I have been asked to assist a handful of students regarding nursing dissertation topics. As mentioned in other posts, our website will not write a nursing dissertation for you but we will point you in the direction of existing research. Firstly, your nursing dissertation is an extensive research project on a related topic of your choice relevant to your studies. Ordinarily, your nursing dissertation will contain precise knowledge in that specific area of research. For instance, you will emphasize clear objectives of the research that you are doing and keep the research on-topic. Be mindful that you need to engage your research and your knowledge with the reader. An integral part of your research is to choose an appropriate nursing dissertation topic. It is the first step toward starting your nursing dissertation and you should not deviate away from your chosen topic. A recommended method of finding a suitable nursing dissertation topic is to examine your existing knowledge in a particular field.
If you have knowledge in patient care it may be worthwhile developing a nursing dissertation topic in this field of study. You will be familiar with key research, prominent authors and you will be comfortable in using existing literature and research in this field. You may find that you will lift a lot of pressure if you are comfortable writing about a particular field of nursing that is familiar. You will need to expand on your existing knowledge and turn this into an impactful nursing dissertation topic.
There is no doubt that your nursing dissertation topic will fall into a specific area of nursing. As a nursing student, or practitioner what is important to you in the health and nursing environment? Maybe there is something that you see in patients that you think is worth exploring in greater depth? There are many areas of nursing for you to explore, these areas may include: child care, mental health, pediatric nursing, clinical management, midwifery or future nursing trends in a particular region. The brainstorming process will help you to write a creative and attractive piece of research.
I had a conversation with a nursing student who currently works within the NHS in the United Kingdom and she recommends formulating a nursing dissertation topic on practices, procedures or interventions that are of a particular interest in the field of nursing. She went on further to say that researching something that you do not have a connection with can be daunting, you must have a connection with the research you are undertaking. The nursing dissertation topic must be of interest to you and engage the reader. I must add that the nursing student in question completed a BA (Hons) Nursing Studies degree with first first-class honors.
Possible Nursing Dissertation Topics
Below is a list of nursing dissertation topics that may prove useful to you. I do hope you take inspiration from these dissertation topics in an attempt to stimulate your writing process from the outset. Please be mindful that the below nursing dissertation topics have been submitted to universities and are offered as a guide for reference purposes.
Whether you choose to write your nursing dissertation on the topics above or if you have come up with your own nursing dissertation topic, you need to ensure that you write your research on something you are interested in and knowledgeable on. As previously mentioned you can alleviate a lot of pressure when writing research on a field of nursing you are familiar with. It is worthwhile noting that writing a nursing dissertation topic is similar to writing a dissertation in another discipline as it has the same form of structure and layout. There will be an introduction, literature review, hypothesis, methodology, data analysis, results and findings and bibliography sections. However, the initial step is to select a suitable nursing dissertation topic from the outset, you will subsequently develop a research proposal on what you have established as your nursing dissertation topic.
Nursing Dissertation Help
Always keep close to your designated dissertation supervisor. You never know when you need their advice and guidance – this support is priceless. A dissertation supervisor can always put you back on track especially if you deviate away from your chosen nursing dissertation topic. Also, you will get help on your nursing dissertation structure. This is essential as you do not want to write a nursing dissertation using a bespoke structure, this will ultimately lower your overall grade.
You need to dedicate time to your nursing dissertation proposal. You will find that your dissertation proposal is a key milestone in your research project. It should be succinct and will describe the statement of intent for your nursing dissertation. Your supervisor will have a clear understanding to what you are researching and what the dissertation aims and objectives are. A synopsis of the hypotheses should be included in the dissertation proposal.
Fully utilize readily available information. You will find that you will have a plethora of nursing related research at your disposal, utilizing this research will be a key component of the literature review contained within your nursing dissertation. You need to ensure you do not plagiarize any material and reference all material in accordance with your university’s guidelines. I suggest using online libraries for current research such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), EBSCO and JSTOR. It is safe to say that your university will access to these resources and it will benefit your nursing dissertation topic as you will be referencing credible material.
I hope you enjoy reading this post and that you have added confidence in wiring your own nursing dissertation topic. I would be grateful if you could leave a comment below.
I have been asked by marketing students who have purchased Advertising Dissertations from our website to write a blog post relating to advertising within the marketing arena. With this in mind, I have taken a couple of hours to construct this post on advertising.
Definitions of Advertising
Advertisements are messages paid for by those who send them and are intended to inform or influence people who receive them. Advertising is a means of communication with the users of a product or service. Advertising is bringing a product (or service) to the attention of potential and current customers. It is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc. These are benefits fields of marketing for students writing advertising dissertations.
Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideals, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and viewed via various media, This is a particular interest field of marketing for students writing advertising dissertations.
Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a mass amount of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action, such as encouraging ‘environmentally friendly’ behaviors, and even unhealthy behaviors through food consumption, video game and television viewing promotion, and a “lazy man” routine through a loss of exercise.
Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. This topics are essential for These are benefits fields of marketing for students writing marketing and advertising dissertations. Several types of mass media are television, internet, radio, news programs, and published pictures and articles.
Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Non-commercial advertisers that spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.
Advertising serves three main purposes:
To get or win new customers.
To increase use of products or services among existing customers.
To help potential customers make a choice among competing brands.
Advertising is the best way to communicate to the customers. Advertising helps informs the customers about the brands available in the market and the variety of products useful to them. Advertising is for everybody including kids, young and old. It is done using various media types, with different techniques and methods most suited. For every organization and every product or service, advertising tends to fulfill a specific goal or objective. Nevertheless on the general front, advertising is a mechanism that fulfills all, some or one of the three major functions:
Firstly advertising has an informing nature – about organizations, about products and services, about the environment, the society, the trends in society and many more aspects of life. This deals with the cognitive context of the target audience in which they grasp the information and channelize it according to their own comprehension and predilection.
