Leadership Skills Effectiveness

Analysis of the American Meltdown Case in Relation to Leadership Skills and Organization Effectiveness

Leadership Skills – The role of leadership in any business environment is very important in ensuring effectiveness of the organization. In business, a leader is important since they define the purpose of the company or organization and lead it to success (Johansen and Kelly, 359). A valuable leader should be one who successfully makes innovations, ensures healthy competition and solves perplexing problems that may be facing the company. However, if a leader does not have the essential leadership skills, then he or she is bound to drive the organization to a downfall. This paper is an analysis of an American company that was affected by economic meltdown of 2008. The analysis will address specific aspects of leadership such as behavior, team processes and organization effectiveness.

Analysis of the economic meltdown of 2008 and how investment firms were affected

The case documented in the frontline website was a video that discussed about one investment bank named Bear Stearns Company. This company acquired huge exposure in 2008 through its dealings on subprime mortgages and other toxic assets (Frontline, 2014). Bear Stearns Company was also involved in trading of stocks and securities and at the same time was also a brokerage firm. In the year 2008, the company experienced one of the biggest failures that were partly caused poor leadership decisions among the country’s top economic experts (Frontline, 2014). This crisis was mainly caused by the housing sector which had invested a lot of money, amounting to trillions of dollars, in toxic mortgages. Most of the housing and investment firms were located on Wall Street including the investment firm, Bear Stearns Company.

During the same time, the company was facing a looming crisis due to the millions of dollars it had invested in bad mortgages and toxic assets. In addition, the company’s stocks had already dropped drastically from 171 dollars per share to a mere 57 dollars (Frontline, 2014). This made the company come into a state of bankruptcy and something had to be done urgently. The Federal Reserve chairperson, Ben Bernanke made a decision that the current crisis had to be taken care of urgently. In order to stabilize the market, Bernanke proposed a merger between Bear Stearns and another commercial bank JP Morgan (Frontline, 2014).

The American government made the decision that they would use thirty billion dollars to cover up the toxic assets and mortgages that Bear Stearns Company had invested heavily. However, this decision was a very dangerous and precarious one that saw many other companies become affected(Frontline, 2014). The economy faced a major meltdown as other investment firms such as Fannie Mac and Freddie Mac became victims of the collapse of giant mortgage companies. In the next few hours, the stock markets crashed completely and credit markets all over the world became frozen. This entire crisis was caused by terrible leadership decisions that were caused by economic leaders and stock market analysts.

Aspects of leadership skills and behavior as portrayed in the economic meltdown video case

Effective leadership is characterized by knowing the right decisions to make on behalf of the company or organization. A successful leader is one who is able to know which decisions can lead to failure and which ones can lead to success (Duygulu and Çıraklar, 391). Leadership entails keeping decisions compatible in light of the needs of the organization. In this case, the economic leaders made decisions that were disastrous to the investment firms and stoke companies located in Wall Street and all over America.

The secretaries of the national treasuries at that time were Henry Paulson and his partner Ben Bernanke. They were responsible for making decisions that were harmful and biased and were not beneficial to the business and economic industry. These leaders decided to bail out Bear Stearns at the expense of the other ones which were later doomed to fail. In addition, these two leaders made the unanimous decision to nationalize three of the county’s largest companies (Frontline, 2014). Moreover, they threatened senior legislators to release seven hundred million dollars or else they would be held responsible for the failing economy. Such leadership behavior can be termed as unacceptable since these two leaders took advantage of their power to manipulate other people.

A good leader must be able to socially integrate and envision the success of his company even in the wake of a looming crisis. He or she should not allow the prevailing situation to become a tempting factor to make him make an impromptu decision on behalf of the company (Duygulu and Çıraklar, 391). Leadership is much more than just a mere function and requires several positive traits such as competent behavior, self-sacrifice, integrity and performance oriented. These skills are crucial in ensuring that the organization runs effectively and that each member of the team is able to fulfill their obligations (Duygulu and Çıraklar, 391). When these traits are demonstrated and portrayed the daily business scenario, then success is bound to follow.

Leadership Skills
Leadership Skills

An efficient leader is one who is able to create a following that will listen and emulate them without any obligation at all. In this case, there was an economic meltdown that began by affecting the housing industry where people who had taken mortgages were at the highest risk. After rumors were released into the public that even investment firms and banks would be affected next, people decided to withdraw their stock shares from whichever companies they had invested (Frontline, 2014).

The leaders of the banks and investment firms had made wrong decisions that resulted in the collapse of their businesses. These leaders went ahead to make investment decisions that they knew would seriously affect the performance of the business. It is true to state that these leaders did not have the sufficient personal competence or attributes to make wise decisions on behalf of the company. The style of leadership must match the expectations and number of followers (Johansen and Kelly, 361). This means that leadership is not only a function of the leader but also of the people who are being led.

The economic leaders, bank managers and heads of the investment firms were responsible of leading a very large number of people (Johansen and Kelly, 361). This people looked up to them to make informed decisions that would be profitable and beneficial at the same time. It is dangerous when a leader does not put into consideration the plight of the people that he is leading. It is important that leaders should prioritize the concerns of the greater public before they make the final decision (Johansen and Kelly, 361).

The decision that was made by the top economist of the country Paul Krugman was responsible for the destruction of the entire country (Frontline, 2014). The decision that he made was an utter nightmare that any economic or policy maker could not agree to. The leadership skills and behaviors discussed in the documentary were directly related to the effectiveness of the organizations that were affected. Organizational effectiveness is very crucial to the success of the economy of every country or state. This term is used to refer to the strategies and initiatives that promote and encourage the company to realize its full potential. Organizational effectiveness ensures that the company or organization is able to make positive and lasting contributions that primarily target the development of the business (Hirsova et al, 102). Such effectiveness can only be achieved when the overall leaders are strong willed, hardworking and uphold a high level of integrity. To create organization effectiveness, business leaders are advised to focus on engaging and aligning other people into forming a workable team (Hirsova et al, 102). Each person in the company performs a unique role in ensuring that the company achieves its ultimate goal. Therefore, it is the duty of the leader to unite and cluster the employees into strong teams that will deliver success on behalf of the company (Schaubroeck, 1053).

