Virtual Reality Tourism

Augmented and Virtual Reality in Tourism Industry

Introduction to Virtual Reality

Virtual reality was first known as the artificial or near reality, is a term used to describe the technology of making the fantasy, artificial, imaginary or fictitious world into reality. While the Augmented Reality is a term use to relate the combination of virtual reality and real world. However, the virtual is a near to reality and reality is what we experienced in our life. We also can say everything is possible in virtual reality.

Nowadays, when every single aspect of technology has been tremendous using in every walk of life, there the demand and application of virtual reality is widely adopted as trend and almost in all fields of life either personal or professional we are directly or indirectly using the virtual or augmented reality technology. In tourism, the augmented and virtual reality are playing an effective and efficient role in providing the benefits for both the tourism industries as well as to the tourists. It is a profitable technology used for the marketing and entertainment purposes in the tourism industry ( QR Code Press 2012 ).

Application Of Technology In Tourism Industry

Since last two decades the internet has been vitally used in the tourism industry for hospitality and marketing purposes. As widely the hotel’s network will be as much clientele it will gain by using internet technologies (Hymas, 2012).

Due to the increasingly growing internet technology the facilities, marketing, services and accessibility for customers and hotel businesses is becoming more convenient. Due to this efficient internet technological platform, the consumers can easily shop whatever they want to, can reserve rooms or family table & halls, and events in any hotel they like to while the business men and owners of hotels and other tourist destinations can easily provide the shopping, reservation and booking facilities for the customers not locally but also at international level (Ahuja, Raman and Gupta 2003).

Application Of augmented and Virtual Reality In Tourism Industry

According to Whyte (2002), the augmented and virtual reality application in the tourism industry has a wide background. However, it was not as much in trend before a decade, as it is getting popular now days. “The implementation of virtual reality” (p. 443) technology broadens the concept of convenience, accessibility, marketing, entertainment, user friendly development and communication.

Buhalis (2000b) stated that the virtual reality combination with the real world is not less than an excited experience the tourists can get to entertain and facilitate themselves. They can choose and select the possibilities what they have to see or experience in fact and all this can be done only through a “single click of mouse” (p. 240) or a key on your cell.

Virtual Reality Tourism
Virtual Reality Tourism

We must say that augmented and virtual reality technology actually allow the businessmen of the tourism industry to add the recorded and animated images, videos, and other multimedia resources in order to blend and make able to view the artificial facts or reality in the real world. The virtual reality applications therefore has been adopted to provide the travelers with useful information and facts about their possible queries and anticipations about touring in their potential destinations.

Furthermore, we can say that touring enterprises can convey their services and can attract and invite the tourists from all across the world by using the virtual reality through their websites or other accessible resources. While the travelers can avail the pre information, accessibility and decision making for all they want to get while planning their tour, such as the destinations, location tracking for hotels, markets, hospitals, gyms, clubs, cafes or anywhere they want to go, can suppose shopping goods and services and even can do this by selecting, purchasing and paying online, and can assume their presence at the destination they want to be while sitting in their homes and offices. All this is possible only because of virtual reality technology application in the tourism industry.

According to my research on virtual reality application, the augmented and virtual reality is widely engaged in creating the imagery videos, perfect 3D representations and pictures by using computer generated graphics to make the touring experience more effective and entertaining for the travelers by offering them sightseeing services. Nowadays, the sightseeing services for android and Smartphones is also accessible for travelers to walk, shop, hang on, and see the facts and figures presented as an overlay on their live screen while they are sitting at their home or offices.

How Can augmented and virtual Reality Help The Tourism Industry?

According to Dellaert (1999), the virtual reality helps the travelers in decision making processes and preferences before even buying the items or being in the place they are planning or willing to go in reality. It enhances the customers’ reliability towards their destinations. The potential guests can create their own tailor made package for their convenience and facility through “usage of the world wide web” (pp. 325).

Although, the internet is not only the source of providing the facility, services and access to the tourist, but it is more than necessary to implement the CRSs computerized reservation systems and GDSs global distribution channels in the tourism industry to bring the tourism industry towards the platform of automation and IT. The virtual reality and multimedia application in websites of tourism industries makes it more technologically developed and progressed for both the customers and business enterprises.