Secondly advertising provides the incentives to viewers for them to engage in action. This deals with the emotional dimension of the target audience, which concentrates on touching and persuading the consumers rather than informing and apprising them.
The third function of advertising is to provide constant reminders and reinforcements to generate the desired behavior the advertiser wants from them. This is a particularly effective function in the long run as reminders and reinforcements register in the consumers’ minds, becoming the base on which they shape their future decisions. There are many existing marketing dissertation based in these areas.
There are a few reasons for advertising some of which are like this:
Increasing the sales of the product / service
Creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image
Communicating a change in the current product
Introduction of a new service
Increasing the buzz-value of the brand or the company
You can base your advertising dissertation on the above topics.
Types of Advertising
There are types of advertising objectives which are:
Informative advertising where the objective is to build primary demand in the introduction or pioneering stage of a product
Persuasive advertising where the objective is to build selective or comparative demand in the competitive or growth stage of a product.
Reminder advertising with mature products and reinforcement advertising which seeks to assure current purchasers that they have made the right choice.
And there are the following major advertising media types:
Outdoor advertising – billboards, kiosks, trade-shows, events etc.
Broadcast advertising – TV, Radio, mobile (back-lit) vans or autos etc.
Online advertising – Telephone, SMS/MMS, emails, pop ups, banner ads, video ads etc.
Objectives of Advertising
Four main Objectives of advertising are:
Let’s take a look on these various types of objectives.
Trial: the companies which are in their introduction stage generally work for this objective. The trial objective is the one which involves convincing the customers to buy the new product introduced in the market. Here, the advertisers use flashy and attractive ads to make customers take a look on the products and purchase for trials.
Continuity: this objective is concerned about keeping the existing customers to stick on to the product. The advertisers here generally keep on bringing something new in the product and the advertisement so that the existing customers keep buying their products.
Brand switch: this objective is basically for those companies who want to attract the customers of the competitors. Here, the advertisers try to convince the customers to switch from the existing brand they are using to their product.
Switching back: this objective is for the companies who want their previous customers back, who have switched to their competitors. The advertisers use different ways to attract the customers back like discount sale, new advertise, some reworking done on packaging, etc.
Advertising simply put is telling and selling the product. Advertising Management though is a complex process of employing various media to sell a product or service. This process begins quite early from the marketing research and encompasses the media campaigns that help sell the product.
Without an effective advertising management process in place, the media campaigns are not that fruitful and the whole marketing process goes for a toss. Hence, companies that believe in an effective advertising management process are always a step ahead in terms of selling their goods and services.
As mentioned above, advertising management begins from the market research phase. At this point, the data produced by marketing research is used to identify what types of advertising would be adequate for the specific product.
Gone are the days when there was only print and television advertising was available to the manufacturers. These days apart from print and television, radio, mobile, and Internet are also available as advertising media. Advertising management process in fact helps in defining the outline of the media campaign and in deciding which type of advertising would be used before the launch of the product.
The Strengths of Advertising as a Marketing Technique?
Advertising, being an utterly vital segment of the promotional dimension of marketing, has its share of strengths in its role as a marketing technique. There are other elements in the promotional mix as well such as sales promotion, publicity and direct marketing, nevertheless advertising has an exclusive strength to reach a mass audience.
The reach factor is very important that accentuates the significance of advertising in the process of marketing as well as branding. Furthermore advertising is an essential tool to introduce products for the first time in the market. Not only that but it also illustrates any modifications and alterations in the product or service that it is advertising. Moreover it proves to be a very effective source of reminding and reinforcing the impact of its communication of the product, not letting the consumers forget about it. Last but not the least it persuades the target audience and shapes their buying decisions.
Advertising gives companies and businesses the opportunity to build up a brand and an identity. The distinct adverts in both TV and print form are instantly recognizable as the company’s own and give it an identity as a clean, modern and reputable brand. Advertisements need to relate to current trends and sell both a product individually as well as the company as a whole. If an advertisement succeeds at both it can help draw an audience to the product or service and build a relationship between the consumer and company. Establishing this connection should lead to a boost in sales for the business.
AIDA Model: Measurement of Effectiveness of Advertisement
This theory is based on the premise that during a sales presentation, the prospect consciously goes through four different stages: Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. The components of this theory believe that the salesperson should design his presentation in such a manner which takes care of all these stages of the process of selling. The details of these components are as follows:
The salesperson should attract the prospect to his presentation before he actually goes into the details of the same. This is to ensure that the prospect becomes receptive to the presentation.
Here the need for securing attention is must. It’s a fact that usually the prospect may be busy in his routine jobs or daily assignments. Thus, before meeting the salesperson, the prospect’s mind may be engaged in something other than the concerned product, about which the salesperson in going to talk.
Unless the salesperson involves the prospect’s mind in the presentation, his total effort may go unnoticed or unregistered. Drawing the prospect’s attention, therefore, is as good as to detach him from other assignments and involving him in the presentation, both physically and mentally, so as to gain maximum from the sales meeting.
Once the salesperson has successfully gained the prospect’s attention, he should maintain the interest of the prospect throughout the presentation. In other words, the salesperson should ensure that the prospect remains glued to his presentation throughout its length and that he does not wander away from the same. The salesperson should be aware of the interest, likes, dislikes, attitude and motivation of the prospect and should proceed with the presentation, keeping in view all the factors.
To create a strong desire in the prospect’s mind to purchase his product is the next important step. The salesperson should consciously try to bring the prospect into this stage of readiness on the point of buying his product. He should concentrate on projecting the benefits of his product to the prospect. He should go even to the extent of presenting benefits according to the motivation of the prospect.
The salesperson should also be prepared to anticipate the resistance to his sales presentation in terms of objections or questions from the prospect. Not only that, he should be prepared with several answers and explanations to the anticipated objections.
