MBA Management Cross Cultural Training

MBA Management Cross Cultural Training

Cross Cultural Training. This MBA paper discusses Cross Cultural Training and its objectives, Importance of intercultural training in globalization, Key intercultural skills for expatriate training, Types and benefits of intercultural training and determinants of cultural difference.


Inter cultural training is fast becoming a clearly important element in the world of global industry (Zakaria, 2000) This assignment discusses Cross cultural training and its objectives, Importance of intercultural training in globalization, Key intercultural skills for expatriate training, Types and benefits of intercultural training, Determinants of cultural differences, Differences across cultures in people and practices, Socio-Cultural aspects of expatriate adjustment and  Intercultural training issues.

Intercultural Training

Inter cultural training means “Any intervention aimed at increasing an individual’s capability to cope with and work in foreign environment” (Tung, 1981). It includes one to one discussion and imitation of the situations of other culture to understand the culture of host country.  In other way cross cultural training means “Formal methods to prepare people for more effective interpersonal relations and job success when they interact extensively with individuals from cultures other than their own” (Brislin and Yoshida, 1994). Definition of cross cultural training hence is wide to include differences in areas like linguistic skills, corporate manners, views and principles, social system, negotiating styles etc. of any culture. The benefits of inter–cultural training are (Zakaria, 2000);

  1. A distinct advantage for organizations
  2. By continuous changing home country mode to a socially adjustable and suitable culture
  3. By improving how to cope up with unpredicted events and by dealing with cultural shock in host country culture
  4. By decreasing uncertainty in expatriates while dealing with host country citizens
  5. Increasing expatriates managing skills by reducing stress and disorientation (Zakaria, 2000) So this is the instrument for increasing the corporate culture and follows constantly reviewing the activity of expatriates in the companies

Importance of Intercultural Training in Globalisation

Changing Nature of International Organisations

Because of increasing co enterprise and unions and the huge developments in minor to major businesses as significant contributions in globalisation. Due to shift in financial circumstances changed the way of organisations looking at the value efficiency of expatriates (Harris and Kumra, 2000)

Change in Host Location

Due to huge foreign direct investment in foreign countries and inter cultural improvements the demand of expatriate assignment rise between established countries with a drop in the percentage of managers moving from developed world to the Third World (Harris and Kumra, 2000)

Key Intercultural Skills for Expatriate Training

According to Hofstede (1980, p. 398) important intercultural skills are as follows:

  1. The ability to interconnect esteem
  2. The ability to be broadminded
  3. The ability to accept others ideas and views
  4. The ability to show sympathy
  5. The ability to be elastic
  6. The ability for giving chance to others in debates
  7. Patience for doubtfulness

Gudykunst and Hammer (1983) focused on types of cross cultural training approaches. According to them there are two approaches:

Experiential versus Didactic: This method is based on an observation that individuals, mainly grownups, study by performing the task. (Knowles, 1972, 1975, 1990; Tough, 1979) For effectiveness in this approach learner have to study the processes and tactics for their significance in their society; improve a positive approach to the concept which will bring positive outcomes for them and also for another (Richards, 1997). In the didactic (information giving) approach, based on the thoughts that a cognitive understanding is essential before people can interact with another culture. This can be done by information giving such as lectures, videos and group discussions.

Culture Specific versus Culture General: Culture specific training gives information and direction about culture where expatiate is moving soon for his assignment. Culture specific method includes methods like culture specific briefings, assimilation and readings, giving expatriate knowledge about the country (e.g. past and present situation, creed); important ethics, or what to do and what not to do in that particular culture. (Harris and Kumra, 2000)On the other hand, Culture general training is about providing information to the peoples which they can use in any new culture with anew  variety of know hows and developing expatiates with a set of expertise of how to deal with unknown cultures. Types of approach used in this include simulations and self-assessments (Harris and Kumra, 2000)

Types and Benefits of Intercultural Training

Pre Departure Training: This is the traditional form for intercultural training and it is conducted in the home country and organised about a month ago before departure. For better efficiency, the training should be given when the trainees are most motivated to learn (Selmer, 2009) For example, if a person is unable to concern learning about another culture may not benefit from pre-departure training. The duration of most Cross Cultural Training programmes is depends upon the cultural distance from home country to host country. For example between the West and China (Branine, 2005). This experience is called ‘‘tourist  phase’’ (Torbiorn,1982)

Post Arrival Training: Post arrival training is further beneficial when provided after expatriate coming back from host country to home country. (Gudykunst et al., 1996; Selmer et al., 1998). This takes around three to six months to start and focused on developments in the host country culture, world view, mentality, values, living patterns and social structure (Torbiorn, 1994). This training can take place at the host country, the home country or any other place. This is like ‘‘on site’’ training of expatriates. ‘‘on site’’ training supports to study innovative administrative measures, and help them adjust to the new cultural background.

