European Migrant Crisis Asylum

European Migrant Crisis

After 66 years of ratification of asylum, when the Geneva Convention on Refugees was prepared and implemented to officially recognize the rights of asylum seekers and refugees, the world stands in the midst of a global crisis questioning the principles on which this document prepared and ultimately applied on a large international scale for nations to follow and pursue. Fassin (2013) postulates that amidst the crisis which has hit a number of nations owing to the political conditions of various nations it is intriguing to explore the historical value and significance of how refugees came to be and the laws that were put in place to offer them protection from challenging conditions. Before proceeding with commenting on the present scenario of the global refugee crisis which has predominantly impacted European nations, it is imperative to establish the definition of refugee. According to Price, a refugee or asylum seeker is an individual that has been compelled or forced to flee their home country and seek refuge in another country due to a number of reasons.

These reasons may include fear of political and religious persecution, genocide, civil war or the occurrence of a catastrophic event which has made it impossible for the individual to continue to lead their life in their home nation.

According to a report presented by the BBC, the European refugee crisis was triggered in 2015 with the influx of migrants into European nations. The arrival of asylum seekers in the continent was primarily initiated by the conflict and civil war in Syria where the Islamic State is fighting against government powers to impose their fundamentalist ideology and overtake a number of cities within the country. Following the arrival of individuals and families from Syria, the second and third largest nationalities claiming refuge in European nations Afghanistanis and Iraqis primarily on the grounds of civil unrest, violence and terrorist activity in the nations. According to the statistics provided by the BBC, Germany has the highest asylum seeker claims across all countries of Europe, followed by a major portion of refugees entering Italy, UK and Greece. The poor socioeconomic conditions of refugees have captured the attention of global media and world leaders continue to debate about the possible solutions to manage this crisis, however, at present, it is continuing to escalate.

Ethics and Politics of Asylum

The key objectives of this assessment have been set out to examine the ethics and politics of asylum as presented in Auslander Raus to understand who has the right to live in ‘new’ Europe. Auslander Raus or Foreigners Out! Is a documentary directed by Christoph Schlingensief following the victory of extreme right parties and candidates during Austrian election – as a mark of protest and to show his disbelief over the election of such right-wing extremist candidates the filmmaker placed a concentration camp in the middle of the country’s capital to denounce the ideologies which led to their election in the first place. The paper critically examines asylum from an ethical and political standpoint in the light of this documentary by tracing the publics’ perception of asylum seekers in various parts of the globe and ultimately linking it to the perceptions and thought processes which are emerging in Europe against unauthorised migrants. The paper then addresses the concerns which are being raised by them and sheds light on the message of Auslander Raus and notes how it applies to the scenario and grave situation which is unfolding right in front of the world in various European nations that have been hit by the refugee crisis.

Asylum seekers in many scenarios are viewed as the ‘other’, the sense of exclusion that they experience within their own communities is marked by a great degree of animosity from others who may view their motives with a negative connotation and essentially view them as a burden on their own community, economy and country (Haslam and Pedersen, 2007). Studying the attitudes of Australian towards asylum seekers that come into the country, a research found that Australians had mixed reactions which swayed towards the negative side when forming opinions about refugees that come into the country. The authors note that the most common concerns held by the general public pertaining to their arrival were related to raising questions about how they would integrate into society and fears about their inability to cope with the cultural shock that they may undergo upon their arrival into the country (McKay, Thomas and Kneebone, 2012). Many Australians whose views were taken during the course of this research also expressed their concerns that the asylum seekers did not use the ‘right way’ to enter their country which points to the understanding that many residents believe that the motivations for entering into a specific country based on the grounds of asylum are not justified or somehow invalidates their right to be in the country.

The research of Louis et al. (2007) explored the fundamental reasons why citizens and the general public hold a negative view against asylum seekers – the primary problems that have emerged from the entry of millions of documented and undocumented workers are associated with how they will cope with and accept the cultural norms that are so different and varied from their own (55). The study also highlighted the portrayal of a negative attitude by citizens in situations when they were expected to interact with asylum seekers.

As noted previously, the number of applications for people seeking asylum in Europe rapidly increased in 2015 due to the state of the civil war in Syria which escalated tensions in the Middle East and saw the rapid rise of the Islamic State across the country and some parts of Iraq (Leithhold, 2015). While the governments of EU states were positive at first with the arrival of the migrants, it was soon observed that the crisis grew greater than expected. For instance, identifying amongst migrant applications that held credibility and that lacked any validation or genuine reason for seeking asylum emerged as a challenge. When it was realised that the huge migrant influx was close to becoming a major human rights and social issue, Leithhold (2015) notes that many countries began to develop and impose legislations to explore a way of more effectively dealing with the situation. However, at that point, the crisis had already reached a major breaking point with reported illegal activity at migrant camps, acts of sexual assaults reported by migrants in Cologne and even stabbings reported in parts of Europe that were ultimately traced back to migrant men that had posed as children to enter the EU states.

