Network Design and Structure Dissertations

Network Design and Structure

Title: Network Design – When implementing a network in an organisation, there are some design issues that must be considered before implementation. The requirements of the network must be clearly defined and all the network components to be used have to be clearly defined. Some of the considerations are discussed below.

Network Design and Network Architecture

Network architecture is the infrastructure consisting of software, transmission equipment, and communication protocols define the structural and logical layout of a computer network. The mode of transmission of a network can be wired or wireless depending on the requirements in an organisation. There are various types of networks that can be applied in an organisation depending on the network size. Local area network (LAN) refers to network in a small geographical area, Metropolitan area network (MAN) refers to network in a city, and wide area network (WAN) refers to network that is spread geographically in a wide area. Among the three types of network, the company would implement LAN since it is only covering a small geographical area.

Transmission Media

The transmission medium of a network can be wired or wireless. Wired medium involve use of coaxial cables or fiber-optic cables while wireless media involves wireless transmission of data. Depending on the bandwidth, throughput and goodput we are able to determine the best medium of transmission. Fiber optic cables have low signal loss since they avoid collision, and they are efficient in data transfer in high traffic networks. Coaxial cables are less expensive compared with fiber optic cables, but they have high signal loss caused by collisions. Wireless transmission is efficient in local area network where there are few computers.

Network Design Management Method

The management method of a network can be either peer to peer or client-server. Peer to peer is where there is communication between several computers without a central computer. Client-server is where each client is independent and a central server provides services to the clients. In a peer to peer network, many computers can share a single application installed in one computer. In a client-server, they are designed to support large number of clients where the clients do not share resources. The client-server model security is enhanced because security is handled by the server. It is also easy to upgrade a client server model to meet new requirements in an organisation.

Figure 1, a client server model

 

Network Design
Network Design

Network Topology

Network topology is divided into physical and logical topology. Physical topology refers to the way in which computers and other devices are connected. Logical topology describes the layout of data transmission in a network. Bus, ring, star and mesh topologies are the main types of topologies. Bus topology is a where all devices are connected with a single cable. The topology works for small networks, but it is slow and collisions are common. Ring topology is where the cable runs around where each node is connected to each other. There are fewer collisions compared with a bus topology. A token ring is used to avoid collision. In a star topology, all the devices are connected to a central hub. There is a central management making it is faster in upgrading, but failure of the central hub brings down the entire network. Mesh topology connects all the devices to each other for fault tolerance and redundancy to improve performance.

Network Design Security Requirements

Networks are frequently attacked by hackers and other malicious people. This makes security one of the key considerations when designing a network. To reduce the number of attacks on computer networks, the network should have firewalls, intrusion detection systems, VPN, and DMZ. These measures reduce the threat and detect malicious people in the network.

Scalability

This refers to the ability of the network to grow. The network should be scalable enough to cater for growth in the network infrastructure.

Network Address Translation (NAT)

This is a design consideration where many computers in a private network access the network using one public IP address. This is a measure to enhance security in a network.

Figure 2, Network architecture

Network Architecture Dissertation
Network Architecture

Figure 3, Showing how VPN is implemented

VPN Implementation
VPN Implementation

OSI Reference Model in Network Design

The OSI model has seven layers as highlighted in the diagram. The communication system is sub-dived into layers where each layer sends service requests to the layer below it and receives service requests from the layer above it (FitzGerald & Dennis, 2009).

OSI Model
OSI Model

Layer 1: Physical Layer

Physical layer refers to the hardware and all network devices used in the network. The layer defines the physical devices and the transmission medium. The layer receives service requests of the data-link layer and performs encoding and decoding of data in signals. Protocols in this layer include CSMA/CD, and Ethernet (Liu, 2009).

Layer 2: Data-Link Layer

Data-link layer receives service requests of the network layer and sends service requests to the physical layer. The main function of the data-link layer is to provide reliable delivery of data across networks. Other functions performed by the layer include framing, flow and error control, and error detection and correction. There are two sub layers of the data-link layer; media access control layer, and logical link control layer. Media access control performs frame parsing, data encapsulation and frame assembly. Logical link control is responsible for error checking, flow control and packet synchronisation. Protocols in this layer include; X 25, frame relay and ATM.

Layer 3: Network Layer

Network layer is responsible for managing all the network connections, network congestions, and packet routing between a source and destination. The layer receives service requests of the transport layer and sends service requests to the data-link layer. The main protocols in this layer are IP, ICMP, and IGMP.

