Diversity Adaptation Inclusion Nursing Education

Diversity, Adaptation, and Inclusion in Nursing Education

This annotated bibliography will present analysis and review of some sources relating to adaptation, diversity, and inclusion in nursing education. Globalization has resulted in nursing schools experiencing diverse students’ population with learners who are culturally and linguistically diverse. The annotated bibliography will present measures that would enhance the adaptation of learners from culturally and linguistically diverse setting, challenges faced by these students and measures to improve the learning experience and performance. Also, the annotation will address diversity issues, policy implications and intervention measures for promoting workforce diversity through a diverse learning environment for nursing learners.

Gerrish, K. (2004). Integration of overseas Registered Nurses: Evaluation of an Adaptation Programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(6), 579–587.

Gerrish (2004) conducted a study to investigate adaptation program for nurses working oversea. These nurses normally experience challenges before adapting to new environment featured by different cultural setting and operational standards for nurses. With the current globalization trends, there has been increasing oversee nurse recruitment to address the significant staff shortage in United Kingdom healthcare sector that has resulted in theemergence of adaptation programs for nurses from other countries seeking experience and allow them to be acknowledged by the Nursing and Midwifery Council. Gerrish (2004) article collects data from different previous studies on independent evaluation of the adaptation programs for the overseas Registered Nurses who are offered by large acute healthcare facilities. Basing on the review, the study reported evaluation programs by focusing on objectives, overall success rate and outcomes from the stakeholders’ perspective.

Gerrish (2004) integrated a pluralist evaluation research model developed to facilitate the identification of the criteria that interested parties used in the judgment of success rate of adaptation programs. After identification of the success of the program, it is used in judging the program in question. Due to the nature of the study, a qualitative research method is applied to address the challenges faced in implementation of the program and measures to address the success of the program. A focus group approach is preferred in data collection where in-depth interviews were set to collect the data for analysis. Gerrish (2004) targeted oversea nurses, senior nurse managers, educators and ward managers. The study took a period of 12 months to complete data collection where the analysis was done through the development of principles for dimensional analysis. Criteria of success approach were crucial in identifying the views from the stakeholders that guided in the development of overall success of the adaptation program. After the analysis of data, results of the study were developed which helped in creating a holistic view of the adaptation programs in the United Kingdom.

The results indicated that five success meanings were developed comprising of gaining professional registration, reducing the nurse vacancy factor, fitness for practice, promoting the organizational culture that is based on diversity value and equality of opportunity. Gerrish (2004) also found that organizational context, features of their work environment and level of support influences the ease of gaining United Kingdom registration and their integration into the nursing workforce. From the article, Gerrish concluded that developed countries should take into account support for nurses sourced from the global market to facilitate their adaptation to environment featured by different social and cultural settings. This article is crucial in research involving nurses’ sourced from oversea by presenting challenges, opportunities and threats faced by the oversea nurses. The study provides crucial information relating to factors that are essential in enhancing the adaptation of these nurses through the provision of the necessary support. The article is also relevant in presenting different considerations that should be taken into accounting supporting adaptability of these nurses to the new environment.

Jeong, S. Y.-S., Hickey, N., Levett-Jones, T., Pitt, V., Hoffman, K., Norton, C. A., & Ohr, S. O. (2011). Understanding and enhancing the learning experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students in an Australian bachelor of nursing program. Nurse Education Today, 31, 238–244.

Jeong et al. (2011) conducted a study investigating measures of enhancing learning and performance of nursing students in a culturally and linguistically diverse environment.Nurses and nursing students are faced with the different cultural setting, which influences their adaptation and performance. The article review experience of nursing students in Australia who are from different cultural backgrounds. The challenges do affect not only the nursing learners but also the academic and clinical staff. A pilot study is conducted to review the perceptions from learners’ approach and another school academic and clinical staff perspective. This is crucial in identifying the challenges faced by clinical staff, academic staffs, and learners.

To attain the study objectives, Jeong et al. (2011) applied qualitative research methodology in collection and analysis of data. The article had its target as learners from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. The participants in the study comprised of learners classified as CALD who were attending their education in Australian universities. Academic staff who taught CALD learners were also integrated into the research. The study had a total of 18 participants comprising of 11 CALD students, four academic staff members, and three clinical facilitators. Qualitative research is appropriate when investigating aspects that require understanding the feelings and perception of the participants through a face to face interview where in-depth data is collected.

Jeong et al. (2011) developed interesting findings relating to measures that can address challenges faced by nursing students, clinical staff and educators with experience in learning or teaching in culturally and linguistically diverse environment. Focus groups were integrated into data collection process to enhance the quality of data collected. After the research Jeong et al. (2011) found that there were four themes crucial in addressing challenges under investigation. These themes comprise of English language competence level, isolation feelings and perception, limited opportunities in the learning process and inadequate of the university support. The effects of these challenges comprised of financial, social and intercultural contexts and political setting that learners experience. The article is significant when addressing the challenges faced by students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.

Additionally, the article utilizes an adequate number of participants which helps in identification of appropriate research data for analysis. The research is crucial to educators, clinical staff and policy makers relating to insights that facilitate the development of effective learners’ adaptation initiatives to promote an efficient environment for all culturally and linguistically diverse learners. The sample size for this article was efficient considering that qualitative studies require in-depth analysis, which is possible with a small sample of participants. The choice of research method in the article presents an opportunity for addressing challenges that students may suffer in silence, which would lower the productivity and performance of nursing students during practice. The article forms a foundation for further studies on the perspective of adaptation initiatives for learners in a cultural and linguistically diverse environment to aid both learners and academic staff.