The people’s management systems, their structure and capability must be included in the efforts of ensuring that effectiveness is achieved by the organization. The leaders of Bear Stearns Company did not exhibit any strategic planning in ensuring that the company did not run at a loss. Instead, these leaders chose to invest in a risky business venture that led to serious and damaging consequences. The company invested in mortgage and housing that later became toxic assets to them. In order for the company to be rescued from this hole, the leaders and top managers accepted the offer that the commercial bank JPMorgan was proposing for them. The latter company proposed to merge with them so as to lift them up from the imminent status of bankruptcy that as staring them in the face. Such a decision could be termed as being selfish and imprudent since these leaders were only concerned with what would happen to their lives in case the companies collapsed (Hirsova et al, 102).

These leaders did not put into consideration or think about the consequences that would follow after they made such a hasty decision. The merger of these two companies happened at the expense of the nation’s economy since it required additional funding from the treasury. A leader who has been chosen to serve at the national level is supposed to exhibit strong and robust behavior that is worth emulation since many people look up to him (Hirsova et al, 102). In addition, such leaders are expected to be completely selfless and serve the interest of the people to their complete satisfaction. The frontline documentary was able to show that the leaders in this case were selfish and made hurried decisions that were not beneficial for the company and country’s future at large. They did not exhibit any positive aspects of leadership such as being steady decision makers. Instead, they fall prey to the pressures of the failing company performance that was followed by a much larger disaster of economic meltdown.

These leaders should consider employing some modifications in their leadership skills and behavior that can help them in correcting the mistakes that they had already committed. First, these leaders should try to encompass the leadership qualities that are crucial for every person with the mandate to lead (Hirsova et al, 102). They should realize that being a good leader involves having high integrity, being hardworking and able to make informed decisions. A good leader is also one who studies the prevailing situation whenever a problem arises and sits down to plan the next forward move to make. Furthermore, effective leadership is one where the leader is able to incorporate the needs of employers and members of the organization so that everybody’s needs are met (Hirsova et al, 102).

In conclusion, the frontline documentary was able to highlight the dangers of what can occur when leadership is not effective. This documentary showed the case of what happened when economic and investment leaders made disastrous decisions when they were faced by an economic meltdown. The leaders of Bear Stearns Company decided to merge with JP Morgan Company even when they knew that such a move was terribly wrong. In the end, this decision resulted in a financial crisis where companies collapsed and others became bankrupt. To date, people still refer to this case study in order to learn useful tips on leadership and organizational effectiveness.

Works Cited

Johansen, Morgen, and Kelly LeRoux. “Managerial Networking In Nonprofit Organizations: The Impact Of Networking On Organizational And Advocacy Effectiveness.” Public Administration Review 73.2 (2013): 355-363. Business Leadership Skills Source Complete

Schaubroeck, John M., “Embedding Ethical Leadership Skills Within And Across Organization Levels.” Academy Of Management Journal 55.5 (2012): 1053-1078 Business Source Complete

Duygulu, Ethem, and Nurcan Çıraklar. “Effects Of Leadership Roles On Team Effectiveness Leadership Skills.” Ege Academic Review 9.2 (2009): 389-400

Hirsova, M. Zelena, V., Vachova, L., & Novak, M. (2013) Effective Leadership Skills – can Soft Skills Contribute to the Effectiveness of an Organization? Proceedings of the European Conference on Management, Leadership & Governance, 100-104

Frontline (2014) The Deal to Save Bear Stearns

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Family Purchasing Behaviour

The Effects of Gender on Family Purchasing Behaviour

Family Purchasing Behaviour – There is a great need to conduct research on purchase behaviour and patterns of families. Democratization of the society has been on the rise, and this has affected the way gender is viewed by both the members of a family as well as the entire society. Due to the changes caused by the democratization of the society, the traditional family model which involved a define hierarchical organization and where role played by each member of the family were clearly defined, has been reduced into a new family model, with less hierarchical organization and that includes new family patterns. Some of the modern family models include single parents, multi-nuclear families, cohabiting couples, homosexual couples among others. In this dissertation, there will be extensive use of the terms such as ‘couple’, ‘husband/man’, as well as ‘wife/woman. This is mainly because these are the key elements of a family.

Family Purchasing Behaviour
Family Purchasing Behaviour

Family purchasing behavior is a complex unlike individual purchasing behavior. The process involves complex stages right from making the decision to the real purchasing. There are several factors that affect the family purchasing behavior. This study will investigate the effects that gender has on the family purchasing behavior. It is of great important to understand how gender affects the family purchasing decisions. This understanding will help in predicting the purchasing pattern in spouses. This study is therefore very important to the firms as well as institutions of higher learning. By understanding the family purchasing patterns, the firms will be able to adopt marketing strategies that will help in achieving increased sales. The institutions of higher learning will benefit from this study since by understanding the family purchasing patterns; they will adopt the best strategies in training marketers. This dissertation will investigate the effect of gender on family purchasing behaviour.

The dissertation will use a quantitative research design and an open-ended and closed questionnaire for data collection. The sample will be made of 150 couples, making it 300 individuals from London. Data analysis will be done by the use of SPSS. The findings of the study will be useful to both the firms as well as the institutions of higher learning. This dissertation aims at investigating the effect of gender on family purchasing behavior.

When making the purchase decisions for the family, both the husband and the wife are likely to disagree due to the diversity in their tastes and preference and the fact that they both want their viewpoints considered in the purchase decision. Many academics suggest that the power of the spouse in the relationship has a greater impact on the decision making. For instance, if the wife believes that her husband has more power over her, she will be very comfortable with her husband making most of the decisions. In the other hand, there are instances where the wife will influence the purchase decision of particular products. For instance food stuffs. This is because; women are taken to be very conversant with household goods.

