimize the cost of production. However, in the market as per the general information, we get that some specific companies often perform better than others (Stevenson & Hojati, 2007). This happens due to the difference in various points of concentration, especially during the production process. Companies differ in labor, capital, and their locations and this can lead to an advantage of a particular company against another. This variance in the factors of production is the reason why we have a best-performing company and another one that performs poorly. Therefore, every company has invested in specific systems that will fully exploit the potential of these factors of production thus favoring them. Operation management also plays a very general role of logistics during the system establishment (Chase, Aquilano & Jacobs, 1998).

Research covered in the MBA Operations Management module indicates that many successful companies apply the system of specialization of labor to help to maximize their profits (Cases & Case, 2004). Employees often have strengths and weaknesses, and those that are encouraged to yours their strengths are more loyal and engaged. Remember specialization does not only apply in the case of employees, but it also uses to material resources.

MBA Operations Management
MBA Operations Management

The best thing about specialization is that the workers get to choose what they love to do according to their ability and natural aptitude and this gives them the opportunity to perfect those skills thus saving a lot of production time. This prevents the delays that are created by the continuous shifting of workers from one point to another. Through this specialization, a company can make good use of his laborers thus increasing the profit levels. Labor specialization system works hand in hand with the division of labor in a company (Fitzsimmons, Fitzsimmons & Bordoloi, 2008). This will ensure that the duties are only performed according to the line of interest. Material specialization will mean that a particular material will be developed and adapted for a specific use.

On a regional basis, each region will produce the products that they are best suited. This can be applied to both locational and capital systems – This will become apparent on the MBA Operations Management module. A combination of material specialization and human specialization can lead to a maximized efficiency (Stevenson & Hojati, 2007). Capital systems can also be used to ensure that there is adequate and abundant production in the firm.

Through the use of capital goods, it will enable the producers to produce more efficiently and surplus output. The company’s capital should be invested in short term avenues that can translate excess profits within the shortest time, in this way we will be able to out compete effectively in the market. Priority is also another factor that needs to be considered especially when distributing capital in the business. Activities that have a real history on profit maximization are to be considered the first. On location of the company and its effects to profit maximization is also important as well. Location of the company should be based on specialization and distribution of raw materials (Chase, Aquilano & Jacobs, 1998). The movement of raw materials to the company should be profitable, and the same applies to consumer’s accessibility to the firm. In other words, the location of the company should be close to the market as well as the raw materials thus reducing unnecessary cost.

Outline how planning the operations system takes place and how international considerations are integrated into planning

As discovered in the MBA Operations Management module, planning can be defined as the process of analyzing, researching, anticipating and influencing change in society (Wacker, 1998). Various pieces of literature indicate that before an action is executed, it is important to draw a plan to avoid things falling apart as it was not planned. Therefore it is very healthy to plan for activities in a business environment before their execution. Planning is a role that is left for the managers and the executives to perform in a healthy business climate. Moreover, many other activities are incorporated in planning. A strategic planning of the operation can communicate what the institution is striving to become and it also maps the necessary step that is needed to get to the target. In the past, the operational plans of a company used to take an entire ten years but today companies even plan year by year (Fitzsimmons, Fitzsimmons & Bordoloi, 2008).

MBA Operations Management graduates state that planning is a procedures activity that involves gradual processes for the plans to be approved and exhibited appropriately. First, the vision of the organization needs to be stated and used as guidance during planning (Krajewski, Ritzman & Malhotra, 1999). The vision statement is approximately two to three sentences that spell out the intentions of the company; it shows how far the organization is willing to strive and reach. It is important to understand the organization right before the vision is created. At this point is important to create the image within the international standards that doesn’t violate any business law of operation. The next step in planning is to write the mission statement – This has been covered in the MBA Operations Management module through the year. Mission statement unlike the vision statement, explains what the organization exists and the path it will take to achieve its vision. Business wise, the mission statement is usually shorter than the mission statement.