The possibilities of providing the information, distribution and transaction facilities for potential tourists is only possible through applying the virtual reality technology in the tourism industry (O’Brien, 1999 ).

Conclusion

After concluding, we can say that the augmented and virtual reality basically enhances the opportunities to put an end to unfamiliarities and impossibilities in the tourism industry. Due to rapidly growing application of augmented and virtual reality in the tourism industry, now nothing is impossible to know, see or even get a travel experience without going the places where you want to go. It helps travelers to get a real experience or travelling the foreign countries by getting information about their surroundings before moving towards their destinations.

References

Buhalis. (2000b), Dellaert. (1999), O’Brien. (1999) Tourism Distribution Channels Practices, Issues and Transformations.

Ahuja, Raman and Gupta. (2003), Hymas. (2001), Whyte. (2002) Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2010, 02.

View Tourism Dissertation Topics Here

Nursing Dissertation Topics

Outstanding Nursing Dissertation Topics

I have been asked to assist a handful of students regarding nursing dissertation topics. As mentioned in other posts, our website will not write a nursing dissertation for you but we will point you in the direction of existing research. Firstly, your nursing dissertation is an extensive research project on a related topic of your choice relevant to your studies. Ordinarily, your nursing dissertation will contain precise knowledge in that specific area of research. For instance, you will emphasize clear objectives of the research that you are doing and keep the research on-topic. Be mindful that you need to engage your research and your knowledge with the reader. An integral part of your research is to choose an appropriate nursing dissertation topic. It is the first step toward starting your nursing dissertation and you should not deviate away from your chosen topic. A recommended method of finding a suitable nursing dissertation topic is to examine your existing knowledge in a particular field.

If you have knowledge in patient care it may be worthwhile developing a nursing dissertation topic in this field of study. You will be familiar with key research, prominent authors and you will be comfortable in using existing literature and research in this field. You may find that you will lift a lot of pressure if you are comfortable writing about a particular field of nursing that is familiar. You will need to expand on your existing knowledge and turn this into an impactful nursing dissertation topic.

There is no doubt that your nursing dissertation topic will fall into a specific area of nursing. As a nursing student, or practitioner what is important to you in the health and nursing environment? Maybe there is something that you see in patients that you think is worth exploring in greater depth? There are many areas of nursing for you to explore, these areas may include: child care, mental health, pediatric nursing, clinical management, midwifery or future nursing trends in a particular region. The brainstorming process will help you to write a creative and attractive piece of research.

Nursing Dissertation Topics
Nursing Dissertation Topics

I had a conversation with a nursing student who currently works within the NHS in the United Kingdom and she recommends formulating a nursing dissertation topic on practices, procedures or interventions that are of a particular interest in the field of nursing. She went on further to say that researching something that you do not have a connection with can be daunting, you must have a connection with the research you are undertaking. The nursing dissertation topic must be of interest to you and engage the reader. I must add that the nursing student in question completed a BA (Hons) Nursing Studies degree with first first-class honors.

Possible Nursing Dissertation Topics

Below is a list of nursing dissertation topics that may prove useful to you. I do hope you take inspiration from these dissertation topics in an attempt to stimulate your writing process from the outset. Please be mindful that the below nursing dissertation topics have been submitted to universities and are offered as a guide for reference purposes.

Nursing Dissertation – Levels of Stress among Experienced Nurses

Nursing Dissertation – Prevalence of Schizophrenia in Urban Regions

Nursing Dissertation – The Expanding Role of Mental Health Nurse Prescribing

Nursing Dissertation – Predisposing Risk Factors of Breast Cancer

Nursing Dissertation – Nursing Shortages and Counter Solutions

Nursing Dissertation – Analysis into the Place of Ethnic Minorities in Nursing and Midwifery NHS Workforce

Whether you choose to write your nursing dissertation on the topics above or if you have come up with your own nursing dissertation topic, you need to ensure that you write your research on something you are interested in and knowledgeable on. As previously mentioned you can alleviate a lot of pressure when writing research on a field of nursing you are familiar with. It is worthwhile noting that writing a nursing dissertation topic is similar to writing a dissertation in another discipline as it has the same form of structure and layout. There will be an introduction, literature review, hypothesis, methodology, data analysis, results and findings and bibliography sections. However, the initial step is to select a suitable nursing dissertation topic from the outset, you will subsequently develop a research proposal on what you have established as your nursing dissertation topic.

