Social Media Marketing

A Study on the Effectiveness of Social Media Marketing on Sales in Retail Industry: A case study of Tesco (2016)

Social Media Marketing is one of the major marketing tools for business firms in the current stream of technological advancement though the concept of social media marketing is not so much old in the comparison of other marketing approaches that are practiced by the business firms. Since the social marketing media is a comparatively newer approach for the marketers there are enough questions among the people who intend to use it.

One the major issues that the social media marketing raises is the effectiveness of this approach on the sales of a firm. This dissertation aimed to find out a reasonable answer to the issue and the objectives are set in the course of deducting a set of outcomes which can lead to achieving the aim of the dissertation . The dissertation is segmented in six different chapters each of which has its own benefits and merits. The first chapter is related with the background of choosing such an issue and the rationale that can make the issue so much of being in a discussion.

The second chapter is related with the prior research and findings which have a substantial amount of effect on from choosing the issue of research and conducting the research. The third chapter is on the research methodology discussion and the discussion on most applicable methods that can lead to the research to success. Afterwards, the chapter of results comes in where the results are discussed.

The final two chapters are about analysis and concluding the research. At this point, it is quite imperative to state that the research is based on the responses from a sample of 50 people residing in the UK. The sample is selected using a random sampling method. The results are calculated with the SPSS 16.0 version and Microsoft Excel. The approach used in the research is a deductive approach.

Social Media Marketing Dissertation

For achieving the aim different types of statistical tools are used which includes three measures of central tendency along with the standard deviation, correlation analysis, regression analysis and ANOVA. The central tendency measures give an image of somewhat agree category result and percentage analysis shows similar effects. The correlation analysis shows sometimes though a very little degree of relativity, a good amount of relativity remains among the variables. The regression analysis which is considered as the core of all analysis has shown results that helped to reject the null hypotheses except for the brand awareness variable. These results have led to some important insights that can be very helpful for both the company Tesco and for further research on the topic. This research contains some important discussion on one of the most talked issues of the current marketing world. The number of researches done on the issue seems to be meager in terms of the presence in the global village. Moreover, the insights and analysis that are done in the research dissertation can be helpful for firms that are newcomers in the market and desire to make a mark in the retail industry.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To critically evaluate if there is any relationship between the SMM process and sales of Tesco
  • To critically evaluate how SMM process helps to build up brand awareness of Tesco
  • To critically assess the relationship of SMM process and the brand loyalty of Tesco
  • To critically assess how SMM process helps Tesco to maintain a firm customer relationship

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Corporate Accounting Dissertations

Corporate Accounting – Significance, Application and Standards

Corporate Accounting is one of the major parts in financial management procedures of an organization. Accounting practices are necessary for a company in order to show how an organization has been successfully operating over the course of the year and making future plans for budgets and expenditures (Das, 2011). However, it is studied that accounting is a broadest term which have several branches and areas for different business and for different purposes. In which some of them are financial accounting, cost accounting and corporate accounting (Malwitz, 2008). However, this paper is merely focusing on defining the corporate accounting by incorporating corporate accounting theories, significance, concepts, legislation, applications and standards.

Corporate accounting is a special branch of accounting which can be defined as the quantity, recording and interpretation of financial information and data of a limited company which can be either a public limited company or a joint stock company (Fyler, 2013; Ijiri, 1980). Moreover, it is found that corporate accounting is an accounting which is particularly for larger companies since smaller-scale companies, sole traders or partnerships business cannot implement corporate accounting to maintain their financial record or information.

It is because smaller-scale companies, sole traders or partnerships businesses have not much requirements and demands in order to fulfil the accounting standards and to meet with accounting principles (Ijiri, 1980). On the other hand, large scale organizations or limited companies have sufficient financial information and data that they have to show to the general public and regulatory bodies therefore they have to maintain proper financial records with the help of corporate accounting (Fyler, 2013; Ijiri, 1980; Das, 2011).

Furthermore, it is studied that corporate accounting also deals helps the limited companies or large scale organizations in term of preparing final accounts, maintaining cash flow statements, analysing and interpreting financial results of the respective company particular for any specific events such as amalgamation, absorption, and helps company in preparation of consolidated balance sheets (Paton & Littleton, 1986).

By reviewing several studies, it is identified that the corporate accounting has some basic principles and foundations on which the overall accounting practices are based. The key foundations of corporate accounting include Accounting Cycle, Double Entry Accounting, and financial statements (Bennett, 2013). In which Accounting Cycle involves the regular recording and reporting of financial data or information. The accounting cycle completed within a specific period of time as per the policies of companies. Usually, it completed in a month or year.