Layer 4: Transport Layer

The main purpose of this layer is to provide reliable data delivery which is error free by performing error detection and correction. The layer ensures that there is no loss of data, and data is received as it was sent. The layer provides either connection-less or connection oriented service. There are two protocols in this layer: UDP and TCP.

TCP

  • Sequenced
  • Connection oriented
  • Reliable delivery
  • Acknowledgements and windowing flow control

UDP

  • No sequencing
  • Connection-less
  • No reliable delivery
  • No acknowledgements and no windowing flow control

Layer 5: Session Layer

The main purpose of this layer is to establish and terminate sessions. The layer sets up and terminates connection between two or more processes. It also manages communication between hosts. If there is login or password validation, this layer is responsible for the validation process. Check-pointing mechanism is also provided by this layer. If an error occurs, re-transmission of data occurs from the last check-point. Protocols in this layer include; RIP, SOCKS, and SAP.

Layer 6: Presentation Layer

This layer is responsible for data manipulation, data compression and decompression, and manages how data is presented. The layer receives service requests of the application layer and sends service requests to the session layer. The layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the data in transmission. Data encryption and decryption (cryptography) is used to provide security in this layer. Protocols involved in this layer include; ASCII, EBCDIC, MIDI, MPEG, and JPEG.

Layer 7: Application Layer

This layer provides interaction with the end user and provides services such as file and email transfers. The layer sends service requests to the presentation layer. It has several protocols used in communication; FTP, HTTP, SMTP, DNS, TFTP, NFS, and TELNET.

Network Protocols

  • Ethernet – provides transfer of information on Ethernet cable between physical locations
  • Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) – used for data encapsulation in serial lines.
  • Point to point protocol (PPP) – this is an improvement of SLIP, performs data encapsulation of serial lines.
  • Internet Protocol (IP) – provides routing, fragmentation and assembly of packets.
  • Internet Control Management protocol (ICMP) – help manage errors while sending packets and data between computers.
  • Address resolution protocol (ARP) – provides a physical address given an IP address.
  • Transport control protocol (TCP) – provides connection oriented and reliable delivery of packets.
  • User datagram protocol (UDP) – provides connection-less oriented service and unreliable delivery of packets.
  • Domain name service (DNS) – provides a domain name related to a given IP address.
  • Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) – used in the management and control of IP addresses in a given network.
  • Internet group management protocol (IGMP) – support multi-casting.
  • Simple network management protocol (SNMP) – manages all network elements based on data sent and received.
  • Routing information protocol (RIP) – routers use RIP to exchange routing information in an internetwork.
  • File transfer protocol (FTP) – standard protocol for transferring files between hosts over a TCP based network.
  • Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) – standard protocol for transferring mails between two servers.
  • Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) – standard protocol for transferring documents over the World Wide Web.
  • Telnet – a protocol for accessing remote computers.

Figure 5 shows the TCP/IP architecture

TCP/IP Architecture
TCP/IP Architecture

Layer 1: Network Access Layer

This layer is responsible for placing TCP/IP packet into the medium and receiving the packets off the medium. This layer control hardware and network devices used in the network. Network access layer combines the physical and data-link layer of the OSI model.

Layer 2: Internet Layer

It functions as the network layer in the OSI model. The layer performs routing, addressing and packet addressing in the network (Donahoo & Calvert, 2009).

Layer 3: Transport Layer

The layer has the same functions as the transport layer in the OSI model. The main function of this layer is to provide reliable data delivery which is error free. The layer receives service requests of the application layer and sends service requests to the internet layer.

Layer 4: Application Layer

This is the layer that has applications that perform functions to the user. It combines the application, presentation and session layers of the OSI model.

TCP/IP Commands Used To Troubleshoot Network Problems

There are many TCP/IP commands that can be used to show that there is a break in communication. The commands are: PING, TRACERT, ARP, IPCONFIG, NETSTAT, ROUTE, HOSTNAME, NBSTAT, and NETSH.

Hostname is used to display and show the host name of the computer

Arp is used for editing and viewing of ARP cache.

Ping is used to send ICMP echo to test the reachability of a network

Event viewer shows all the records of errors and events.

References

Donahoo, M. J., & Calvert, K. L. (2009). TCP/IP sockets in C: Practical guide for programmers. Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann.

Fall, K. R., & Stevens, W. R. (2012). TCP/IP illustrated. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley.