Nursing Dissertation Help

Always keep close to your designated dissertation supervisor. You never know when you need their advice and guidance – this support is priceless. A dissertation supervisor can always put you back on track especially if you deviate away from your chosen nursing dissertation topic. Also, you will get help on your nursing dissertation structure. This is essential as you do not want to write a nursing dissertation using a bespoke structure, this will ultimately lower your overall grade.

You need to dedicate time to your nursing dissertation proposal. You will find that your dissertation proposal is a key milestone in your research project. It should be succinct and will describe the statement of intent for your nursing dissertation. Your supervisor will have a clear understanding to what you are researching and what the dissertation aims and objectives are. A synopsis of the hypotheses should be included in the dissertation proposal.

Fully utilize readily available information. You will find that you will have a plethora of nursing related research at your disposal, utilizing this research will be a key component of the literature review contained within your nursing dissertation. You need to ensure you do not plagiarize any material and reference all material in accordance with your university’s guidelines. I suggest using online libraries for current research such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), EBSCO and JSTOR. It is safe to say that your university will access to these resources and it will benefit your nursing dissertation topic as you will be referencing credible material.

I hope you enjoy reading this post and that you have added confidence in wiring your own nursing dissertation topic. I would be grateful if you could leave a comment below.

Advertising Dissertations

Advertising Dissertations

I have been asked by marketing students who have purchased Advertising Dissertations from our website to write a blog post relating to advertising within the marketing arena. With this in mind, I have taken a couple of hours to construct this post on advertising.

Definitions of Advertising

Advertisements are messages paid for by those who send them and are intended to inform or influence people who receive them. Advertising is a means of communication with the users of a product or service. Advertising is bringing a product (or service) to the attention of potential and current customers. It is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc. These are benefits fields of marketing for students writing advertising dissertations.

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideals, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and viewed via various media, This is a particular interest field of marketing for students writing advertising dissertations.

Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a mass amount of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action, such as encouraging ‘environmentally friendly’ behaviors, and even unhealthy behaviors through food consumption, video game and television viewing promotion, and a “lazy man” routine through a loss of exercise.

Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. This topics are essential for These are benefits fields of marketing for students writing marketing and advertising dissertations. Several types of mass media are television, internet, radio, news programs, and published pictures and articles.

Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Non-commercial advertisers that spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.

Advertising serves three main purposes:

  1. To get or win new customers.
  2. To increase use of products or services among existing customers.
  3. To help potential customers make a choice among competing brands.

Advertising is the best way to communicate to the customers. Advertising helps informs the customers about the brands available in the market and the variety of products useful to them. Advertising is for everybody including kids, young and old. It is done using various media types, with different techniques and methods most suited. For every organization and every product or service, advertising tends to fulfill a specific goal or objective. Nevertheless on the general front, advertising is a mechanism that fulfills all, some or one of the three major functions:

Firstly advertising has an informing nature – about organizations, about products and services, about the environment, the society, the trends in society and many more aspects of life. This deals with the cognitive context of the target audience in which they grasp the information and channelize it according to their own comprehension and predilection.

Secondly advertising provides the incentives to viewers for them to engage in action. This deals with the emotional dimension of the target audience, which concentrates on touching and persuading the consumers rather than informing and apprising them.

The third function of advertising is to provide constant reminders and reinforcements to generate the desired behavior the advertiser wants from them. This is a particularly effective function in the long run as reminders and reinforcements register in the consumers’ minds, becoming the base on which they shape their future decisions. There are many existing marketing dissertation based in these areas.