Corporate Accounting Cycle

The accounting cycle begins by recording all financial transactions such as cash exchanges or debits and credits by using a general ledger approach. General Ledger is a precise and clear summary of all accounts including payable and receivable (Bennett, 2013; Ijiri, 1980). The next stage of accounting cycle is the adjustment of general ledger which can be done by taking items or entries which are not the direct transactions, such as bad debt, taxes and accrued interest. Thus, it is a key area therefore accountants must ensure that revenues and expenditures are match up as per each accounting period. In case, of accountant failed to do this properly, it can lead to confusion over financial irregularities and at the end of the period it can create confusion in overall revenue and total profit for the period (Bennett, 2013; Ijiri, 1980).

The second key element of the corporate accounting is double entry accounting, which can be defined as the standard accounting concept used by limited companies or large scale organizations. The basic of double entry accounting is based on the notion that for all actions there is an equal and opposite reaction (Bennett, 2013; Ijiri, 1980). It means that when a financial gain takes place in any part of financial statement, it should be escorted by a loss somewhere else on the balance sheet.

Corporate Accounting Dissertations
Corporate Accounting Dissertations

Suppose that of if a limited purchases a product to sell, so it will show the decrease in cash in financial statement and in the same way it will show the increase in inventory of certain organization (Bennett, 2013; Ijiri, 1980). Finally, the financial statement is another key aspect of corporate accounting, which is refers to the financial reports prepared at the end of the company’s financial year.

This financial report basically includes the cash flow statements, balance sheets and income statements for the previous 12 months. The financial reports of an organization show the summary and of all financial activity including overall profits or losses incurred by respective company (Bennett, 2013; Ijiri, 1980). Furthermore, it has been examined that the financial report helps accountant of a limited company in terms of preparing tax returns, while stockbrokers and investors use the same financial reports for the comparison between respective company and international business performance.

In addition to this, it is found that the financial reports also help the managers of certain company in terms of a assessing the performance of the company as well as in making proper plan and budget for company to successfully execute its operation in upcoming year. Following is the table that represents the different accounting terms used in UK and USA (Joos & Lang, 1994):

Table 1 – Accounting Terms as Per UK and USA Standards

United States of America United Kingdom
Balance sheet/Statement of financial position Balance sheet
Inventory Stock
Treasury Stock Own Shares
Receivables Debtor
Payables Creditors
Provisions Accounting for loss contingencies
Stocks Shares
Retained Earnings Profit and loss Reserves
Paid in surplus Shares premium account
Management’s premium of operations Operating review
Management’s discussion of financial resources and liquidity Financial Review
Fiscal year Financial year
Income statement/Statement of earning Profit and loss account
Revenue/sales Turnover
Affiliated company Associated company
Earnings per share Net income per share
Scrip dividend Stock dividend
Balance sheet Balance sheet/Statement of financial position
Tangible fixed assets Property, plant and equipments

In addition to the above, it is identified that in most of the limited companies particularly in UK (United Kingdom) and USA (United States of America), for the preparation of financial reports or execute corporate accounting practices specific accounting standards are used which are only set in common law (Joos & Lang, 1994). However, in different countries, it has been studied that the corporate accounting are different from each other therefore different countries uses different accounting regulations in order to maintain financial records and for the preparation of yearly financial reports.

Furthermore, it has been examined that throughout the world there are two types of accounting standards are used which includes the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) (Young & Wiley, 2011; Everingham, et al., 2007).In which International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) provides rules for business affairs from the global perspective in which the accounts and financials of a company can be understood and compared across international boundaries (Young & Wiley, 2011; Everingham, et al., 2007). On the other hand, General Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) provides rules to collect and interpret financial data for multinational competitors with the help of financial statement (Young & Wiley, 2011; Everingham, et al., 2007).

International Financial Reporting Standards

It is further examined that the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are mostly adopted by the companies operating throughout the European Union. Beside it, the organization in several countries like Australia, South Africa and Russia are also now widely followed IFRS accounting standards for the recording of financial information and analysing and interpreting financial data. In contrast, specifically in the United States limited companies are bound to utilize the GAAP accounting standards for all kinds of accounting practices (Young & Wiley, 2011; Everingham, et al., 2007).

Thus, it has been concluded that, the corporate accounting system allow companies to successfully maintain financial data as per their company policies, regulated accounting standards and accounting principles or laws determined by common law.

References

Bennett, R. (2013) Corporate Accounting Basics. Free Press.

Das, B. (2011) Is Corporate Accounting a science or an art? Accounting, pp. 1-1.

Everingham, G. K., Everingham, G., Kleynhans, K., Posthumus, L., Kleynhans, J. E., & Posthumus, L. C. (2007) Principles of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice. Juta and Company Ltd.

Fyler, T. (2013) What Is A Definition Of Corporate Accounting

Ijiri, Y. (1980) An Introduction to Corporate Accounting Standards: A Review. The Accounting Review, 620-628.