Once the salesperson has been successful in taking his prospect through the three stages, he should induce them into actually buying the product. Sometimes even after going through the three stages of Attention, Interest and Desire; the prospect may still have some doubt or some disinterest which will stop him from taking the final decision of actually buying the product. Hence, it becomes an important task for the salesperson to help his prospect in taking the final decision. At this stage; the salesperson tries to push the prospect into a situation to take a decision; and the deal is closed skillfully and successfully. This is what is expected of a salesperson in this stage – this is ideal research for advertising dissertations.
Importance of Advertising
Advertising plays a very important role in today’s age of competition. Advertising is one thing which has become a necessity for everybody in today’s day to day life, be it the producer, the traders, or the customer. Many companies rely on advertising these days to boost sales of their products or services, to build a connection with their audience and to create competition with their rival firms.
Advertising is important for the customers
Advertising plays a very important role in customers’ life. Customers are the people who buy the product only after they are made aware of the products available in the market. If the product is not advertised, no customer will come to know what products are available and will not buy the product even if the product was for their benefit.
One more thing is that advertising helps people find the best products for themselves, their kids, and their family. When they come to know about the range of products, they are able to compare the products and buy so that they get what they desire after spending their valuable money. Thus, advertising is important for the customers. Current consumers can also be kept up to date with the latest products and services available to them.
Advertising is important for the seller and companies producing the products
Advertising plays very important role for the producers and the sellers of the products, because:
Advertising helps increasing sales
Advertising helps producers or the companies to know their competitors and plan accordingly to meet up the level of competition.
If any company wants to introduce or launch a new product in the market, advertising will make a ground for the product. Advertising helps making people aware of the new product so that the consumers come and try the product.
Advertising helps creating goodwill for the company and gains customer loyalty after reaching a mature age.
The demand for the product keeps on coming with the help of advertising and demand and supply become a never ending process.
Advertising is important for the society
Advertising helps educating people. There are some social issues also which advertising deals with like immoral labor, liquor consumption, smoking, family planning education, etc. thus, advertising plays a very important role in society. You will find many dissertations relating to advertising in the marketing dissertation section of the website. Below is a list of some advertising dissertations we have available:
Application of Risk Management: In the Perspective of a Workplace Health and Safety Manager
The objective of this paper is to discuss the problem related to workplace health and safety. Workplace health and safety hazards are mostly preventable provided proper precautions are taken in proper time to avoid costly losses of life and property. A hazard can be anything causing injury or disease, e.g. a health hazard, a safety hazard or an environmental hazard. The paper discusses about an organization dealing in petrochemicals. It proceeds with the identification of hazards related to the industry and designing a system to manage the heat problem.
Application of Risk Management
Starting in 1987 the US petrochemicals is a Texas Corporation operating in over 30 countries now. The company is operating successfully in meeting the demands of its customers across the globe which is beneficial for the company itself in many ways. The company is known for its timely delivery at an edge cutting price. The company has earned a worldwide reputation for its workplace health and safety management. Common workplace health and safety hazards include: transportation accidents, slipping and falling, communicable diseases, toxic events, chemical and gas exposure, workplace violence, electrocution, getting struck by objects, explosion, repetitive motion, hearing loss and ergonomic injuries, heat stress, etc.
Heat Situation is the most common incident at any chemical industry and the US Petrochemical is not an exception and there is a well-defined and established system to manage risk at the US Petrochemicals which is discussed in detail in the following paragraphs (Crockford and Neil, 1986).
Identification of hazard
At the US Petrochemicals there are various ways for identifying hazards at workplace:
Inspection: A regular walk through the workplace with a hazard checklist is a direct way of identifying many hazards. The inspection should be for physical things as well as the systems of work and work procedures. The action can be taken immediately if any straight forward problem is detected. Sometimes simple matters like non-functioning of risk control or it is not being used or not things not kept at appropriate place, be detected which don’t need formal risk assessment and immediate action can be taken to control or eliminate the risk. Sometimes the inspection walk-through detects a situation of immediate and substantial danger to working people (Hubbard and Douglas, 2009).
Finding and applying available information: There are many sources of information which can be made readily available for particular industry or job or type of activity. Many organizations which work for the health and safety of the people publish both hard and soft copies of information on a wide range of OHS topics and industries. Industry unions and associations can provide substantial information about industrial and job hazards, this is essential to the workplace health and safety manager.
Testing and measuring: Often measurements are required to decide about any action specially in case of hazards like noise and atmospheric contaminants. For estimating general noise levels simple comparisons can be made. Measuring and testing provide accurate information about the hazard. Simple machines like noise meters, atmospheric testing machine can be used for the purpose.
Surveys of employees and others at the workplace: Information about occupational stress, workplace bullying, muscle or skeletal aches and pains which may be signal for potential hazard, can be obtained from the people by conducting surveys at the workplace.
Analysing records and data: Another way of identifying hazard is to analyse data and records. Records and data of incidents and injuries are valuable source of information about hazards. Some organizations mostly large ones even have records or data which show trends of injury or incident. There are many safety authorities which publish data and records about the common sources of injury for different industries. Data can also be shared from other similar industries which have it.
The process of developing understanding and knowledge of risks and hazards to take suitable decision to control them is called risk assessment. Existence of understanding and knowledge and understanding of risks and hazards minimizes the necessity of risk assessment. At the US Petrochemicals the objective of risk management is to determine;
What is the level of harm that can occur
How will the harm occur
What are the chances of occurring harm
A risk assessment should be tailored to the organization and the situation in which it is to be conducted. It may be elaborate and formal or simple as structured discussion. It should be done when the knowledge and understanding about a risk or hazard is limited or there is uncertainty about its outcome or everything that may go wrong is estimated or there is uncertainty about the impact of hazards upon each other to produce greater or new risks (Deloach J. 2012).