There are a few reasons for advertising some of which are like this:

  • Increasing the sales of the product / service
  • Creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image
  • Communicating a change in the current product
  • Introduction of a new service
  • Increasing the buzz-value of the brand or the company

You can base your advertising dissertation on the above topics.

Types of Advertising

There are types of advertising objectives which are:

  • Informative advertising where the objective is to build primary demand in the introduction or pioneering stage of a product
  • Persuasive advertising where the objective is to build selective or comparative demand in the competitive or growth stage of a product.
  • Reminder advertising with mature products and reinforcement advertising which seeks to assure current purchasers that they have made the right choice.

And there are the following major advertising media types:

  • Print advertising – newspapers, magazines, brochures, fliers, yellow pages, newsletters etc.
  • Outdoor advertising – billboards, kiosks, trade-shows, events etc.
  • Broadcast advertising – TV, Radio, mobile (back-lit) vans or autos etc.
  • Online advertising – Telephone, SMS/MMS, emails, pop ups, banner ads, video ads etc.

Objectives of Advertising

Four main Objectives of advertising are:

  1. Trial
  2. Continuity
  3. Brand switch
  4. Switching back

Let’s take a look on these various types of objectives.

Trial: the companies which are in their introduction stage generally work for this objective. The trial objective is the one which involves convincing the customers to buy the new product introduced in the market. Here, the advertisers use flashy and attractive ads to make customers take a look on the products and purchase for trials.

Continuity: this objective is concerned about keeping the existing customers to stick on to the product. The advertisers here generally keep on bringing something new in the product and the advertisement so that the existing customers keep buying their products.

Brand switch: this objective is basically for those companies who want to attract the customers of the competitors. Here, the advertisers try to convince the customers to switch from the existing brand they are using to their product.

Switching back: this objective is for the companies who want their previous customers back, who have switched to their competitors. The advertisers use different ways to attract the customers back like discount sale, new advertise, some reworking done on packaging, etc.

Advertising Dissertations
Advertising Dissertations

Advertising Management

Advertising simply put is telling and selling the product. Advertising Management though is a complex process of employing various media to sell a product or service. This process begins quite early from the marketing research and encompasses the media campaigns that help sell the product.

Without an effective advertising management process in place, the media campaigns are not that fruitful and the whole marketing process goes for a toss. Hence, companies that believe in an effective advertising management process are always a step ahead in terms of selling their goods and services.

As mentioned above, advertising management begins from the market research phase. At this point, the data produced by marketing research is used to identify what types of advertising would be adequate for the specific product.

Gone are the days when there was only print and television advertising was available to the manufacturers. These days apart from print and television, radio, mobile, and Internet are also available as advertising media. Advertising management process in fact helps in defining the outline of the media campaign and in deciding which type of advertising would be used before the launch of the product.

The Strengths of Advertising as a Marketing Technique?

Advertising, being an utterly vital segment of the promotional dimension of marketing, has its share of strengths in its role as a marketing technique. There are other elements in the promotional mix as well such as sales promotion, publicity and direct marketing, nevertheless advertising has an exclusive strength to reach a mass audience.

The reach factor is very important that accentuates the significance of advertising in the process of marketing as well as branding. Furthermore advertising is an essential tool to introduce products for the first time in the market. Not only that but it also illustrates any modifications and alterations in the product or service that it is advertising. Moreover it proves to be a very effective source of reminding and reinforcing the impact of its communication of the product, not letting the consumers forget about it. Last but not the least it persuades the target audience and shapes their buying decisions.

Advertising gives companies and businesses the opportunity to build up a brand and an identity. The distinct adverts in both TV and print form are instantly recognizable as the company’s own and give it an identity as a clean, modern and reputable brand. Advertisements need to relate to current trends and sell both a product individually as well as the company as a whole. If an advertisement succeeds at both it can help draw an audience to the product or service and build a relationship between the consumer and company. Establishing this connection should lead to a boost in sales for the business.