Boughton, M. A., Halliday, L. E., & Brown, L. (2010). A tailored program of support for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) nursing students in a graduate entry Masters of Nursing course: A qualitative evaluation of outcomes. Nurse Education in Practice, 10, 355-360.

Boughton, Halliday, and Brown (2010)conducted a study investigating the significance of support programs for learners from culturally and linguistically diverse setting. The article defines the common support programs initiated to address the challenges faced by learners and teaching staff. Nursing learners enrolled for a program in culturally and linguistically different environment experience challenges that affect their learning outcomes and performance. The target population in the article were nursing students who were enrolled in 2-years accelerated Master of Nursing program from the faculty of nursing, University of Sydney. Also, the article aimed at examining the pedagogical aspects that affect the delivery of educators and nursing clinicians. The research identified gaps in the literature relating to the integration of CALD training in the learning process to improve the learning outcomes of learners from culturally and linguistically diverse environment.

Boughton, Halliday and Brown (2010) identified that learners from culturally and linguistically diverse settings are sometimes entitled to a program to facilitate their adaptation to the new environment. For the purpose of the article, the authors integrated their research into a program involving CALD interventions that took place during semester 1 in 2008 run by three academic staff members from series of workshops aimed at addressing challenges faced by learners from CALD setting. The article drew findings from both primary and secondary sources taking account evidence in existing literature. Selection of the research participants was on a voluntary basis where a total of 34 participants from different countries who were willing to join the program. A qualitative research method in collection and analysis of data allow the researcher to collect non-verbal feelings of the participants that help in the acquisition of crucial data regarding the participants. The qualitative method requires in-depth analysis that helps in establishing reality concerning the research aim and objectives. Positive results were collected relating to the impact that CALD program had on students’ adaptation to the Australian culture and language. To evaluate the impact, the researchers grouped the participants depending on the benefits that they got from the CALD program regarding enhancing their academic potential, students learning experience and clinical placement initial experience.

Diversity in Nursing Education
Diversity in Nursing Education

In the discussion, Boughton, Halliday and Brown (2010) integrated results from the primary data and critical analysis of existing studies. The in-depth literature review from the article helps in the acquisition of data that from secondary sources, which is crucial in the analysis. Integrating literature review to empirical evidence facilitates in identifying deviation of the primary results by using the previous studies as a datum. Additionally, qualitative studies involve in-depth analysis of data. This method was appropriate for this study to determine the significant impact that perception and feelings have on the research. Furthermore, the choice of the interview as data collection tool facilitates in seeking clarifications from the participants in case of an ambiguous answer and questions during the research process.

Bleich, M. R., Macwilliams, B. R., & Schmidt, B. J. (2015). Advancing Diversity Through Inclusive Excellence In Nursing Education.Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(2), 89–94.

Bleich, Macwilliams and Schmidt (2015)conducted a study investigating the measures of promoting diversity through enhancement of nursing education. With increased global movement of professionals in search of employment and nursing education, there is need to develop a diverse workforce that can serve employees from different cultural settings. However, only a few studies integrate the inclusion during recruitment and retention strategies for the improvement of academic learning outcome. The article addressed the organizational initiatives that promote diversity and inclusion in nursing education as supported by Association of American Colleges and Universities. The article addresses the inclusive excellence that builds an effective learning environment for diverse learners’ needs. There are six strategies for diversity and inclusion that are investigated basing on the authors’experiences, behavioral and structural concerns such as admission processes, community absence, invisibility, tokenism, promotion and tenure, and exclusion. The article was aiming at identifying behavioral and structural adaptations that are within the nursing education setting for the advancement of inclusion and diversity. Identifying different factors that inhibit or enhance an organization with diverse learners is significant in the current study.

The study integrates secondary data retrieved from previous studies in drawing the discussion and conclusions. In-depth analysis of the factors that influence diversity in the nursing education are analyzed. The study integrates step by step procedure of development an inclusive setting for nursing education. The study is crucial in presenting the step-to-step procedure of development of the effective framework for implementation of diversity in nursing education. Bleich, Macwilliams and Schmidt (2015) presented strategies for promoting diversity and inclusivity comprising of improving the admission process, reduction of the inevitability of the underrepresented cohorts, the establishment of support community, enhancing equity in the promotion and the tenure structures, and discouraging tokenism. These initiatives are drawn from different past studies that took into account the crucial elements of diversity.

Even though recent studies play a critical role in the research process, it should be accompanied by empirical results that improve the quality of data presented. Reliance on previous studies maybe misleading since the earlier studies could measure different elements that are not significant in the current study. Despite these challenges in the article, it present information that is crucial in the development of a foundation for more in-depth studies that incorporate primary sources of data. In studies relating to measures of enhancing diversity and principles in nursing education, the article by Bleich, Macwilliams and Schmidt (2015) is crucial in determining gaps in the previous studies that future research should address. In addition, the article could be effective in the presentation of effects of failing to integrate diversity principles in nursing education where diverse cultures are present. Strong self-awareness and self-esteem are crucial for learners within a diverse society to be incorporated into an efficient learning environment and demonstrate effective learning and productive environment.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2015). The Changing Landscape: Nursing Student Diversity on the Rise. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing(AACN) (2015) present review of policy on diversity in American nursing colleges. The report compiles evidence based on recent studies and available policies on the significance of cultural diversity understanding in the nursing workforce in the development of culturally sensitive patient care observing crucial patients’ safety and service quality. The data and analysis are dependent on the U.S. Census Bureau that classified differential cultural settings in the United States where groups that are racially underrepresented forms more than a third of the entire population. The report expresses the commitment of American Association of Colleges of Nursing in promoting diversity and inclusion in all nursing colleges.

