Sustainable Refurbishment Limitations

This paper aims at discussing the existing limitations in the sustainable refurbishment. By definition, sustainable refurbishment can be defined as the process of improving existing buildings purposely to improve their environmental performance (Pombo, Rivela and Neila, 2016, p. 88). According to architectures, this process entails a maximization of sustainable methods and materials. In these recent times, the most common sustainable refurbishment performed on buildings include the installation of renewable energy sources and improvement on ventilation. Also, recycling material during the refurbishment is regarded as a sustainable refurbishment process because it is environmentally friendly.

In this paper, various suggestions for sustainable refurbishment shall include that are aimed at improving the environment shall be outlined in detail. In this research, a methodology that comprises multiple dimension in the field of architecture and art shall be used. The methodology would put into consideration some of the essential aspects of architecture. This way, a deeper understanding of sustainable refurbishment and the limitations encountered shall be achieved. The multiple dimensions to be used shall relate to a variety of approaches. Among these approaches include building occupancy, environmental, and techno-economic approach (Pombo, Rivela and Neila, 2016, p. 91).

Sustainable development involves some processes that are to benefit various parties in the construction sector. As a result, architects have resolved to measures that reduce energy consumption by refurbishing buildings and fitting them with new facilities. However, in the course of refurbishing buildings for sustainable development, architects encounter lots of limitations. To curb such limitations, new approaches that did not exist in the past have been developed. Also, friendly building evaluation methods and systems have been developed to help in sustainable development. For instance, the methods need to enhance the effectiveness of water among other reasons (Lou, Lee and Welfle, 2017, p. 311). This helps improve the quality of life by a great stride.

Literature Review

Due to the increase in the cost of materials and resources used in the refurbishment of buildings, architectures have opted to maximize on the available resources. This has led to economic investments in Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs). In most cases, the VIPs are configured with supplementary insulation. For example, the refurbishment of wall cross-sections of already existing buildings. This strategy of utilizing energy consumption is mostly implemented in the United Kingdom. Architectures have gone an extra mile to identify several aspects that will overcome the limitations existing in the field of architecture.

According to scholars, sustainable methods that are used are in line with the continuous increasing levels of renewable energy (Lou, Lee and Welfle, 2017, p. 317). In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 500, 000 apartments have undergone renovation. These renovations seek at transforming the buildings into current energy efficiency requirements that meet the modern standard. Currently, new buildings in the UK are energy efficient as possible. In refurbishing buildings, there are some factors to consider. These factors include societal targets for moisture and good indoor setting. In consideration of such factors, a ‘healthy building’ that is environmentally friendly is achieved.

Among the numerous limitations that contributed to inefficiency within the building sector are motivational factors. Most of the buildings constructed in the last decades in the UK are not energy efficient. According to scholars, such houses contribute to high greenhouse emissions. Such houses also result in a waste of energy. Nowadays, both building owners and building occupants opt for minimal energy expenses. This is among the numerous measures of restoration that are building owners are seeking in sustainable development. There is a need to venture into measures that enable sustainable development due to the advantages that result. For instance, it helps improve the environment.

Despite the numerous advantages of refurbishing buildings, there exist challenges that architectures encounter. First, an assessment needs to be performed of the existing condition. In most cases, refurbishment projects require architects to perform both aesthetic and technical assessments before designing measures that are to be used (Lund, Haddadi, Lohne and Bjørberg, 2016, p. 427). From research findings, some architects regard refurbishment of buildings to be challenging as compared to starting a project from ground zero.

As for an already existing project, there is a need for a refurbishment framework that will comply with the existing frame of the project to be refurbished. As a result, more time and effort is required to make refurbishment of buildings a success. In the context of effort, architects need to perform a feasibility study. During the study, the architects are supposed to find out on the advantages of taking part in the refurbishment programs for sustainability development. 

Another limitation of refurbishing buildings is that it is mandatory for architects to comply or adhere to the structural components of the building (Lund, Haddadi, Lohne and Bjørberg, 2016, p. 427). This hinders further developments as the proposed constructions need to comply with the technical components of the original building. Also, the cost of refurbishing a building is more expensive than that of constructing a new structure. This is because the actual construction of refurbishing a building comprises of expenses of both the new and old.

To effectively refurbish a building, it is important to take financial risks due to the unforeseen deterioration that may occur during the process. As such, the financial risk is a challenge among architects. This is because most architects concentrate on refurbishing buildings on small budgets. Despite the environmental advantages of refurbishing buildings, more attention needs to be put on sustaining buildings. This way, the potential of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through building refurbishment is achieved (Lund, Haddadi, Lohne and Bjørberg, 2016, p. 429).

Both human-caused and natural disasters affect buildings. It is, therefore, the mandate of architectures to design buildings and other infrastructural structures that can withstand such phenomena. In this context, there are some questions architectures pose before embarking on the process of refurbishing buildings for sustainable development. Examples of such questions include:

  • What are the economic benefits of refurbishing a building?
  • What are that target areas within the building that are to be refurbished? Is it only the thermal insulation or there exists other refurbishment needs?
  • In case of a demolition, what are the adaptive reuse of this building?
  • What is the impact of the renovation, demolition or refurbishment to the society?

In answering these questions, the refurbishment of buildings is performed in a manner that is in accordance to sustainable development. Also, such questions act as a pivot in enabling preliminary decisions that are essential in the construction sector. A comparison between a historical landmark and a residential building on the basis of a criterion for limitations prove that historical landmarks possess more (Oregi, Hernandez, and Hernandez, 2017, p. 12). According to scholars, the refurbishment of buildings is mainly performed by sustainable agendas. However, some architectures base their refurbishment programs on economic agendas.