Sequential Training: This training must be progressing in steps starting at pre departure and continuing to the post arrival phases which provides a complete direction for expatriate’s step by step improvement towards knowing the value and beliefs of the host culture. (Selmer, 2009) Sequential training has three pre conditions. First, expatriate’s encounters a much diverse societal atmosphere, that the expatriate has faced situations which were unknown before without any option. Then, the relocation to the overseas nation is within a short period of time. Third, expatriate Stays in the host culture for long time for situation to be restructured and the new behaviors to be taught (Selmer et al., 1998).

Content and Duration of Cross Cultural Training

Brislin (1979) has identified three different contents of Cross cultural Training as being cognitive, effective and behavioral in nature. The cognitive content matches to a distribution of information through discussions and other non-participatory resources. Cognitive content contain facts and figures important for real world measures, for example geographic knowledge, weather, accommodation, universities etc. The effective content aims at aggravating individual responses to learn how to deal with critical cultural situations.

Cross Cultural Training Dissertation
Cross Cultural Training Dissertation

The behavioral content aims at improving the communication style of participants for decent relationships with members of host culture and could enables communication with natives, shows an ability to show the interest to learn about overseas culture, supports expatriate to be well mannered (Eschback et al., 2001; Selmer, 2006). Duration of Cross Culture Training sessions are depending upon what training expatriate is getting ranging from one day or designed for few days or a month (Caligiuri et al., 2001; Gudykunst et al.). For example, language training from basic level to advance level reneging from one day to one month.

Benefits of Cross Cultural Training

Cross cultural training improves consciousness amongst people in order to promote clear lines of communication and better relationships. Cross Cultural Training should enable expatriates to determine appropriate cultural behaviours in the host country and suitable ways to perform their job tasks (Black and Mendenhall, 1990). Through Cross Cultural Training, expatriates may get familiar with unexpected happenings in the new cultural background and to reduce conflict due to unexpected actions and situations. Furthermore, it also shows that in the pre departure Cross Cultural Training, the training may help expatriates to create accurate outlooks with respect to living and working in the host country. (Black and Mendenhall, 1990; Black et al., 1991)

An Integrated Cross Cultural Training Model

This model relates the success of training to the development of acculturation. This supports expatriates to act very effectively and reduce stressful practices while facing the insecurity in overseas nations. This model defines acculturation as both a development and a state. For individual persons, family support and willingness to acculturate features added. The type of job assignment, length of assignment and type of training added in situational features. The main improvement in this model is the adding of extra critical process earlier cultural contact takes place, both of which are antecedents to the acculturation process. (Zakaria, 2000)

The new procedure is the moderating process which needs good training programs. The main purposes of this procedure are: adjust the individual and situational characteristics; decrease the culture shock like stress, disorientation, learning and skills deficits; accomplish improved acculturation results. Cross cultural training is important element. With the help of integrated cross cultural training program organisations gain benefits if training is provided in a proper way (Nixon & Dawson 2013)

Determinants of Cultural Differences

Pioneering study of cultures across modern nations done by Hofstede, Dutch social psychologist, in different cultures evaluated the outcomes and establishes forms of likeness and variance among the answers along these five dimensions. According to Hofstede (1981, in Hofstede, 2001) there are some magnitudes in to the cultural factors. These factors are as follows:

  1. Power distance index (PDI): This state to the degree of dissimilarity that exists – and is accepted – between persons with and without power. A high PD score shows that culture agrees an unequal circulation of power and people recognise “their place” in the system. A Low PD shows that power is shared and well distributed. It also means equality in the society members.
  1. Individualism (IDV): means specific point at which persons take care about them beyond family and with a very few close friends or stay incorporated into groups usually around the family.
  1. Masculinity (MAS) vs. feminism: means the circulation of emotional roles amongst the sexes. It opposes a tough masculine to tender feminine society. The assertive pole has been called ‘masculine’ and the modest and the caring pole called ‘feminine’.
  1. Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI): this deals with a culture’s open mindedness for uncertainty and ambiguity; which shows the states to man’s hunt for reality. It shows to what level a culture programs its members to feel in unstructured conditions. For example, uncomfortable or comfortable.
  1. Long term orientation (LTO):  This state that at what dimensions values and ethics age old works as opposite to short term customs and beliefs. Countries those are having a high Long term orientation score, bringing on social responsibilities and side stepping “loss of face” are count very significant.