The report presents a valuable source of data from primary sources like government websites relating to diversity in nursing education. To ensure the validity of data submitted, the AACN present results of previous reports from reliable sources that cite issues relating to diversity in American nursing colleges.

To address the initiatives by the government, AACN present two reports compiled by NAS in 2004 addressing measures to improve the diversity in the healthcare sector. Also, AACN also reviewed a report by NAS in 2010 on advancing nursing through enhancement of its leadership role through the development of the competent and diverse workforce. The research also presents the trends in changes in the level of diversity across learners undertaking Baccalaureate, Masters,Ph.D. and DNP programs in nursing for the period between 2011 and 2015. Also, the report presents diversity trends across all the states in the US. This helps the future studies in identifying the diversity trends across the American States diversity commitment in promoting the needs of all learners.

Apart from variations in diversity from 2011-2015 and regional diversity levels, ACCN report took into account variations in diversity across programs, which is crucial in informing researchers and policy makers on the degree of diversity in nursing education in the United States depending on the extent of learning. Furthermore, the report presents the diversity on gender-based variations. The report also illustrates the measures that the Federal and local governments would integrate into nursing schools to promote diversity in learning institutions for nurses. From 2006 to 2015, the research cites that there has been a drop in grant funding programs.  Understanding these challenges and opportunities relating to diversity in nursing education will enhance in effective decision-making regarding policy interventions appropriate to address the diversity issues in nursing education. This report is essential in developing valid arguments relating to interventions for diversity in American nursing education. The report presents a valuable source of information on trends based on annual grants allocation, gender, and level of study, which will guide the development of policy measures to encourage diversity in nursing education.

In conclusion, the five studies identify the nursing discipline as a complex profession that entails the harmonization of work culture, private life, societal obligations, and work schedule. Collectively, the authors concur that professional nurses and nursing students specialize in a demanding profession. The health care industry demands that the practitioners commit themselves to the responsibilities by preparing to work for extended hours under congested schedules. Therefore, the work environment prompts the governing institutions to consider improving expertise and the support infrastructure in order to enhance the efficacy of the healthcare service providers. In spite of the incongruousness in specific and general objectives, the studies converge into a common point of focus involving manipulating the parameters of interest to improve the performance of nurses. Jointly, the authors view the quality of nursing as a function of dedicated endeavors to establish support institutions, education programs, and cultural learning.

Nurses are mobile in nature as the occupation dictates. The interventions would enable the medical professionals to adapt new environments and avoid culture shock. New work environments expose the nurses to challenges in learning the ways of life of the inhabitants. The situation grows severe in workstations where the health care seekers subscribe to a foreign language. At this point, intervention programs and special education programs tailored to specific settings are vital to improving the performance of the personnel within the restrictive workplace. Additionally, the studies venture into using qualitative approaches to explore the parameters of interest. The commonality portrays a similarity in the five research works highlighting that most elements in nursing are non-quantitative.

As long as the authors agree on the complexity of the discipline, discrepancies emerge pertaining to the most suitable intervention strategies. The influence of the studies on the nursing practice significantly relies on an integrated method of implementing the findings. In other words, the observations made from each of the studies are solely dependent on the contributions of the rest. Furthermore, the authors base the studies on different scopes and parameters. Focusing on culture, education, and support programs exposes the incongruousness underlying the pursuit of knowledge. Through the principal areas of focus, the general objectives of the research works differ considerably from one study to another. The specialization undermines the view of mutual relationships in the rudiments of nursing.

The five articles are exclusively vital in enabling efficient nursing services. The diverse objectives pursued by the researchers present nursing practice as a multi-disciplinary subject comprising of equally important parameters. In a real sense, nursing profession describes a collection of medical subjects that equip the facilitators with immense knowledge essential for dealing with a myriad of scenarios in the healthcare industry. More important are the elements that the articles discuss as significant in enhancing nursing. Education denotes one of the traditional methods of knowledge acquisition. Training remains a viable approach to improve professionalism. Nursing professionals require excellent training to improve the quality of the service.

The education programs enhance the adaptation mechanisms of the medical personnel to various environments. As nurses move from one workstation to another, the environmental setting changes drastically prompting swift adjustment. Cultural learning denotes one of the most vital considerations since nurses interact with culturally diverse populations. The support institutions formulate and implement policies and programs aimed at enhancing the workplace for nursing professionals. Therefore, the articles discuss valuable factors essential for facilitating exemplary therapeutic services.

References

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2015). The Changing Landscape: Nursing Student Diversity on the Rise. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing.

Bleich, M. R., Macwilliams, B. R., & Schmidt, B. J. (2015). Advancing Diversity Through Inclusive Excellence In Nursing Education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(2), 89–94.

Boughton, M. A., Halliday, L. E., & Brown, L. (2010). A tailored program of support for culturally and li nguistically diverse (CALD) nursing students in a graduate entry Masters of Nursing course: A qualitative evaluation of outcomes. Nurse Education in Practice, 10, 355-360.