AIDA Model: Measurement of Effectiveness of Advertisement

This theory is based on the premise that during a sales presentation, the prospect consciously goes through four different stages: Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. The components of this theory believe that the salesperson should design his presentation in such a manner which takes care of all these stages of the process of selling. The details of these components are as follows:

A: Attention

The salesperson should attract the prospect to his presentation before he actually goes into the details of the same. This is to ensure that the prospect becomes receptive to the presentation.
Here the need for securing attention is must. It’s a fact that usually the prospect may be busy in his routine jobs or daily assignments. Thus, before meeting the salesperson, the prospect’s mind may be engaged in something other than the concerned product, about which the salesperson in going to talk.
Unless the salesperson involves the prospect’s mind in the presentation, his total effort may go unnoticed or unregistered. Drawing the prospect’s attention, therefore, is as good as to detach him from other assignments and involving him in the presentation, both physically and mentally, so as to gain maximum from the sales meeting.

I: Interest

Once the salesperson has successfully gained the prospect’s attention, he should maintain the interest of the prospect throughout the presentation. In other words, the salesperson should ensure that the prospect remains glued to his presentation throughout its length and that he does not wander away from the same. The salesperson should be aware of the interest, likes, dislikes, attitude and motivation of the prospect and should proceed with the presentation, keeping in view all the factors.

D: Desire

To create a strong desire in the prospect’s mind to purchase his product is the next important step. The salesperson should consciously try to bring the prospect into this stage of readiness on the point of buying his product. He should concentrate on projecting the benefits of his product to the prospect. He should go even to the extent of presenting benefits according to the motivation of the prospect.
The salesperson should also be prepared to anticipate the resistance to his sales presentation in terms of objections or questions from the prospect. Not only that, he should be prepared with several answers and explanations to the anticipated objections.

A: Action

Once the salesperson has been successful in taking his prospect through the three stages, he should induce them into actually buying the product. Sometimes even after going through the three stages of Attention, Interest and Desire; the prospect may still have some doubt or some disinterest which will stop him from taking the final decision of actually buying the product. Hence, it becomes an important task for the salesperson to help his prospect in taking the final decision. At this stage; the salesperson tries to push the prospect into a situation to take a decision; and the deal is closed skillfully and successfully. This is what is expected of a salesperson in this stage – this is ideal research for advertising dissertations.

Importance of Advertising

Advertising plays a very important role in today’s age of competition. Advertising is one thing which has become a necessity for everybody in today’s day to day life, be it the producer, the traders, or the customer. Many companies rely on advertising these days to boost sales of their products or services, to build a connection with their audience and to create competition with their rival firms.

Advertising is important for the customers

Advertising plays a very important role in customers’ life. Customers are the people who buy the product only after they are made aware of the products available in the market. If the product is not advertised, no customer will come to know what products are available and will not buy the product even if the product was for their benefit.

One more thing is that advertising helps people find the best products for themselves, their kids, and their family. When they come to know about the range of products, they are able to compare the products and buy so that they get what they desire after spending their valuable money. Thus, advertising is important for the customers. Current consumers can also be kept up to date with the latest products and services available to them.

Advertising is important for the seller and companies producing the products

Advertising plays very important role for the producers and the sellers of the products, because:

  • Advertising helps increasing sales
  • Advertising helps producers or the companies to know their competitors and plan accordingly to meet up the level of competition.
  • If any company wants to introduce or launch a new product in the market, advertising will make a ground for the product. Advertising helps making people aware of the new product so that the consumers come and try the product.
  • Advertising helps creating goodwill for the company and gains customer loyalty after reaching a mature age.
  • The demand for the product keeps on coming with the help of advertising and demand and supply become a never ending process.

Advertising is important for the society

Advertising helps educating people. There are some social issues also which advertising deals with like immoral labor, liquor consumption, smoking, family planning education, etc. thus, advertising plays a very important role in society. You will find many dissertations relating to advertising in the marketing dissertation section of the website. Below is a list of some advertising dissertations we have available:

Dissertation – The Influence of Advertising on Consumer Behaviour

Dissertation – Advertising and Semiotics as Meaningful Signs

Dissertation – Effects of Advertising and Its Impact on the Consumption of Alcohol by Young People

Dissertation – Creative Advertising versus Direct Marketing

If you enjoyed this post on advertising dissertations and where to find them, I’d be very grateful if you’d help it spread by emailing it to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.