Differences across Cultures in People and Practices

Many people behave significantly different in different situations because of their cultures differences. The motivational desires of the expatriates and executives differ from culture to culture. The driving force which causes peoples to do the job in India may not be the same for Chines peoples; international manager must understand the modifications in the people’s mode of doing work. (Neelankavil and James, 2012)

The manufacture services of organizations may be same through divisions but the mind-set of the people’s changes organizations to organizations. For example, Japanese management system like quality circles failed when they have applied into Indian organisations. Neelankavil, Mathur and Zhang (2012) study shows that in four countries for management development and motivational aspects in both different training found diverse management values, value dimensions and relative administration. India established a similar value to America than its neighbor country china though less geographic distance. For example, Drive and ambition were significant for American managers (91) for achievement which is not the instance for China (7) (Neelankavil, Mathur and Zhang, 2012)

Socio Cultural Aspects of Expatriate Adjustment

There is difference in Socio-Cultural and psychological adjustments in the concept of inter cultural adjustment (Searle and Ward, 1990; Ward and Kennedy, 1992, 1993; Ward and Searle, 1991). Socio-Cultural adjustment communicates the capability to successfully interact with the peoples of overseas country (Ward and Kennedy, 1996) which has been linked with objects that encourage and enable to learn other countries culture and acquire social skills. (Cross, 1995; Searle and Ward, 1990) The Socio-Cultural stressed on social behavior (Black and Mendenhall, 1991; Furnham, 1993; Klineberg, 1982).Psychological adjustment means person’s happiness in their new social backgrounds linked with persons emotions, cognitive views, and individual features (Ward and Kennedy, 1996). Black et al. (1991) discussed in their recommended model for international managers modification, difference in three types of modification is as follows:

  1. Modification towards expatriates work;
  2. Modification towards communicating with citizens of the host country;
  3. Modification towards social situation.


It is very important that for sending their expatriates to the host country must be aware of situations in an overseas. Managing with an overseas nation both administrative and national require well organized homework. A very well equipped cross cultural training will help the organizations to be ready for, with the fluctuations in the functioning policies, principles and ethics they are predicted towards the future. There is a degree of variance expatriate may see while moving to a host country. An organisation may face losses due to unorganized cross cultural training and that is the matter of great concern.

For preparing the expatriates for an overseas mission is equally advantageous for the companies and for international managers. In cross cultural training it is very important that which type of training program organisation using. A good organised inter cultural teaching program might help in uncertain circumstances; from this activity industry can get the best possible output from the international managers by taking care of the employee confidence and inspiration. Now from the above arguments we can say that inter cultural training is the main factor for success in international human resource management.


Black, J. and Mendenhall, M. (1990) Cross Cultural Training Effectiveness: A Review and a Theoretical Framework for Future Research. Academy of Management Review [Internet], 15(1), January, pp.113 136.

Brislin, R. and Yoshida, T. (1994) Intercultural Communication Training: An Introduction [Internet], Sage publication ltd., London.

Graf, A. (2004) Screening and training inter cultural competencies: evaluating the impact of national culture on inter cultural competencies. International Journal of Human Resource Management.

Graf A, Mertesacker, M. (2009) Intercultural training: six measures assessing training needs. Journal of European Industrial Training.

Harris, H. and Kumra, S. (2000) International manager development—Cross cultural training in highly diverse environments. Journal of Management Development.

Hofstede, G.S. (2001) Culture’s Consequences:  Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions and Organizations across Nations, 2nd ed.,   Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Ltd., United Kingdom.

Interview by Powell, S. (2006) Geert Hofstede: challenges of cultural diversity, Human Resource Management International Digest.

Mathur, A, Zhang, Y, and Neelankavil, J. (2012), Critical managerial motivational factors: A cross cultural analysis of four culturally divergent countries, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management.

Neelankavil, and James P.(2012) ‘Determinants of Managerial Performance: A Cross cultural Comparison of the Perceptions of Middle level Managers in Four Countries’, Journal of International Business Studies.

Nixon, J. and Dawson, G. (2013) Reason for cross cultural communication training, Corporate Communications.

Selmer J. (1999) Culture shock in China? Adjustment pattern of western expatriate business managers. International Business Review.

Selmer, J. (2004) Psychological barriers to adjustment of Western business expatriates in China: Newcomers vs long stayers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management.

Selmer, J. (2005) Cross cultural training and expatriate adjustment in China: Western joint venture managers.

Selmer, J. (2009) Expatriate cross cultural training for China: views and experience of “China Hands”, Management Research Review.

Waxin, M. and Panaccio, A. (2005) Cross cultural training to facilitate expatriate adjustment: it works!

Zakaria, N. (2000) The effects of cross cultural training on the acculturation process of the global workforce. International Journal of Manpower.

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Conquering Dyslexia Dissertation

Beneficial Methods for Conquering Dyslexia

This paper considers the treatments that work most effectively for teaching people with dyslexia how to read confidently. I will begin by reviewing the background of dyslexia. Relying heavily on sources I surveyed, I will briefly explore the benefits of early intervention while providing hope of treatment for those the system already failed. Finally, I will examine treatments that successfully aid young dyslexics in conquering their disease and suggest implementing these in all kindergarten classes.