Dissertation Objectives

  • Investigating the way through which couples make purchase decisions
  • Investigate the conflict between couples when making purchase decisions
  • Investigate the influencing tactics in couples while making purchase decisions

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Liquidity Risk And Funding

GAP Analysis of Liquidity and Funding

Liquidity Risk: Gap Analysis is a process that helps in determining what all steps are required to be taken by the businesses so that they can make best possible use of all the current resources. In other words, it means comparison between the actual performance and expected performance. When a company is not utilizing its resources economically that means the company is performing below its potential. It is also called need gap analysis or need assessment.

Liquidity simply means the availability of liquid assets to a market or to a company. It determines up to what extent a person or company has the ability to meet its short term commitments. Now liquidity fund means a mutual fund that invests into a large number of securities, bonds and options that have high credit rating but for a short duration. Funding simply means money provided by any bank, financial institutions, Government etc. for particular purpose.

Liquidity Risk And Funding
Liquidity Risk And Funding

In finance liquidity risk is defined as a risk in which a particular security cannot be traded rapidly in the market to prevent loss.  A liquidity gap can be positive or negative depending on the number of assets and liabilities that the company have. Liquidity risk maintains the postures of business ‘AS USUAL’ and thus causing more adverse position. The latest events relating to financial crisis have made a good enough impact on the mind of regulators and have concluded that this matter can’t be taken lightly.

A contingency funding plan frames the firm’s strategies and determines liquidity shortfalls in crucial situations. There are two types of risk:-

Funding Liquidity Risk

It is the risk where the firm is able to fulfill both present as well as future cash flow needs and collateral needs only after changing daily operations and financial position of the firm.

Market Liquidity Risk

It is the risk where because of poor market depth or disruption firm cannot equipoise a position at market price.

Points To Be Considered To Manage Liquidity

In order to manage liquidity gap following points should be considered:

1Allocate cash flows over various time horizons.

2 To control the mismatches set target gap and also warning gap for deficit positions.

3 Design a structure to attain disparities within target gap limits.

Challenges Faced By Company against Liquidity Risk

A company has to face various challenges against liquidity risk and these are:

  1. Positive or active approach to liquidity management.
  2. Incorporate a liquidity culture in the company.
  3. More investment in technology and research their results.
  4. To sustain stability, evenness and symmetry between business and risk.
  5. To measure effect of negative result.
  6. Applying rules and various assumptions while creating models
  7. High pressures in achieving models designed.
  8. Evaluating and analyzing funding sources and framing strategies in order to fulfil urgent liquidity needs.

Solutions to the weaknesses

Cost Impact Ratios

  1. Volatile liabilities to Total deposits: It explains the share of volatile liabilities to total deposits. As per the given records it is 77%
  2. Purchased funds to total assets: It explains the quantum of high cost funds to create assets.
  3. Volatile liabilities to total assets: Through this we get to know about the assets funded through volatile liabilities. It is 55% in the given records. This ratio can be considered adequate.

Cash Flow Impact Ratios

  1. Customer deposits/Total Assets: It gives knowledge about how the asset can be funded.
  2. Liquid Assets / Short term liabilities: It determines the availability of assets to meet short term liabilities or immediate liabilities.
  3. Large Deposits/Total Deposits: It shows the weight of large liabilities.
  4. Large Advances/ Total Advances: Similarly this measures the advances.
  5. Commitment Ratios/ Total Assets : It includes record of off balance sheet items to on balance sheet items

According to the data, the company has a cash ratio of 39% which is good. But on the other hand it has deposit ratio of 77% which is quite high and the asset ratio of 55% is adequate enough. Thus overall Liquidity risk of the company is not that worse.


Global Association of Risk Professionals, 2013, Risk Education

Liquidity & Funding Risk, 2013, Examine Balance Sheet Structures under New regulations

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Communication Computing

How Computers Affect Communication

Communication – with the current rate of technological improvement, people now have many ways to relate with other. We eventually modify how we form our relationships and come up with more diverse methods of interacting. However, there are strength and weakness as well as drawbacks regarding on which methods we use.

Computers have made a big impact on relationships. The invention of electronic devices such as mobile phones has simplified the way people get into contact with each other (Sara, 2004). Also coming from social networks has made a diversification in communication. With a computer, people can chat with family and friend’s members over the internet. Computers are bringing the world together via communication.

This assignment will study the effects of computers on communication in day to day lives.

Focus questions:

How has the invention of the computer affected communication?

What are the positive and negative impacts of computers on communication?

What are services offered by the computer during communication?


Effects of computers intervention on communication

The invention of the computer has had revolutionary effects on communication (Sara, Jane & Timothy, 2004). What would take years to achieve a century ago can now be accomplished within an hour thanks to the computer. However, this invention has not only had positive impacts on communication; it has also had many weaknesses of communication like face-to-face communication. Communication is not only associated with the act of sending and receiving information. There are many other aspects such as taking non-trivial actions on the information, reacting to the demands of the information and giving feedback.

Computers affect communication, both positively and negatively (Sara, Jane & Timothy, 2004). There are various aspects of modern day communication that would not be achieved in old days since there were no computers. However, there are other vital aspects of traditional communication that have been lost in modern days due to the use of computers in communication (Gordon, 2002). The relationship between computer and communication can be analyzed with a focus on the various effects computers pose on communication. Computers can either aid or frustrate communication between people. Positive impacts of computers in communication describe ways in which computers aid communication. The negative implications of computers on communication using computers describe ways in which computers frustrate communication efforts. These impacts can be analyzed by comparing past day communication with present day communication.

Positive effects of computers on communication

Technological improvement has a great impact on the societal communication methods particular with its improvement in the last centuries (Christina, 2006). From the coming up of telegraph together with telephones to the advancement of internet, technology provided us with a tool to express our feelings and opinions to a wider number of recipients.

Keeping in touch/ long distance communication

Telegrams are quicker than letters; telephone calls, also, are speedier than telegrams, and additionally less demanding and more charming, since they require no go-between and permit clients to hear one another’s voice. Phones make this one stride further, permitting individuals to call and talk with one another regardless of their location. Online communication of various types is the most productive yet, with email being a close quick form of the paper letter; webcams, combined with communication programs, for example, Skype, Google Video Chat, make it conceivable to see the individual you are talking with as opposed to hearing his voice simply.