Refurbishing Buildings

Architectures are involved in refurbishing buildings for various reasons. Despite refurbishing buildings enabling building restoration, it also enables heritage restoration. For instance, in the UK, reconstruction of historical buildings is a common measure of restoring the country’s heritage restoration. However, this differs in other countries. For example, in the United States, the reconstruction of historic buildings is not necessarily (Oregi, Hernandez, and Hernandez, 2017, p. 14). By doing this, the United States saves finances.

Architectures are striving to overcome the limitations of refurbishing buildings because of the environmental aspects that result from the process of sustainable development. For example, the construction of new high-performance buildings positively contributes to the initiatives set for the global green agenda. However, there are sustainability requirements that contractors need to meet to construct energy efficient and environmentally friendly buildings. According to scholars, architectures need to base their choices on environmental and economic evaluations (Noori, Saruwono, Adnan and Rahmat, 2016, p. 253). Failure to which the refurbishment of buildings would not be in accordance to the set sustainable refurbishment development.

Sustainable Refurbishment Dissertation
Sustainable Refurbishment Dissertation

According to scholars, building sustainability assessments is exceptional. The exception is in the sense of result objectivity (Noori, Saruwono, Adnan and Rahmat, 2016, p. 256). Factors that contribute to this exception include the usage precision of the resources used during refurbishment and elimination of inaccuracies of methods previously used for sustainable refurbishment development. Despite the pre-study architects take, there is a need for an evaluation of the chosen approach by use of certain criteria to find out the efficiency of the approach to be implemented. For instance, in the UK, the BREEAM method is used during the assessment of qualitative indicators. However, the BREEAM approach depends on factors as the qualification of the experts to be involved in the refurbishing of buildings for sustainable development (Noori, Saruwono, Adnan and Rahmat, 2016, p. 257).

Refurbishing buildings have been presented in various assessment criteria. These include:

  • Sustainability of management: This enables close supervision of the sustainability practices to be performed. For example, the sustainability of work planning.  
  • Appropriateness of materials: This entails all the elements necessary for construction. For example, the insulating items to be used during refurbishing buildings.
  • Health and welfare: In this context, there are a number of factors that need to be considered to enable efficient sustainable development. Examples include indoor air quality and insulating items such as sound insulating items.
  • Energy: To conserve energy, buildings are refurbished with devices such as emitting technologies.
  • Pollution: The process of refurbishing buildings need to be environment-friendly. This means that the process should not contribute to pollution but instead initiate measures that will help curb further pollution.
  • Water availability: Designs aimed at enabling water conservation are considered during the refurbishment of buildings. Technology has enabled architects to install water leakage detectors in houses to help in conserving water. Another measure of conserving water is the possibility of water recycling.
  • Innovations: Architects install devices that are aimed at making life easier. Examples of innovations that have improved the quality of life include integration options.

Therefore, refurbishing a building for sustainable refurbishment development is bound to a number of principles. Putting into consideration these principles helps overcome the limitation of sustainable development. For instance, the use of life cycle framework and the recognition of the complexity of the sustainability concept (Turner et al., 2016, p. 199). Also, putting into considerations such frameworks allows the architects to easily relate to the crucial aspects of the decision-making process such as the social and economic aspects.

Possible Problems and Potential Solutions

The problems encountered in the construction sector can be solved in various ways. Nowadays, the advancement of technology has eased problems of a minimum magnitude that architects could not get rid of in the past. For instance, site selection was a major problem in the past years. By use of modern technology, architects can locate better sites for refurbishing. Also, the advancement of technology has made it possible for manufacturing companies to manufacture facilities that are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. Yearly, new designs are designed to replace the existing facilities.

In this context, there exist drawbacks during refurbishing that need to be well omitted for efficient, sustainable development. For example, the omission of economic-financial criteria group is mostly viewed as a drawback in the context of sustainability. An important aspect in the refurbishing process is the appropriate use of multi-criteria assessment approaches that have a positive impact to the environment. Different scholars explain multi-criteria assessment approaches in their different ways. This is because of the difference in situations and circumstances. Multi-criteria can either be maximizing or minimizing. It only depends on the levels of receiving objective results. Therefore before embarking on refurbishing buildings for sustainable development, one needs to figure out the levels of the receiving objective results.

Another problem that results from sustainable development is the availability of enough energy that is to be used throughout the process. From research findings, the energy used in refurbishing buildings for sustainable development is the influence of the energy towards the climate (Turner et al., 2016, p. 197). That is, it influences climate change. Before architects choose an approach to use in refurbishing buildings for sustainable development, the merits and demerits of the approach need to be researched. It is from the study that the process of refurbishing buildings for sustainability development becomes efficient.

Diverse Approaches to Sustainable Refurbishment

To avoid the challenges that result from the refurbishment of buildings, architects need to sustainable design strategies. An example of such an approach is to minimize the energy consumption of structures (Pombo, Rivela, and Neila, 2016, p. 92). However, there some factors that need to be considered before settling on a sustainable approach. The approach needs to include the aspects of economic, social, and ecological value. In the past times, sustainable development on buildings was based on the physical capacity. However, due to the advancement in technology, diverse approaches have emerged. These approaches depend on a number of factors. For instance, the size of the building and another local context such as the location of the building (Noori, Saruwono, Adnan and Rahmat, 2016, p. 257). Diverse approaches to sustainable refurbishment range from various frameworks. These frameworks range from methodological to theoretical. According to scholars, some architects base their frameworks in a market-available assessment tool aspect.

An example of a methodology is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. This kind of methodology is useful in the process of estimating the environmental impact of refurbishing a building. Therefore, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a methodology that best defines the environmental assessment of buildings due to its efficiency. An advantage of using the LCA methodology is that it allows architects to assess the global environmental impact, right from the relevant data. Another advantage of using the LCA methodology is that it makes it easier for building owners to have an accurate description of the entire structure including the costs to be incurred. To architects, the LCA methodology allows ease of shift of impacts. Normally, the impacts are the improvements of refurbishment.