FitzGerald, J., & Dennis, A. (2009). Business Data Communications and Network Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Leiden, C., & Wilensky, M. (2009). TCP – IP. Hoboken: For Dummies

Liu, D. (2009). Next generation SSH2 Network Design and Implementation: Securing data in motion. Burlington, MA: Syngress Pub.

Odom, W. (2004). Computer networking first-step. Indianapolis, Ind: Cisco.

Ouellet, E., Padjen, R., Pfund, A., Fuller, R., & Blankenship, T. (2002). Building a Cisco Wireless LAN and Network Design.   Rockland, MA: Syngress Pub.

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Marketing Dissertation Price Supermarket Industry

Investigating the Impact of “Price” As a Positioning Factor in the UK Supermarket Industry: A Study of Tesco

Dissertation Topic: Price Positioning in the UK Supermarket Industry. Tesco is currently the market leader in the UK retail industry (and has been since 1995), since the launch of the Tesco Clubcard. It has been claimed that Tesco has created customer loyalty by introducing the Clubcard. However, it is possible that the Clubcard does not necessarily create loyalty; rather, it helps the company to understand and predict customer behaviour, and to an extent, influence customer behaviour through various price deals and offers.

It has been established that customer loyalty can certainly improve the probability that an organisation’s profits will increase. In the case of Tesco, loyalty has not actually been created although the company has established a way of predicting and influencing consumer behaviour (to an extent) through the loyalty card. Since customer satisfaction is one of the key ingredients that contributes towards customer loyalty, it can be said that at the moment, Waitrose, Aldi, and Lidl are at a better position to create customer loyalty, for whatever reasons.

Supermarket Industry Pricing Strategy
Supermarket Industry Pricing Strategy

Customers generally do not differentiate the companies based on the prices they offer, rather, they differentiate the products based on the perceived quality. The problem is that companies such as Tesco, Morrisons, and ASDA have similar price structures, and as such, pricing may not be the point of difference for the consumers. Tesco’s positioning on the basis of price (every little helps) may not help the company to gain a significant advantage over the competitors, although it may contribute to maintaining this advantage.

Dissertation Objectives

Based on the assumption that pricing is not the factor by which consumers differentiate companies, the following research objectives have been composed:

  • To analyse the extent to which pricing is a differentiating factor (as seen by the customer) that influences consumer buying behaviour in the supermarket industry
  • To identify whether price positioning (as seen by the customer) is a viable option for supermarkets

1 – Introduction

Statement of the Problem
Research Objectives
Research Questions
Hypothesis
Dissertation Outline

2 – Research Methodology
The Research Philosophy
Ontology
Epistemology
Position on Philosophy
Research Approach
Deduction
Induction
Combined Approach
Research Design
Research Strategy
Grounded Theory
Ethnography
Case Study
Data Collection Techniques
Sampling and Population
Focus Group Interviews
Questionnaires
Scope and Limitations
Gaining Access and Research Ethics

3 – Literature Review
Price Image Dimensions
Price-Quality Link
Price as a Market Cue
Ego-involvement and Price
Price and Retail Patronage
Price Premiums and Brand Equity
Role of Price in Strategic Positioning
Expectation Theory in Consumer Behaviour
Henry Assael Model

4 – Discussion and Analysis
Qualitative Research Report and Analysis
Quantitative Research Report and Analysis
Discussion on the Findings
Is price a differentiator in the supermarket industry?
Is the low end price position viable for retailers?
The Hypothesis

5 – Conclusions

References

Appendix
Questionnaire Summary

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Dissertation Managing Project Complexity

The Importance of Experience in Project Managers when Managing Project Complexity – A Study into the UAE

Traditionally, the success of a project lays on the shoulders of project managers and its achievement is constantly measured by the properties of cost, time and quality, which appear to be a simple way of measuring within the construction industry. Interest for project management is becoming fundamental. Yet, projects keep on failing at an astounding rate. This research has investigated the education level of project managers in managing project complexity, by understanding the current educational level of project managers and also to understand whether advanced education is required before achieving the designation of project manager.

Managing Project Complexity
Managing Project Complexity

This dissertation also investigates the leadership qualities and skills required for project manager to handle complex project. This research was done in 2 steps; first step of the research is to review the literature. The literature review consists of project success, complexity, background experience, skills, leadership qualities and education. Second step is to conduct an online survey by preparing 20 questions and is sent to 50 selected project managers and directors of different companies and sectors. Out of 50, 31 responded to the survey.