Introduction and Diagnosis

Dyslexia is a major problem for many children who desire to read but cannot break the reading code. Peer pressure that results from the inability to decipher words into speech can even lead third graders to contemplate suicide (Berninger, 2000, p 183). Yet, Shaywitz estimates twenty percent of all school age children have the disorder. Sadly, in the same experiment she discovered only one-third of these children were in special education programs (Shaywitz, 2004, p 30). Every child who desires to read has the right to learn; however, many children on the edge of reading disabilities never receive remedial treatment until they fail multiple times. While the older dyslexic has the ability to conquer the disease, intervention at earlier ages is more effective and saves the child from stigmatization.

Although early diagnosis is a key factor in recovery, many disagree on how to identify children with the disability (Scruggs, T., Mastropieri, M., 2002; Stanovich, K., 2005). This delays treatment, reducing the chances of remediating the child to fluent reading. Intelligence tests and multiple years of academic failure are the most widely used methods of diagnosing dyslexia, but lead to widespread over- and under- diagnosis (Scruggs, T., Mastropieri, M., 2002). Genetic research is more accurate, but it is an expensive method of identification. However, researchers have not identified all the genes responsible for dyslexia. Additionally, while genetic influence exists (Taipale, M., Kaminen, N., Nopola-Hemmi, J., Haltia, T., Hannula-Jouppi, K., Kere, J., 2003), twin studies show it is not a determining factor as to whether or not a child will develop dyslexia (Shaywitz, 2004, p 99), and children without any genetic markers develop the disease from poor instruction.

MRI imaging is one of the most accurate diagnostic tools, but it also is costly and only available to researchers. It allows one to see which areas of the brain are active during language processing. The pictures clearly show the difference between those who have broken the code, dyslexics and dyslexics that have compensated for the disease. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis does not outweigh the cost in time and money of performing the test.

When children are unruly in class or difficult to teach, teachers often refer them for testing. Shaywitz points out the large percentage of boys diagnosed with dyslexia while very few girls receive this identification. Her reassessment of children in several schools found the number of boys was actually equal to the number of girls (Shaywitz, 2004, p 32). This creates more of a problem by placing children in classes where they will bore easily or by leaving children in classes that do not meet their needs.

Dyslexia Dissertation
Dyslexia Dissertation

In addition to under- and over- diagnosis, one also finds the problems of late diagnosis and not seeing the need for diagnosis. Some believe students must be over the age of eight before a proper identification of dyslexia is possible. Shaywitz argues that between four and five are the ideal ages for intervention. Conflicts arise over whether the learning disabled label will brand the child for life with a negative image, or whether the child will be allowed to fall through the cracks once labeled as dyslexic.

The school told the mother of a girl I once tutored that she should not have her child tested to eliminate the possibility of the child being stuck with the label. Additionally, because dyslexics and average readers learn on the same curve, some in education still assert children outgrow the disease or that there is no reason to change the child’s current reading program. While it is true that the curve is similar and dyslexics even make a slight gain on their peers, dyslexics always score far below good readers (Shaywitz, 2004, p 34).

Important Terms

Before addressing the question of how to solve the problems of diagnosis and treatment, we must first explore some terms common in dyslexia. The term as defined by the International Dyslexia Association is:

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge (August, 2002).

The phoneme is “the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word forms another” (Shaywitz, 2004, p 41). The phonological module is “the functional part of the brain where sounds of language are put together to form words and where words are broken down into their elemental sounds” (Shaywitz, 2004, p 40). Because the major problem with dyslexia is a breakdown in the ability to recognize phonemes contained in words, these terms are all important to any discussion of the disease.

If dyslexia is a breakdown in the ability to distinguish phonemes, it logically follows that increasing the amount and quality of phonemic instruction will aid the child in overcoming the disease. Parents and educators must realize the need for intervention and actively pursue it. Important to consider are the dyslexic’s developmental age at the time they begin supplemental instruction. Equally as important is to develop a program that focuses on the child’s strengths and interests.

To begin to aid a child in understanding the relationship between sounds and words, one must introduce the child to the sounds of language. Books filled with rhyme and alliteration such as Chicka Chicka Boom Boom or One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish are excellent choices (Shaywitz, 2004, p177 – 182). After spending time reading these books for pleasure, it is important for the teacher or parent to draw attention to which words rhyme and what rhyme is. They should have the child think of other words that begin or end in the same way. Children need to realize that words are related through sound before identifying that those sounds are represented alphabetically. All elementary teachers should spend time each day reading to their students just as parents should spend time each day reading to their children. Connecting words we speak to the phonemes that create them is essential to all readers.