Despite the advantages accrued from the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, there exist some limitations. For example, the unavailability of adequate data that need to be used during refurbishing building. Due to this unavailability of data, the uncertainty of results is attained. Also, too much effort is required to describe a building in an LCA methodology context.

Nowadays, various environmental assessment tools are commonly used to evaluate sustainable buildings (Lund, Haddadi, Lohne and Bjørberg, 2016, p. 432). Various organizations develop different environmental assessment tools that best fit their conditions. The limitations to environmental assessment tools include site selection and the impact the assessment tool has on the ecology. From research findings, it is evident environmental assessment tools mitigate the ecological impact. Also, due to the difference in the environmental assessment tools across different organizations, scholars regard the assessment tool as an unsustainable tool because of the difference in conditions. Another limitation that emerges from environmental assessment tools is that it occasionally undermines certain themes that are essential during the refurbishment of buildings.

Conclusion

In conclusion, refurbishment of buildings is an effective measure of enabling sustainable development. Also, the refurbishment of buildings is an effective way of addressing the challenge of climate change (Pombo, Rivela and Neila, 2016, p. 88). As discussed earlier, there exist limitations in refurbishing buildings. For instance, architects need to adhere and comply with already existing structural components of the building. Due to such adherence, the cost of refurbishing buildings is expensive as compared to constructing structures from ground zero. Another limitation encountered in the refurbishment of buildings is the potential risks that emerge.

If well handled, refurbishment of buildings can be of great importance both economically and in environmental agendas. Different approaches to sustainable development have different limitations. For instance, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is the unavailability of data. As a result, architects are unable to find the uncertainties of the data. The environment assessment tool is limited to site selection. Therefore, by use of the environmental assessment tool, architects are unable to design measures due to the factor of site selection effectively.

References

Lou, E.C., Lee, A. and Welfle, A., 2017. Greenhouse gases (GHG) performance of refurbishment projects–Lessons from UK higher education student accommodation case studies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 154, pp.309-317.

Lund, O.B., Haddadi, A., Lohne, J. and Bjørberg, S., 2016. Sustainable Planning in Sustainable Refurbishment Projects–An Early Phase Evaluation. Energy Procedia, 96, pp.425-434.

Noori, A., Saruwono, M., Adnan, H. and Rahmat, I., 2016. Conflict, Complexity, and Uncertainty in Sustainable Refurbishment Building Projects. In InCIEC 2015 (pp. 251-258). Springer, Singapore.

Oregi, X., Hernandez, P. and Hernandez, R., 2017. Analysis of life-cycle boundaries for environmental and economic assessment of sustainable refurbishment projects. Energy and Buildings, 136, pp.12-25.

Pombo, O., Rivela, B. and Neila, J., 2016. The challenge of sustainable building renovation: assessment of current criteria and future outlook. Journal of Cleaner production, 123, pp.88-100.

Turner, K.G., Anderson, S., Gonzales-Chang, M., Costanza, R., Courville, S., Dalgaard, T.,

Dominati, E., Kubiszewski, I., Ogilvy, S., Porfirio, L. and Ratna, N., 2016. A review of methods, data, and models to assess changes in the value of ecosystem services from land degradation and restoration. Ecological Modelling, 319, pp.190-207.

Relevant Blog Posts

The Impact Of Sustainable Development On The Construction Industry Faced With Economic And Legislative Challenges

The Effectiveness of Life Cycle Costing in Sustainable Construction

Construction Management Dissertations

Did you find any useful knowledge relating to limitations of sustainable refurbishment in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.

MBA Program – Advantages of Online MBA Programs

To be honest, I like options, flexibility, and ability to work under minimum supervision. As a result, I understood at an early age that the best field that could fit with my desires and aspirations is to enroll in an online MBA program. I work full-time and online studying is convenient for my schedule.  My current work task is to review many business documents. 

Getting an MBA will help me understand these documents.  I am also thinking about moving careers to government contractual work.  I believe getting my MBA will give me an opportunity get my foot in the door to a significant government contracting company. Working in the business industry has been one of my dream jobs since my childhood. Working in a business environment helps me to undertake what I desired to do in my entire life. This is the reason why I should focus on improving my skill set and expertise by enrolling in a flexible MBA program.

Besides, gaining both academic skills as well as work experience will open other avenues through which my career could effectively grow to greater heights. I was able to get a GPA of 2.45 which is slightly below your online MBA program requirements of 2.5. Despite, my current grade, I believe that my interest and aspiration goes beyond my past performance and would like you to reconsider my application based on my capabilities as well.

MBA experience helping your future organization

After almost three-year experience working at a large firm in the litigation department, I am seeking to expand my career to greater heights. My professional experience together with the MBA education will introduce me entirely to the future work environment and increased my interest in working fully in the business industry. Considering my business foundation and experience, I will be able to adequately adapt to the future organization without encountering a lot of challenges.

At this stage in my career, I consider MBA to be the most appropriate career field that will adequately give me the right path that I desire to undertake in my future. The foundation that I have established over the past has helped me to make decisions that are significant in my future career. Through the course, I will be able to develop technical, analytical skills necessary in the future organization to challenging technical problems. Besides, my global business perspectives will be able to improve the skills attained from the course to a greater height.

MBA experience helping MBA classmates

I am more ambitious and motivated to take up technical problems and ensure that I deliver my best. This is one characteristic that has shaped me to be what I am today. Without accepting challenges, it becomes hard for you to succeed effectively in a particular field. Working in a team is a critical component that has given me the ability to work with others. The group is a key source of information top any given firm, and its success depends upon the support provided by the company at any given moment.