Gerrish, K. (2004). Integration of overseas Registered Nurses: evaluation of an adaptation programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(6), 579–587.

Jeong, S. Y.-S., Hickey, N., Levett-Jones, T., Pitt, V., Hoffman, K., Norton, C. A., & Ohr, S. O. (2011). Understanding and enhancing the learning experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students in an Australian bachelor of nursing program. Nurse Education Today, 31, 238–244.

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Economic Prediction Price Elasticity Model

Economic Prediction and Price Elasticity

Economics models are false and so government should ignore their predictions. Explain, discuss and evaluate the accuracy of this statement.

Price Elasticity – Economics models are the tools which economists use to predict future economic developments by measuring past relationships among variables such as household income, consumer spending, employment, interest rates, tax rates etc. and forecasting how changes in some of these variables will affect other variables. An economic model is said to be complete if it can accurately forecast many of the variables future course, however, no economic model can be complete in true sense. There are several forces outside the model that affect the calculation and forecasting of variables. There are two ways by which these outside factors affect the forecasting and economic predictions. The input errors are concerned with inaccurate assumption of outside variables and model errors which explains the deviation of the equation of economic model from the assumption to the actual. Hence, it can be said that economic models are subjective approximations of reality and are designed to explain the observation.  Therefore, the model’s predictions should be moderated so that it can accommodate the effect of random data variables (Deming, 2000).

Many researchers believe that economic theories and models simply provide ways to look at systems and determine how changes in variables affect the overall outcome. It also explains advantages and disadvantages of various economic models and systems. However, predictions and subsequent policy decisions are made after following value judgement of policymakers or the government. Therefore, the government should view at economic model only as a framework which provide insight of a contextual theory. More empirical evidence and real life economic parameters should be considered while making policy decisions based on economic predictions (Godley & Lavoie, 2006).

No economic model can perfectly predict the real future. A good example of the economic model’s failure is to predict the reasons for the global financial crisis of 2008. The prevailing economic model was deficient to provide sufficient attention towards the relationship between demands, wealth, and excessive financial risk taking. There were considerable research which had been conducted to uncover the same and also a new behavioural equation was added to the existing economic models. The true test of the new model will happen when it will effectively flag financial risk levels that would need a precautionary policy change. This is an ongoing process which consist of constructing, testing, and revising models and outside forces so that economists and policymakers can predict the future course of economy (Taylor, 2009).

Government neither can overlook economic models’ forecasts nor make predictions completely based on them. It has also been seen that economists seem to put aside political factors outside their equation. Politics among other outside factors is the most important factor that helps to determine the outcome of economic policy. In view of these analysis, it is suggested to use structural models which makes several “what if” economic analysis on several input combinations. In this way, the policymakers would have substantial information on various numerical variables and the forecast can be recalculated whenever required (Diermeier, Eraslan & Merlo, 2003).

Identify estimates of the price elasticity of demand for at least three different products

The “law of demand” suggests that the higher the price of a good, the lesser demand from consumers. This is the fundamental law of all economic models to predict the economic forecasts. In order to predict consumer behaviour in more details, economists use several techniques which evaluate the sensitivity of consumers’ demands with respect to changes in price. The most commonly used technique is known as “price elasticity of demand”. In simple terms, it is the proportionate change in demand given a change in price. For example, if a one unit decline in the price of a product produces a one unit increase in demand for that product, the price elasticity of demand is said to be one (Green, Malpezzi & Mayo, 2005).

Price Elasticity
Price Elasticity

Numerous studies suggest that the majority of consumer goods and services falls in the price elasticity of between .5 and 1.5. Essential products to everyday living, which have fewer substitutes, typically have lower elasticity for example, staple foods. Since, staples such as cereals are necessities in the diet, and are usually cheaper so that people safeguard their income for spending on such essentials when prices increase. Furthermore, lower income households tend to have higher price elasticity for food items than high income households. As food products occupies a large share of total income in these households, price changes have a substantial impact on the allocation of budget. On the other hand, magnitude of the elasticity for animal source foods such as fish, meat and dairy are higher than staple cereals as these are considered as luxury food items and there are always many substitutes available for consumption of these food choices (Andreyeva, Long & Brownell, 2010).

Goods with many substitutes, or are considered luxuries as are not essential, or whose purchase can be easily postponed, have higher elasticity. For example, the demand of automobile is considered as elastic as there are three kind of substitution takes place. In response of a unit price change, consumer of a new car can delay the purchase, or can choose to purchase another category of car or chose not to buy a new car and use another mode of transport. Furthermore, in case of buying a particular model of car, it would be highly elastic demand as there will be a lot of substitutes. On the other hand, demand for cars in rural areas would be inelastic over the longer run. Because there are very few alternative mode of transports available (Parry, Walls & Harrington, 2007).

Another example can be taken from health care services, where the demand for health care expenditure is found to be price inelastic. A range of price elasticity estimates it to be -0.17, which means that a one unit increase in the price of health care will lead to a 0.17 unit reduction in health care expenditures. Moreover, the demand for health care is also found to be income inelastic as it is in the range of 0 to 0.2. The positive sign of the elasticity suggests that there will be increase for health care demand as income increases, however the low magnitude of the elasticity indicates that the demand response would be relatively very small (Duarte, 2012).