Once the child can rhyme, the program must begin to help the child break words into all their sounds. Beginning with two sound words like key, bee, or it, the educator can teach the child to break the words into their respective phonemic units. Introductory work on syllables can begin. After the child realizes that words separate into smaller parts, the adult may teach three sound words like cat, seat, or call. At the same time, it will be useful to reinforce what the child already learned by asking questions like “What do you get if you put the /s/ sound in front of the word key?” or “What does /m/… /o/ …/m/ make?” All these things build phonemic awareness and are useful to all children learning to read.

Once the child has a basic understanding of phonemes, the instructor should introduce decodable texts that use relatively few phonemes to create stories. These books, such as the “Bob Book” series, slowly build confidence in the child’s reading ability. As the child begins to enjoy their ability to read, new books and sight words should be introduced. Sight words must be memorized. Children can make their own flashcards with words like is, are, was, one, and two. This allows them to read and write the word.

The child must practice writing to build legible handwriting and further establish phonemic awareness. Practice is the only way to learn. The more a child practices making letters correctly and sounding out words on paper, the better the child will become at it. All children should be given many chances even at the beginning of kindergarten to practice writing. Word cards with tracing paper clipped to them will aid in early instruction. In writing, having the child practice forming the letters correctly should be stressed. Allowing children to write four pages of a’s (for example) backward is not as useful as having the child trace one page of the letters correctly.

By the end of kindergarten, children should be practicing spelling skills. While children at this level should not be expected to spell well, invented spelling is an important step on the road to recognizing the phonemic roots of words. The more chances children are given to attempt to sound words out for themselves, the more they will master breaking words apart into their letters, and in return, the better ability they will have to decode written words.

As with all kindergarten children, teachers need to read enjoyable books and surround children with literacy. When children recognize the joy of reading, they desire to read. When teachers and parents read to children, they encourage larger vocabularies. Children who know the meaning of words like “ink” will have a better time decoding it when they come across it in texts they are reading (Shaywitz, 2004, p192).

Finally, it is important for children to develop self-confidence. Children should make progress as they go through an intensive phonics program. Tests can be performed to make sure they understand what was taught, but tests are teaching tools that evaluate teachers not students. When a student does not understand something, it should cue the teacher to reintroduce it in a new way. Additionally, children should not repeat a grade if they have failed to decode reading by the end of kindergarten (Shaywitz, 2004, p196).


Many teachers will look at the plan for educating dyslexic kindergarteners and think, “That is what I do for my class already.” This is because what Shaywitz proposes is an intensive phonics program. Others like Beringer (2000) utilize the same style of reading program to teach dyslexics. The two major differences between intervention reading and a standard kindergarten program are that many kindergarten programs try rushing phonics training and that intervention work is created around a theme of interest among the students.

Implementing this program for all kindergarten students would not lower the education they receive. However, if all schools focused on intensive phonics training for their kindergarten students, dyslexia could be conquered without extensive testing to discover which children have the disorder. When schools use tests to evaluate what they need to teach instead of how well students are learning, they can resolve many learning issues. Some may argue that children without learning disabilities will become bored with intensive learning, but often the children that learn to read too quickly develop other learning problems later on that could be corrected by skills learned from intensive phoneme training (Shaywitz, 2004, p196).

While dyslexia is a major problem that needs to be addressed, it can easily be eliminated from the classroom. Shaywitz and others have show through MRI’s that even dyslexics can conquer the disease and rewire their brains if they are instructed in intensive phonemic awareness. Because of the difficulty in recognizing the disease early and intervening, it is imperative schools adapt an aggressive stance on this learning disorder.


Berninger, V.W. (2000). Dyslexia the Invisible, Treatable Disorder: The Story of Einstein’s Ninja Turtles. Learning Disability Quarterly, 23(3), 175-195

Glenn, H.W. (1975). The Myth of the Label Learning Disabled Child. The Elementary School Journal, 75(6), 357-361

Lyon, G.R. (August 2002). International Dyslexic Association. Washington, D.C.

Scruggs, T.E., Mastropieri, M.A. (2002). On Babies and Bathwater: Addressing the Problems of Identification of Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(3), 155-168.

Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia. New York: Knopf. Qtd. Lyon

Stanovich, K.E. (2005). The Future of a Mistake: Will Discrepancy Measurement Continue to Make the Learning Disabilities Field a Pseudoscience?  Learning Disability Quarterly, 28(2), 103-106.

Taipale, M., Kaminen, N., Nopola-Hemmi, J., Haltia, T., Mylltluoma, B., Lyytinen,

H., Muller, K., Kaaranen, M., Lindsberg, P.J., Hannula-Jouppi, K., Kere, J. (2003). A Candidate Gene for Developmental Dyslexia Encodes a Nuclear Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain Protein Dynamically Regulated in Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(20), 11553-11558.