A similar process is used in the construction of the mission statement. However, in the mission statement is where many people display false information. This is common with the organizations that deal with illegal products. The third process in planning is to perform a gap analysis. Gap analysis involves the comparison between the current operational situation and the vision of the company. This stage requires a lot of innovativeness and future oriented individuals. This is because there is need to compare the current situation and what the business hopes to be (Cases & Case, 2004). This process is much involving as it requires a collection of data and information outside the firm. The gaps that need to be examined include financial differences, customer relation, market share and internal systems.

Formulation of goals is the fourth step in the planning process. The goal can either be short term or long term. In many occasions, they are always referred to as SMART goal (Chase, Aquilano & Jacobs, 1998). The goals need to be implemented right from the managerial level to the employee level. Lastly, monitoring the progress of the plans. The goals should be followed in every quarter of the business year. This is usually done by inquiring from those who are responsible in such areas. The above processes are inclusive of other minor steps that are also of importance in the process of planning. The international laws are always considered when an organization is planning. Ethical consideration at an international level, morals, and other core values are also applicable (Stevenson & Hojati, 2007). During the operational planning, another important thing is the consideration of the international laws that govern all the business activities in the globe.

Describe some of the quantitative tools and techniques of Operations Management and how these are applied to formulate solutions to business problems.

In an organization, managers and the CEO always rely on their experiences in making decisions. However, in some situations, they would like to know what exactly the number saying is (Schmenner & Swink, 1998). In such circumstances, there is need to use quantitative methods especially when it involves an era of big data. The method, therefore, has been used by several operational analyzed to provide evidence that can guide in managerial, distribution, marketing, and personal decisions. The method also helps the executive team to predict what is expected to happen in future. This does not mean that the qualitative methods are point blanks, but they are also preferred in an individual situation. The manager is supposed to convert the inputs that are inclusive of the factors of productions into outputs (Fitzsimmons, Fitzsimmons & Bordoloi, 2008). The quantitative techniques and tool include regression analysis, linear programming, factor analysis, data mining and descriptive data analysis.

Descriptive Data Analysis

This process involves the use of pie charts, maps, graphs, frequency tables, histograms, control charts, run charts and Ishikawa diagrams. They are used to analyze mainly the descriptive data in the production process. Research indicates that this can be achieved by entering the data into software like EXEL, STATA, SPSS and other software used for the analysis (Cases & Case, 2004). This method can be used to identify the problems realized in the business and attended to accordingly.

Regression Analysis

This is a traditional method that is mainly used by economists and the operational analysis; regression involves the use of complex statistical equations that help to predict the future output and maybe find out the cause of the past problem. This can significantly benefit the business. The products of the regression equation are known as the predictors or the dependent variables. Research indicates that economists and businesses have used the regression formula to estimate effects of advertisement expenses in companies (Chase, Aquilano & Jacobs, 1998). Though the utilization of this method, we can determine the correlation between two products in the business.

Linear Programming

All organizations and companies are faced with the problem of scarce resources. This usually calls for a selective allocation of resources, and this often gives the manager a little bit of challenge. Linear programming, a conventional technique of management analysis and operational research (Schmenner & Swink, 1998). This is a mathematical program that helps us determine how to achieve optimum outcomes. It is also indicated that it can help in manufacturing and transport analysis.

Factors Analysis

This method is used to survey data and group statistical data accordingly. It explores all the avenues to find out the correlations and relationships (Krajewski, Ritzman & Malhotra, 1999). For example, the method can be used by market researchers to analyzed data on consumer’s consumption habits. This will then help the organization with the product knowledge as they will be able to determine what quantity they should produce.

Data Mining

Research indicates that this method has grown over the years. It is used to analyze a large amount of data. This has been used by big business like the Amazon to monitor consumer’s behavior.

Discuss business situations for which tools of Operations Management can be applied.

According to recent scholars, operation management involves directing and managing the physical and technical functions of an organization (Cases & Case, 2004). The skills and tools are used in the development, manufacturing, and production processed in the operation sector. The tools are used in the below-explained processes and will be covered off in the MBA Operations Management module:

Project Management

Project management is a common factor in both large and small companies, and it often takes a lot of time to plan. From the accessing the supplies and delegating the employees to all the shipment cost and all the activities involved in the manufacturing of the products. The project management tools can be used in an organization to strategically plan creates a budget, salaries, overhead costs and every detailed information about the business. The spreadsheet can be used to manage all the activities and track areas not covered (Stevenson & Hojati, 2007).