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References

Andreyeva, T., Long, M. W., & Brownell, K. D. (2010). The impact of food prices on consumption: a systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food. American journal of public health100(2), 216-222.

Deming, W. E. (2000). The new economics: for industry, government, education. MIT press.

Diermeier, D., Eraslan, H., & Merlo, A. (2003). A structural model of government formation. Econometrica71(1), 27-70.

Duarte, F. (2012). Price elasticity of expenditure across health care services. Journal of health economics31(6), 824-841.

Godley, W., & Lavoie, M. (2006). Monetary economics: an integrated approach to credit, money, income, production and wealth. Springer.

Green, R. K., Malpezzi, S., & Mayo, S. K. (2005). Metropolitan-specific estimates of the price elasticity of supply of housing, and their sources. The American Economic Review95(2), 334-339.

Parry, I. W., Walls, M., & Harrington, W. (2007). Automobile externalities and policies. Journal of economic literature45(2), 373-399.

Taylor, J. B. (2009). The financial crisis and the policy responses: An empirical analysis of what went wrong (No. w14631). National Bureau of Economic Research.

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Basic Cognitive Neuroscience Diseases

Basic Cognitive Neuroscience Diseases

Cognitive neuroscience is the study of the neurobiological substrates which is responsible for human cognition and seeks to reveal the neural circuits hidden in the human mental processes. This included learning, perception about things and events, and attention. The focus of the cognitive neuroscience researchers understands the brain mechanism responsible for auditory functions, musical processing and emotional exhibitions (Mataró, 2017).

Cognitive neuroscience also seeks to understand the neural mechanisms that enable predictive processes and the effects they might have on perception. It also sees to how the predictions that were formulated can influence the understanding of our environment. It is also included in this study, the calculation strategies used in solving arithmetical problems, and the level of difficulties that mathematics enthusiasts face when engaged in numerical analysis.

Neuropsychology is a clinical application of findings in the field of neuroscience. It seeks to know how brain disorders or brain injuries can cause a defect in cognitive functions and human behavior. Another area in neuroscience is the analysis which happened to cognitive ability resulting from aging and deteriorative illness, and also the mechanism used in brain reorganization following a fatal brain injury (Mataró, 2017). It studies how cognitive function can be improved in patients who have slight cognitive deficiency through the use of non-invasive stimulated techniques. Part of the neuro-scientific studies is finding out the effects of cerebrovascular diseases and that of the neuroprotective interventions in neurobiological mechanisms such as cognitive training and physical exercises.

Other research areas have their focus on the differentiating factors in central nervous system functioning of people with normal weight and obese (overweight), as well as the coexistence of severe mental disorders and substance use disorders. It also does the analysis of learning disorders such as nonverbal learning disability and dyslexia.

Some of the techniques used by neuroscientists include genetic studies, cognitive test, and neuro-imaging techniques likes of magnetic resonance imaging.

Neuro-imaging is conceived as techniques which are used in producing brain images without necessarily performing surgery on patients with brain damages or problems, nor cutting of the skin, or any form of contact with the endo-body (Jnguyen, 2012).

Neuro-imaging techniques give doctors and neuroscientists the clear view of activities and problems occurring in the brain without carrying out brain surgery on the patient (Demitri, 2016). There are more than five safe neuro-imaging techniques used in medical facilities throughout the world, but three are most common. These techniques include; functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Computerized Tomography (CT), and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (Jnguyen, 2012). Others include electroencephalography (EEG), Magnetoencephalography (MEG), and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) (Demitri, 2016).

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a technique of measuring the activities of the brain, through the analysis of how blood is flowing in the brain. An MRI scanner detects changes in blood oxygenation and flow that occurs as a result of neural activity. This is because, when the brain is at work, it uses more oxygen at the active area. (Demitri, 2016).

A functioning MRI scanner uses a strong electromagnet which helps to generate forms strong magnetic field within the scanner. It causes randomly spinning protons in the brain which align with the direction of the field. Also, the proton will continue to spin while they are in alignment and exhibits a wobbling top behavior. The frequency of their wobbling is referred to as resonance.

The protons, when placed in a strong magnetic field and energy, is delivered to them at a particular resonant frequency, they will absorb energy with a great efficiency. In MRI, radio waves are used to provide the force needed to make the protons move (Jnguyen, 2012).

The benefits of using fMRI include the fact that it does not involve radioactivity, and there have been no reports of side effects resulting from the use of magnetic field and radio waves. Also, fMRI is not expensive, non-invasive, and readily available and provide a wide range of excellent temporal and partial resolution.

Computerized Tomography (CT)

Computerized tomography is a neuroimaging technique that makes use of x-rays in generating pictures of the inside of the body. It gives a picture of the human brain in accordance with the differential absorption of x-rays. It has been used widely in medical diagnosis to plan, guide and monitor brain therapy.

A computerized tomography makes use of X-rays placed at different angles to produce images of the human brain.

When conducting computerized tomography scans, a movable x-ray source will be rotated around the subject’s head. Detectors are put in place to record the intensity of the rays that are transmitted while the computer simultaneously combines the snapshots taken by the movable x-ray machine and arrange them to form a 3D cross-sectional image. This can be used by the doctors and researcher to get more information about the brain (Jnguyen, 2012).