With my MBA experience, I will be able to work together with my classmates’ ass a team having a common organizational goal. As a senior member of the team with adequate information, I will be able to understand the needs of the people at various levels and ensure that there is constant output among the group members. This step will aid in ensuring the firm attains the best outcome due to the efforts and coordination made by the group members.

MBA Online
MBA Online

Contribution of MBA program in solving real world problems

Currently, as a family law litigation paralegal, I finalize Income and Expense reports and Schedule of Assets and Debts for our clients.  I also review and index any discovery response which includes vast amounts of financial documents. Having more knowledge in the business field will help me to understand better and review financial document reports and discovery for cases where the parties own multiple businesses. Besides, the MBA program will adequately equip me with technical knowledge which is necessary to difficult real-life situations through informed decision making. I will be able to give appropriate accounts for various undertakings that take place in particular situations and ensure that alternative solutions have been established.

Organizations you have worked and work experiences that you have had

I have been able to work as a successful paralegal at a large business firm in the litigation department. This work has been able to give me technical experience that has helped me to realize the best career path that I should undertake. Having more knowledge in the business field will help me to understand better financial documents, which I review for clients who own multiple businesses.

The decision to undertake the MBA program came as a result of my passion and desire to expand my career to greater heights. I will be able to adequately understand the basic principles that are necessary for the business field through the educational skills that I seek. Despite the poor grades in the past, I am still determined to change everything and gain more experience in the business field.

Related Blog Posts

MBA Dissertation Titles

MBA Operations Management Degree

Six Sigma MBA Project

Did you find any useful knowledge relating to studying an MBA program in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.

Psychological Testing Research Paper

Measurement is a very critical aspect of any psychology topic or basically, in all psychology sub- areas. Every psychologist is usually concerned with measuring the children`s intelligence, creativity and also in measuring their moral development. The psychological tests are used to help the clients learn what careers are best for them. This is based on the interests and the abilities of the clients. Similarly, in this course, description of how learning occurred and how learning can be facilitated in the near future. Therefore, psychological testing is the use of psychological tests, which are ideally designed to be an objective and the standardized measure of a sample of behavior (Garber and Simon, 2017).

Psychological assessment is the main process of testing that makes use of a combination of techniques to help realize some given hypothesis about a person and their behavior, personality, and capabilities. From the description of psychological assessment, it has been defined as an act of performing a psychological battery on an individual. It is also the process of psychological testing (Garber and Simon, 2017). This research paper will, therefore, address different types of psychological tests, various theories in psychological tests and also a variety of standardized tests of intelligence, personality, achievement, interest, neuropsychology and several other areas of psychological testing as described in the Course description.

Psychological Testing Principles

Emphasizes the principles by which psychological tests are conducted is quite important. There are several contradictions when it comes to the use of psychological tests. Psychological tests should be well examined to ensure that, there is valid, appropriate and also the fair use of psychological tests.

There are key concepts that are discussed in this research paper and these include studying the importance of psychological testing (Garber and Simon, 2017). Psychological testing allows researchers and psychologists to make concrete decisions about people, early school placement, military job selections and also in other fields like college entry behavior. Secondly, based on our course teachings, psychological testing allows us to vividly describe and also understand an individual`s real behavior (Garber and Simon, 2017). Below are several other additional reasons for carrying out psychological testing/ assessment;

-It is a measure of a person`s personal attributes- Psychological testing helps the learner to understand an individual`s behavior. Understanding a person`s behavior is quite important since it helps researchers and learners realize/ judge a person based on his/ her way of behaving.

Psychological Testing
Psychological Testing

It is a way of measuring performance- Individual performance is quite important. People would often need to be assessed how they have performed within a specified period of time. Therefore, in this case, psychological testing would help us realize a persons performance in his or her field of specialty. This is one of the key reasons why psychological testing was devised and should be embraced.

  • Saves time. It is a time-saving means of evaluating an individual`s performance in a certain field.
  • It is, of course, the most economical means of achieving a person`s performance.
  • Similarly, the process of psychological testing is basically scientific. Therefore, testing is expected to have the best results in any experiment.

There are basic psychological testing terms that have been explored in this course. As part of the course objectives, it is important to define, describe and also identify these basic testing terms (Garber and Simon, 2017). Such terms include theory, assessment, attitude, personality, measurement, validity, reliability, operational definitions, statistics, average, central tendency, correlation, bias, battery, criterion, decile, standardization, derived score, Level of significance, sample, prediction, randomness, measurement scale, stratification, norms, distracters and factor.

As part of this research paper, definitions of some of these terminologies will be analyzed. For instance; -Theory- theory refers to an idea that is used to account for or even justify a psychological situation.

  • Sample- it refers to a set of collected data that is used for psychological testing and analysis.
  • Measurement scale- it is the basis that is basically used for the psychological tests.

This research paper also addresses uses and various varieties of the personality tests. The main aim of this is to determine which tool is the best for predicting and also measuring the behavior of an individual/ a person (Rappaport et al, 2017). Establishing the validity of the personality tests is again quite important in psychology. Personality tests are an example of psychological tests that have been handled in this course. It is usually used to measure and also evaluate the behavior of a person in school and several other social places. This test basically identifies differences in personality between persons who are being subjected to the similar test.

Personal tests are basically the best psychological tests to use according to a number of psychological researchers. Again in this research paper, the question, “which is a better tool to predict the behavior of an individual, is it the personality test or the projective test?” This is one research problems that have been identified in the course. The research problem can, therefore, be reviewed (Garfinkle and Richardson, 2018). This can be reviewed in terms of whether the personality tests, observation and also the inventories are more reliable and also predictive in determining the behavior of a person.