Quality Control and Inspection

Assessment of the products is a significant activity in the manufacturing process. Assessment is important because it will enable the business to track whether it has met its goals or not. Additionally, assessment should form part of the regular management process to ensure the project is completed (Wacker, 1998). Literature shows that it is always healthy to criticize the outcome and even establishes other realistic expectations.

Equipment Maintenance Policy

Depreciation is expected in any business and therefore maintained is expected as well. The equipment should, therefore, be regularly checked to ensure they are still in a position to function effectively. For example in a vehicle company, the cars are expected to be continuously serviced when the time arrives (Chase, Aquilano & Jacobs, 1998). Computers and hardware needed to be checked for virus and cleaned to ensure a stable functionality. The maintenance calendars can be created by the operation tools and equipment.

Product Scheduling

This is also another instance in which the tools can be effectively applied. Manufacturing companies complete their product arrangements to get them from the product establishment to the respective point of sales to the consumers. This can be done using plan long range projects. The process is usually effective especially when the company is dealing with a significant number of customers (Cases & Case, 2004).

Explain how control of operations must respond to changes in the international economy.

Today’s economy is far much different from the economy of the olden days (Krajewski, Ritzman & Malhotra, 1999). The globally economy changes gradually day by day and these calls for a relatively positive response from every organization that is associated with the international trade. In a business environment, it is the duty of the managing director responsible for the operation to ensure that the company adapts to the changing global economy. From the financial perspective, organizations are intentioned at making high profits, and therefore it should vary its price with the world’s market price. Through this method, it will be able to secure a large section of the consumers (Fitzsimmons, Fitzsimmons & Bordoloi, 2008). In other words, the operation must respond effectively to the change in prices of goods and services.

Control of process must also meet the consumer’s demand on an international scale. The quantity and quality of good should meet the customer’s demand. The service team must ensure that they manipulate the consumers into buying their products without going into loss. This can be done by forming business merges and also ensuring that a lot of awareness is created (Stevenson & Hojati, 2007). The company should also be in a position of responding to the technological changes in the international market. Recruiting young and innovative minds to handle the technological shifts in the organization. This can also be advanced through training the worker on how to cope up with the constant changes in the body.

Conclusion

MBA Operations Management students will learn and appreciate that operation management forms the center of many organizations has it is characterized by several functions including planning, staffing, and production. Through the correct exhibition of duties, it can lead to the creation of a lot of profits. Through specialization, excellent location and use of capital goods, an organization can make a lot of benefits depending on the available resources. However, for this to occur appropriate operational tools such as linear programming should be used to predict the future outcomes in the organization. Such tools are always essential in project management and even in quality assessment.

References

Cases, T., & Case, F. (2004). MBA Operations Management.

Chase, R. B., Aquilano, N. J., & Jacobs, F. R. (1998). Production and operations management. Irwin/McGraw-Hill,

Fitzsimmons, J. A., Fitzsimmons, M. J., & Bordoloi, S. (2008). Service management: Operations, strategy, and information technology (p. 4). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Krajewski, L. J., Ritzman, L. P., & Malhotra, M. K. (1999). MBA Operations management. Singapore: Addison-Wesley.

Schmenner, R. W., & Swink, M. L. (1998). On theory in operations management. Journal of operations management17(1), 97-113.

Stevenson, W. J., & Hojati, M. (2007). MBA Operations Management (Vol. 8). Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Wacker, J. G. (1998). A definition of theory: research guidelines for different theory-building research methods in operations management. Journal of operations management16(4), 361-385.