European Migrant Crisis Asylum
European Migrant Crisis Asylum

According to a report presented by BBC (2016), gangs of men were seen assaulting women and engaging in illegal activities including robbery during a New Year’s celebration in Cologne, Germany. Around 100 women reported becoming victims of these crimes and were subjected to groping and touching. As the media picked on this story, reports emerged that many of these men who were claimed to be of Syrian descent stated that it was the women’s provocative clothing and mannerisms which encouraged them to engage in such activities and that they were ‘asking for it’. Rasmussen et al. (2016) write that the fact that these attacks took place in Europe and the emotional and physical ordeal that the women had to go through because of them represent the level of integration that refugees and especially men have been able to depict.

Western society prides itself on promoting equal rights for women and an individual’s sense of dressing should never be viewed as an excuse for sexual assault and even rape because it defies the principles of consent. Therefore, the fact that these attacks took place in such a progressive society raised questions about the ethics of asylum and whether nations should be obliged or expected to offer refugees a place if their lack of ability to integrate within society causes issues and grave problems for the community that resides there.

However, the sensationalization of such news in the Western media and wrong implications of criminal activity that were pinned upon migrant men developed a mindset of fear and allegations where a narrative of viewing asylum seekers as evil or the ‘other’ ones emerged. It should be noted that these stories were not essentially true to the greatest extent, some were fabricated and some cases were never even reported. However, the situation escalated to the extent that right-wing organisations were able to capitalise on this negative public sentiment and actively denounce the entry of asylum seekers often going to lengths were acts of racism were recorded in camps that were housing such individuals. The media must play a responsible role in promoting the integration of migrants rather than singling them out and promoting the ‘us versus them’ rhetoric which is harmful to enhance their extent of cohesion within society. These initiatives can only lessen the tensions between the two sides and enable the start of productive dialogue to better understand the views of the other party and respectfully agree or disagree with them (Cabot, 2014).

European Migrant Crisis

This understanding and course of events lead to the fundamental point of who is ultimately allowed and has a right to live in this ‘new’ Europe? Given the political situation that has erupted in the countries of asylum seekers sparked by terrorist activity that has its roots in extremist ideologies – does Europe have a moral obligation to offer a place of safety and security to migrant families? Children, women and the elderly that have been driven out of their homes due to the ravages of war and those who have nothing to do with how the events have in their own countries. At this stage, the ethical dimension of asylum emerges and takes a new shape because it is ultimately a moral perspective which encourages humans to understand the value of human life and recognise its worth. Who decides whether the asylum seekers are granted a place to live in Europe, the narrative promoted in AuslanderRaus definitely offers a greater insight into this notion and explains how the anti-refugee ideology of rightist fundamentalists is no different from any other ideology that promotes extremist views (Volf, 2010).

As suggested in the research of Leithhold, EU states only began to pass legislations pertaining to asylum seekers and refugees once the crisis had already become grave, therefore, a proper policy or legislation was not documenting their entry when the civil war in Syria first broke out and when the unrest in the Middle East was at its peak. Hansen has stated that protecting the rights of refugees and ultimately those who wish to seek asylum in a country must be documented legally to ensure that the rights of all individuals are protected and that they are able to live freely in a new country without the threat of deportation or violence.

From the aforementioned perspective, the question of who gets to live in Europe can be answered by addressing the legal dimension of the topic – if the satirical nature of political asylum is to be compared with this statement as it has been projected in Auslander Raus it would be intriguing to note that the documentary simply shows the life of a few refugees housed in a Big Brother however, it does not show how they got to Austria, the land that offered them asylum. This is distinctly what can be understood from the premise of the documentary – the key issue with an individual’s refugee status emerges if their arrival in the country is undocumented or not supported by their legal right to enter the country. With respect to this point, Hansen raises the notion that German laws on asylum have been generous rather than practical. This drawback with the country’s policy has what led to the issues that communities face with the influx of migrants which may suggest that how refugees are selected to enter the country and on what basis they are granted permission is an issue rather than the asylum itself.

Asylum From A Legal and Political Perspective

In their research Hanewald et al. (2016) raised a critical point when discussing asylum from a legal and political perspective by stating that the implementation of any laws pertaining to the entry of migrants simply does not relate to their situation but is subjected to the mental and physical health of the refugee as well (166). In a healthcare system which may continue to become burdened if corrective measures are not taken on an immediate basis, it would be unfair for the citizens of a country to bear the additional burden of taking care of individuals who have been left with mental and physical health issues because of the situation in their country. Thus, the simple need to enter a country as a refugee does not offer a proper justification to act as a premise for them to be granted refugee status.

Caviedes (2016) states that with respect to the monitoring of refugees and individuals that are granted migrant status, there is a need to implement effective structures to ensure that their arrival is based on concrete reason on the basis of which they have been granted asylum. The ability to integrate and accept the cultural norms and values is a fundamental point in this case because it decides the extent to which the individual will prove to be a valuable and productive member of society rather than becoming a burden on tax payer’s hard earned money.