Doing Business

The same computers that have simplified and enhanced individual communication have additionally had the same valuable consequences for business. Communication between partners is close prompt whether they are a few rooms or a few nations separated (Sundar, 2014). For example, video conferencing permits organizations to have specialists scattered all over the world while yet hold productive gatherings and talks; business systems administration is made simpler by online networking and online systems composed particularly for that reason, for example, LinkedIn. Maybe above all, organizations can extend beyond their nearby market and pick up a more extensive client base basically by keeping up dynamic online vicinity.

Overcoming Disabilities

The computer had both enhanced communications for crippled individuals and made it conceivable where it wasn’t (Gordon, 2002). Portable amplifiers support hence becoming aware of mostly hard of hearing individuals, making it less demanding to comprehend discourse, while cochlear inserts restore hearing to the deaf. Discourse producing gadgets give individuals with extreme discourse hindrances an approach to communicating: maybe the most acclaimed client of such a gadget is researcher Stephen Hawking. Further advances in innovation may bring about useful cerebrum computers interface frameworks, restoring the capacity to impart to individuals who have lost it completely, for example, sufferers of the secured disorder.

Reaching a Wider Audience

As individuals’ capacity to communicate enhances, the reach of their messages enlarges (Gordon, 2002). This can be particularly essential in politics campaigns and activism. For example, photographs and video recorded secretly through a phone can be rapidly and effortlessly shared online through sites, for example, YouTube, making it harder for onerous administrations to keep control; social media, for example, Facebook and Twitter can be utilized to sort out and arrange gatherings and challenges. The Egyptian revolution of 2011-2012 was impelled significantly by online networking.

An individual turns out to be more skilled to take a decision because of the computer because the choice is given by the computers on time to all the data required to be taken. Therefore, any people or establishments get achievement quick.

The individual working at the administrative level turns out to be less subject to low-level staff like representatives and bookkeepers (Christina, 2006). This enhances their working patterns and effectiveness, which advantage the association and eventually influences the general public.

In like manner life Likewise, an individual gets profited with computers innovation. Whenever airplane terminals, healing centers, banks, departmental stores have been electronic, individuals get snappy administration because of the computers framework.

Computing Communication
Computing Communication

Negative Effects of Computers on Communication

Computers have changed the working environment and society as a whole. Individuals and associations have gotten to be reliant on computers to connect them to colleagues, merchants, clients and data (Roundtable., 1999). Computers are utilized to track timetables, streamline data and give required information. In spite of the fact that computers have given laborers innumerable devices to business and simpler access to data close-by or abroad, there are negative impacts. These incorporate more than the clearly feared framework disappointments and digital violations.

Communication Breakdowns

Due to the commonness of computers in the work environment, email is presently a typical method of professional’s communication. This has brought on a plenty of miscommunication issues. Numerous employees lack appropriate writing skills and can accordingly battle with effectively conveyance of their messages. Yet, even the most-gifted author can in any case experience difficulty with passing of tone in electronic messages. Along these lines, without the utilization of articulation and non-verbal communication, messages implied as neutral or even complimentary can be translated as rude or critical. To add to this, numerous specialists are so reliant on email that they have not effectively manufactured a positive establishment relationship by means of exposure or telephone calls.


One of the principle issues with computers interceded communication originates from an absence of accountability with clients (Jungwan Hong, 2014). Individuals can speak to themselves as whatever they need on Internet discussions or informal communities, and this makes communication issues in both headings. A client may contort who he is by not giving precise insights about himself, and this absence of genuineness influences how that individual is seen. The shroud of obscurity permits a client to possibly encroach upon socially acknowledged practices like resistance or respectfulness.


The way that most communication is occurring on computers comes as content can really be a negative as far as our capacity to comprehend things clearly. Indeed, even with email (Roundtable., 1999), it is workable for data to be confused or the feeling of an announcement to be missed. Saying “you rock” to somebody in an email message, for example, could be utilized to truly hand-off appreciation. Then again, it could demonstrate a negative sentiment somebody being placed in an intense position. The setting pieces of information that a man gives their non-verbal communication and manner of speaking are lost in this situation. Clients get around some of this disarray by utilizing emoticons – console characters that serve as a shorthand for temperament and feeling – however a lot of nuance can be missed without perceiving how somebody responds with their non-verbal communication and voice.


Society’s reliance on computers for communication is likewise a risk amusement, as outside powers can avert communication in an assortment of ways (Christina, 2006). Quakes, surges and sea tempests have brought on different log jams and stoppages of Internet availability for individuals everywhere throughout the world. Moreover, dependence on interpersonal organizations and email can have the unintended result of opening a man up to recognize burglary endeavors and email tricks. Indeed, even the outside power of political agitation can debilitate a client’s capacity to impart, as the 2011 exhibitions in Cairo and Libya brought about government shutdowns of the Internet, radically abridging every nation’s capacity to convey, both broadly and globally


Communicating by means of computers can help individuals connect across large geographical crevices and access remote data, however doing as such may open up a man’s privacy more than he may need. With an in-individual meeting or telephone discussion, there is a relative affirmation that subtle elements of those sharing will stay private. On the other hand, with email, content informing or message sheets, there is a record of what individuals say (Christina, 2006). Data is not simply tossed out into the air like discourse, however it, put away as a lasting record. There is an inalienable risk when outsiders can get to these online “discussions.” Similarly, interpersonal organizations and other Internet-based specialized apparatuses are defenseless against protection break, as clients regularly participate in these exercises on open systems; leaving individual data, conceivably, out in the open.

Computers complicate conflict resolution mechanisms in communication: Multiple transfers of information, the increment of anonymity and fast flow of information makes conflict resolution in organizations extremely complex (Christina, 2006). With computers, it has been extremely hard to control access to information among various, unintended groups such as children, junior staff, political opponents, among others (Christina, 2006).