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Recommended Reading For MBA Operations Management Students

  • Operations Management for MBAs by Jack R Meredith and Scott M Shafer
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  • Operations and Supply Chain Management for MBAs by Jack R. Meredith and Scott M. Shafer
  • Operations Management by Prof Nigel Slack and Prof Alistair Brandon-Jones

I hope you enjoyed reading this post on MBA Operations Management. There are many other titles available in the business management and MBA dissertation collection that should be of interest to MBA students and academic professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of business such as strategy, leadership, international business, mergers and acquisitions to name a few. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Global Development China Dissertations

Global Development in China

According to Yang (2016), global development is a wider concept concerned with the level of development of a state weighed on an international scale. Reflecting on global development with China as our case study, we would consider the position in which China’s development can be placed on an international scale. On the other hand, social capital reflects on the relations which can guarantee a nation some competitive advantage over the other nations. Effectively employed social capital creates a good environment in which a nation can thrive (Fine, 2010). This essay focuses on the relationship between the communism and religion and how minorities are treated in China.

In the bid to increase the rate of development within a nation, the aspect of social capital cannot be overlooked. Besides being a core factor to establishing togetherness, social capital ensures all the components of an economy are made available. For example, in the case of China, religion offered many confrontations to the communist which makes it difficult for the leaders to rule with no ideological sanction. With social capital, the fundamental cultural will be incorporated in a nations’ development agenda that guarantee goodwill and commitment from the stakeholders (Fine, 2010).

With no doubt, democracy is the sole factor which contributes significantly to instilling cooperative civil societies and functional social capital. According to Fine (2010), democracy as the rule of the people by the people ensuring all the agenda of the community is presented for consideration during decision-making. Apparently, development is a very sensitive agenda that calls for participation of all the society members; with which a ruling government has high control over what a nation can achieve. Hence democracy comes in to harmonize and present the demands of people creating an effective civil society.

Lack of social capital offers a huge bearing on the ability of a state to develop. This aspect can be justified when a society is not oriented for the same purpose; some of the political leaders, in this case, are more self-centered other than providing the service they were destined by the citizens. Usage of patronage highly denotes that a society tends to put into power those that provide them with incentives. On the other hand, corruption kills efforts as most of the capacity to develop a nation ends up in the hands of a few individuals (Lovell, 2005).

Chinese Global Development

A state which has high development capacity is at a higher chance of establishing and maintaining better social capital. With the virtual of having a promising development direction, a nation will attract more social capital from neighboring nations which constitute significantly to the sustainable future development. Whenever a state capacity is directed towards achieving the development agenda, a greater pool of social capital will be influenced (Lovell, 2005).

In terms of global development, China is the largest united multi-national state which has about 56 different ethnic groups. Among them, 91.59% are the Han Chinese while the other remaining 55 ethnic groups comprise about 8.41% (Fifth National Population Census of 2000). 8.41% presents the minorities who live in China. With a population of about 1159.4 million, the largest ethnic group, Han Chinese is found in most of the parts of China. Nevertheless, they are mainly found in the lower and middle reaches of Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Songliao Plains (Fifth National Population Census of 2000).

In the world, generally, no single nation which can boast of establishing a very good record in relation to the issue of treating minority groups. China is not exceptional. The treatment of minority is not fairly evaluated on the basis of sociological and political standards. However, there exist policies that protect the minority from further exploitation. The minorities in China are protected under the regional autonomy to settle in multiple regions. Such regions include; Ningxia, Tibet, Xinjiang, Guangxi, and Mongolia (Guo, 2008).

According to China’s State Council, China has maintained ancient forms of religion, such as Taoism and Buddhism. However, with increasing radicalization, the country’s belief system is taking a new edge and becoming increasingly diverse. About 61% of the Chinese population comprises the people who are strict followers of Atheism, 26% are followers of Confucian Philosophies, 6% adheres to Buddhist, 2% adheres to Christianity, and about 2% follow Islamic belief. These religions, however, raised many traction with communistic policies as every branch hold a diverse view on work, religion, and political leadership.

In conclusion, global development, social capital and civil societies are a perfect combination that a nation can use to make leverage of development capacity. With an efficient social capital, a nation is at an upper hand to attain its development agenda compared to another that has no goodwill with its social capital. In regard to China, the existence of many ethnic groups has ensured a huge pool of social capital which can be attributed to its massive growth and development. Corruption and patronage can be blamed for dragging a country’s development agenda backward. Whenever political regime is not oriented towards delivering the demands of the citizens, ethnicity will be bound to occur since there is no uniting factor to bring the people together for a common goal and increase Global Development ambitions.