Migration governance as a comprehensive model and structure is a critical point of consideration in this case because it addresses and assesses individuals on the basis of the factors which determine their level of integration and also judges their potential to become long term residents. Caviedes recommends that measures such as requiring migrants to take language, culture and civics classes to better enlighten them and offer them tools to successfully integrate within society (559). Moreover, another factor that could better assist the selection of migrants once they apply for asylum is determining whether they already have family members residing in the country they wish to enter. Caviedes states that such cases are more preferable in comparison with situations where the individual has no roots tying the country to them because it offers them a platform to understand the society that they are about to enter (560).

Trauner (2016) notes that what the world is witnessing today in Europe with respect to the migrant and refugee crisis is reflective of policy failures on the part of the nation’s governments. Not only have these policies overburdened neighbouring states wherein migrant numbers are too high but they have also led to the building up of financial constraints on economies that are struggling to provide these new entrants with a living in the society and create jobs against the backdrop of a struggling global economy.

Refugees

As depicted in Auslander Raus, the uncertainty of immigration and refugees only becomes more complex when there is no trace of where they came from and no trace of their background and history (Watts 165). The shady details of their past only create more distrust amongst the community where they are forced to grow more hateful and distrustful of what they view as aliens in their own community. However, a more documented approach wherein a method is devised to check the background of these individuals can also fulfil the moral and ethical obligations of giving them a new start at life while ensuring that the security and well-being of nation’s citizens are not compromised at the same time.

As the refugee crisis was triggered in Europe in 2015, EU member states have been left in utter disbelief with the problems that have followed the state of emergency. While the entry of immigrants into the countries of Europe have also incited a wave of extremist parties belonging to the right calling for their complete ban, from an ethical and moral standpoint this initiative and action are simply not justified. When homes continue to burn in Syria and the bodies of innocent children lie on the streets of Aleppo, the world cannot afford to watch in silence and let these innocent beings suffer because of something that is not their fault. Therefore, calling for a complete ban on refugees is out of the question. This raises the ultimate question of ‘who has the right to live in the ‘new’ Europe?’ and the answer to this as extensively discussed in this essay is that the right to live in Europe is possessed by its citizens and also refugees that have a documented status and the legal right to enter these states.

The legal right to enter these countries must be determined by the government and the concerned authorities that should weigh on various factors which will determine the extent to which candidates can successfully integrate within a society, for instance, assess their education, occupation and family background can offer a better insight into who they are and the potential that they have to become productive members of society. As shown in Auslander Raus, no one has the right to govern the lives of refugees and the general public cannot act as the ‘Big Brother’ in their attempt to scrutinise how they choose to lead their life and what they choose to do. Any measures to impose constant surveillance on migrant settlements and camps will only increase the sense of mistrust that they experience and will promote further hostility and animosity. For successful integration, it is imperative to accept the reality of asylum and accept that the current state of the world has led a scenario where this issue is something that cannot be ignored. Therefore, migration governance, asylum legislation and policy development are key areas to address when coping with the current scenario which is emerging across the globe.

Works Cited

Cabot, Heath. On the doorstep of Europe: asylum and citizenship in Greece. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.

Caviedes, Alexander. “European Integration and the Governance of Migration.” Journal of Contemporary European Research 12.1 (2016): 552-565.

Fassin, Didier. “The precarious truth of asylum.” Public Culture 25.1 69 (2013): 39-63.

Hanewald, Bernd, et al. “[Asylum Law and Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of the Coaction of Medical and Legal Aspects].” Psychiatrische Praxis 43.3 (2016): 165-171.

Hansen, Randall. “Citizenship and integration in Europe.” Toward assimilation and citizenship: Immigrants in liberal nation-states. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2014. 87-109.

Haslam, N. I. C. K., and A. N. N. E. Pedersen. “Attitudes towards asylum seekers: the psychology of exclusion.” Yearning to breathe free: Seeking asylum in Australia (2007): 208-218.

Louis, Winnifred R., et al. “Why do citizens want to keep refugees out? Threats, fairness and hostile norms in the treatment of asylum seekers.” European Journal of Social Psychology 37.1 (2007): 53-73.Leithold, D. (2015). Asylum in Europe. DICE Report13(4), 55.

McKay, Fiona H., Samantha L. Thomas, and Susan Kneebone. “‘It would be okay if they came through the proper channels’: Community perceptions and attitudes toward asylum seekers in Australia.” Journal of Refugee Studies 25.1 (2012): 113-133.

Price, Matthew E. Rethinking Asylum: History, Purpose, and Limits. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.

Rasmussen, Mary Lou, et al. “Sexuality, Gender, Citizenship and Social Justice: Education’s Queer Relations.” The Palgrave International Handbook of Education for Citizenship and Social Justice. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016. 73-96.