Cognitive Neuroscience Diseases Dissertation
Cognitive Neuroscience Diseases Dissertation

Advantageously, computerized tomography scan is painless, cost effective and fast in usage. It can provide images of bones, tissues and blood vessels simultaneously. However, the patient is exposed to the risk of cancer as result of exposure to radiation from the x-ray scanner.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Positron Emission Tomography uses tracers or radioactivity labeled molecules in the blood stream which have been taken up by active neurons. When these materials become decay as a result of radioactivity, a positron will be emitted; this can be picked up by the detector. PET studies the flow of blood through the brain and the metabolic activities of the brain which helps to picture changes in biochemical processes of the brain (Demitri, 2016). PET is however used to indicate whether the brain is functioning properly.

The trace is a substance like glucose which can be broken down into the activities of cells in the body, where it is labeled with a radioactive isotope. The risk involved is very low because the amount of radiation is low and the isotope can be easily removed from the body by urination.

When the tracer is introduced into the bloodstream, the isotope will start to decay which makes it less radioactive later. During this process, a positron is released, and when it collides with an electron, it will produce gamma ray as a result of the positron and electron eliminating one another. The two produced gamma rays will travel in opposite directions and they will try to leave the patient’s body. These rays can then be detected by two detectors set at 1800 from each other, and it is recorded as a coincidence event. The computer will then determine the source of the gamma rays in the subject’s brain and then generate a 3D image.

As an added advantage, PET can detect other diseases in the body system which often occurs before one can observe the changes in the anatomy. Also, the movement of the subject does not affect the quality of the output, although the image may not be very clear in some cases. Also, the use of radiation can be injurious to the subject’s health.

These are some of the popular techniques used by neuroscientists in neuroimaging, all of them have their own advantage and their disadvantages. However, they are used in the treatment of neuro-diseases such as Alzheimer, Dementia, and Parkinson.

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease has been found to be a generic cause of dementia, and it has been confirmed to be responsible for about 50% of identified dementia cases. This is because a loss of memory is the symptom that is mostly identified with affected patients (EssayEmpire, 2017).

 Alzheimer is known to be a progressive and degenerative disease known to cause sporadic regression in the cognitive ability of an individual. It is identified by the prevalence of neuron and synapse loss. It often leads to the appearance of plaques and tangles (B-amyloid and tau aggregate) in the human brain (Bussey, 2015).

The German physician and neuropathologist, Alois Alzheimer was the first to identify the presence of plaques and tangles in the human brain. In 1907, he carried out an autopsy on a woman who died of dementia, and he discovered the occurrence of histopathologic alterations in form of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques.

Another characteristic of this disease is the change in the function of the affective domain; the patient tends to be partial in judgment and reasoning. In addition, the patient may have a defect in his language function, constructional abilities.

Dementia

Dementia is a gradual and persistent occurrence of deterioration in the cognitive function of human brain. It affects the intellectual abilities and behavioral pattern of an individual. It can affect the individual’s ability to excel in certain daily activities like housekeeping, driving, attending social functions, keeping daily sales record etc. Changes are also noticed in personality and the individual’s emotions (CNADC, 2017).

As against the widespread beliefs, dementia is not peculiar to aging, it results from diseases which affect the brain. The influence of dementia is felt on all aspects of mind and behavioral pattern, including language ability, ability to give concentrations, visual perception, temperament, memory, sound judgment ability, social interaction etc.

Dementia should however not be perceived as a single disease, it is a combination of signs and symptoms indicating multiple diseases or even injury in the brain (CNADC, 2017).

Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease is a disorder caused by degeneration of the nervous system and affects the mostly the motor system (NINDS, 2016). It cannot be easily detected as the symptom comes very slowly as one grows in age. The first sets of signs that occur include shaking of the arms and legs, difficulty in walking and slow movement. With this is thinking and behavioral problems, depression, and anxiety are also noticed with people suffering from Parkinson disease. Also, Parkinson patients tend to suffer a lack of sleep, sensory problems and emotional problems (Sveinbjornsdottir, 2016).

The causes of Parkinson disease has been traced to both genetic and environmental factors. They are easily transferred among generations especially in families where it has been occurring. Also, when an individual is exposed to some form of pesticides or he has a brain injury, he is likely to have Parkinson disease. However, smoking tobacco or consuming coffee does not really have any effect on the likelihood of suffering from the disease (Kalia & Lang, 2015).

References

Bussey, T. (2015) Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved April 29, 2017, from Translational Cognitive Neuroscience Lab.

CNADC. (2017) Memory, Dementia & Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved April 27, 2017, from Northwestern Medicine | Northwestern University.

Demitri, M. (2016, July 17) Types of Brain Imaging Techniques. Retrieved April 28, 2017, from Psych Central.

EssayEmpire. (2017) Alzheimer’s Disease Research Paper. Retrieved April 29, 2017, from Research Paper.

Jnguyen. (2012, April 02) Neuroimaging. Retrieved April 29, 2017, from Huntington’s Outreach Project for Education.

Kalia, L., & Lang, A. (2015) Parkinson’s disease. Lancet (London, England), 896 – 912.

Mataró, M. (2017) Cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology. Retrieved April 29, 2017, from Institut de Neurociencies.

NINDS. (2016, June 30). Parkinson’s Disease Information Page. Retrieved July 18, 2016

Sveinbjornsdottir, S. (2016) The Clinical Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Neurochemistry, 318 – 324.

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Best HRM Dissertation Topics For University Students

HRM Dissertation Topics

Your HRM dissertation is an extended piece of work on a topic of your own choosing. Working on a dissertation often involves searching for more specialized subject information beyond your University library catalog. You may like to look at the HRM Dissertation Topics we have on offer.