Temple, E., Deutsch, G.K., Poldrack, R.A., Miller, S.L., Taillal, P., Merzenich, M.M., Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2003). Neural Deficits in Children with Dyslexia Ameliorated by Behavior Remediation: Evidence from Functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(5), 2860-2865

Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K., Simmons, K., Laughon, P. (1990). Identifying Phonological Coding Problems in Disabled Readers: Namin, Counting, or Span Measures? Learning Disability Quarterly, 13(4), 236-243

Dyslexia Dissertation

Did you find any useful knowledge relating to Dyslexia and Learning Disabilities in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.

Undergraduate Dissertation Examples

Undergraduate Dissertation Examples

Title: Working with Undergraduate Dissertation Examples. An undergraduate dissertation or thesis is a document submitted in accordance of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification at university. The term dissertation is used in the UK to refer to a final year undergraduate project. In essence, an undergraduate dissertation presents research conducted by an author which is ultimately reviewed and graded by academic staff.

This article written on undergraduate dissertation examples provides support and guidance for personal study and to help you through the undergraduate dissertation process. It highlights some of the common questions, concerns and practical issues that undergraduate students come across when completing their dissertation or final year project. So, we aim to provide a useful overview on how best to use undergraduate dissertation examples during your academic studies.

The content provided on our website was written by students, academic and support staff who have a particular interest and experience in writing undergraduate dissertations in various fields of study. Our site has not been produced with the aim of providing a set of definitive answers for your own chosen topic of study. Instead, we offer a collection of prewritten undergraduate dissertation examples. We do not write undergraduate dissertations for students, we leave that to students themselves.

Undergraduate Dissertation Examples
Undergraduate Dissertation Examples

How to best use Undergraduate Dissertation Examples

You can make best use of prewritten undergraduate dissertation examples in various ways and at various stages of the dissertation process. For example, before you start the dissertation, you can use existing undergraduate dissertation examples to:

  • Explore what the demands and challenges of a dissertation are.
  • Raise questions that you can ask your academic supervisor about.
  • Help you think through what theme you could pursue in your dissertation.
  • Help you prepare a research question.

If you have already started your own dissertation, you can undergraduate dissertation examples to:

  • Clarify issues about specific chapters of the dissertation.
  • Focus on key aspects of the dissertation such as timelines, structure, ethical issues and marking criteria.
  • Organise the different stages of the dissertation. Remember, by failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.

Undergraduate Dissertation Examples

Our website has a wide selection of undergraduate dissertation examples written on a variety of subject areas. These subjects are:

  • Business Management
  • Business Strategy
  • Marketing Strategy
  • Marketing Communications
  • Branding and Advertising
  • Economic Theory
  • Finance and Accounting
  • Business Law
  • Building Studies
  • Quantity Surveying
  • Construction Management
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  • Nursing and Midwifery
  • Health Studies
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Benefits of using Undergraduate Dissertation Examples

It is safe to say that well written undergraduate dissertation examples have important factors that should be looked at in order to help you write your own research dissertation. These include the ability to be read and understood the research question you have in hand. Demonstrate the ability to capture the necessary facts so that you can successfully underpin and substantiate your research dissertation. Your research needs to be based on facts and not conjecture. You need to demonstrate the ability to follow the agreed format for writing a dissertation at your institution, it is important that you follow the guidelines outlined by your university. Students often gain a low mark in their dissertation as they used a bespoke format and structure. Most of all, you need the ability to communicate a certain message to whoever will reading your dissertation research, the dissertation must not deviate away from the research question or become uninteresting for the reader.

It is worthwhile noting that your dissertation should satisfy the rules of formal grammar because it is purely for academic purposes and will be treated as such. This is where prewritten undergraduate dissertation examples prove to be very useful indeed.

If you enjoyed reading this article, I would be very grateful if you could help spread this knowledge by emailing this post to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.

Click here to view Undergraduate Dissertation Examples

Social Media Marketing

A Study on the Effectiveness of Social Media Marketing on Sales in Retail Industry: A case study of Tesco (2016)

Social Media Marketing is one of the major marketing tools for business firms in the current stream of technological advancement though the concept of social media marketing is not so much old in the comparison of other marketing approaches that are practiced by the business firms. Since the social marketing media is a comparatively newer approach for the marketers there are enough questions among the people who intend to use it.

One the major issues that the social media marketing raises is the effectiveness of this approach on the sales of a firm. This dissertation aimed to find out a reasonable answer to the issue and the objectives are set in the course of deducting a set of outcomes which can lead to achieving the aim of the dissertation . The dissertation is segmented in six different chapters each of which has its own benefits and merits. The first chapter is related with the background of choosing such an issue and the rationale that can make the issue so much of being in a discussion.