Workplace Health and Safety

Application of Risk Management: In the Perspective of a Workplace Health and Safety Manager

Introduction

The objective of this paper is to discuss the problem related to workplace health and safety. Workplace health and safety hazards are mostly preventable provided proper precautions are taken in proper time to avoid costly losses of life and property. A hazard can be anything causing injury or disease, e.g. a health hazard, a safety hazard or an environmental hazard. The paper discusses about an organization dealing in petrochemicals. It proceeds with the identification of hazards related to the industry and designing a system to manage the heat problem.

Application of Risk Management

Starting in 1987 the US petrochemicals is a Texas Corporation operating in over 30 countries now. The company is operating successfully in meeting the demands of its customers across the globe which is beneficial for the company itself in many ways. The company is known for its timely delivery at an edge cutting price. The company has earned a worldwide reputation for its workplace health and safety management. Common workplace health and safety hazards include: transportation accidents, slipping and falling, communicable diseases, toxic events, chemical and gas exposure, workplace violence, electrocution, getting struck by objects, explosion, repetitive motion, hearing loss and ergonomic injuries, heat stress, etc.

Heat Situation is the most common incident at any chemical industry and the US Petrochemical is not an exception and there is a well-defined and established system to manage risk at the US Petrochemicals which is discussed in detail in the following paragraphs (Crockford and Neil, 1986).

Identification of hazard

At the US Petrochemicals there are various ways for identifying hazards at workplace:

Inspection: A regular walk through the workplace with a hazard checklist is a direct way of identifying many hazards. The inspection should be for physical things as well as the systems of work and work procedures. The action can be taken immediately if any straight forward problem is detected. Sometimes simple matters like non-functioning of risk control or it is not being used  or not things not kept at appropriate place, be detected which don’t need formal risk assessment and immediate action can be taken to control or eliminate the risk. Sometimes the inspection walk-through detects a situation of immediate and substantial danger to working people (Hubbard and Douglas, 2009).

Finding and applying available information: There are many sources of information which can be made readily available for particular industry or job or type of activity. Many organizations which work for the health and safety of the people publish both hard and soft copies of information on a wide range of OHS topics and industries. Industry unions and associations can provide substantial information about industrial and job hazards, this is essential to the workplace health and safety manager.

Testing and measuring: Often measurements are required to decide about any action specially in case of hazards like noise and atmospheric contaminants. For estimating general noise levels simple comparisons can be made. Measuring and testing provide accurate information about the hazard. Simple machines like noise meters, atmospheric testing machine can be used for the purpose.

Surveys of employees and others at the workplace: Information about occupational stress, workplace bullying, muscle or skeletal aches and pains which may be signal for potential hazard, can be obtained from the people by conducting surveys at the workplace.

Analysing records and data: Another way of identifying hazard is to analyse data and records. Records and data of incidents and injuries are valuable source of information about hazards.  Some organizations mostly large ones even have records or data which show trends of injury or incident. There are many safety authorities which publish data and records about the common sources of injury for different industries. Data can also be shared from other similar industries which have it.

Workplace Health and Safety
Workplace Health and Safety

Risk Assessment

The process of developing understanding and knowledge of risks and hazards to take suitable decision to control them is called risk assessment. Existence of understanding and knowledge and understanding of risks and hazards minimizes the necessity of risk assessment. At the US Petrochemicals the objective of risk management is to determine;

  1. What is the level of harm that can occur
  2. How will the harm occur
  3. What are the chances of occurring harm

A risk assessment should be tailored to the organization and the situation in which it is to be conducted. It may be elaborate and formal or simple as structured discussion. It should be done when the knowledge and understanding about a risk or hazard is limited or there is uncertainty about its outcome or everything that may go wrong is estimated or there is uncertainty about the impact of hazards upon each other to produce greater or new risks (Deloach J. 2012).