After analyzing the results from survey, it was found that most of the project managers have not achieved any advanced education before achieving the designation and their current education emphasized more on engineering – technical aspects and less on management aspects. The project managers who had advanced education were given more importance to hard skills (which are scope, time, quality and cost) and soft skills (which are communication, social, conflict management, etc.).

In this dissertation, many project managers had different view on project complexity. However, most of them stated that the factors relating to complexity are due to financial problems, uncertain designs and no proper construction details. Finally, the dissertation has been concluded by saying that advanced education is required for project manager to manage uncertainty and complexity. However having experience is one of the most important factors in addition with education for project success.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To investigate the educational level in project managers and to understand their abilities in adapting with change in project complexity
  • To understand the skills and experience needed to become a project manager and for project success
  • To measure project success in complexity
  • To understand the leadership qualities required for project success

1 – Introduction
Background
Rationale
Aim
Objectives
Research Methodology

2 – Project Success

3 – Complexity
Introduction
Complexity in Construction
Measuring complexity in construction

4 – Project Manager’s Experience and Skills Required for Project Success
Project Manager’s Experience
Project management skills
Required skills for managing complexity

5 – Leadership in Project Managers for Project Success
Leadership in Construction Industry
Different Leadership challenges faced in Complexity
Leadership Styles and Competencies in Construction
Political skills, Leadership and Project success
Modern Leadership in Construction Industry

6 – Education for Project Managers
Challenges faced in project management training and education
Evolution of project management and project managers
Approaches in educating project managers
Advanced training in educating project manager

7 – Research Methodology and Design
Research Methodology
Survey Questionnaire

8 – Data Results and Analysis
Data Results
Data Analysis

9 – Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary
Recommendations

References

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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on Importance of Experience in Project Managers when Managing Project Complexity. There are many other titles available in the construction dissertation collection that should be of interest to construction management students and building professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of construction such as project management techniques, environmental management, building and construction methods to name a few. It took a lot of time to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Real Estate Dissertation Housing Bubble in China

Causes and Determinants of Real Estate Bubbles in China – A Study into Beijing

The real estate market of Beijing is under investigation in order to find whether there is a potential housing bubble in China. Housing bubble as a phenomenon will be analyzed. Furthermore, the residential market of China and whether various programs for the housing policy affect housing market are presented, especially during the period 1998-2014. The Ηukou registration system gives interesting information about the housing market, the central government’s policy, and its reaction and ability to cope with a housing bubble. Ηukou registration number defines whether an individual comes from a rural or an urban area, as well as the locality.

The urban and rural residents with agricultural or non agricultural Ηukou have different rights, and thus different chances for housing, especially in large metropolitan areas like Beijing. The connection of the four state owned banks with the housing market and their reaction to the house price changes during our period of interest is analyzed. The banks reacted without taking into account the risk, because they think that they are too big to fail. Volatility is also analyzed because it is important to find the reasons behind the changes in house prices. House price volatility forces households to buy a house to live in so that they could avoid the fluctuations in house prices, and a potential price increase. Regions in Beijing do not have the same property characteristics and potentials for a real estate bubble.

Housing Bubble China Dissertation
Housing Bubble China Dissertation

The results from the research of the secondary data are presented, with some final discussion. The answer for a housing bubble in Beijing is not crystal clear. Various findings support the existence of a bubble and some others do not. Although Beijing and regions in Beijing show a house price trend above the equilibrium price, the political status quo is special. In addition, it depends on the way data are collected, the availability of data, as well as their validity. It also depends on whether we have unclear property rights, housing inequality, and not a wide freedom of choice for the households.

While there are many factors that contribute to the formation of housing bubbles, as it is a very complex phenomenon, the present dissertation is focused on some important issues revealed from the literature review. Specifically, the above hypothesis is tested considering the following issues:

  • The correlation between potential real estate bubble and changes in housing prices in Beijing
  • The correlation between potential real estate bubble and housing prices volatility in Beijing
  • The role that the banking sector plays to the potential real estate bubble in Beijing
  • The readiness of Chinese authorities to deal with a Real Estate bubble
    The so far reaction of Chinese authorities to imbalances and housing price volatility
  • The correlation between the residential market in China and Beijing and a potential real estate bubble
  • The correlation between the Hukou system in China and a potential real estate bubble