References

Fifth National Population Census (2000) China’s Population Demography and Ethnic Groups.

Fine, B. (2010). Global Development China, Social Capital versus Social History. In Theories of Social Capital: Researchers Behaving Badly (pp. 90-109) Pluto Books.

Guo, X. (2008) State and Ethnicity in China’s Southwest and Global Development in China. Leiden: Brill.

Lovell, D. (2005) Corruption as a Transitional Phenomenon: Understanding Endemic Corruption in the Post-Communist States. In Haller D. & Shore C. (Eds.), Corruption: Anthropological Perspectives (pp. 65-82) Pluto Books.

Yang, F. (2016) “From Made in China to Create in China”: Nation Branding and the Global-National Imaginary. In Faked in China: Nation Branding, Counterfeit Culture, and Globalization (pp. 31-63) Indiana University Press.

Global Development in China
Global Development in China

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MBA Dissertation – Chinese Business Culture – This dissertation aspires to contribute to an understanding of the nature and pace of change in China’s business culture and the implications of such change for the country’s business environment and global development. China’s emergence as a nascent economic superpower is the subject of increasing attention and focus among contemporary observers of international business and international relations. The effects of China’s transition from communism to capitalism have become increasingly pervasive and far-reaching. China’s transformation has, however, been accompanied by an underlying tension between on the one hand the need to embrace foreign concepts and practices in the interest of economic development and on the other a wariness of the outside world, which is attributable to a distinctive cultural heritage and a legacy of foreign exploitation and subsequent isolationism in China’s modern history. This dialectic of modernity and tradition raises interesting questions about China from a business culture perspective. The search for an optimal balance between continuity and change is an ongoing challenge, which every society faces.

Dissertation Comparative Analysis Into India and China as I.T. Outsourcing Destinations – Globalization of economies over the past decade has given rise to intense global competition and has compelled business managers to improve their quality and to reduce the cycle time in introducing new products and services. Improvement in the field of telecommunication and data transmission has fostered the growth of the phenomenon of Outsourcing in which corporations are seen to outsource their non core processes to low wage economies like India and China. This is done on a very large scale by global corporations, not only to take advantage of the labor arbitrage but also to enable them to concentrate on their core processes, thereby resulting in reduced lead-time in the introduction of new products. The main research problem is to compare the two countries with an aim to finding out which of these economies is better poised to seize an increasing share in the global IT-ITES operations while taking global development into account.

Investigation into the Real Estate Industry in China – Real Estate Industry (REI) is pivotal to China’s economic development which relates to people benefit, entrepreneur development and country safe. REI relates with many industries and develops into one of major industry. Development of China REI on the one hand lacks of funds and exists on the need for foreign capital; on the other hand, the existence of international hot money ensures adequate space for foreign capital to stay into. With China’s accession to WTO, it gradually increases the degree of opening up in REI, its opportunities and challenges both exist. REI is considered as China’s last violent industry in many institutions’ and individuals’ eyes. Therefore, foreign investors have accelerated efforts to develop China REI. However, the inflow of foreign capital is a double-edged sword and has both positive and negative effects existing. To REI, many research in foreign investment has been done, the research of foreign investment in Real Estate has been rarely done. REI has become more and more important in China, so it is necessary to make a research on this subject.

International Business Entry Mode in China – Today economic globalization is far more intensive, rapid and to develop the domestic economy through utilization of foreign capital flow is becoming a country’s common objective. Foreign investment becomes an essential part for the healthy growth of the host country’s economy, but the attitudes and the policies taken by the host countries especially the developing countries are varying. Therefore it is important to learn and know the attitudes and policies of the host countries for foreign firms before making investment. In addition, the country’s culture and market environment greatly affect different types of entry modes. This dissertation explored the characters of different types of entry modes and seeking through various aspects that affect the decision making on choosing the right form of entry mode in China. Now China becomes the largest country in attracting foreign capitals among developing countries. A comprehensive examination and adjustment of China’s strategies in utilization of foreign capitals has been an important topic that cannot be ignored.