Schlingensief, Christoph. Foreigners Out!: Schlingensief’s Container, Chronicle of an Art Event. , n.d.

Trauner, Florian. “Asylum policy: the EU’s ‘crises’ and the looming policy regime failure.” Journal of European Integration 38.3 (2016): 311-325.

Volf, Miroslav. Exclusion & embrace: A theological exploration of identity, otherness, and reconciliation. Abingdon Press, 2010.

Watts, Meredith W. “Political Ideology in Germany.” Democracy, Socialization and Conflicting Loyalties in East and West: Cross-National and Comparative Perspectives (2016): 165.

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Management Information Systems Overview

Management Information Systems Overview

Assignment Title: Information Systems Overview. With the passing time, business markets are becoming more complicated and financially complex. Management authorities are trying to find out different ways to stay in advantageous position in the market. An information system is considered as a well-known tool, which is helpful to gather necessary information from the market and contributes actively in the management decision making. According to Baskerville and Wood-Harper (206), there are different types of the information system that are helpful to generate information for specific users depending on their needs. Information systems can be used in day to day work or for a long term planning. Development of information systems are important in terms of improving the decision making management and stay ahead in the competition. Since change is a constant scenario in the business market, the information systems need to go through development continuously.

Managing an information system and its development is costly. However, it is not only important but also crucial to consider information system properly. It is mainly because the growth of the organization or industry is hugely dependent on the information systems used by the management. According to Ward and Peppard (2016), the information should be utilized by the directorate as well as by the employees. It is found that some information systems are developed to aid the management in decision making where the some of the other information systems are designed to meet the needs of the employees.

From the study of Melville (2010), it is noticed that employees in different levels bear various types of responsibilities. Therefore, when the position of an employee changes, it is found that the information systems can help that employee to learn about the increased responsibilities. Unlike the employees, the supervisors and other operational managers use a different type of information systems. Although various types of information systems exist in the business management out of which four kinds of information systems are considered as the most important. These four types of information systems may include transaction process system, management information systems, decision support systems and executive information systems. These four types of information systems also help to cover all of the functional areas within a business such as sales and marketing, finance and accounting, product manufacturing and human resource.

With the support of this research, it is tried to explain the importance of information systems within a business structure. Among the different types of information systems, four major types of information systems are selected and discussed in this essay. Advantages and disadvantages of using information systems can be identified. It can be assumed that a set of recommendation scan be developed based on the findings of the work.

Aim

The purpose of the current essay is to understand the importance of information systems in terms of producing more accurate and targeted information about customers, markets, suppliers and competitors to improve the decision making capabilities of the business.

Objectives

  • To identify the relevant types of information systems in business
  • To understand the impact of different types of information systems on business
  • To determine advantages and disadvantages of using information systems

Identification of the various types of Information Systems

As opined by Bonham-Carter (2014), different types of information systems can be identified through a classification procedure. In business management, classification of information systems is a process that helps to determine and categorize the information systems in such a way that they can be treated as a group. The authors mentioned that the classification of information systems is a bit confusing because any natural law does not control the information systems but the human factors (Watson, Boudreau and Chen, 2010). A “type’ of information systems is just a “concept,” which is developed based on the kinds of information need by the authority or client. Therefore, it can be said that depending on different concepts of information required the information systems can be categorized. As opined by Ian (2010), one of the oldest methods, which is widely used to classify the information system is the pyramid model.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Information System

The achievement and benefits of an organization are hugely dependent on their skills of using the information systems. The purpose of using information systems is to deliver the right information to the right person so that it can enhance the decision-making system. Following are the advantages and disadvantages identified of using the information systems.

There are many benefits of using the information system. These advantages may include the improvement of communications, reduction of globalization and cultural gap and development of new job roles. With the implementation of the information system, the management can share the information and develop a good employee relation within the organization (Urquhart, Lehmann and Myers, 2010). On the other hand, the use of information technology helped an organization remain open for 24×7 in all over the world. It is also proved as helpful to manufacture cost effective products within minimum time. The application of information systems promotes effective work culture within the organization, which in turn improves the decision making process. Although many of the employees get frustrated to use information systems, it is found that the development of frustration is the result of inadequate training and poor performances of systems.

The numbers of disadvantages of using the information systems are also not negligible. The major disadvantage of using the information systems is the increase of lack of job opportunity and unemployment.

With the help of information systems, most of the paper workers can be completed within short time, and the financial transaction can be easily calculated without the involvement of any extra employees. With the implementation of higher technologies, the organizations tend to decrease their employee number. Apart from that, the implementation of information systems globalized the business system, which may experience dominance of greater power on the weaker one, which can hamper the decision-making system. With the use of information systems, the communication mode of business is becoming English. Therefore, people with lack of English proficiency are suffering to get a job. The expense of implementing information systems is too heavy for many organizations. Therefore, strong economic backup required before implementing an information system.