Joos, P., & Lang, M. (1994) The Effects of Accounting Diversity: Evidence from the European Union. Journal of Accounting Research, 32, 141-168.

Malwitz, M. (2008) Financial Consolidation and Reporting Solutions: Adding Value to Enterprise Resource Planning Systems. Oracle Paper, pp. 1-21.

Paton, W. A., & Littleton, A. C. (1986) An Introduction to Corporate Accounting Standards. Amer Accounting Assn.

Young, E. &., & Wiley, J. (2011) International GAAP 2012 – Generally Accepted Accounting Practice Under International Financial Reporting Standards. John Wiley & Sons.

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Media and Culture Dissertation Press Freedom in Turkey

Press Freedom in Turkey

How free is the freedom of expression for the Turkish journalists in the Turkish press?

Dissertation Title: Press Freedom in Turkey. Freedom of the press is an invaluable part of a democratic society. Many liberal nations allow free exchange of information without restrictions. Over the recent years, a decline in press freedom was reported by international organizations in Turkey. Violation of international human rights and Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights in Turkey is one of the prime reasons of investigation. In this research, twenty-two journalists were interviewed to extract information on the freedom of the press in Turkey. The data was analysed using triangulation. The results indicate a growing dissident of the journalists union in Turkey due to the lack of reporting freedom on critical issues such as politics, religion and terrorism. Reports also suggest a global backsliding of the government to fulfil its promises of democratizing the country. The findings of this paper match with the observations of international whistle-blower organizations such as Amnesty International, Reporters without Borders and Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). The research performed in this paper helps to bridge the gap of understanding between media and the people of Turkey. The research highlights the effects of media bias on a society and presents recommendations to improve reporting freedom in Turkey.

Press Freedom Turkey Dissertation
Press Freedom Turkey Dissertation

The dissertation is written to conduct research among Turkish journalists and present the findings. The primary aim of the paper is to investigate the behavior of the government towards journalists in Turkey. This goal can be understood as the level of freedom, journalists have in writing what they want under observance of the Turkish press. Freedom of expression among journalists means that they are able to present the facts and figures without filtering any information and leaving it to the public to decide and create their own viewpoints. A comparative approach towards estimation of cases reported by international organizations and my personal observations, and field research with in-depth interviews and written interviews with journalists of the Turkish press will help to answer the hypothesis at the end of the research. Assuming that the challenges of working as an independent reporter in the Turkish press and media could have increased over the recent decade, the paper will present the findings in the later sections.

Apart from the primary question, researcher will form and present a list of secondary questions that create a strong case for the primary question and subsequent evaluation of the hypothesis. Secondary questions are developed to answer the primary question as they are more accessible and straightforward to analyze. The secondary questions are:

  • What is freedom of expression and why is it important and what entails it?
  • What is the current situation of Turkish journalists and how is the media landscape in Turkey evolving?
  • Are there any changes in the Turkish freedom of expression over in the last decade?
  • Are there sensitive topics to write about as journalists in Turkey and what are these topics?
  • What are the international rules and regulations when it comes to freedom of expression in the press?
  • Which legal sanctions are threatening freedom of expression and press freedom according to the Turkish penal codes?
  • What do international institutions and organizations say about freedom of press in Turkey?
  • What does Turkish journalist say about their own press freedom in Turkey?

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Promotional Mix Dissertation

Marketing Dissertation – The Impact of Promotional Mix Elements on Consumers Purchasing Decisions – A Case Study of M&S

Marketing Dissertation Title: Impact of Promotional Mix Elements on Consumers Purchasing Decisions. The promotion mix is one of the major elements of 4ps of marketing and day by day companies seem to be giving a lot of emphasis on the promotion mix. The main objective of using the tools of promotion mix is to influence the consumer’s purchase decisions. Influencing the purchase decisions of consumers is not an easy task as there are many variables like emotional variables that turn into brand loyalty or brand attachment. The way a customer beholds at the product greatly depends on the promotional mix. At first, a potential consumer must know there is a product or service that can fulfill the needs of the consumer after consuming the product.

The potential consumers are approached with promotion mix as from making consumers aware of keeping track of each and every consumer is done with the help of elements of the promotion mix. Thus, the issue related to the promotion mix elements’ effectiveness on the consumer purchasing process is quite a burning question to be answered.

Promotional Mix Dissertation
Promotional Mix Dissertation

For this dissertation, the research issue is related to the effectiveness of the promotion mix on the consumer purchase decision as companies adopt promotion mix to influence the purchase decision of the consumers. The literature review has helped the researcher to identify the dependent and independent variables. The dependent variable is consumer purchasing decision. The independent variables are advertising, public relation, personal selling and sales promotion.