Housing Bubble Dissertation Contents

1: Introduction
Rationale
Aim and Objectives
Hypothesis
Dissertation Structure

2: Literature Review – Housing Bubbles
Definition of Bubbles

3: Literature Review – The Role of House Prices and Volatility
Changes in Housing Prices
Volatility

4: Literature Review – The Role of the Banking Sector
The Banking Sector in China

5: Literature Review – The Role of Chinese Authorities
Government Involvement in Urban Housing
Government’s Reaction

6: Literature Review – Residential Market in China and Beijing
Residential Market in China and Beijing – A Historical Perspective
Housing Provident Fund (HPF)
Economical and Comfortable Housing Program (ECH)
Cheap Rental Housing Program (CRH)

7: Literature Review – Hukou Registration System
Description of Hukou Registration System
Housing Finance System
Inequality in Beijing

8: Research Methods

9: Data Analysis
Is There A Potential Real Estate Bubble In Beijing?

10: Conclusion

References

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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on Causes and Determinants of Real Estate Bubbles in China. There are many other titles available in the real estate dissertation collection that should be of interest to construction management students and building professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of construction such as project management techniques, environmental management, building and construction methods to name a few. It took a lot of time to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Real Estate Dissertation Dubai Property Values

Real Estate Dissertation – Impact of Services and Facilities on Dubai Property Values

Title: Real Estate Dissertation Dubai Property Values – Dubai’s real estate market has in the last decade experiential significant changes that substantially affect market prices. During the global financial crisis, this emirate saw one of the worst housing crashes across the world. While real estate prices have gradually rebound especially in the residential sector there is still significant interest among investors to enhance the value of their properties. Accordingly, this study set out to critically investigate the impact that services and facilities have on residential property prices in Dubai. Both community level and building specific services and facilities such as transit systems, recreational parks/spaces, and retail centers, swimming pools car parks and security were taken into account.

Real Estate Dissertations
Real Estate Dissertations

A mixed method approach involving the use of both quantitative and qualitative data was adopted in the study. Qualitative data was collected from randomly selected tenants and landlords/investors in four key residential areas of Dubai. The study also finds that despite the positive impact of services and facilities property returns may be eroded by the significantly high service charges and hence the need for competitive outsourcing of property/facility management services. Some discrepancies between tenant and investor preference for services and facilities is also noted and hence the possibility of mismatched demand and supply of these amenities.

Dissertation Objectives

In consistence with the above background information, this study seeks to critically investigate the impact that services and facilities have on property values in the Dubai’s real estate market. The findings of the study will inform developers and investors on strategies that they can employ in order to ensure that their properties are optimally valued in the housing marketing and therefore profitable. In order to meet the above general aim the following specific objectives will be pursued:

  • To investigate the extent to which investors and tenants in Dubai are willing to pay higher prices for properties with enhanced services and facilities
  • To establish the influence that availability of services and facilities has on demand for residential properties in Dubai
  • To establish the extent to which services and facilities are major determinants of property values in Dubai
  • To identify and analyse the most valued services and facilities in Dubai’s real estate market

1: Introduction
Research background
Research rationale and problem statement
Research aim and objectives
Main research question
Significance and justification of the study
Overview of research methodology
Structure of the study

2: Literature Review
Relationship between services, facilities and property values
The modern urban theory
Quality of the building infrastructure and facilities
The importance of property management services
Influence of services and facilities on housing demand
Demand for services and facilities
Internal facilities and neighborhood qualities
Impact of incomes on services and facilities preference
Determinants of property values
Demand and supply
Structural and service attributes
Tenant preference for various services and facilities

3: Research Methodology
Research design
Philosophical position
Research approach
Research strategy
Choice of research instrument
Sampling method
Data analysis technique
Research ethics

4: Findings and analysis
Demographic analysis
Relationship between services and facilities and property values
The influence that availability of services and facilities has on demand for residential properties in Dubai
The extent to which services and facilities are major determinants of property values in Dubai
The most valued services and facilities in Dubai’s real estate market

5: Conclusions and Recommendations
Willingness to pay premium prices for services and facilities
Influences of services and facilities on demand for property
Most valued services and facilities in Dubai’s real estate market
Recommendations
Suggestions for future research

References

Appendices
Survey Questionnaire

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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on the Impact of Services and Facilities on Dubai Property Values. There are many other titles available in the construction dissertation collection that should be of interest to construction management students and building professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of construction such as project management techniques, environmental management, building and construction methods to name a few. It took a lot of time to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.