Computers have affected communication in various ways. There is some important difference between modern communication and the old communication. The old day communication was characterized by aspects such as slow movement of information, heavy expenses, ineffective transfer of information and limitations on the amount of transferable information (Sundar, 2014). On the other hand, for the modern communication, it is fast, less expensive, highly efficient, and clear. However, the modern communication without computer is not possible independently functioning very well.

Services Offered By Computer in Communication

The internet is a popular tool for gaining access to information, enlarging commercial works and communication with each other. Studies show that the dominant use of net in different houses is used for a person to person communication. Email on time message is sending, availability of chat rooms and support system sites have changed the way people pass information to others through the use of computers.

Computers allow users to talk to each other via a connected network and social sites (Sara, 2004). Computers also have the capability to connect different users to the internet through phones lines or cabled connections enabling users to share data and information e.g. one can use computers to send a message to other computers through a connected network globally. Data transfer and messaging as a useful services provided by computers in communication globally.


Just around a century ago, a substantial number of developments occurred during the first industrial transformation. Within a short time period, numerous nations got to be industrialized. Presently we are in the first place of another technological insurgency (Gordon, 2002). The significant reason for the second technological insurgency is the creation of Computers. Computer is the most flexible machine people have ever made. It assumes an imperative part in our regular life. It covers gigantic region of utilization including instruction, commercial ventures, government, prescription, and exploratory examination, law and even music and expressions.

Over the next decade, national and international computers networks will be generated and connected together (Asthmatics, 2010). Some of these computer networks will be specialized acting as a links between national informational stores and data warehouses where some will give general computing capabilities.

Computers information store on every aspect of the work performed by the society will be generated with a high frequency and with wider coverage and be accessible to a different level to groups and individuals with different qualifications.

The computer networks will be more accessible at a cost low to the whole public and to all groups with small resource. For example, the cost of renting a computer terminal in London currently is around 72 dollars for a single installation per month without adding the cost per hour in which the terminal is used (Jungwan Hong, 2014). Such cost will tend to reduce to a point where a terminal is normal equipment in an office.

There will be an increase in essence at which communicate directly to one another globally. The use of video chats will enlarge while facilitating the effects of individual in many areas over a long period of time.


Computers have positive and negative effects on communication. Weighing the side of positive effects and negative effects, there is clear evidence that computers do more good to communication than harm (Asthmatics, 2010). Computers have a very important role in the facilitation of communication. People should utilize computers to expand the circle of friends and relations globally but also we should learn how to control and treasure our relations and use of computers in order not to let things that can be regretted occur.


Asthmatics, G. (2010). The revolution of communication and its effect on our life. Pavaresia. Academics International Scientific Journal, 100-108.

Christina, K. (2006). The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Informal Scholarly Scientific Communication: A Literature Review. Maryland: University of Maryland Press.

Gordon, B. (2002). Computers in Communication. UK: McGraw-Hill International Electronic Version.

Jungwan Hong, S. B. (2018). Usability Analysis of Touch Screen for Ground Operators. Journal of Computer and Communications, 1-20.

Roundtable., N. R. (1999). Impact of Advances in Computing and Communications Technologies on Chemical Science and Technology. Washington: National Academies Press.

Sara, K. J. (2004). Social Psychological aspects of Computer Mediated Communication. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon University.

Sundar, S. S. (2014). Communication theory. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 85.

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Direct Marketing Dissertation

Direct Marketing

Direct marketing is a combination of methods that facilitates marketing of goods and services by an organization directly to customers (business-to-customers or B2C). It is an active method of marketing that takes the item and services to probable customers instead of sitting tight for them to go to a store or other areas e of access. It is a type of ‘non-stop’ shopping and is once in a while alluded to as ‘exactness marketing’ or ‘one on one’ advertising. As opposed to the advertising firm conveying a general correspondence or sales message to a substantial gathering of potential customers, regardless of the fact that these constitute a very much characterized market area, direct marketing tends to target particular people or households (Dobkin, 2007). In a business-to-business (B2B) setting this would be an individual or a particular association or firm.

Direct marketing is a direct communication to a customer that is designed to create a feedback in the form of a direct request, a demand for more information or a visit the business places to buy a specific goods or services. It put emphasis on face to face marketing communication. It can also be said to be a process that is an interactive system of promotion that uses one or more promotion media to influence the response of the customer and transaction at any location.  Its goal is the provision of information to customers about their taste and needs.

Direct marketing is not simply concerned with marketing correspondences. It is likewise concerned with the movement of goods and services. In utilizing direct marketing, the firm is settling on a decision to remove the utilization of marketing agents and offer the goods and services direct to consumers (Ellsworth, 2009). This has implications for both channels of circulation and logistical choices.

Direct has many forms. It is one of the quickest developing areas of advertising and is being accelerated by specialized advances, especially in the field of computer innovation (Ellsworth, 2009). Scholars and experts have brought up direct marketing with excitement and have driven the subject forward both mentally and for all intents and purposes.

Growth of Direct Marketing

Direct marketing is not new since many organizations have sold items direct to general society for a considerable length of time e.g. Kleeneze and Avon, who have sold items door to door for a long time. (Ellsworth, 2007) Regular postal mail through the post and mail request catalogs have been used for quite a while and all are types of direct marketing. Direct marketing started in the mid-1900s, and the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) was built up in the USA in the year 1917. Direct marketing turned into an imperative power in the UK in the 1950s, however at this phase of its advancement it was concerned with post office based mail, mail request and door to individual door offering. Today the extent of direct marketing has extended significantly to a great extent because of the utilization of the phone and specifically the utilization of the Internet (Ellsworth, 2009). Direct marketing incorporates all advertising interchanges components that permit an association to correspond directly with a prospect. This incorporates standard mail, phone advertising, direct feedback promotion, door to individual door offering and the Internet.