The risk control strategies vary as per the need of the organization and the situation. The strategies mentioned below can be used in an appropriate combination or independently. Normally they are used in a combination at the US petrochemicals. They are as follows:
Eliminating Risk – Elimination of risk is the most effective action which can be taken to control risk. This can be done by eliminating the hazard which may not be possible. In such cases as many risks associated with the hazards as possible can be eliminated (British Occupational Hygiene Society Technical guide).
Avoiding risk: Risk avoidance means to avoid activities which may lead to possibility of loss. This is a calculated decision which may also mean to avoid earning profits because no risk no gain.
Preventing Loss: For unavoidable risks, the methods of ‘prevent the loss’ should be used. Preventing the loss means breaking the sequence of events which cause loss.
Reducing Loss: For unavoidable losses, the methods of ‘minimize the severity of injury or financial impact’ should be used. These methods include activities of pre-loss reduction or post loss reduction.
Reducing risks- Practically it is not possible in many cases to eliminate hazards or risks but steps can be taken for changing the risk to reduce it. It is the most effective way because it is comparatively less reliant on people performing faultlessly. It can be done by substituting the risk with a lesser risk, by changing the process of work, using technology and isolating people from exposure.
Duplication/Separation: The aim of the risk control techniques is to minimize high losses and not to prevent, avoid or reduce any single operation or asset. Separation means isolating one exposure from others, e.g. a business can occupy different buildings at different locations instead of one big building. Duplication means utilizing spares or backups, e.g. a business can store the spares or backup data at different location.
Transferring Risk: Transferring risk means making such contracts with parties, other than insurance companies, such as vendors, service providers, suppliers and contractors which include transferring risk to them. This is also termed as contractual risk transfer.
Changing exposure of people to risk- The behavior of the people or the way they expose themselves to the risk can be changed to control the risk. This does not change the risk but controls it by protecting the people. This can be done by improving the skills of the people which will limit the chance of failure, by limiting the time of exposure and by providing protective equipment to them.
Controlling the risk in heat situation- For heat situation some different and specialized steps are taken like reducing or removing the sources of heat if possible, controlling the temperature, providing mechanical aids for reducing work rate, regulating the duration of exposure to heat by providing breaks or rest facilities, preventing dehydration, providing protective clothing and equipment and by providing special training about heat stress.
Implementing control strategies and assigning responsibility
The responsibility of a workplace health and safety manager is not only to establish only a system to control risk or hazard but also to ensure its proper implementation according to a suitable approach of the organization. At the US petrochemicals there is a detailed guide for different departments of the company for the implementation of control strategies and assigning responsibilities. The guide has key questions like what does the department do, how is the department organized or managed, what is the size of the department, what are the numbers of hazardous processes and hazards, what are the types of risks or hazards, what levels of harm, risks or hazards do, etc. Being a large organization, the US petrochemicals has the benefit of established formal process of implementation which ensures certainty of results and consistency and this is possible due to availability of many hazardous processes, large number of employees and many layers of management (New and expectant mothers at work).
A risk management system can only be effective if there is a structure of reviewing and reporting to ensure the effective identification and assessment of risks and hazards and proper control over it. Compliance of standards, review of standard performance and regular audit of the process is required for improvement. At the US Petrochemicals it is assured by the monitoring system that the controls are in place and procedures are clear to everybody to follow them adequately. Changes are made in the system with the changes in the environment and the organization. The monitoring also determines that the intended outcomes were achieved, appropriate information was collected and appropriated processes were implemented and the decisions taken were appropriate according to identification and assessment (A handbook for workplaces).
Workplace health and safety is a key issue for any organization and the US Petrochemicals is not an exception. The responsibility of a workplace health and safety manager is tremendous and keeps him on toes because the things in the business world are changing fast and with this organizations are also changing and it is a challenge to keep changing the risk management strategies according to the organization. The US Petrochemical is a big organization with large number of staffs and different layers of management which makes the implementation of risk management strategies accurate. The risk management involves various steps like identification of risk or hazard, assessment of risk and hazard, control of risk and hazards, implementation of strategies of risk and hazards and finally the monitoring of the process. All these steps require serious and careful attention to avoid any incident and ensure health and safety measures.
A handbook for workplaces, Controlling OHS hazards and risks, Edition No.1, November 2007
British Occupational Hygiene Society Technical guide, No 12 The thermal environment (Second edition) H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd 1996 ISBN 0 948237 29 5
Crockford and Neil, 1986. An Introduction to Workplace Health and Safety Management (2 ed.). Cambridge, UK: Woodhead-Faulkner, pp; 18, ISBN 0859413322.
Deloach J. 2012. Key Elements of the Risk Management Process and Workplace Health and Safety.
Dorfman and Mark S. 2007. Introduction to Risk Management and Insurance ,(9 ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-224227-3.
Hubbard and Douglas, 2009. The Failure of Workplace Health and Safety Management: Why It’s Broken and How to Fix It. John Wiley & Sons.,pp; 46.
New and expectant mothers at work: A guide for employers HSG122 (Second edition) HSE Books 2002 ISBN 0 7176 2583 4
Writing an economics dissertation can prove to be a tough task and quality economics dissertation topics are hard to come by. The dissertation in hand allows you to investigate your ability for, and interest in doing economic research. Economics is not the easiest of subjects but it is one of the most interesting. Economics touches nearly every aspect of business and economic theory has been taught for centuries. Economics is seen as the analysis of production, consumption, distribution of wealth and allocation of limited resources to satisfy the needs of people and business. Nowadays, economics extends across national boundaries in the form of international business and global fiscal policy; this is noticeable with the formation of the European Union and flow of international finance.
Your economics dissertation is likely to be the biggest project you undertake at university or college. It can consist of anything between 10,000 to 15,000 words for a typical undergraduate dissertation and will involve in-depth research, time and dedication, you must organize your own time effectively in order to make it a success and set realistic goals. Here we have given a few thoughts and some advice on planning, researching and writing your dissertation. You will see a list of economics dissertation topics further on in this post.