Management Information Systems
Management Information Systems

Transaction Process System

Transaction processing system is concerned as an information system that contributes towards the collection, modification and retrieving of the data transaction for a concerned enterprise. The system is efficient for the production of the accurate data related to consumers and suppliers that are essential for the businesses. This system is associated with providing the reliable processes transaction towards the commercial organizations that ensure the consumers’ order met on time (Stair and Reynolds, 2013). It is also concerned with the partners and suppliers to get the payment and make the payment on time. Thus, it has ensured a vital portion of the effective business management process for the business organizations.

It is associated with several characteristics that enable the transaction processing systems to offer the deals with the consideration of smooth flow of data and maintain the progression of the process throughout the enterprises. Rapid processing feature enables the system to perform the transactions instantly, reliability incorporate comprehensive safeguard to the disaster recovery system to make it error free, and standardization process helps in the process to acquire identical data for each transaction regardless of the consumers (Siponen and Vance, 2010). Apart from this controlled access, atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability helps in the process of batch processing and real time processing of the information.

Management Information Systems (MIS)

Management information system is capable of providing the managers of an organization, the ability to organize, evaluate and effectively manage the departments within the organization. MIS is providing the tool towards the managers with a computer-based system. The principal purpose of the system is concerned with providing the managers the opportunity to make strategic, tactical and operational decisions to manage the data with efficient and productive manner (Chaffey and White, 2010).

It is necessary for the managers to rely on the particular data associated with the consumers, suppliers and competitors that enable the business managers of all level to rely on the reports generated by the system. Besides, MIS is effective enough that it helps in the process of evaluating the daily activities of the business and concentrate on the problems that enable the managers to make decisions and track progress in the firm.

Moreover, it is considered as the broadly used three-resource based system that required for effective organizational management. These resources are based on people, information, and technology. It is concerned with the computer automation service that contributes towards the quality and efficiency determination of the business operation and improves the human decision making capabilities (Chen et al., 2010).

Decision Support Systems

Decision support system is mainly considered as the set of the related computer program and data that assist the business organizations to analyze and make a decision within the internal operations. The program is capable of collecting the data related to consumer and suppliers and present the data towards the management to make the decision-making process easy.

It is different from the operational application and rather known as the informational application. Considering the application of the DSS at the enterprise level, it has been found that it serves as an informational application (Galliers and Leidner, 2014). With the aid of the informational application, DSS helps in the process to gather information related to comparative sales figures of every week; revenue figures projected based on the new product sales assumptions, and provide data related to the consequences of the previous experiences (Rainer et al., 2013).

DSS is considered as the broad scope application of the Management Information System that helps in the process to report on the performance based on cost and profitable or unprofitable projects. Applications of the DSS system in the organizations have indicated that it is a powerful tool as it depends on the OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies (Bharadwaj et al., 2013). It provides the permission of browse, query, analyzes and summarizes the large extent of data with interactive and dynamic way.

Executive Information Systems

Executive Support System is concerned with the application of the executive information system that associated with the development of facilitating and supporting the senior executive information that maintains the decision-making needs of the organization. The system is capable enough that it maintains the access balance between the internal and external information and keep it coordinated to achieve the organizational goal (Teece, 2010). ESS is concerned with various characteristics that help the organization keep track of the information related to the business such as consumer and suppliers data. Informational features help in the process to produce relevant information; orientation characteristics offer secure access to data, managerial characteristics supports the need and executive capabilities offers the telecommunication capacity to be implemented in the enterprise (Boehm and Thomas, 2013).

Also, the development of the ESS is mainly based on the integration and aggregation of data that mainly display the pattern to the enterprise to understand better. Moreover, the application of the ESS is beyond the EIS that include the communication extent, office automation process, and provide the analysis support to the enterprise to make an effective decision (Willcocks, 2013).

Green Information Technology

Green IT is associated with maintaining the positive relationship between the environment and the use of the computers. The process is helping the organization in the aspect of managing the corporate social responsibility efficiently. This information technology is concerned with the energy related issues such as rising cost of the energy, power limitation, and enhancement of the performance demand. It has enabled the organizations to concentrate towards the design, manufacturing, disposal and reallocation extent to reduce cost and maintain effective consumer relationship (Laudon and Laudon, 2011).

The extent of the IT solutions that Green IT provides is associated with the data that metering energy concern and the network coverage. As for example related to the application of the Green IT, it has been found that arrangement of the video conference has reduced the carbon emission by reducing the travel expenses and transportation reduction. The basic working pattern of the Green IT system is associated with asset removal and logistics maintenance (Vom Brocke and Rosemann, 2010). On the other hand, pickup, sorting, and data destruction is concerned with asset tag removal and detailed reporting process. It also provides the disposition option to the organizations as it enables the company to recycle, lease return and employee purchase processes in the organization.

Conclusion

From the overview of the different types of information systems, it can be said that all of these information systems are essential for the growth of the organization. The use of information systems contributed in the globalization of the business management. The advanced use of information system already proved as beneficial for the extensive growth of the organizations.