Party arrangement organizations have been offering items direct to consumers in individuals’ homes for a long time. The phone has been utilized for B2B deals for quite a while especially for the recovery of “scheduled” requests and for making deals arrangements. It is presently being utilized progressively as a part of local direct advertising programs regularly to ‘follow up’ a posted customized mail shot. Motoring associations, for example, the RAC and AA in the UK, have utilized direct individual offering for a considerable length of time to offer membership of their organization and today utilize post office based mail broadly to keep individuals educated about the item and the benefit of the service (Ellsworth, 2009). Nonetheless, as it has already been said, direct marketing has developed with the advances in computer innovation. The utilization of computers to store, recover and control client data has revolutionized the way direct marketing firms work. Direct advertising firms can make utilization of the Internet and systems databases which permits them to get to information “warehouses” and gives them the capacity to sort and total or “wire” information to build its worth as a marketing asset.

Objectives of Direct Marketing

Much of direct marketing actions are expected to subject to sales. However, in a few circumstances a Direct sale may be impossible or inappropriate. In such cases some other type of quantifiable responses may be utilized. For instance, a direct mail campaign and a phone marketing system may be utilized as a part of the engineering business to welcome and urge purchasers to go to a machine tool display. A flyer drop for double glazing may contain a free telephone number for the prospect to ask for a leaflet or evaluation. The outcome may not be a sale, but rather some particular, quantifiable activity that will ideally add to an extreme sale. In spite of the fact that a sale may not be the quick target of a direct marketing effort, some direct responses for the benefit of the beneficiary of the message will be (Ellsworth, 2009). Hence, this will add to the possible sale. Thus, direct marketing is not the same as direct sales. It may be utilized to keep customers educated of new item improvements or to send them particular discount offers.

Strategic Role of Direct Marketing

Direct Marketing ought not to be utilized as a simple strategic Marketing Communications device, yet should be incorporated with whatever remains of the communication blend. All promoting communication components interface to some degree. (Ellsworth, 2007) Direct Marketing is prone to frame a noteworthy piece of Communication Strategy of numerous organizations and not just shape a sort of strategic adjunct. Different types of communication are prone to be utilized as a part of conjunction with Direct Marketing Programs regardless of the fact that these are just broad corporate promoting programs. Numerous organizations utilize direct marketing overwhelmingly, however not to the rejection of other communication systems. Direct marketing is regularly utilized as a major aspect of incorporated customer relationship management (CRM) programs. CRM projects are by their tendency long haul and key in nature.

Phases of Direct Marketing

The following are the steps that need to be undertaken when performing a direct marketing to customers (Ellsworth, 2009):

  • The imaginative stage and design stage, where the plan to market is developed, and relevant channels of communication are selected.
  • Data collection, where both inner information, for example, customer records and outside information from a database of the organization or rundown broker is gathered in planning for the stage three in the project
  • Database organization, where data is ‘mined’, ‘melded’, collected or disaggregated, improved and institutionalized for use in the system
  • Database examination, or satisfactory tuning the database that further spotlights on an ideal target market
  • Implementation and completion where client request and orders are followed up on and data on response rates are gathered from definite post program examination
  • Response examination where the aftereffects of the campaign are inspected for viability before the cycle starts once more

Direct Marketing Media

While numerous individuals partner direct marketing with direct mail, direct mail is one of a few promoting media used by direct marketers. Other major direct advertising media incorporate the phone, magazines, daily papers, TV, and radio. New innovative improvements are giving direct advertisers an extended scope of decisions from video cassettes to home-shopping systems, interactive TV as well as the Internet.

Direct mail

Direct mail is the most vigorously utilized direct advertising medium and the one most direct advertisers learn first. Direct mail has been utilized to offer a wide assortment of products and administrations to buyers and additional organizations, and it keeps on developing in spite of postage increments. Direct mail offers a few points of interest over other media, including selectivity, personalization, adaptability, and test-ability. It permits organizations to target people with known buy histories or specific psychographic or demographic attributes that match the advertiser’s customer profile. Direct mail can be focused on a particular geographic territory given postal districts or other geographic variables. (Ellsworth, 2009) Personalization in the Direct mail means not just addressing the envelope to a man or family by name, additionally maybe including the beneficiary’s name inside the envelope.

Direct mail bundles come in all shapes and sizes, making it a standout among the most adaptable of the direct advertising media. A standard regular postal mail bundle incorporates an envelope, a letter, a handout, and a response gadget. The envelope’s occupation is to inspire the beneficiary to open the package. Despite the volume of mail, a man gets, the envelope must separate itself from other mail by its size, appearance, and any duplicate that may be composed on it (Ellsworth, 2007). The letter is a direct mail advertisement and gives the chance to address the intrigues and worries of the beneficiary straightforwardly. The letter normally spells out the advantages of the offer in the subtle element. While the letter informs the beneficiary concerning the advantages of the offer, the pamphlet shows them. Delineated pamphlets are utilized to offer administrations and, also, items. At last, the bundle must incorporate a response gadget, for example, an answer business card, that the beneficiary can send back. Response rates are for the most part higher when the response gadget is partitioned from, (Ellsworth, 2009) instead of a portion of, the pamphlet or letter. Without toll numbers are regularly conspicuously shown to permit the beneficiary to respond using the phone.

Direct Marketing Dissertation
Direct Marketing Dissertation

Direct mail is the most effectively tried publicizing medium. Each variable in fruitful direct advertising—the right offer, the correct individual, the right configuration, and the right timing—can be tried in standard mail. Computer advancements have made it simpler to choose a randomized name test from any rundown, with the goal that mailers can run a test mailing to decide the response from a rundown before “taking off,” or mailing, the whole rundown. Distinctive bundles containing diverse offers can likewise be tried. (Ellsworth, 2009) Other media permit some level of testing; however regular postal mail is the most advanced. In connection with the next direct advertising media, Direct mail is considered to offer the most financially savvy method for accomplishing the most noteworthy conceivable response. Telemarketing ordinarily creates a higher response rate, however at a much higher expense for each respond

Telephone-Based Direct Marketing

The utilization of the phone in direct marketing has developed drastically in the course of recent two decades. Users now may be equivalent, or even surpass, those of direct mail. Telemarketing may be outbound and inbound. Inbound telemarketing is called the servicing and more often includes taking requests and responding to request. Outbound telemarketing for purchasers may be utilized for one-stage offering, lead capability, and offering and overhauling bigger and more dynamic clients. In business, telemarketing can be utilized to reach littler records that don’t warrant an individual deals call and additionally to create, qualify, and catch up leads.