Before you begin your economics dissertation, you must decide on an appropriate economics dissertation topic and title. Your dissertation should focus on a specific issue try to avoid generalizing as you may write a fragmented and disjointed piece of research. The topic should be interesting, something that can uphold in-depth research.
Choosing an economics dissertation topic and getting started
What is your topic question?
Do you have adequate background research?
Stay focused on it
In previous posts, I always stress to keep the research up to date and to engage the reader. There is no real benefit in writing an economics dissertation on outdated theory or defunct policy.
Choose a topic from an area you are familiar and comfortable writing about. Remember that this is a large project that will keep you engaged for most of your final year. It is advisable to revisit topics you have already covered on your degree as this may lead you to elaborate and base your dissertation on a project you have already completed. Writing your economics dissertation will be the ideal opportunity for you to use your intellect, skills, creativity, and economics training.
Economics Dissertation Advice
For empirical papers: Where will you get your data? How will it help answer your question?
What statistical techniques will you be able to use? Will you be able to identify causation or only correlation?
Theory papers typically are not just informal discussions. They tend to involve more mathematics than empirical ones, not less.
If you are having trouble understanding a topic, a good place to start is to look in several relevant textbooks to see how they handle it.
Economics is a specialized and scientific subject that involves equations, mathematics, figures and tables, economic theory is often underpinned by statistics and you need to be mindful of this. The field of economics differs vastly from other business subjects such as marketing, strategy and information management. These subject areas tend not to rely heavily on statistics or equations to strengthen findings and recommendations.
Below is a list of economics dissertation topics that will help you
International Marketing – Exploring New Products and New Markets
Any company which aspires to expand into new overseas markets faces a significant challenge in selecting the appropriate international marketing strategy to do so. An organisations strategic and managerial depth is severely tested. The challenge lies in understanding the new market, and designing and fabricating a suitable marketing mix for the dynamics of the market.
The challenge lies in being able to analyze the market for existing players, market size, and future of the industry. Expanding into a new country takes significant investment from the company in terms of organizing logistics, administration and controls, storage facilities, promotions and management costs. Hence, the right strategy to enter and exploit the market could mean a significant financial implication for the organization in the medium and long term.
Vic’s Premium Quality Meat is a family business established in a small way which has grown into a global business. Meat business in Australia was saturated, with little differentiation in products, which is when Vic’s decided to differentiate the product to create a price premium in the market. The company has to expand into overseas markets to be able to survive in the meat business. The company has decided to expand into China with its premium meat products because of China’s potential of huge demand. The market for Australian meat in China has grown by over 1500% from the mid-1990s (Bernoth, 2007). Hence, succeeding in this market is going to be very important to the company.
Perhaps the most important part of the international marketing strategy in entering a new market with a new product is the function of the marketer and the role he plays in making the venture a success. Product knowledge and a socio-cultural and economic awareness are necessary for marketing to succeed.
Organizational Strategies and Bearing on International Marketing Strategy
Porter categorized strategies into cost leadership, differentiation and focus (Porter, 1980). While the first two are generic strategies, focus is an increased attention on the business if either strategy is adopted (Dess & Davis, 1982), and hence a necessary strategic recourse in this case. Hence, between the generic strategies of cost differentiation and differentiation, a company’s entry strategy can be understood as four distinct positions taken by the company in the market (White, 1986). See Appendix 1. These four positions are as follows:
Pure Cost Position
This is a strategic position where cost differences between competitors are low, and there is little or no differentiation between products available in the market. Vic’s entered the market when the market was positioned like this, and successfully created a market for a product line which was priced higher. Hence, this international marketing strategy could mean that the company has to regress on its corporate strategy. Also, a low cost position is not viable in a market like China, which has the lowest cost structures for production anywhere in the world. Hence, Vic’s cannot use this strategy to enter China.
Pure Differentiation Position
This is a strategic position where product differentiation is high, because of which the implications of costing is low. This strategy is suitable for companies which target a niche segment of the market and hence aim to be highly profitable, at the same time be assured of business. This is the strategy Australian meat importers in China are following at present. This could be a suitable international marketing strategy for entering the market for Vic’s, as the primary strength of the company is the superiority of its products compared to local produce. Its assured customers are expats and the affluent and middle class Chinese who want safe and exclusive meat for consumption.
Differentiation and Cost Leadership Position
This is a strategic position in which the company is unique in its offerings and also prices competitively. This is suitable strategy for companies who find that the products and services they offer are unique, but the local and other substitutes that are available could compete with them. This strategy could be suitable for Vic’s in China because of the fact that there are several Australian companies who are into the meat importing business already and there is the threat of local produce which is much cheaper than imported meat.
No Competitive Advantage Position
This is an international marketing situation which is similar to a commodity market, where there are several products in the market and they are all equal in price, quality and uniqueness (Zahra et al, 2000). This situation does not apply to Vic’s business or its entry into China
The Apt Strategy
Out of the four strategic alternatives discussed above, Pure Differentiation and a combination Cost and Differentiation strategies could be the most suitable for Vic’s. Let us now explore these two strategies to find the most suitable. In both these strategies differentiation is common. Vic’s has to differentiate its products from the local produce and the existing Australian meat producers and importers to gain competitive advantage.
Vic’s has to gain cost leadership in the market with respect to the other Australian meat companies because it does not have the first mover advantage in this market. Hence, to gain competitive advantage Vic’s must be innovative and careful with its pricing strategy during the entry stage.
Vic’s has to adopt a combination of cost leadership and differentiation strategy to enter the Chinese meat market.
Coming to focus, the company needs to focus on gaining market knowledge in China, the dynamics, regulatory and the competitive forces. China has an embargo on meat imports from America, and this is aiding Australian companies in China (Australian Trade Commission, 2010). This situation could change in the future, and Vic’s has to be prepared for increased competition from other countries. Australian players in China are primarily focused on the metropolitan cities, and the new focus areas could be tier II cities, which are growing at a massive rate. This will take some serious understanding of the logistics and supply chain operations within China.