The hypothesis for this research paper is based on using personality inventories and the projective tests and determining which is better in assessing of a person`s behavior. Using research design and the descriptive correlational methodology is the best approach for the researcher. Descriptive psychological tests are therefore tools that are used to measure and predict the behavior of humanity (Garfinkle and Richardson, 2018). However, both personality tests and the projective tests are used to assess the personalities of individuals in different environments, for instance, school and community. Psychological tests can be applied in various instances. For example, organizations worldwide are busy striving to be successful in the best ways possible.

Aptitude testing is another form of testing that has been described in the course. It is the second widely used form of psychological test after the personality test. It can interchangeably be used with the term ability. The concept of ability in the aptitude test can be described as a general character of an individual that can ideally facilitate the learning of the various skills.

From aptitude definition, it is then easier to state that, psychological tests are basically standardized measures of a small sample of an individual`s behavior (Garfinkle and Richardson, 2018). For instance, a chemist can infer the characteristics of a large compound by only testing a few cubic centimeters of a liquid. Similarly, quality engineers only test a small sample of the finished products and not all of them. The same concept is applied by psychologists in coping with test results. They only base their work on a small sample to come up with results for a larger population.

In aptitude testing, there is a need to establish the difference between aptitudes and the abilities. Ability tests are basically given with an option of giving a dire prediction about a person`s future success in his or field of work, mostly occupational activity or even group of activities. However, it’s possible to use the term aptitude in place of the term, ability (Garfinkle and Richardson, 2018). There are several ways of describing aptitude tests. These include being described in the mode in which they are being presented and also be grouped based on their content.

Conclusion

Psychological testing and assessment are conducted for a number of reasons. For instance;

  • Detection of specific behavior- psychological tests are basically used to determine the abilities of a person.
  • Individual differences- Psychological tests are again used to determine the individual differences. This ideally shows the difference in a person`s ability. The person`s performance is also determined through psychological testing (Rappaport et al, 2017).
  • To diagnose by the psychological test- These tests are also used in clinical psychology. This can be used to diagnose mental disorders among individuals.
  • Legal classification- Psychological tests basically help researchers to identify people into different categories. These categories can be normal and abnormal, criminal and innocent, intellectual and mentally disabled and lastly, the able and the disabled.
  • Promoting Self -understanding- this is another function that psychological testing does. It, therefore, provides standardized knowledge about the person`s behavior, aptitudes and also capabilities.
  • Program evaluation- Psychological testing can be used for such measures as program evaluation (Kaplan and Saccuzzo, 2017).
  • Scientific research- psychological researchers use psychological testing for the purpose of research. It, therefore, provides knowledge about the person`s mental level (Chukhraiev, 2017).
  • Military selection- Psychological testing is used during military selection.

References

Chukhraiev, N., Zukow, W., Chukhraieva, E., & Unichenko, A. (2017). Integrative approach to reduction of excess weight. Journal of Physical Education and Sport17(2), 563.

Garber, B. D., & Simon, R. A. (2017). Individual Adult Psychometric Testing and Child Custody Evaluations: If the Shoe Doesn’t Fit, Don’t Wear It. J. Am. Acad. Matrimonial Law.30, 325.

Garfinkle, M. S., & Richardson, S. L. (2018). Psychological Testing for Psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Trends in Theory and Practice: The Second Century of the Talking Cure, 269.

Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2017). Psychological testing: Principles, applications, and issues. Nelson Education.

Rappaport, S. R., Gould, J., & Dale, M. D. (2017). Psychological Testing Can Be of Significant Value in Child Custody Evaluations: Don’t Buy the Anti-Testing, Anti-Individual, Pro-Family Systems Woozle. J. Am. Acad. Matrimonial Law.30, 405.

Other Relevant Blog Posts

Psychology Dissertations

Cognitive Psychology Research Project

Cultural Factors Psychology



Did you find any useful knowledge relating to psychological testing in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.

Domestic Violence Rules Regulations

Domestic Violence – Fundamental concerns arising from domestic abuse is a major issue that is affecting most parts of the world. The reported cases and trends of abuse in relationships and within families are increasing despite the improvement in rules and regulations about domestic abuse . Despite the UK government enacting numerous regulations and rules, they have had minimal impact in reducing the rising rates of violence. The dissertation focused on rates and trends of domestic violence in the UK despite the changes in regulations and how the government can improve its operations to mitigate the high rates.

Furthermore, the dissertation found out the need for improvement in measures that the non-government organizations and the government have set in place to protect the victims of violence and reduce the cases of domestic abuse. The dissertation suggested that there is need to broaden the scope of awareness through educational programs. The government should adopt other measures that will aim at preventing the occurrence of such vices and safeguard the lives of victims. The main purpose of this dissertation was to develop an understanding of the various prominent cases of domestic abuse that exist in the UK over the past three decades.

The dissertation focused on the various case scenarios that are prominent with both men and women as victims of domestic violence. Thus, the dissertation highlighted multiple contexts of violence to show how men and women are victims especially women who are abused by their partners. The dissertation also found out the reason why women are the most affected in domestic violence, and most of them do to report such cases. The study made a comparative analysis of the various domestic abuse cases and state laws to safeguard the victims between the UK and the US. The comparison helped in understanding the steps taken by the UK government to stop and reduce the cases of domestic violence in the country.

View This Dissertation Here

Domestic Violence Dissertation
Domestic Violence Dissertation

The comparison was based on the United Nations standards, and this helped in giving a limelight on the legal structure of the UK and its initiative to reduce such cases. Many studies have focused on a comparison between the rates of domestic violence in other countries but have failed to compare the state laws in various countries and how they have reduced the rates of domestic abuse.