Your HRM dissertation aims to integrate your human resource management skills and knowledge with the published research in the area under study so that the project meets the high academic quality and high relevance to the HRM communities for which it has been written. While this blog post is designed to provide all the information that you need to write your own HRM Dissertation Proposal and formulate a handful of HRM Dissertation Topics.

We would advise you to visit our HRM Dissertation Topics pages, where you can find additional information as well as guidance. Our website offers support for the HRM dissertation you will undertake. Students and HR Professional will be offered the opportunity to explore the HRM Dissertation Topics we have on offer.

Please note that your dissertation supervisor might not have the same research interest as you but he/she is the ultimate source for providing students with guidance on how to succeed in writing your own HRM Dissertation. The role of the supervisor is to oversee your academic and professional development and to assist you.

The aim of the team at study-aids is to help students develop their research skills, knowledge and understanding of the human resource management. This will give new insights into HRM research, which will enable you to commission, undertake and evaluate HRM research in your chosen area of management throughout your future career. We recognize that for many of you formulating HRM Dissertation Topics can be a daunting task. For this reason, we expect you to ask questions and clarify your understanding as and when necessary. Remember that effective and successful HRM Dissertation involves asking as many questions as possible from yourselves and from the people around you.

What Is A Dissertation?

Before you begin to think about possible HRM Dissertation Topics for investigation, make sure you are clear in your own mind about what a dissertation is. You will be familiar with the principles of HRM, but it is worth reviewing briefly what a HRM Dissertation is really designed to do, and looking at how a HRM dissertation may mirror but also differ from a standard dissertation in a different subject area.

Different subject disciplines may emphasize different features, but, broadly speaking, a dissertation is a continuous piece of writing, arranged in clearly demarcated paragraphs, in which an argument (a clear line of thought) is developed, in response to a central question or proposition (thesis). The line of argument is supported by evidence you have acquired through research, which you are required to analyse, and which supports or contradicts the various perspectives explored in the course of that argument. Your HRM Dissertation then reaches a conclusion in the final section which pulls together the threads of your argument, supporting, qualifying or rejecting the original dissertation.

HRM Dissertation Topics
HRM Dissertation Topics

It is worth bearing in mind that your HRM dissertation is not a piece of writing designed to reproduce information available elsewhere, but something new and expressive of your individual abilities to analyse and synthesise. In addition, the process of academic writing will, of itself, help you to learn, by enabling you to work with concepts and information relevant to your subject, and thereby developing your intellectual skills.

Your HRM Dissertation should follow the fundamental principles of academic writing, but bear in mind the following key points. It is an extended piece of writing, usually divided into chapters. Make sure that you know the lower and upper word limits acceptable for your HRM dissertation, and what that will look like in terms of word processed pages. Be sure to find out whether you should be following a particular sequence of chapter headings for example, introduction followed by literature search followed by an experiment or a survey and, or an analysis of your research and whether you are expected to devise your own sequence and structure.

Your HRM dissertation contains a detailed exploration of evidence. The evidence referred to may comprise evidence from published texts, for example if you are exploring the literary texts of a particular writer, or it may consist of primary data gathered by your own, first hand research, for example a sociological study of attitudes to gender roles based on research methods such as interviews and questionnaires.

You are required to be clear about the nature of the methodology you will use for gathering the evidence why are you collecting data or analyzing evidence in that way rather than in another way it must be underpinned throughout by awareness of theory your argument should be placed within the context of existing theory relevant to the human resource management subject. It has to be presented in a professionally finished manner. Your supervisor should give you precise details about the format, layout and stylistic requirements of your assignment. Make sure that you know exactly what these are.

The importance of having a dissertation and evaluating it critically remember that you are constructing an argument from the beginning to the end of your assignment. Think of this central idea, and the logical development of your argument (train of thought) around this, as being the central path of your HRM dissertation, and make sure that you do not have sections or paragraphs which are somewhere in the shrubbery out of sight of the main path. Every paragraph should further the central argument, by providing another angle on it, additional evidence, and evaluation of that evidence in relation to your HRM Dissertation.

HRM Dissertation Topics

Comparative Management Practices (Especially With Regard To China)

Co-Operative (And “Partnership”) Aspects of Employment Relations

Cross-Cultural Communication (And Mis-Communication) In Business

Enterprise Restructuring In Emerging and Formerly Socialist Economies

Equal Opportunities and Managing Diversity

Ethical Aspects of Organisational Activities

Gender Aspects of Work and Management

Government Vocational Education and Training Policy

HRM and Organisational Performance

HRM and Shareholder Value In Management

HRM in Buyouts

HRM in the SME Sector

Industrial/Employment Relations

Inter-Organisational Relationships (Mergers, Alliances, Acquisitions Etc)

Knowledge Management

Leadership

Managing Culture

Organisational Change

Performance Related Pay

Recruitment and Selection

Team Working

Technology Change in Organisations

Trade Unions

HRM Dissertation Samples

There is so much to explore within the field of human resource management. The following is a list of HRM dissertation topics that have been written by successful HRM graduates and are used by HRM professionals.

Strategic Role of Human Resource Management Policies and Practices in Organizational Change

The Relationship between Employee Benefits and Employee Satisfaction at Google

The Importance of Training Staff in the Modern Workplace Era

Managing Workforce Diversity

Can Flexible Working Act as Employee Recruitment and Retention Tool?