The authors who worked in the field of business management identified several types of information systems. It is found that the types of the information system are dependent on the concepts of information required by the employees and the management authority. There is a misconception existing regarding the necessity of information systems. Previously it was assumed that only the management authority and operation management required the information systems. However, later it is proved that the use of information systems by the employees is also beneficial in terms of improving the responsibility senses among the employees. From the study of previous authors, it is found that employees are promoted from one level to another. With the help of information systems, the employees can quickly identify and understand their new job roles and responsibilities.

With the help of pyramid model, the authors showed the classification of information systems.  Four major types of information systems are identified that are widely used in the business sector, such as Transaction Processing System, Management Information System, Decision Support System and Executive Information System. All of these information systems are helpful in the collection of valuable data for a particular organization and improve their decision-making system. The Transaction Processing System or TPS is considered as a computerized system, which performs and controls information (transactions) that are required in business. Mainly it is a fund that the TPS accumulate and process the business transaction data. Therefore, it can be said that this particular information system is controlled by the management authority or the operation management of a particular company.

Certain changes in the transaction process can be easily evaluated with the Transaction Processing System. On the other hand, the Management information system or MIS is helpful to accumulate and process information that is required in the management of an organization. It is found that the management information system extract and process the data obtained from the Transaction Processing System. This information system helps the managers to direct the organization and control the functional areas in a better way.

This information system is also beneficial to of accurate feedback and offers pre-specified reports to the different level of managers. On the other hand, the decision support system is identified as an interactive information system, which is important to develop models and data manipulation tool regarding helping the managers in semi-structured and unstructured situations. Apart from these systems many other systems are identified that can have an impact on the decision-making systems, such as communication systems, office automation systems, and expert systems. However, several flaws of introducing the information systems are also identified such as increase of unemployment, security issues (data breaching) and expenses of implementing information systems.

Recommendations

Despite the positive sides of implementation of information systems, it can be said that few challenges are limiting the efficiency of information systems. Following are the recommendations offered based on the flaws identified in the implementation process of MIS.

  • It is found that the use of information systems is constrained within the hand of managers and the operation management. The limited use of information may be influencing the decision-making process, but it is certainly not helpful for the overall growth of the company. To maintain overall growth within the organization, different level of the information system should be accessed by the employees. The use of information system by the employees helps them to monitor their growth rate and understand their job responsibilities easily.
  • The information system is dynamic in nature based on the changes occurring in the universe. It is sometimes difficult to the managers to keep pace with the sudden changes that took place in information systems. Henceforth, strategies should be taken by the managers so that can easily tailor the available information and use them effectively. Strategies should be taken to remain up to date with the current market situation.
  • Different departments use information systems in a different way, which may affect the decision-making system. In order to improve the decision making system, it is important to maintain a proper alignment and communication between different departments. Henceforth, steps should be taken to align the strategic plan of the various departments with the business objectives. Matching the current capabilities of the organization with the future needs of the information technology is required.
  • Before implementation of the information system, it is important to identify the possible threats. With the help of information technology, an organization can evaluate the market risks and analyze the possible difficult situation. Implementation of information system without proper risk assessment can be limited its performance. On the other hand, an action plan should be developed to minimize the risks that are related to information systems.
  • Improvement of the technology infrastructure is crucial to implement the information system quickly. Lack of proper technological infrastructure cannot ensure the proper outcome of information systems. Therefore, the organizations need to ensure that the performance of the available technical supports meets the department computing objectives. Apart from that, they need to adopt different hardware (advanced models), which are cost effective.
  • Maintenance of the system security is vital for an organization. With the implementation of the information systems, the organizations are becoming more dependent on the computers to keep their data and its logical result. The lower security system can lead to the security breaching, and the company can lose valuable information that can affect their market positioning. Procedures should be implemented to report, detect and respond the security threats. Firewalls should be activated that can control and limit internet protocols through the firewall.
  • The recruitment of physical security is also essential to secure the information technology and its related equipment from theft. Also, steps should be taken to maintain disaster recovery.

References

Baskerville, R.L. and Wood-Harper, A.T., 2016. A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. In Enacting Research Methods in Information Systems: Volume 2 (pp. 169-190). Springer International Publishing.

Beynon-Davies, P., 2013. Business information systems. Palgrave Macmillan.

Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O.A., Pavlou, P.A. and Venkatraman, N.V., 2013. Digital business strategy: toward the next generation of insights. Mis Quarterly, 37(2), pp.471-482.

Boehm, M. and Thomas, O., 2013. Looking beyond the rim of one’s teacup: a multidisciplinary literature review of Product-Service Systems in Information Systems, Business Management, and Engineering & Design. Journal of Cleaner Production, 51, pp.245-260.

Bonham-Carter, G.F., 2014. Geographic information systems for geoscientists: modeling with GIS (Vol. 13). Elsevier.

Chaffey, D. and White, G., 2010. Business information management: improving performance using information systems. Pearson Education.