External Finance and Firm Performance : Evidence From China – The important role that financial institutions play in promoting firm growth and firm performance has been demonstrated by substantial empirical research based on both cross-country and within-country studies. However, firms have achieved considerable success in many developing economies where the financial sector is far from established. The experience of China’s economic development seems to present a counter-example to the literature on financial institutions and development. Despite inadequacies in the country’s formal financial institutions such as banks and stock markets, China has been one of the fastest growing economies in the world. This appears to suggest that alternative channels of finance have been a substitute for formal financial systems and supported the rapid development of China’s firms. One widely suggested mechanism in the literature is that firms in developing economies such as China rely to a large degree on alternative external financing, such as trade credit and foreign capital.

What challenges Textile structure of Shandong Province Face in the Developmental process of Industries? A Study of Textile Industries in Shandong Province China? – In the modern era of global development, China’s influence in the world economy was minimal until the late 1980s. At that time, economic reforms begun after 1978 began to generate significant and steady growth in investment, consumption and standards of living. China now participates extensively in the world market and private sector companies play a major role in the economy. Since 1978, hundreds of millions have been lifted out of poverty, according to China’s official statistics; the poverty rate fell from 53% in 1985 to 2.5% in 2010. However, 10.8% of people still live on less than $1 a day (PPP-adjusted).The infant mortality rate fell 39.5% between 1995 and 2010, and maternal mortality by 41.1%.Access to telephones during the period rose more than 94-fold, to 57.1%. China has generally implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion. As its role in world has steadily grown, its importance to the international has also increased apace. China’s foreign trade has grown faster than its GDP for the past 25 years. China’s growth come both on huge state investment in infrastructure and heavy industry and from private sector expansion in light industry instead of just exports, whose role in the economy appears to have been significantly overestimated. In 2008 thousands of private companies closed down and the government announced plans to expand the public sector to take up the slack caused by the global in the capitalist world. Shandong Province as an important component of China’s textile industry, global development, its development process and challenges has the value of research and study.

Analysis into the Consumer Behaviour Characteristics of the Chinese Automobile Industry – China is the biggest consumer and producer of automobiles in the world today. In spite of this, there has not been enough research performed in the field of Chinese consumer behaviour within automobiles industry in China. This particular study investigates the significance of country image and country of origin in Chinese consumer purchase intentions and evaluations of automobiles. The respondents were located in different cities of China who were surveyed. Conjoint analysis had been used for deriving the significance of country of origin compared to other attributes in making preference judgments whereas multiple regressions were used for deriving the significance of country image in the purchase intentions. It was seen that country of origin is as significant as brand name and more significant than safety, reliability and price in making product evaluations. It was also seen that workmanship, reliability and superior prestige were the most significant reasons for the purchase preferences of the Chinese respondents for the foreign automobiles compared to the Chinese brands.

MBA中国学位论文 – 中国商业学位论文

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Modular Construction Dissertation

The Benefits and Uptake of UK Modular Construction

The objective of this dissertation is to examine the size and dynamics of the UK modular industry now whilst exploring the government legislation and policies impacting its growth and uptake. A review on how the industry is set to evolve and grow in future is undertaken by study of present literature and qualitative interview analysis. The dissertation goes on to examine the benefits that will occur in the future as a result of this growth, both to the industry as a whole and at a more detailed level the modular construction industry.

The UK construction industry has continued to grow year on year since 2012 with an increased activity in commercial building, the housing market and civil engineering infrastructure. With this steady growth construction firms have been more willing to invest and expand to meet demand as government incentives such as the ‘help to buy’ scheme has made the housing market especially buoyant, helping to boost the whole industry but especially the modular construction sector.