The second chapter is related with the prior research and findings which have a substantial amount of effect on from choosing the issue of research and conducting the research. The third chapter is on the research methodology discussion and the discussion on most applicable methods that can lead to the research to success. Afterwards, the chapter of results comes in where the results are discussed.

The final two chapters are about analysis and concluding the research. At this point, it is quite imperative to state that the research is based on the responses from a sample of 50 people residing in the UK. The sample is selected using a random sampling method. The results are calculated with the SPSS 16.0 version and Microsoft Excel. The approach used in the research is a deductive approach.

Social Media Marketing Dissertation

For achieving the aim different types of statistical tools are used which includes three measures of central tendency along with the standard deviation, correlation analysis, regression analysis and ANOVA. The central tendency measures give an image of somewhat agree category result and percentage analysis shows similar effects. The correlation analysis shows sometimes though a very little degree of relativity, a good amount of relativity remains among the variables. The regression analysis which is considered as the core of all analysis has shown results that helped to reject the null hypotheses except for the brand awareness variable. These results have led to some important insights that can be very helpful for both the company Tesco and for further research on the topic. This research contains some important discussion on one of the most talked issues of the current marketing world. The number of researches done on the issue seems to be meager in terms of the presence in the global village. Moreover, the insights and analysis that are done in the research dissertation can be helpful for firms that are newcomers in the market and desire to make a mark in the retail industry.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To critically evaluate if there is any relationship between the SMM process and sales of Tesco
  • To critically evaluate how SMM process helps to build up brand awareness of Tesco
  • To critically assess the relationship of SMM process and the brand loyalty of Tesco
  • To critically assess how SMM process helps Tesco to maintain a firm customer relationship

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Corporate Accounting Dissertations

Corporate Accounting – Significance, Application and Standards

Corporate Accounting is one of the major parts in financial management procedures of an organization. Accounting practices are necessary for a company in order to show how an organization has been successfully operating over the course of the year and making future plans for budgets and expenditures (Das, 2011). However, it is studied that accounting is a broadest term which have several branches and areas for different business and for different purposes. In which some of them are financial accounting, cost accounting and corporate accounting (Malwitz, 2008). However, this paper is merely focusing on defining the corporate accounting by incorporating corporate accounting theories, significance, concepts, legislation, applications and standards.

Corporate accounting is a special branch of accounting which can be defined as the quantity, recording and interpretation of financial information and data of a limited company which can be either a public limited company or a joint stock company (Fyler, 2013; Ijiri, 1980). Moreover, it is found that corporate accounting is an accounting which is particularly for larger companies since smaller-scale companies, sole traders or partnerships business cannot implement corporate accounting to maintain their financial record or information.

It is because smaller-scale companies, sole traders or partnerships businesses have not much requirements and demands in order to fulfil the accounting standards and to meet with accounting principles (Ijiri, 1980). On the other hand, large scale organizations or limited companies have sufficient financial information and data that they have to show to the general public and regulatory bodies therefore they have to maintain proper financial records with the help of corporate accounting (Fyler, 2013; Ijiri, 1980; Das, 2011).

Furthermore, it is studied that corporate accounting also deals helps the limited companies or large scale organizations in term of preparing final accounts, maintaining cash flow statements, analysing and interpreting financial results of the respective company particular for any specific events such as amalgamation, absorption, and helps company in preparation of consolidated balance sheets (Paton & Littleton, 1986).

By reviewing several studies, it is identified that the corporate accounting has some basic principles and foundations on which the overall accounting practices are based. The key foundations of corporate accounting include Accounting Cycle, Double Entry Accounting, and financial statements (Bennett, 2013). In which Accounting Cycle involves the regular recording and reporting of financial data or information. The accounting cycle completed within a specific period of time as per the policies of companies. Usually, it completed in a month or year.

Corporate Accounting Cycle

The accounting cycle begins by recording all financial transactions such as cash exchanges or debits and credits by using a general ledger approach. General Ledger is a precise and clear summary of all accounts including payable and receivable (Bennett, 2013; Ijiri, 1980). The next stage of accounting cycle is the adjustment of general ledger which can be done by taking items or entries which are not the direct transactions, such as bad debt, taxes and accrued interest. Thus, it is a key area therefore accountants must ensure that revenues and expenditures are match up as per each accounting period. In case, of accountant failed to do this properly, it can lead to confusion over financial irregularities and at the end of the period it can create confusion in overall revenue and total profit for the period (Bennett, 2013; Ijiri, 1980).