Chen, D.Q., Mocker, M., Preston, D.S. and Teubner, A., 2010. Information systems strategy: reconceptualization, measurement, and implications. MIS Quarterly, 34(2), pp.233-259.

Galliers, R.D. and Leidner, D.E., 2014. Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge.

Ian, H., 2010. An introduction to geographical information systems. Pearson Education India.

Laudon, K.C. and Laudon, J.P., 2011. Management information systems (Vol. 8). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Melville, N.P., 2010. Information systems innovation for environmental sustainability. Mis Quarterly, 34(1), pp.1-21.

Rainer, R.K., Cegielski, C.G., Splettstoesser-Hogeterp, I. and Sanchez-Rodriguez, C., 2013. Introduction to information systems: Supporting and Transforming business. John Wiley & Sons.

Siponen, M. and Vance, A., 2010. Neutralization: new insights into the problem of employee information systems security policy violations. MIS Quarterly, pp.487-502.

Stair, R. and Reynolds, G., 2013. Principles of information systems. Cengage Learning.

Teece, D.J., 2010. Business models, marketing strategy, and innovation. Long range planning, 43(2), pp.172-194.

Urquhart, C., Lehmann, H. and Myers, M.D., 2010. Putting the ‘theory’back into grounded theory: guidelines for grounded theory studies in information systems. Information systems journal, 20(4), pp.357-381.

Vom Brocke, J. and Rosemann, M., 2010. Handbook on business process management. Heidelberg: Springer.

Ward, J. and Peppard, J., 2016. The Strategic Management of Information Systems: Building a Digital Strategy. John Wiley & Sons.

Watson, R.T., Boudreau, M.C. and Chen, A.J., 2010. Information systems and environmentally sustainable development: energy informatics and new directions for the IS community. MIS Quarterly, pp.23-38.

Willcocks, L., 2013. Information management: the evaluation of information systems investments. Springer.

Yoo, Y., Henfridsson, O. and Lyytinen, K., 2010. Research commentary-The new organizing logic of digital innovation: An agenda for information systems research. Information systems research, 21(4), pp.724-735.

I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on Management Information Systems (MIS). There are many other titles available in the IT Dissertation Collection that should be of interest to information technology and computer science students and information technology professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of information technology such as Network Security, Information Systems, ERP, Software, IT  Infrastructure, Programming, Telecommunications, eLearning, eCommerce, Wireless Networks and Systems Analysis. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Television Media Advertising

Impact of Television Media Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior

Dissertation Title: Impact of Television Media Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior. Advertisements play a huge role in altering the behavior of consumers towards the products shown in the advertisements. In recent times, an increase in advertisements per brand has been observed. Advertisements have huge influence in purchasing decision of customers for particular brands. It is a ubiquitously accepted fact that advertisements can bestow special attributes upon a product or service that it may have lacked otherwise. This work focuses on identifying the influence of advertisements on the consumer behavior and attitude.

Television Media Advertising Dissertation
Television Media Advertising Dissertation

The Researcher utilized survey Research Design in the collection of the data. This was due to the simplicity involved in seeking people’s opinion using Questionnaire. Stratified Sampling Method was used to get the sample size for this study is 250. Data gathered from the study were analyzed, tested and interpreted using sample percentage frequency table. The collected data were analyzed in tables and simple percentages, while the hypotheses were tested using the chi square technique. Hypotheses were tested critically to reveal the authenticity of responses by the respondents to the research questions.

In the final analysis, attempts were made to bring to summary the tested research hypotheses and two major conclusions were made. By virtue of this study, it was discovered that television advertising positively shapes a consumer’s perception about a product. Advertising is expensive, its outcome is usually uncertain, and most times it takes long before having any effect on consumers’ buying behavior. It is due to these reasons that many companies find it appropriate, intermittently to decrease expenses on advertising or to totally exclude it. On the other hand, some organizations sometimes consider it needless to advertise when their products are already enjoying great patronage without advertisement. Such behavior indirectly fails to reflect the fact that advertising is not just a present expense but a future investment.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To study the impact of television advertisements on the consumer segments
  • To study the impact of television advertisements on the consumer buying segments
  • To study factors affecting the consumer buying process with respect to television advertisements

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I hope you enjoyed reading this post on Impact of Television Media Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior. There are many other titles available in the marketing dissertation collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Dissertation E-Marketing Strategies

E-Marketing Strategies for Changing Brand Perception – A Case Study of Nike

E-marketing manages to promote the product across the globe so that required market can be grabbed in a short interval of time. Academics suggest that e-Marketing strategies are found to be effective in this era as customers are more related to the technology this is why E-marketing supports in the quick expansion of product. The study is based on the case of Nike and its consumers, therefore the target respondents of the study included the consumers of the brand Nike.