Telemarketing has the benefits of being close to home and intelligent. (Ellsworth, 2009)It is a successful two-way correspondences medium that empowers organization delegates to listen to clients. Phone sales representatives normally work from a script, yet the medium permits the adaptability of updating the script as required. It likewise considers up-and cross-offering. While clients are on the telephone, it is conceivable to build the measure of their requests by offering them extra decisions—something that tends to prompt perplexity in other direct marketing media.

Telemarketing likewise has its impediments. For instance, it is costlier than regular postal mail. It additionally does not have a changeless response gadget that the prospect can set aside or utilize later. It is not a visual medium—however, the innovation to make it one may soon be accessible. At long last, it is seen as meddling, producing buyer grumblings that have prompted authoritative activities to direct the telemarketing business.


Direct responses print promotions in magazines must make a positive offer or demand that requests that the reader accomplishes something. Normally, such promotions require a reader to send in a coupon or answer card or call a without toll number. With well more than 2,000 purchase magazines now being distributed, magazine promotions permit direct advertisers to achieve groups of onlookers with identifiable hobbies. (Ellsworth, 2009)Notwithstanding publicizing vigorously in extraordinary premium magazines, direct advertisers use mass buyer magazines and exploit provincial promoting space to target particular gatherings of people.

Dissimilar to general publicists, who measure the viability of their print advertisements regarding span and recurrence, direct advertisers measure the adequacy of their print promotions as far as expense viability—either cost-per-request or cost-per-request. Magazine advertisements offer the upsides of good shading proliferation, a moderately long notice life (particularly contrasted with every day daily papers), and a lower expense. Imaginative expenses for magazine advertisements are additionally generally lower than for regular postal mail. (Dobkin,2007) Be that as it may, coordinate advertisers locate magazines’ long lead times, slower response, and scarcer space than standard mail to be a drawback.


While Direct Marketers publicize in magazines more than daily papers, daily papers have some distinctive focal points. These incorporate the assortment of areas offered inside of a daily paper, shorter shutting dates, a prompt response, and expansive scope of a substantial and different crowd. (Dobkin,2007) Weaknesses incorporate poor advertisement multiplication and the constrained accessibility of shading. Article substance can likewise have a greater amount of an antagonistic impact on promotion response than in magazines. Notwithstanding promoting in the general pages of a daily paper, direct advertisers additionally publicize in unattached supplements (FSIs) that are normally dispersed with the Sunday releases of daily papers.


Direct Marketing on TV is expanding. Early cases of direct responses promotions on TV that ought to be well known to viewers incorporate those for blades, garden equipment’s, exercise gear, records, and books, which request that viewers bring in and request a particular item. Later advancements in direct response TV publicizing incorporate an arrival to a lengthier arrangement, regularly known as the infomercial, where an item or another offer is clarified in some point of interest over a period stretching out to 30 minutes or more. (Dobkin, 2007). Advocates of this arrangement point out that the most noteworthy length gives the promoter the chance to construct an association with the viewer and overcome introductory viewer suspicion, and in the meantime exhibit a persuading story spelling out item components and advantages in the subtle element.

Direct Marketing Lists and Databases

Lists are regularly utilized as a part of direct mail and telemarketing. The two essential sorts of records are response records and assembled records. Response records contain the names of the considerable number of prospects who have responded to the same offer. These people ordinarily share a typical hobby. (Dobkin, 2007) Names on a response rundown may incorporate purchasers, inquirers, supporters, progression club individuals, or sweepstakes participants. They may have responded to an offer from one of a few media, including post office based mail, TV, or a print notice. Response records are not as a rule leased; rather, they are an in-house rundown accumulated by a specific business. Gathered records are regularly leased by direct advertisers. Aggregated mass buyer, a specific customer, and business records are accessible for an extensive variety of hobbies.

Direct promoting databases are like mailing records in that they contain names and addresses, yet they go much further. They are the storehouse of an extensive variety of client data and may likewise contain psychographic, demographic, and registration information accumulated from outside sources. They frame the premise of direct promoting projects whereby organizations set up closer ties with their clients.

Database marketing got to be one of the popular expressions of the direct promoting industry in the 1980s, and it has kept on advancing in the twenty-first century (Dobkin, 2007). Whether it is called relationship marketing, significance promoting, or holding, the normal topic of database advertising is reinforcing associations with existing clients and building associations with new ones. Databases permit direct advertisers to reveal an abundance of pertinent data about individual buyers and apply that information to build the likelihood of a fancied response or buy.

Similarly, as with mailing records, there are two fundamental sorts of advertising databases, client databases, and outside databases. Client databases are ordered inside and contain data around an organization’s clients taken from the relationship-building procedure. Outer databases are accumulations of particular people and their qualities. These outside databases may be mass-ordered from open information sources; they may contain monetary information given private credit records; they may be aggregated from surveys; or they may be a blend of every one of the three sources.

Database Marketing, and particularly the possibility of utilizing private data for advertising purposes, has made security a vital issue in the Direct marketing industry. (Ellsworth, 2007) A few states have passed enactment constraining access to already open information or restricting the utilization of such information as car enrollments, records as a consumer, and medicinal data. The Direct advertising industry has endeavored to act naturally policing as to the utilization of touchy information. On the other hand, the battle between industry self-regulation and government regulation will most likely proceed for quite a while.

Advantages of Direct Marketing

Traceability and Quantifiable of marketing Viability

Direct Marketers offer the reached clients (potential or genuine) the chance to respond to the promoting communication, more often in a given period. (Nash, 2000) This helps advertisers to track the response rate and response classification (positive or negative) and get a ready examination, given which they can adjust or streamline their marketing endeavors and correspondence for better results in future.