The second key element of the corporate accounting is double entry accounting, which can be defined as the standard accounting concept used by limited companies or large scale organizations. The basic of double entry accounting is based on the notion that for all actions there is an equal and opposite reaction (Bennett, 2013; Ijiri, 1980). It means that when a financial gain takes place in any part of financial statement, it should be escorted by a loss somewhere else on the balance sheet.

Corporate Accounting Dissertations
Corporate Accounting Dissertations

Suppose that of if a limited purchases a product to sell, so it will show the decrease in cash in financial statement and in the same way it will show the increase in inventory of certain organization (Bennett, 2013; Ijiri, 1980). Finally, the financial statement is another key aspect of corporate accounting, which is refers to the financial reports prepared at the end of the company’s financial year.

This financial report basically includes the cash flow statements, balance sheets and income statements for the previous 12 months. The financial reports of an organization show the summary and of all financial activity including overall profits or losses incurred by respective company (Bennett, 2013; Ijiri, 1980). Furthermore, it has been examined that the financial report helps accountant of a limited company in terms of preparing tax returns, while stockbrokers and investors use the same financial reports for the comparison between respective company and international business performance.

In addition to this, it is found that the financial reports also help the managers of certain company in terms of a assessing the performance of the company as well as in making proper plan and budget for company to successfully execute its operation in upcoming year. Following is the table that represents the different accounting terms used in UK and USA (Joos & Lang, 1994):

Table 1 – Accounting Terms as Per UK and USA Standards

United States of America United Kingdom
Balance sheet/Statement of financial position Balance sheet
Inventory Stock
Treasury Stock Own Shares
Receivables Debtor
Payables Creditors
Provisions Accounting for loss contingencies
Stocks Shares
Retained Earnings Profit and loss Reserves
Paid in surplus Shares premium account
Management’s premium of operations Operating review
Management’s discussion of financial resources and liquidity Financial Review
Fiscal year Financial year
Income statement/Statement of earning Profit and loss account
Revenue/sales Turnover
Affiliated company Associated company
Earnings per share Net income per share
Scrip dividend Stock dividend
Balance sheet Balance sheet/Statement of financial position
Tangible fixed assets Property, plant and equipments

In addition to the above, it is identified that in most of the limited companies particularly in UK (United Kingdom) and USA (United States of America), for the preparation of financial reports or execute corporate accounting practices specific accounting standards are used which are only set in common law (Joos & Lang, 1994). However, in different countries, it has been studied that the corporate accounting are different from each other therefore different countries uses different accounting regulations in order to maintain financial records and for the preparation of yearly financial reports.

Furthermore, it has been examined that throughout the world there are two types of accounting standards are used which includes the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) (Young & Wiley, 2011; Everingham, et al., 2007).In which International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) provides rules for business affairs from the global perspective in which the accounts and financials of a company can be understood and compared across international boundaries (Young & Wiley, 2011; Everingham, et al., 2007). On the other hand, General Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) provides rules to collect and interpret financial data for multinational competitors with the help of financial statement (Young & Wiley, 2011; Everingham, et al., 2007).

International Financial Reporting Standards

It is further examined that the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are mostly adopted by the companies operating throughout the European Union. Beside it, the organization in several countries like Australia, South Africa and Russia are also now widely followed IFRS accounting standards for the recording of financial information and analysing and interpreting financial data. In contrast, specifically in the United States limited companies are bound to utilize the GAAP accounting standards for all kinds of accounting practices (Young & Wiley, 2011; Everingham, et al., 2007).

Thus, it has been concluded that, the corporate accounting system allow companies to successfully maintain financial data as per their company policies, regulated accounting standards and accounting principles or laws determined by common law.


Bennett, R. (2013) Corporate Accounting Basics. Free Press.

Das, B. (2011) Is Corporate Accounting a science or an art? Accounting, pp. 1-1.

Everingham, G. K., Everingham, G., Kleynhans, K., Posthumus, L., Kleynhans, J. E., & Posthumus, L. C. (2007) Principles of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice. Juta and Company Ltd.

Fyler, T. (2013) What Is A Definition Of Corporate Accounting

Ijiri, Y. (1980) An Introduction to Corporate Accounting Standards: A Review. The Accounting Review, 620-628.

Joos, P., & Lang, M. (1994) The Effects of Accounting Diversity: Evidence from the European Union. Journal of Accounting Research, 32, 141-168.

Malwitz, M. (2008) Financial Consolidation and Reporting Solutions: Adding Value to Enterprise Resource Planning Systems. Oracle Paper, pp. 1-21.

Paton, W. A., & Littleton, A. C. (1986) An Introduction to Corporate Accounting Standards. Amer Accounting Assn.

Young, E. &., & Wiley, J. (2011) International GAAP 2012 – Generally Accepted Accounting Practice Under International Financial Reporting Standards. John Wiley & Sons.

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