In addition to this the marketing managers of Nike were also participants if the research since their views were important for evaluating the online marketing strategies used by a brand and its impact realized at the company’s end. A comparison of traditional approach and modern approach of marketing has also been presented to assess that which marketing communication channel is appropriate for an organization and what are the benefits an organization can acquire after the application of modern marketing approach. This study supports in understanding the involvement and impact of involving technology in the marketing procedures; the impact of such practices in the advancement of the sales of the firm is also stated as the scope of the study.

E-Marketing Strategies Dissertation
E-Marketing Strategies Dissertation

The assessment of the impact of E-marketing in shifting the customer’s perception is the significant fact that further supports in understanding the importance of advanced technologies in marketing. In this era, internet has become the basic tool that has been used by the customers for their daily routine affairs; internet is known as basic implement that has been expended for communication, business, shopping and other affairs. Moreover, in this study, the impact of different strategies such as emailing, text messaging and visual messaging on the consumers’ brand perception is realized through this study.

Dissertation Objectives

In order to conduct the research, it is important to create some objectives based on which the conclusions and analysis can be made. The objectives of the research are cited below:

  • To study the conceptual framework of e-Marketing tools used by organizations
  • To highlight the use of e-Marketing by organizations to boost brand image
  • To analyse the impact of e-Marketing on the brand image of Nike
  • To present a set of recommendations to Nike on how to improve their brand image and use e-Marketing tools

1 – Introduction
Background of the Study
Problem Statement
Research Aim
Research Objectives
Research Question
Scope of the Study
Motivation of the study
Outline of the study

2 – Literature Review
Concept of E-Marketing
Traditional Marketing in contrast with E-Marketing
Framework of E-marketing Tools and Techniques
Strategies of E-Marketing
Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Marketing
Brand Image
Brand Perception of Customers
E-Marketing and Brand Image Integration
Benefits of E-Marketing and Brand Image Integration
Chapter Summary

3 – Methodology
Research Framework
Customers’ brand Perception
E-marketing Strategies
Email technique
Visual illustration of text message
Means for social sharing
Hypothesis Generation
Pilot testing
The Variables and Measurements
Sampling and Data
Sample Selection
Sample Size
Description of Data
Data Collection Instruments
Techniques for Data Analysis
Ethical Consideration

4 – Data Analysis
Reliability test
Descriptive Frequency Analysis
Regression analysis
Hypothesis assessment

5 – Discussion
Discussion

6 – Conclusion
Findings of the Study
Area of Future Studies
Recommendations
Limitations of the research

References

Appendices
Questionnaire

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I hope you enjoyed reading this post on E-Marketing Strategies for Changing Brand Perception and how it affects Nike. There are many other titles available in the marketing dissertation collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

London Real Estate Dissertation

Investigation into the Impact of Government Regulation on the London Real Estate Market

Dissertation Title: Impact of Government Regulation on the London Real Estate Market. Persistent challenges in the UK’s and particularly London’s real estate market are commonly attributed to the inelastic supply of housing or shortage of housing. The resulting escalating nature of the property prices in London have however attracted a considerable amount of attention from policy makers. The presented research study builds on the existing body of research and critically examines seven specific policy measures designed to address the problems in the London’s real estate market. The examination relying on the descriptive as well as inferential (Pearson’s correlation test, multi-linear regression analysis) methods revealed that stamp duty rate and Get Britain Building represent particularly effective strategies, a combination of which can be used in the future to further stimulate the development of the London’s real estate market.

London Real Estate
London Real Estate

The main aim of the presented report is to critically examine the extent to which government actions affect the real estate market in London. For the purposes of this study, the main research aim can be broken down into the following set of interlinked research objectives:

  • To review regulatory measures and government initiatives in the period from 2000 to 2015 that influenced the real estate market in London
  • To examine the practical effects of specific government actions on the real estate market in London in terms of housing prices, housing supply, housing demand, availability of social housing and rent values
  • To evaluate the gap between intended and actual affects of particular government actions on the real estate market in London

London Real Estate Dissertation Contents

1. Introduction
Aim and Objectives
Rationale
Structure

2. Literature Review
Regulatory Measures and Housing Market
Trend Towards Homeownership
Affordable Housing
Characteristics of London Real Estate Market

3. Methodology
Research Strategy
Research Method
Data Collection
Data Analysis
Limitations

4. Results and Findings
Overview of Real Estate Market in London
Pearson’s Correlation Test
Multilinear Regression Analysis
Overview of Key Policy Measures
Stamp Duty Rate
Help to Buy
Localism Act
Get Britain Building
Social Housing Policies
Analysis of Impacts of Policy Measures on Real Estate Market in London
Stamp Duty Rate
Help to Buy
Localism Act
Get Britain Building
Social Housing Policies

5. Discussion

6. Conclusion
Practical Implications
Limitations
Further Research

References

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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on the Impact of Government Regulation on the London Real Estate Market. There are many other titles available in the construction dissertation collection that should be of interest to construction management students and building professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of construction such as project management techniques, environmental management, building and construction methods to name a few. It took a lot of time to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.