The construction market is forecasted to slow in growth throughout 2018 however the construction industry will still receive the most investment of any major industry due to the rise in demand for office blocks, infrastructure and housing. With this steady growth it is to be expected that modular construction within the industry will also increase in correlation with this. The benefits of modular construction have been well documented. Its use throughout the history of the UK construction industry started with the introduction of prefabricated sections which were fast to install and avoided longer assembly times on site. The ability for offsite fabrication to reduce construction time has been seen as a benefit since the skill shortages and large scale need for fast construction that was created after the end of World War II. However, at this time the technology was not in place to provide this combination of high quality building and faster programme and so it fell out of favour with contractors and clients alike who were not willing to compromise quality with speed.

This bad image through the ages has left a stigma on pre-fabrication in the construction industry which developers are trying to shift in order to access the rewards offered by it. More recently however technological advances have now improved to accommodate a combination of quality and speed however uptake is still not as high as one might expect for such a seemingly revolutionary technology.

Dissertation Objectives

  • Investigate the government policies that promotes the use of modular construction in the UK industry
  • Research what benefits modular construction can provide to the current housing shortage faced by the UK
  • Investigate the economic benefits that a more active modular construction industry would bring
  • Investigate areas of future expansion for modular construction, exploring less conventional methods of application
Modular Construction Dissertation
Modular Construction Dissertation

Dissertation Contents

1: Introduction
Research background
Research Gap
Aim
Research Objectives
Dissertation Structure

2: Literature Review
An overview of modular construction
What is modular construction?
Benefits of modular construction
How large is the modular construction industry
Government legislation affecting the modular construction industry
Government strategy pushing modular construction
Modular building framework
Modular construction to help with skill shortage
To what extent can modular construction alleviate the UK housing shortage?
Previous impact of modular construction on the housing sector
Benefits that modern modular construction can bring to the UK housing shortage
What areas of future expansion are there for modular?
Hybrid modular systems
Removing limitations of delivering modules to site
Modular construction in civil engineering
What benefits will a more active modular construction industry bring
Research questions

3: Research Methodology
Research Approach
Data Collection
Primary Data
Secondary Data
Selection of Data Collection Method
Interview Design
Interviewee Sampling
Ethical Considerations
Limitations

4: Analysis and Results
Thematic analysis
Interview Structure
Interviewee profiles
Analysis and results
The importance of modular construction
How important government policy is on construction trends
Experience of working with modular construction
Making modular a more attractive alternative in the industry
The future of modular construction

5: Discussion
Discussion of objectives
Discussion of research questions

6: Conclusion and Recommendations
Conclusion on the Results
Limitation of the Research
Further Research Recommendation

Appendix
Interview Questions

View This Dissertation Here: Quantity Surveying Dissertation UK Modular Construction

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Intellectual Property Business Environment

Intellectual Property

The existing competitive business environment requires the entrepreneurs to identify unique problem-solving strategies to make them overcome competition. Hence, it is vital for them to protect their exclusive creation from other parties who can benefit from the knowledge. Plainly, intellectual property is a new invention that results from the creativity of an individual who has full entitlement to it. Such ideas need protection to deter other parties from using them in making a profit without the consent of the owner. Particularly, the possessors need a statutory protection of their products by registering them to ensure that they can legally claim the ownership of the invention. Different intellectual properties provide complete cover to various kinds of new ideas. Considerably, Sam had an intellectual property right over the list he created despite committing a tort by shoving Natalie.

Specifically, there are four broad categories of intellectual property which include copyright, patent, trademark, and trade secret (Posner, 2005, p. 66). Markedly, copyright deals with the original works of authors, film producers, or programmers. Thus, they include books, movies, computer programs, and articles among others. Ideally, a patent is an invention of an object that improves its performance. On the other hand, trademark involves symbols, words, or a phrase that uniquely identifies a person or a company. Finally, trade secrets are secret formula or information possessed by an individual to gives him or her competitive advantage over others. Sadly, the information that falls under this category are not original enough to merit the protection of copyright, neither are they novel to sufficiently guarantee a patent protection. Nevertheless, the endorsement of the federal law limits the theft of trade secrets (Kinsella, 2001, p. 5). Agreeably, Sam’s client list falls into this category since it gave him an advantage over other employees and he needed to keep it private, justifying his actions by copying the files without the knowledge of the authority.