The way the research is designed and the results to a have a solution of the research problem identify the positivism as the research paradigm for this research work. This paper is conducted by deductive research approach. The research is a survey based case study and consumers of M&S are interviewed with predesigned questionnaire.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To critically find out the independent variables in the promotion mix of M&S
  • To critically investigate the variable in the promotion mix of M&S
  • To critically find out the relationship between the dependent variables and the independent variables
  • To find out a realistic set of recommendation on the findings of the research

Dissertation Contents

1: Introduction
Problem Statement
Background of the Research
Research Question
Rationale for the Study
Research Issue
Reasons behind the Issue
Research Aim
Research Objectives
Hypotheses

2: Literature Review
Definitions
Promotional Mix
Consumer Purchase Decisions
Advertising
Public Relationship
Sales Promotion
Personal Selling
The Breakdown of Promotional Mix
Types of Advertising and Advertising Media
Types of Public Relationship Management
Types of Sales Promotion
Types of Personal Selling
The Influence of Promotional Mix on Consumer Purchase Decisions
Conclusion

3: Research Methodology
Research Philosophy
Research Approach
Research Purpose
Research Method
Research Strategy
Data Selection
Ethical Considerations
Limitations of the Study
Future Scope for the Study

4: Results
The Measures for Central Tendency Measures
Coefficient of Correlation
Regression Analysis
Reliability Test with Cronbach’s Alpha
One-Way ANOVA

5: Findings of the Analysis

6: Conclusions and Recommendations
Conclusions
Recommendations

References

Appendix
Questionnaire

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Employee Benefits

Relationship between Employee Benefits and Employee Satisfaction at Google

This dissertation contains the findings of a research project that investigated the relationship between employee benefits and employee satisfaction at Google. The performance of an organization highly depends on how motivated the employees are as this directly impacts on the efforts of the employees. Satisfied and motivated employees would put in the right efforts that will help an organization achieve the set objectives and goals. Therefore, this dissertation explores the types of employee benefits at Google, employee satisfaction and the impact of employee satisfaction on the operations of Google. This study has centred on exploratory research process rather than analytical research as the topic under research is itself exploratory. The findings presented are based on exhaustive questionnaires and interviews with 70 respondents being employees and remaining 30 respondents being managers respectively.
Employee Benefits-Dissertation
Employee Benefits-Dissertation
The interviews were recorded, decoded and analysed using descriptive statistics mainly the SPSS. On the other hand, the questionnaires were issued to the employees and after being filled, they were analysed using the descriptive statistics. The findings in both cases were presented graphically for better and easier understanding. In terms of the sex and age of workers, the study showed that most workers are male with a higher percentage of 55 as compared to the female percentage of 45 although most of these workers are young with an age bracket of 31-40 years. However, 78.3% of employees believe that the various benefits offered by Google have helped motivate them in their duties. Nevertheless, most employees prefer the retirement plan benefits (38.3%) and workers  compensation plan (31.7%).

The aim of this dissertation is to conduct an investigation on the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google Inc. The business environment is quickly changing with increased emphasis being put on corporate growth and productivity. As such, job loyalty and satisfaction by employees have received outstanding attention from organizations. To achieve this, employee benefits motivate workers to be retained pending the investigation of the inquiry.

Research Objectives

  • To identify the various form of employee benefits offered by Google
  • To critically analyse the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google
  • To investigate the relationship between employee satisfaction and improved organizational performance at Google

1 – Introduction
Background of the Study
Problem Statement
Research Aim
Research Objectives
Research Hypothesis
Dissertation Structure

2 – Literature Review
Conceptual Framework
Forms of Employee Benefits
Workers Compensation
Unemployment Insurance
Social Security Taxes
Family and Medicare Leave
Health Insurance
Retirement Plans
Life Insurance
Dental Insurance
Employee Training
On-the-Job Training
Off-the-Job Training
Mini-Summary
Role of Employee Benefits
Employee Benefits and Satisfaction
Employee Satisfaction and Organizational Performance
Commitment
Motivation
Job Involvement

3 – Methodology
Research Process
Research Paradigm
Positivist Ontology
Positivist Epistemology
Research Approach
Research Strategy
Research Type
Methods of Data Collection
Primary Method of Data Collection
Secondary Method of Data Collection
Sample Size and Sampling Technique
Data Analysis Plan
Ethical Issues in Research

4 – Results
Part A: Descriptive Statistics
Part B: Inferential Statistics

5 – Discussion
To identify the various forms Employee benefits at Google
To critically analyse the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google
To investigate the relationship between employee satisfaction and improved organizational performance at Google

6 – Conclusion

7 – Critical Evaluation

8 – Self-Evaluation

References

Appendix
Questionnaire

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