Well organized approaches

Direct Marketing includes getting ready and keeping up a client database. (Nash, 2000) A database characterizes the objective portion into a limited gathering and every person in this limited gathering is spoken with through individual and direct correspondence stations, for example, phone, content, voice message, door-to-door correspondence, and so on. (Ellsworth, 2007)As it were, direct advertisers get a closer brush with their clients and in keeping their databases upgraded and staying in contact with their clients, such advertisers have a superior shot at altering their correspondence and conveying significant offers to just those clients who are well on the way to profit by it.

Less demanding Campaigns

Most direct marketing effort and correspondence are simpler and modest to plan and make. (Nash, 2000) Direct marketing channels, for example, messages and content additionally make making the correspondence snappier and less expensive contrasted with setting up gigantic hoardings and paying truckloads of money for notices that could conceivably be seen or heard by the intended interest group. This additionally makes it simpler for direct advertisers to dispatch test battles in new markets or sections as the expense and hazard are significantly lower.

Disadvantages of Direct Marketing

Hard to gain information vital to getting client database ready

While a client database is the spine of direct advertising and its vicinity is one of its greatest points of interest, obtaining such information may be a mammoth undertaking. (Nash, 2000) Not everybody may to take an interest in the business sector and client reviews and give out their own and expert points of interest. Additionally, information merchants and administrations that offer caught client information to advertisers likewise charge a high cost to part with such information. Along these lines, the introductory production of a database may be a significant tough assignment for an advertiser. Clients dislike nosy correspondence.

This is an undeniable disadvantage of direct promoting. Many people don’t like their inboxes, phone message boxes and cell phones to be overwhelmed with advertising and limited time content. (Nash, 2000) To cure this, individuals frequently utilize email and phone message channels and the advertiser’s correspondence either land straight in the SPAM envelope or gets erased without being opened by the focused on the client.

Limited Reach

While having a limited characterized gathering of target clients acts as a preference from multiple points of view by centering marketing efforts, this can likewise be a prohibitive component insomuch as the advertisers achieve stays constrained. (Nash, 2000) In spite of database overhauls and expansion of new clients, the scope of direct advertising can never touch the range of mass marketing routines.

Environment and Law

Different nations have laws against spamming and littering. (Nash, 2000) Direct advertising correspondence as flyers and flyers are inefficient practices as they advance lingering and utilization of paper.


Direct Marketing costs a great deal more than general purchaser media to achieve one thousand gathering of people individuals. Be that as it may, it is imperative not to judge direct advertising on the premise of a rough CPT correlation with other media. Keep in mind that direct ways to deal with individual buyers empower messages to be focused with noteworthy exactness, guaranteeing that the advancement goes just to those individuals well on the way to be keen on the substance of the message. (Ellsworth, 2007)This alone ought to be sufficient to raise doubt about the value of CPT correlations in assessing direct marketing.

Direct Media additionally convey publicizing messages and offering chances to potential buyers in the solace of their homes’. Responses are simple; generally, the buyer makes a phone call. At the point when direct channels are utilized, the messages have negligible competition for the shopper’s consideration from other promotions, the timing can be exactly controlled, and contenders will be less mindful of the crusade. However, most basic examination of media performance is the measure of response it creates.

In general consumer advertising, it is regularly hard to attribute battle results with total sureness to the publicizing, because different components may have been grinding away in any deliberate change, whether that is enhanced deals or expanded attention to an item on the objective business sector.

With Direct Marketing, contending media can be all the more surveyed for their adequacy by measuring the accurate level of response that they fortify. Here the measure is not the expense of coming to one thousand individuals from the gathering of people, yet the expense of getting only one of them to respond in the fancied way


Direct Marketing is a branch of advertising that has experienced fast development and mechanical change in the course of recent years. It is a vital marketing procedure, and a few associations construct their whole advertising methodology in light of direct promoting routines. (Ellsworth, 2007) Around the world, the Direct Marketing industry is enormous. As firms look to methods for getting more esteem from advertising spending plans, direct promoting is liable to wind up considerably more grounded later on. Direct promoting alludes to a gathering of techniques that permits organizations to correspond with, and get a Direct response, from prospects. It permits firms to target clients more decisively than traditional non-direct marketing procedures and is alluded to as exactness promoting.

Direct advertising procedures are continually being enhanced, and created, and new imaginative media are prone to be produced later on (Ellsworth, 2007). At present, the fundamental strategies utilized inside of the direct marketing industry are the utilization of the phone, regular postal mail, the web, direct ‘eye to eye’ individual offering and direct response publicizing utilizing TV, radio and daily papers, exchange diaries and magazines. The business is being driven by a craving for more noteworthy precision and economy in promoting operations and by advancements in IT that can be connected to direct marketing. Database promoting specifically has reformed the way associations utilize direct marketing and has expanded effectiveness in ranges like post office based mail and phone advertising. Direct advertising is not exclusively determined by IT. (Ellsworth, 2007) Some conventional strategies that were utilized as a part of 1917 when the Direct Marketing Association was established in the USA are as yet being utilized effectively, especially eye to eye direct individual offering. (Ellsworth, 2007) On the other hand, these strategies have profited from the data upheaval regarding recovery of client data and enhanced focusing on. Direct marketing is a noteworthy power inside of promoting and is prone to increment in future.


B.V, Elsevier. “Direct Marketing.” Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing (2009): Voulme 3: 58 – 59. Print.

Dobkin, Jeffrey. Direct Marketing Strategies: Forget Theory – Here’s What Really Works! Merion Station, PA : The Danielle Adams Publishing Company, 2007. print.

Ellsworth, Belinda. Direct Selling For Dummies. River Street: For Dummies, 2015. Print.

Nash, Edward. Direct Marketing: Strategy, Planning, Execution. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2000. Print.

John Wiley &. Sons, The New Direct Marketing: How to Implement A Profit-Driven Database Marketing Strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999. Print.

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