Risk Control

The risk control strategies vary as per the need of the organization and the situation. The strategies mentioned below can be used in an appropriate combination or independently.  Normally they are used in a combination at the US petrochemicals. They are as follows:

Eliminating Risk – Elimination of risk is the most effective action which can be taken to control risk. This can be done by eliminating the hazard which may not be possible. In such cases as many risks associated with the hazards as possible can be eliminated (British Occupational Hygiene Society Technical guide).

Avoiding risk: Risk avoidance means to avoid activities which may lead to possibility of loss. This is a calculated decision which may also mean to avoid earning profits because no risk no gain.

Preventing Loss: For unavoidable risks, the methods of ‘prevent the loss’ should be used.  Preventing the loss means breaking the sequence of events which cause loss.

Reducing Loss: For unavoidable losses, the methods of ‘minimize the severity of injury or financial impact’ should be used. These methods include activities of pre-loss reduction or post loss reduction.

Reducing risks- Practically it is not possible in many cases to eliminate hazards or risks but steps can be taken for changing the risk to reduce it. It is the most effective way because it is comparatively less reliant on people performing faultlessly. It can be done by substituting the risk with a lesser risk, by changing the process of work, using technology and isolating people from exposure.

Duplication/Separation: The aim of the risk control techniques is to minimize high losses and not to prevent, avoid or reduce any single operation or asset. Separation means isolating one exposure from others, e.g. a business can occupy different buildings at different locations instead of one big building. Duplication means utilizing spares or backups, e.g. a business can store the spares or backup data at different location.

Transferring Risk: Transferring risk means making such contracts with parties, other than insurance companies, such as vendors, service providers, suppliers and contractors which include transferring risk to them. This is also termed as contractual risk transfer.

Changing exposure of people to risk- The behavior of the people or the way they expose themselves to the risk can be changed to control the risk. This does not change the risk but controls it by protecting the people. This can be done by improving the skills of the people which will limit the chance of failure, by limiting the time of exposure and by providing protective equipment to them.

Controlling the risk in heat situation- For heat situation some different and specialized steps are taken like reducing or removing the sources of heat if possible, controlling the temperature, providing mechanical aids for reducing work rate, regulating the duration of exposure to heat by providing breaks or rest facilities, preventing dehydration, providing protective clothing and equipment and by providing special training about heat stress.

Implementing control strategies and assigning responsibility

The responsibility of a workplace health and safety manager is not only to establish only a system to control risk or hazard but also to ensure its proper implementation according to a suitable approach of the organization. At the US petrochemicals there is a detailed guide for different departments of the company for the implementation of control strategies and assigning responsibilities. The guide has key questions like what does the department do, how is the department organized or managed, what is the size of the department, what are the numbers of hazardous processes and hazards, what are the types of risks or hazards, what levels of harm, risks or hazards do, etc. Being a large organization, the US petrochemicals has the benefit of established formal process of implementation which ensures certainty of results and consistency and this is possible due to availability of many hazardous processes, large number of employees and many layers of management (New and expectant mothers at work).

Risk Monitoring

A risk management system can only be effective if there is a structure of reviewing and reporting to ensure the effective identification and assessment of risks and hazards and proper control over it. Compliance of standards, review of standard performance and regular audit of the process is required for improvement. At the US Petrochemicals it is assured by the monitoring system that the controls are in place and procedures are clear to everybody to follow them adequately. Changes are made in the system with the changes in the environment and the organization. The monitoring also determines that the intended outcomes were achieved, appropriate information was collected and appropriated processes were implemented and the decisions taken were appropriate according to identification and assessment (A handbook for workplaces).

Conclusion

Workplace health and safety is a key issue for any organization and the US Petrochemicals is not an exception. The responsibility of a workplace health and safety manager is tremendous and keeps him on toes because the things in the business world are changing fast and with this organizations are also changing and it is a challenge to keep changing the risk management strategies according to the organization. The US Petrochemical is a big organization with large number of staffs and different layers of management which makes the implementation of risk management strategies accurate. The risk management involves various steps like identification of risk or hazard, assessment of risk and hazard, control of risk and hazards, implementation of strategies of risk and hazards and finally the monitoring of the process. All these steps require serious and careful attention to avoid any incident and ensure health and safety measures.