Formulating Your Own HRM Dissertation

A HRM dissertation is a good example of a scientific work which needs more than merely writing and research skills. It must be kept in mind that such writings as HRM dissertation have specific rules to follow and the special instructions to keep to.

  1. One must understand that a HRM dissertation requires that students could demonstrate specific skills. Thus, students are supposed to do the following, according to the HRM dissertation requirements.
  2. Students must demonstrate the ability to choose the methods for their research on their own, HRM dissertation rules say.
  3. A typical HRM dissertation would presuppose that a student can perform an appropriate inquiry without assistance.
  4. A HRM dissertation demands that students should take a critical approach to the issues which are being researched in their HRM dissertations, so that the students could conduct an independent research.
  5. Among the demands to those who are writing their HRM dissertation, there is the one concerning the so-called subject-specific skills. Narrowing the research of the dissertation, this demand concerns the bibliographical material. Such dissertations are supposed to be grounded on a profound aspect of specific literature, and the chosen area of HRM dissertation must embrace all possible literature, including the most modern one.
  6. There is also a demand to HRM dissertations which says that a good dissertation must make a good use of the research data to construct a well-built argument.
  7. The way in which the data in the HRM dissertation is going to be presented matters much as well. The data in your HRM dissertation must be arranged well represent a logical structure and suggest a problem which will further on be developed into an enticing argument. Such are the basic demands to a good HRM dissertation

Choosing HRM Dissertation Topics

This is often the hardest part of the dissertation. This is because you must choose the topic, your supervisor cannot do it for you (though she or he can help you refine ideas that you do have). There are no hard and fast rules about the topic for your dissertation, but the following guidelines may help. Think about the areas of HRM that you are most interested in or a topic that you yourself are particularly interested in to which a sociological angle can be discerned. Also consider which theories and concepts have interested you the most. Along these lines, consider the courses you’ve taken so far. Which lectures or courses most captured your imagination? You can go back and look at your notes and textbooks to jog your memory.

Do not try to be too ambitious about what you can achieve given your time and resource constraints. The best dissertations are analyses of modest scope done well rather than broad ones done poorly. Think about the kind of research that you will actually do, and make sure that it is something that you yourself can feasibly do in the time available. A general word of advice is to choose quality HRM dissertation topics that are interesting to you. You will spend a great deal of time working on a relatively narrow issue, so choose one you will enjoy! Members of staff may be able to help you refine your thoughts, but the ideas and the motivation has to come from you.

Click Here For A Full List Of HRM Dissertation Topics

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Life Cycle Costing Sustainable Construction

The Effectiveness of Life Cycle Costing in Sustainable Construction

View This Dissertation Here

The UK construction industry is a fast pace and ever changing industry, with an increasing emphasise towards sustainability. As the public awareness of sustainability enhances the pressure on the construction industry to consider the concept progresses. Life cycle costing (LCC) is a technique that allows monetary evaluation of alternative investment or design options taking into consideration all of the life cycle costs associated with a building. The costs generally related to LCC are made up of capital expenditure (CapEx), operating expenditure (OpEx), which comprises of operational and maintenance (O&M) costs, general in-use costs and disposal costs. The outcome of the process assumes that a slight increase in CapEx can result in considerable savings over the life span of a building. A review of the literature, relevant to the research subject will introduce the key principles of LCC and investigate the limitations and barriers preventing further application of the process within the construction industry. The research will also explore the term ‘sustainable development’ in addition to the implementation of sustainable construction within the construction sector.

Life Cycle Costing Construction Dissertation
Life Cycle Costing Construction Dissertation

Further, the aim of the research is to identify the extent to which life cycle costing can be integrated into sustainable design to deliver sustainable construction. The data collection was conducted using a questionnaire, which was distributed among industry professionals and online social groups. The results from this were then used to draw conclusions and recommend any area of further research

Dissertation Objectives

  • To examine the extent to which LLC and sustainable design are being effectively utilised in the construction industry today
  • To investigate the methodology and limitations of LLC and identify why it is not used more broadly within the industry
  • To analyse whether life cycle costing can be used effectively for reducing the environmental impact of construction projects
  • To construct a set of recommendations and decisive conclusions to help support the use of life cycle costing as a tool for sustainability

Dissertation Contents – Life Cycle Costing

1 – Introduction
Background
Rationale
Hypothesis
Aims and objectives
Structure

2 – Sustainability in the Construction Industry
Sustainability information
Importance of sustainability in construction
Demand for green construction

3 – Legislation
Regulation and Initiatives
Zero Carbon Homes for 2016
Sustainability assessment methods

4 – Costs
Substantiating the Economy
Capital Costs
Whole Life Costs
Resale Cost and Value
Reducing Costs

5 – Research Methodology
Methods of research
Qualitative methods
Case studies
Other methods
Quantitative methods
Surveys
Other methods
Triangulation of methods

6 – Survey
Analysis of Responses
General identifying questions
Questions on legislation
The cost of sustainability
Innovative versus traditional methods of construction

7 – Conclusions and Recommendations
Limitations
Conclusions
Aim and Objectives
Recommendations for further research

References

Appendix

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View This Dissertation Here

For more tips on how to write your own construction management dissertation visit our Construction Management Dissertation Topics today. It contains many dissertation topics and dissertation titles. I would very grateful if you can share this post on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.