The main aim of the dissertation study was to focus on the rates and trends of violence in the UK for the past three decades despite an increase in the government efforts to enact more rules and regulations. The objectives of this study included:

  • To evaluate the impact of improved laws and regulations on the reduced cases of domestic violence in the UK for the past three decades
  • To analyse the most prominent and serious domestic abuse cases in the UK for the past three decades
  • To establish the differences in the way US has dealt with domestic violence cases better than UK government

Domestic Violence Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Contextual Background
Research Problem
Aims and Objectives of Research
Research Questions
Dissertation Rationale
Significance of the Study
Structure of the Study

2 – Literature Review
Definition of Domestic Violence
Domestic Violence Theories
Critical Feminist Theory
Social Learning Theory
The Experiences of Men and Women as Victims of Domestic Abuse
Violence Against Women as the Minority Ethnic Group
Patterns of Recent Domestic Violence in the UK
Improvement in Federal Laws on Domestic Violence
Comparative Analysis of Domestic Violence in US and UK

3 – Methodology and Research Design
Research Paradigm
Research Approach
Investigation Type
Research Design
Research Strategy
Data Collection and Analysis
Research Limitations
Ethical Considerations

4 – Findings and Discussions
Rates and Trends of Domestic Violence in the UK
Explanation of Trends of Violence using Feminist Theory Explanation of trends and rates of violence using social learning theory
Changes and Improvements in the UK Laws
Effectiveness of the improved changes in the UK law
How changes could be done differently and adopting perspectives from US

5 – Conclusions and Recommendations
Conclusion
Recommendations
Future Implications

Bibliography

View This Dissertation Here

Other Relevant Posts


Social Isolation Independence Learning


Youth Crime Juvenile Delinquency

Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal

Consumer behavior is an important management field, the study and application of which can provide a lot of insight and value to the marketers. This research paper is based mostly on the existing theories and models of consumer behavior. The first part looks for external factors influencing consuming behavior at various stages and the second applies theories to a well known business organization, L’Oreal.

Consumer Behavior

Hawkins (2008) says that the consumer decision making process is often the result of a single problem however, at other times consumption decision is based on a number of factors. The example provided by Hawkins (2008) to explain the difference actually helps the reader in better analyzing the types of consumption requirement. Running low on gasoline while driving leads to a single factor consumption decision whereas the realization of an aging automobile, growing feeling of inadequacy or low self esteem lead to a multi factor consumption decision regarding a commodity or a service.

For the marketers of an organization, it is important to take into consideration both the types of consumption such that the overall sales of that organization are increased. Consumers are the end point of the supply chain processes. They actually are the magnetic force for all kinds of manufacturing, production and retailing processes that are taking place in a market or in an industry. The stronger the magnetic force in fact, the better will be the overall processes of production, manufacturing and retailing. It is therefore important for the organizations to capture as much of that attraction of the customers as possible. One simple reason for that is that customers are the ones that provide revenue to the business. An interesting quote by Jeff Bezoz, the CEO of Amazon.com says that it is actually the customers of the organization that give the business the money to operate and not the competitors of the organization and thus, all the strategies that the organization makes to improve the business performance (or market capitalization) should be oriented towards the customers (Stockport, 2009).

This idea then forms the core of the field of consumer behavior. Consumer behavior, initially stemming out of the study of micro economics has actually gotten extensive and intensive enough to be termed as a completely independent study of management sciences and one that can have serious policy implications for a business entity.

Consumer behavior holds that the purchasing decision of the consumer can actually be analyzed through various models and theories and using those findings, a business can orient its market plan to gain competitive advantage in the market. A number of external and internal factors become a part of understanding how and why consumers making purchasing decision, using decisions and disposing off decisions and how preferences and tastes as well as norms, cultures, peer pressures and traditions become a part of this decision making process (Lamb, Hair, McDaniel, 2011).

Since it has now been established that a number of internal and external factors play a role in influencing the consumers in their consuming decision, the breakdown of each factor is possible. As far as a business organization and more precisely the strategic managers or the marketers of the organization are concerned, external factors are the ones which they have the power over and thus they can influence the attraction felt by consumers for the product being marketed. However, before the marketing managers can actually pin point the external factors and manipulate them, each stage of the decision making process of the consumers needs to be analyzed.

Analysis of how external variables are used by marketers to influence consumer decision making at the various stages of the consumer decision making model. Illustrations through examples

Nominal Decision Making Process

Hawkins (2008, p. 561) identifies the nominal decision making process and defines it in the following words,

“Nominal decision making, sometimes referred to as habitual decision making, in effect involves no decision per se….A completely nominal decision does not even include consideration of the “do not purchase” alternative. For example you might notice that you are nearly out of Aim toothpaste and resolve to purchase some the next time you are at the store. You don’t even consider not replacing the toothpaste or purchasing another brand.”

According to Hawkins (2008) then a nominal decision making process can be broken down further into brand loyal decisions and repeat decisions.

For the marketers, development of brand loyalty is another arena that is receiving significant attention mostly because of its importance that has been highlighted through the theories of consumer behavior. The more the consumer feels loyal to the brands, the lesser he or she will actually consider buying another brand and thus the number of secure sales for the organization will increase and in the longer run, the provision of stability of revenue for the organization will also be enhanced.

The example for the nominal decision making process has already been highlighted by reviewing Hawkins (2008) however to provide another example is the purchase of soaps, bottled milk, tea brand, coffee brand or sanitary pads. Mostly, for all of these products, the consumer mechanically throw these products into the shopping cart without even considering that just right to the brand that they picked lies another, probably better brand. Development of this behaviour in the consumers requires effort and strategy from the marketing manager of the business organization.