Essentially, the law provides for the best plans to incorporate in safeguarding the fresh ideas that other people may steal. As in the case with Sam, he had his client list that he did not want any other party to access. Since he did not want to follow the lengthy procedure that the law requires in registering newfound knowledge, he decided to keep the data without the assistance of the authority. Unfortunately, his choice proved costly because he stored the data in the workstation of ABC Paper Corp. Interestingly, keeping the data in the computers of the company gave the firm a right to the information therein (Posner, 2005, p. 68). Therefore, leaving his client list in that location granted the company all the rights over the details in his file. Consequently, Sam was to communicate with the relevant authorities regarding the information stored on their computers rather than sneaking into the room of equipment and plugging in his drive. Thus, the first unethical act committed by Sam was accessing the room and the computers without authorization.

Moreover, plugging a drive into the computer of the firm was unethical. Most enterprises forbid employees from plugging in external drives into the company’s computer system since such actions lead to loss of valuable information, access to private data, the spread of malicious software, or spying the network. Given that Sam was committing a prohibited activity, Natalie had to act. Since he suspected that he had committed an offense, he resolved to run away instead of explaining his actions to Natalie. As a result, Sam’s behavior confirmed to the boss that he had been compromising the security of the company. Unfortunately, he shoved Natalie aside in her attempt to prevent him from escaping. Undoubtedly, all the negligent acts of Sam were unethical. Henceforth, although he sought after his client list, the procedures he used convicted him for criminal activities.

Intellectual Property Business Environment
Intellectual Property Business Environment

In essence, the government has established laws to protect the public from undue injuries. Accordingly, tort laws safeguard and handle the treatment of the injured individuals due to the recklessness of another party. A tort occurs when a person inflicts an injury on another person and the latter sues for the damages caused (“Babcock Law Firm,” 2017). Usually, an injury case can result in different categorizations that require the law to have defined procedures for handling each occurrence. As a result, tort lawsuits are the largest group of civil litigation (“Babcock Law Firm,” 2017). However, there is three generalization of the types of injuries handled by the law namely negligence, intentional torts, and strict liability.

Accordingly, intentional torts result from the purposeful engagement in an activity that can cause damage to another person. For instance, initiating a fight against another person exposes the offender to an intentional tort. On the other hand, negligence tort illustrates the every citizen has the moral code of conduct that one should follow. Failure to adhere to such rules poses a risk to other individuals and can lead to injuries or damages. The occurrence of these injuries does not rely on the planned activities of the offender but the carelessness of the party and failure to grant the obligation owed to another. Agreeably, this is the most common type of tort (“Babcock Law Firm,” 2017). Undoubtedly, Sam committed negligence tort when he shoved Natalie aside while escaping interrogation. He did not intend to injure her, but the push caused the concussion. In truth, Sam failed to follow the procedures of safeguarding his data and acquiring the same. Therefore, he resolved to other activities that threatened another party, Natalie. Truly, he was the only offender who committed a tort.

Most of Sam’s actions subjected him to criminal liability. Specifically, he plugged in his external drive to the computer without the authorization of the firm. After that, he decided to run away when the boss arrived to investigate the matter. He was supposed to explain the issue to Natalie instead of fleeing. Escaping made him guilty of committing an unknown offense. During his escape he shoved Natalie aside, committing the negligence tort. Hence, due to the illegal entry into the company’s workstation, copying the data, and causing injury to Natalie, Sam was criminally liable for his acts.

All in all, intellectual property ensures that the new works of people are safe from access by other individuals. Accordingly, Sam’s client list merited trade secret protection since it gave him a competitive advantage over others. Throughout his dealings, Sam faced criminal liabilities which include a negligence tort when he caused injury to Natalie. Therefore, his poor plans in protecting his intellectual property put him at risk of prosecution.

References

Kinsella, N. S. (2001). Against intellectual property. Journal of Libertarian Studies, 15(2), 1-53.

Posner, R. A. (2005). Intellectually property: The law and economics approach. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(2), 57-73.

The 3 different types of tort law. (2017). The Babcock Law Firm LLC.

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