A company with a pure cost leadership position has relatively simple management bandwidth required in marketing and other functions. Its production and sales are synchronized. It produces goods at the cheapest cost and marketers sell them for as low as they can afford to. This requires a very simple management structure, low autonomy and frequent low complexity of reporting (Porter, 1980).
However, when a company goes in for product differentiation strategy, the coordination required between the various departments is high (Porter, 1980). The company has to have a senior management team to be functioning in China, as the business complexity is high. This entails a higher cost outlay for the expansion project and suitable individuals to be available for recruitment at a very senior level. Organizing its command structure and organizing its operations is the next significant complexity for Vic’s expansion into the Chinese market via a robust international marketing strategy.
The implication of the entry strategy for the country is the most critical position to take from the marketing perspective. If the pricing is too high or if the segment catered is too small, the venture could be a disaster. If the pricing is too low and if the segment cannot be defined properly, resulting in a sell to everyone situation, the company cannot survive in the long run. Thus, planning for market entry in an international expansion scenario (international marketing) is a challenging and engaging process for any organization. Vic’s has chosen to have a strategy to market its products based on its product differentiation and cost leadership or competitiveness and these are two factors which need careful balancing, as these are two opposing approaches to pricing and product development.
The Product Portfolio
Vic’s is a meat wholesaler, supplying to restaurants, butchers and customers, based out of Australia. Australian meat is known for its purity and this is a major leveraging factor for meat exports. Meat, beef, lamb and pork are the largest export products from Australia, with more than 60% of the meat produced being exported and Australia being the second largest exporter of beef, after Brazil (Australian Trade Commission, 2010). China has a meat embargo from the USA and this is a major factor for driving focus of Australian meat industry towards China, which, owing to its size is a large meat consuming nation (Ausmeat, 2010).
Vic’s deals with primal cuts in beef, lamb, pork, poultry, game and exotic meat and more processed food like handmade sausages. The products are procured from farms and butchered at Vic’s state of the art processing plants and dispatched to their ultimate destinations. These products are exported as sealed, vacuum packed containers and shipped to worldwide destinations, where they are packed and marketed. Beef and lamb are specialized into signature series, with special grass and grain fed meat being sold at a high premium because of the assured quality and meat tenderness. Such meat is sold as specialized portions, available to customers, primarily butchers, restaurants and supermarkets, who need specialized cuts to attract customers and to reduce their complexity in acquiring butchering licenses and maintaining inventory at the shop level of these special customer preferences.
Vic’s also procures and markets a number of exotic and game meats, including venison, Spanish Jamon, rabbit, ducks, kangaroo and crocodile. Such exotic meats are preferred by large restaurants who seek differentiation in their offerings with such meat, which are usually signature presentations of their chefs.
The entire product range of Vic’s is assured of hormone free feeding and exclusive breeding conditions and processing with hygiene and health consciousness. Though the meat industry is mature and there are very few new opportunities in the global arena, the ultimate factors which interest consumers in meat products are price, quality, volume and traceability, with the last factor being the latest to be added because of the increasing focus on food safety and knowledge and awareness of the consumer (Australian Trade Commission, 2010).
The competitive advantage of Vic’s is the fact that its products are considered and intended to be of the best quality. The impact of the increase in awareness among consumers is a major factor which accounts for its premium pricing and quality. Due to its status of being an evolved meat consuming nation and due to its cutting edge standards in the meat processing industry, Australian meat has become one of the most preferred choices in quality and premium meat (Ausmeat, 2010). Also, the competitive advantage will lie in serving customers in China, which takes a lot of understanding of power, logistics and supply chain practices.
Vic’s practices the Ausmeat language in all its trading and product marketing and for developing specifications for its products (Vic’s, 2010). This unified language enables meat producers to phrase and specify their products as per industry standards set by Ausmeat, and thus to ensure quality of products delivered to customers (Ausmeat, 2010).
Marketing Strategy – Vic’s China
Vic’s has firmed up its strategy, organizational structure and command structure. Now it has to begin identifying the marketing strategies for itself. Vic’s has to follow a Polycentric Orientation of marketing in the EPRG framework, which places marketing entirely in the hands of the subsidiary (Wind et al, 1973). An organization’s different countries function as different business units with different marketing approaches, depending on its market dynamics.
When an organization is entering a new market, it has to understand the market in its present condition. This understanding is brought about by market segmentation. The market may be segmented in a number of ways, and discussed below are two options.
The demographic segments in the market for meat in China are,
Chinese families who buy local produce at a low cost
Chinese middle class families who can afford costlier meat for its safety
Expats – Aussies and other foreign nationals who may be resident in China
Chinese middle class families in Tier II cities who don’t have access to imported meat
Australia shipped more than 24,000 tons of sheep meat to China in 2009 and 13,000 tons of beef. This makes China the largest consumer of sheep meat and the fourth largest beef consumer in the world. Vic’s has to target to acquire about 5% market share (1850 tons) in these shipments during the first year, doubling its share in the next year (3700 tons). The premium meat demand in China grows at about 15-20% every year (Bernoth, 2007) and consumption of all meat is rising at the rate of 3-5% per annum (Thepigsite, 2007), because of change in consumption practices. The average price of a kilogram of beef is at about $7 in the open market. But this is the price of local produce and premium beef is offered at anywhere between $15-20 depending on the portion and cut (Bernoth, 2007 & Pugh, 2010). Considering an average price of $17 per kg of beef, the estimated revenue size of Vic’s could be at $314 million in the first year, doubling to over $650 million in the second year.
The primary targets for Vic’s are upscale restaurants, hotels, expats from Europe and America and the local middle class which can afford premium meat. The scope for business expansion exists because of the fact that the per capita meat consumption in China is 67 kg per person in 2008, compared to an Australian average of 120 kg per annum. High growth projections discussed above are possible because of the fact that premium quality meat is still new in China, with the main competition coming from local, small time meat enterprises and smuggled meat from North America.