References

  1. A handbook for workplaces, Controlling OHS hazards and risks, Edition No.1, November 2007
  2. British Occupational Hygiene Society Technical guide, No 12 The thermal environment (Second edition) H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd 1996 ISBN 0 948237 29 5
  3. Crockford and Neil, 1986. An Introduction to Workplace Health and Safety Management (2 ed.). Cambridge, UK: Woodhead-Faulkner, pp; 18, ISBN 0859413322.
  4. Deloach J. 2012. Key Elements of the Risk Management Process and Workplace Health and Safety.
  5. Dorfman and Mark S. 2007. Introduction to Risk Management and Insurance ,(9 ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-224227-3.
  6. Hubbard and Douglas, 2009. The Failure of Workplace Health and Safety Management: Why It’s Broken and How to Fix It. John Wiley & Sons.,pp; 46.
  7. New and expectant mothers at work: A guide for employers HSG122 (Second edition) HSE Books 2002 ISBN 0 7176 2583 4

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Economics Dissertation Topics

Economics Dissertation Topics

Writing an economics dissertation can prove to be a tough task and quality economics dissertation topics are hard to come by. The dissertation in hand allows you to investigate your ability for, and interest in doing economic research. Economics is not the easiest of subjects but it is one of the most interesting. Economics touches nearly every aspect of business and economic theory has been taught for centuries. Economics is seen as the analysis of production, consumption, distribution of wealth and allocation of limited resources to satisfy the needs of people and business. Nowadays, economics extends across national boundaries in the form of international business and global fiscal policy; this is noticeable with the formation of the European Union and flow of international finance.

Your economics dissertation is likely to be the biggest project you undertake at university or college. It can consist of anything between 10,000 to 15,000 words for a typical undergraduate dissertation and will involve in-depth research, time and dedication, you must organize your own time effectively in order to make it a success and set realistic goals. Here we have given a few thoughts and some advice on planning, researching and writing your dissertation. You will see a list of economics dissertation topics further on in this post.

Economics Dissertation Topics
Economics Dissertation Topics

Before you begin your economics dissertation, you must decide on an appropriate economics dissertation topic and title. Your dissertation should focus on a specific issue try to avoid generalizing as you may write a fragmented and disjointed piece of research. The topic should be interesting, something that can uphold in-depth research.

Choosing an economics dissertation topic and getting started

  • What is your topic question?
  • Do you have adequate background research?
  • Stay focused on it

In previous posts, I always stress to keep the research up to date and to engage the reader. There is no real benefit in writing an economics dissertation on outdated theory or defunct policy.

Choose a topic from an area you are familiar and comfortable writing about. Remember that this is a large project that will keep you engaged for most of your final year. It is advisable to revisit topics you have already covered on your degree as this may lead you to elaborate and base your dissertation on a project you have already completed. Writing your economics dissertation will be the ideal opportunity for you to use your intellect, skills, creativity, and economics training.

Economics Dissertation Advice

  • For empirical papers: Where will you get your data? How will it help answer your question?
  • What statistical techniques will you be able to use? Will you be able to identify causation or only correlation?
  • Theory papers typically are not just informal discussions. They tend to involve more mathematics than empirical ones, not less.
  • If you are having trouble understanding a topic, a good place to start is to look in several relevant textbooks to see how they handle it.

Economics is a specialized and scientific subject that involves equations, mathematics, figures and tables, economic theory is often underpinned by statistics and you need to be mindful of this. The field of economics differs vastly from other business subjects such as marketing, strategy and information management. These subject areas tend not to rely heavily on statistics or equations to strengthen findings and recommendations.

Below is a list of economics dissertation topics that will help you

Economics Dissertation – Economic Deflation Concerns in the United Kingdom

Economics Dissertation – Macroeconomic Factors Affecting Exchange Rates

Economics Dissertation – Relationship Between Stock Price And Market Efficiencies

Economics Dissertation – Determinants Of Bank Performance In China

Economics Dissertation – Importance of Economic Integration for Developed Economies

I hope you have benefited from reading this post. Feel free to add comments or suggests that I may have left out. These will be considered and added to this post.

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