Five Step Decision Making Model

Next is the five step decision making process as studied by Lamb, Hair and McDaniel (2011). In this model, the first step is the recognition of need of a product or service by the consumers. The second is the information search, third the evaluation of alternatives and fourth the purchase of the commodity or service. Finally, the fifth step is the post purchase behaviour. In regards to the model however, the following has been said (Lamb, Hair and McDaniel, 2011, p. 189),

“The five steps represent a general process that can be used as a guide for studying how consumers make decision. It is important to note though that consumers’ decisions do not always proceed in order through all of these steps. In fact, the consumer may end that process at any time or may not even make a purchase.”

However, this model does provide important steps that can be used by the marketers to create external influence on the consuming behaviours of the customers. Baker (2003) says that these five stages together are affected by a number of external and internal factors. These factors include the cultural, social, individual and psychological factors and are actually applicable to all the stages of the consumer decision making process. Therefore, if the customers are to use factors to influence the consumer decision making process, these factors are to be manipulated. For the purpose of this section of the research report, only external factors will be analyzed for each stage of consumption of the goods and services.

The first step is the recognition of needs. This is actually the first and the most important step that the marketers can use to attract the customers and thus gain competitive advantage and even first movers advantage in the market. This is possible by making the customers realize the need for the product that the firm is offering. Hawkins (2008, p. 565) says that,

“Marketers often attempt to cause consumers to recognize a potential problem for which the marketer has a solution…this sometimes involves making consumers aware of problems well before they arise.”

The important word here is “potential”. The usual way through which the problem solving approach goes is to at first recognize the problem and then solve it. Providing external stimulus on the need recognition stage of the decision making process, marketers are actually making the customers create a problem in their head that they did not realize existed before. Obviously this can be both real and imaginary but there is no necessity that the consumer knew of the solution to the problem before. For example, the invention of diapers stimulated the need recognition stage of the decision making process. Before that for centuries, mothers and maids were using cloth and plastic panties for their babies and everything seemed to go fine. With the advent of diapers however, it became almost a necessity. Something without which bearing a child seemed like a serious problem.

Similarly, the marketers can influence the information search stage of the consumer decision making process by providing to the consumers the necessary information through various media. Nowadays, television advertisement, billboards and internet are the favorite sources of providing the consumers with the information about the product and how that product is the one that the consumers require in solving the problem. For example when proctor and gamble came up with the diapers, pampers, they needed to provide the useful information to the consumers about the product. So that the customers who have already realized this problem and were looking for a solution find it in the shape of pampers. This then can require free samples and other promotion techniques as well. As of today however, the techniques that remain dominant have been mentioned.

The marketers can influence the third step that is of alternative evaluation by allowing the customer, through efficient marketing strategies to realize that the product the firm is offering is the best one for the consumer.  The external factor used here can be the help of celebrities to promote a product. Knowing that a specific product works better than anything else for something well known and looked up to can actually lead the consumers to be inclined more towards the purchase of that product.

On the fourth stage of the consumer decision making model, prices are the factors that need to be considered and used by the marketers. The consumers should know that the price they are paying for the product is actually worth it. Here, the factor and consciousness of social class can play an important role. The effect of social class on consumer behavior, apart from the direct relationship of income levels and value of consumption, there is also a direct relationship till the upper class between the realization of social class and the desire to mobilize in the social class hierarchy and the value of consumption (Loudon, 2007). It has been noted that the upper, upper middle and the middle class seriously dreams of being recognized as the elite (how o not really care about the prices but about the quality) make more expensive purchases of the products or services to reinforce their social class image in the society.

Select a company or not-for-profit organisation that you are familiar with and critically evaluate how a specific consumer behavioral theory or model can aid in understanding consumers’ actions. Demonstrate how this then guides the practical implementation of marketing strategy in your chosen organisation.

The Organization

The business entity selected for the purpose this section of the report is L’Oreal Paris. This is the largest beauty and cosmetics brand in the world. In 2009 L’Oreal completed its hundred years and recognizes its moves in the business world as that of being adventurous. L’Oreal (2011) notes that above and beyond that financial success that the organization has achieved, the journey of L’Oreal has been marked by a quest for innovation, a quest for excellence, a question for the purpose of actually existing in the market and finally a quest for diversity in regards to the range of cultures, preferences and tastes of women around the globe.

Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal
Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal

This organization has actually celebrated beauty around the globe. L’Oreal has a huge international presence and operates in five continents of the worlds excluding Antarctica and Australia from the list. By the global 100, this beauty brand was actually ranked amongst the world’s 100 most sustainable business organizations. Moreover, this organization in 2011 has been presented with the best financial performance by the Boursoscan (L’Oreal, 2011).

The overview of the organization notes that for a century the organization has been pushing back the boundaries of science to invest and meet the aspirations of millions of women and men (L’Oreal, 2011). L’Oreal seeks to provide the best cosmetics to the world in terms of quality, safety and efficacy. In 2010, the business had consolidated sales figure of 195 billion Euros. Currently, the organization is managing 23 global brands in 130 countries of the world and registered 612 patents in the year 2010 (L’Oreal, 2011).

Theory of Consumer Behavior

Behavioral School of Thought: Classical Conditioning

In regards to the core behavioral theories, Schiffman (2008) notes that there are a number of routes through which the conditioning of consumers to buy a particular product can be done. The first route is the classical conditioning in which the consumer links a certain response to a product. For example, in regards to L’Oreal, classical condition will be that using the Voluminous Mascara introduced by the organization, the eyelashes will actually look darker and prettier and the result will be similar to what Ashwariya Rai puts on her eyes. The conditioning stimulus here will be the darker, more volume eyelashes like the ones that Ashwariya Rai appears with. Through the advertisement then the unconditioned response of the consumer who needs to buy mascara turns into a conditioned one.