Vic’s China’s Marketing Mix
Product – Vic’s should deliver top quality products in the market in line with its strategy. Its products must reflect the tastes of the customers in China, in terms of the cut, animal and the portions. The products launched by Vic’s must add significant value against the products of its Aussie competitors, in terms of variety, packaging quality and finish.
Price – Vic’s should go in for on par pricing with its Aussie competitors in China, but a premium position to the local produce. It could even enter at marginally lower price than its Aussie players in China, to bring enjoy a cost leadership in the market.
Place – Vic’s must be distributed through super markets, its own retail shops and also through the digital channel – internet and phone ordering. Vic’s meat must be available within reach to any Chinese or expat customer who lives in the geography concerned.
Promotion – Vic’s must promote its products through various media. Expats in China can easily be targeted by social networking sites and online media, while the Chinese segments have to be catered to with the mass media. The plan would be to go in for a grand launch of a retail showroom of Vic’s in Beijing or Shanghai and then building the brand from there, using various other media.
The Target Market
The target market for Vic’s is constituted of consumers and businesses that can afford and realize the value of quality meat. Australian beef importers have been primarily targeting expats and the affluent restaurants of the major cities. This is an attractive segment which is readily available, already being catered to by other importers and brands. But this could also be a segment where there is significant competition and set customer preferences, considering that Vic’s is a late entrant in the market.
There is a large market with Chinese who buy meat from the local grocer or butcher, and considering Vic’s competency in being a wholesaler of meat in Australia, this could be a segment which could provide it the success and the volumes necessary. With increasing demand for quality food products from the affluent middle class (Garnaut, 2010) and with increasing reliance on imports for meeting meat demand, the local market could be the biggest and most lucrative market for Vic’s.
The size of the affluent in China was about 2.9 million and expected to rise to 8.5 million by 2015. Adjusting for purchasing power parity, an income of $60000 per annum in the largest cities of China could be equal to $1, 00,000 to $ 1, 50,000 per annum in the US. The affluent class in China is very young (86% less than 43 years old), highly educated (83% with university degrees) and very busy (23% has less than 10 hours leisure in a week). These figures show the perfect target for a meat brand which understands the customers, is prepared to educate and elevate its customers towards quality food and create a valuable premium market for itself. This could be a very valuable segment, if it can be sold directly to, through various channels of distribution.
Considering that meat consumed per person in about 70 kg per annum in China, this affluent segment is bound to be the leader in consumption, consuming average or above average quantities of meat. The numbers of these affluent is concentrated in the three major cities of China, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong (33% in 2007 and estimated to be more than 50% by 2015). This shows a concentrated set of customers who are educated, affluent and shop in supermarkets, are bound to expect high quality of food and general quality of living. Consumption decisions of the affluent class in China are hinged on luxury or social status, environmental consciousness or high quality and convenience (Hedrick-Wong, 2007).
By being present in Shanghai, Beijing and Guangdong, Vic’s could target 33% (1 million households) of the affluent population, with potential consumption of 70 million tons of meat (at the rate of 70kg average consumption per individual per annum) in the first year. This is a sizeable market which is available to Vic’s to exploit and grow. The key will lie in understanding consumer behavior of this class of people, where they buy, why they buy and what they buy. The socio-economic factors, ethnocentricity and culture of the locale are also very important because of the cultural diversity in a large country like China.
The main competitors for Vic’s in China are local butchers and other Australian meat brands already present in China. While the local butchers could be eventually unviable and become dependent on imported meat, due to lack of support from Government and due to sheer un-suppliable demand (Garnaut, 2010), other Australian meat brands could be the major competitors for Vic’s.
As of 2008, premium meat had touched only about 5% of the market available for such quality meat (Pugh, 2010). This means that Australian have a lot of space to grow and expand within China. But the real competition is going to come from other meat exporting nations, like the US, Brazil and New Zealand. Each of these countries has their own strengths in meat exporting. US beef is banned; aiding other countries, but this is a medium term advantage and could go away. Brazil is a low cost producer of beef, and also the largest exporter of beef and with its low cost production capacity. This makes Brazil a significant competitor for Australian beef. New Zealand is strong in game and exotic meats, with even Aussie companies procuring such meat from the Kiwis.
Another factor in competition that needs to be considered is that China’s meat consumption is composed of 65% pork and 20% poultry (Liu & Deblitz, 2007). This preference could place significant strain on Vic’s which is string in beef. This also presents an opportunity to cater to the top of the pork eating segment with the exotic pork it serves in the form of Spanish Jamon. The changing consumption patterns also mean that beef consumption holds significant opportunity for Vic’s, whose strong point is beef production.
The largest Australian player in mainland China is Elder’s, one of the pioneers in exporting meat to Australia and holds 50% of the market for premium meat exported from Australia. Other meat importers are marginal and small players. Elder’s is a major meat producer in Australia and is right now targeting supermarket chains and internet business to touch retail customers. It has all among been targeting restaurants and expats through ultra-high pricing, to customers who look for Australian meat specifically and for signature dishes in upscale restaurants.
The market position as of 2010 finds the industry for restaurants and expats being stagnant, with meat importers having to set up their own supply chain to cater to the other segments in the market. This creates an attractive opportunity for Vic’s to get its business model right and go for the mass market, which its other Australian competitors are only now beginning to target.
Vic’s, like its Australian competitors has to import meat in containers and process, package and market its finished products in China. This serves two purposes – to cater to the differences in meat consumption preferences in China and also to reduce costs by handling bulk of the processing in China and utilizing its low cost labor and other infrastructure. This will also enable Vic’s to have much leverage in promoting and discounting its product, by having much better control over its cost and hence it’s pricing structure.
The cost of production, transportation and processing and delivering products to customers takes about $10 per kg for Vic’s, to get the product to shelves in supermarkets, as per the study conducted by the management team which designed the market entry vehicle for the company early in the year. This provides a leeway of about $7-10, depending on the product, for Vic’s to leverage on for its profits and its marketing expenses.
In such a scenario, Vic’s can practice simple markup pricing to support a fixed profit for each product unit sold, and utilize a portion of these profits for its marketing budgeting. This method of pricing is suitable because the price is not the deciding criteria and because the competition in the premium meats segment is still low. This allows the few players present in the market to effectively exploit being the pioneers in the industry in China, this must be factored into the international marketing strategy.
Also, the decided marketing strategy of the company is to use a combination of product differentiation and cost leadership in its business. Such a pricing strategy will allow Vic’s to set its expectations of profit at an early stage and then fix its price to accommodate for these strategic positions it intends to take.
Vic’s can fix a markup of 50% approximately on all its products and allocate 10-20% of this to promotions and discounts. This will allow the company to be strategically placed in the supply channel and retail segment and also afford it a healthy to very high profit margin in China. The discounting could be to the retailer and the butcher, as discounting a premium product to the customer could erode the value of the upscale brand in the long run. Thus, the discounts passed on to the channel will enable Vic’s to command a special position within its channel and thus create valuable loyalty from butchers and supermarkets.
Channels of Distribution
Vic’s will enter as a wholesaler of meat, by setting up its cold storage and warehouses in Shanghai. It will start operating through supermarkets and restaurants in its first phase. It will have a sales team of 5 people, under a sales head, who will market the product to supermarkets, retail chains and large butchers. The ordering mechanism will work on a daily basis, considering the perishable nature of the products. The customer will place an order through the phone or through a dedicated internet account with Vic’s and the order will be fulfilled the next day. This mechanism will enable its channel to be fast and responsive to evolving market demands, this must be incorporated into the international marketing strategy.
To enable such a channel, Vic’s has to develop its logistics capability in China. Chinese logistics providers are traditionally single person operated with low costs and standards of operation quality. Since meat transportation is a complex operation and considering the value of the merchandise, Vic’s will set up its own logistics service, which will deliver products based on orders. This is not different from the logistics model it uses in Australia, with its own fleet for servicing orders in the market.
This initial channel setup will require a management team, to handle sales and logistics and also investments in resources like commercial vehicles, software and other management tools. The sales team will be composed of 5 people at the initial stage, to build relationships with major clients, and the proposed compensation for each sales person would be $12000 per annum, considering that the middle class of China earns above $6000, and this salary could bring in experienced sales people from the meat industry in China. They will be supervised by a sales manager, who will be paid approximately $25000. The sales team will be supported by a backend operations team which will be three strong and will cost the company $25000 per annum.
From the second year onwards, Vic’s will start targeting its consumers and butchers, through its own retail outlets and e-commerce. This will enable consumers to directly buy from Vic’s and buy all of Vic’s products under one roof. This will also enable Vic’s to earn higher margins, by cutting down on the discounts or margins it has to afford when selling through the channel. This channel strategy will take better understanding of the market and consumer behavior in China, which is why this plan is deferred to the second year.
Advertising, Sales Promotions and PR Plans
In the first year, when Vic’s is going through the retailer and the trade, it need not go in for mass marketing and advertising. It knows who its customers are and it can directly contact them for generating business. So, during the first year, the business promotion will be focused on PR and sales promotions. After a grand launch of the brand in Shanghai, Vic’s must embark on a PR mission to ensure that all stakeholders and major decision makers in the meat trade in China perceive Vic’s as an important player in the market and a serious competitor and value addition in the market. This could involve participating in trade shows, agriculture meets, food fests, chambers of commerce and prominent business councils and key ingredient in international marketing strategy.
Depolying an international marketing strategy, Vic’s must embark on a sales mission to get Vic’s into as many supermarkets, menus and restaurants as possible, in as many meat shops as possible. This will be possible through aggressive sales promotions, having great discounts for retailers and butchers, who prefer to stock Vic’s in their stores. The focus of the promotion must be in adding value to the customer, in enabling the restaurant to utilize its premium status among its consumers and to enable them to make better margins by selling Vic’s rather than other meat brands.
From the second year, Vic’s has to enter mass international marketing through various media, including television, radio and outdoor advertising. This is necessary because of the fact that the segments catered are larger and more widespread to target through rich media, like a direct sales pitch. The focus of these advertisements has to be the natural taste of Australian meat and beauty of Australia and the heritage of Vic’s. This will create a strong connection with the affluent customers who are being targeted in this channel. Such advertising will also create run offs to the wholesale business also.
The multi-pronged international marketing strategy of promoting the product through attractive trade discounts is a push strategy and advertising and communicating directly with consumers is a pull strategy. When both the push and pull strategies are applied in tandem, the effectiveness of the marketing program is higher than using just the push or the pull strategies in isolation from each other.
The first two years will need high marketing expenditure, with the brand needing to be established in the market and with each year targeting a new segment of customers, from the trade to the consumer. This will reduce profits from the first two years, but considering the string growth in meat consumption; such expenditure is justified as shown below:
Units Sold (Metric Tons)
Advertising / Promotion expenditure per ton(USD)
Management Expenditure per ton(USD)
Total Profit (USD Million)
*Cost/Ton includes cost of logistics, transportation, taxes, packaging and other levies and duties
Vic’s is entering China, a very promising market for meat producers in Australia. The environment at present is very conducive to expand into this country, and hence the company is building its strategies to find the best way to enter the market and cater to Chinese customers. The company has so far firmed up its entry strategy, organizational structure and control mechanisms and marketing strategy. Now the company has to go ahead and start its China project, by working towards setting up its supply chain in China, getting the necessary clearances and licenses and recruiting the people required.
International Marketing Strategic Entry Positions for a New Market
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