Behavioral School of Thought: Cognitive Associative Learning

Next, Schiffman (2008) studies the cognitive associative learning behavior. According to this view, the relationship or (congruity) between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus influences the expectations which in turn influences the behavior of the being. This theory believes that the actions that occur after certain stimuli have been provided are in fact learned and occur because of the increase in knowledge. For example in the example above, the purchase of mascara would occur because knowledge about the qualities of the product has been gained. Unlike the cognitive associative behavior however, the classical conditioning believes that the reaction that occurs is actually reflex.

Economic Theory of Consumer Behavior

Apart from these theories, one consumer behavior theory that actually stems out economics more than psychology is the theory of consumer behavior. Irwin (2005) says that the consumers according to the model provided in this theory consumes at a point where there occurs an intersection between the consumer indifference curve (the choice curve of the customer where combinations of consuming two alternative goods achieve the same level of utility or satisfaction to the customer) and the budget constraint of the individual (as understood mostly by the current income levels of the person or the saved up income from a previous period).

This model assumes that the consumers are rational individuals who are responsive to a price change of products and who also have complete information about the product and the alternatives. Also it is assumed that the individual under question is subject to a budget constraint and that he or she has to manage more than one thing in a given period of time speaking financially.

Attitudes in Consumer Behavior

Perner (2011) however studies the theory of consumer behavior which says that the problem solving approaches of the consumers are actually internal (made up of the memory and thinking process of the individuals) and external (made up of the word of mouth, the media, the store visits and the trials amongst others). In this theory then, the evaluating behavior of the individuals are made up either compensatory, non compensatory, hybrid or abandoned strategy. The first one is the decision based on overall value of alternatives. The non compensatory evaluation requires that the consuming decision meets at least one important criterion and the hybrid is a combination of compensatory and non compensatory evaluation types. Finally, the abandoned strategy is when the consumer finds the initial criteria unrealistic and proceeds to a less desirable solution to the problem. Next, Perner (2011) notes that the consuming behavior of an individual is seriously affected by the attitudes of that individual; and that in turn attitudes are affected by the intentions, the beliefs and the feelings about a particular brand.

 As far as L’Oreal is concerned, consumer behavior can be understood critically through these four theories and the findings can be further used to design a strategy to expand the consumer market and the competitive advantage of the market.

Recommended Marketing Strategies

Starting with the attitudes of the consumers, L’Oreal can be added by understanding what beliefs individuals have about the products and services that the brand itself and that the competitors of the brand provide. This can be measured and analyzed through the attitude measure developed by Perner (2011). Next, the feelings of the consumers can be understood through this attitude model. For example, a fan of Ashwariya Rai, or Penelope Cruz (the brand ambassadors of L’Oreal) will feel a push for consuming the product after aggressively understanding how they feel for the product. Also, being there for a century, this brand is also a name through the generations. Understanding those feelings of the consumers will help steer the marketing plan of the organization towards a greater organizational performance overall.

Next, the theory of consumer behavior includes the importance of prices of the product. This is actually one of the core consumer behavior theories and is the most detail about the behaviors of the individuals. In this regard the organization can use the theory to understand what effect a price change of the products and services has on the sales of the organization and the demand of the consumers. Make up, after a certain limit is usually a luxury for individuals and L’Oreal is an expensive brand.

To keep up its market share and to not lose to organizations which are charging a lower price for similar products through the substitution and the income effect it is important for the management of the organization to carefully consider the underpinnings of the theory of consumer behavior. For this purpose, if the price of the good is actually not that far away from the actual investment put into the product in terms of research and development and manufacturing, the organization can actually use the coin of high quality. The perception of consumer about the quality of the product is a vital asset when an organization is designing its price and marketing policies. The better the consumer perceive the quality of a product to be, the more he or she will be willing to spare for that product because they will know that the money is being well spent and that there will be no hazardous consequences of using a particular product.

Conclusion

Nelson (1970) studies that the consumers are continuously busy in the choice making between different products however, the consequences of these choices are dimly known by them. One of the reasons is that they lack full knowledge about the price and quality of the product. The marketers of a business organization then can utilize the consuming behavior and the attitudes of the consumers for the purpose of attracting the maximum share of revenue for the organization.

This research paper studied how the marketers can actually use external factors including the social class, peer pressure, celebrity following and fashion trends to influence the consuming behavior of the consumers.

The second part of the research report analyzed the various theories of consumer behavior. Those theories then were in critically used to apply for the case of L’Oreal Paris, one of the largest multinationals in the world. Dholakia et al (2010) says that in the case of multimedia and multi channel organization like L’Oreal, the analysis of consumer behavior is different than the usual analysis. Finally, for the applied consumer behavior theories, a number of marketing strategies were recommended for L’Oreal.

References

Baker, D. (2003) Consumer Decision Making. 4th Ed. USA: South Western.

Dholakia, H. et al. (2010) Consumer Behavior in a Multichannel, Multimedia Retailing Environment. Journal of Interactive Marketing, Volume 24 (2), Pages 86-95.  

Hawkins (2008) Consumer Behavior. 6th Ed. India: Tata McGraw Hill

Irwin (2005) Theory of Consumer Behavior. USA: McGraw Hill.

Lamb, C., Hair, J. and McDaniel C. (2011) Essential of Marketing. 7th Ed. USA: South Western.

L’Oreal. (2018). L’Oreal Website

Nelson, P. (1970) Information and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 78 (2), pp. 311-329

Prener, L. (2011) The consumer Behavior: The psychology of marketing.

Schiffman, L and Kanuk, L. (2007) Consumer Behavior. 9th Ed. India: Pearson Education Inc

Other Relevant Blog Posts

Consumer Purchasing Behaviour Social Media

Luxury Goods Consumer Purchasing Behaviour

Marketing Dissertation Topics

Did you find any useful knowledge relating to consumer behavior in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.