Title: Airbnb as an economic space. An economic space is either physical or non-physical system that creates a model through which people can design and interact with financial values. There are numerous platforms that can be classified as economic spaces including social websites such as Airbnb and Facebook. These platforms create spaces for people to gather and interact. Basically, the interaction of individuals within an economic space is determined by its structure and design. Each economic space has specific behaviors and traits associated with the social systems it forms. Airbnb has numerous benefits as an economic space because of its scale, allowing people to list and book accommodation from any part of the world.
Airbnb as an Economic Space
Airbnb is platform
that allows peers to list and reserve housing around the world. Individuals
with vacant rooms are allowed to register on Airbnb as hosts in order to list
their properties. Similarly, guests enroll on the platform as hosts and are
permitted to verify their identity using their online profiles or government-issued
documents before they are allocated an accommodation. The platform is
accessible through mobile application and websites. Recently, I interacted with
Airbnb as a guest and experienced the numerous benefits associated with the
space. It is easier, cheaper, and accessible from every part of the world. The
listed properties are of diverse sizes and prices and are in locations that
allow tourists to stay with the local people during their travel period. Airbnb
is global in terms of scale because like many internet-based platforms, it is
utilized by a global audience (Coe, Kelly, &
Yeung, n.d.). Guests have the option of choosing the listing based on
diverse criteria such as region, city, price, date, and features of property.
Nonetheless, the platform can be categorized into several scales that include a global, regional, national, urban, and local scale. One aspect of the platform that should be noted is that it is operated from a particular region although it is global. The listing of the products occurs from any place in the globe and hosts can easily update if their space is already booked.
Airbnb is fascinating because complementary economic activities are occurring concurrently at multiple scales (Coe, Kelly, & Yeung, n.d.). The accommodation services enabled by Airbnb are part of the sharing economy where users share assets and services using digital intermediaries. The difference between Airbnb and the traditional accommodation services is in the way of delivering these services. Because of the unique model utilized by Airbnb, there are numerous advantages for the hosts, the guests, and the populations at local levels. While searching for a suitable accommodation based on the available budget, I interacted with numerous hosts and the diverse properties available to clients across the globe. Basically, the actions of both the guests and hosts are shaped by the design of the platform, with each having a personalized interface to mediate the interactions.
Regarding interventions aided by Airbnb, it is not easier to isolate one scale of the system because the processes at a particular scale depend on the activities at another scale. The decisions that lead to the success of the business model are made at different levels of the systems. In this context, the human effort is augmented by digital structures. Each of the consumers is beneficiaries of the knowledge invested in the web platform. In the contemporary economic spaces, technology is the main tool to enhance the efficiency of the everyday activities. However, it is apparent that Airbnb platform does not overshadow the essence of ordinary work in the physical sense.
The design of the platform reveals what is an economic space and what it can do. Airbnb is a hallmark of economic globalization that braved the traditional methods of looking for accommodation. Consumers across the globe can choose from a variety of available spaces. Airbnb is a unique form of economic geography that has rationalized the tourism and travel industry (Walker, n.d.). Essentially, the analysis of Airbnb as an economic space is not confined in a singular scale but rather understanding that different scales are performing and active at the same time. When the platform is considered in one scale, we create a restricted and ambiguous understanding of the digital model used (Coe, Kelly, & Yeung, n.d.).
Airbnb is popular
because it allows efficient and easier listing of properties that serve a
global clientele. It is a digital system that allows people to undertake
economic activities in a worldwide scale. There are numerous economic benefits
associated with Airbnb because of the several scales that allow economic
activities at the individual, local, national, and international level. The
platform can be accessed through the website or mobile application and lists
properties of diverse features, prices, and location. At all scale levels, the
activities occur simultaneously. Listing and booking of accommodation occurs
from any part of the world and the activities of one scale depend on the
performance of the other. Airbnb is different from the traditional accommodation
services because it offers benefits to people at different scales of the
economic hierarchy simultaneously.
Coe, N. M., Kelly, P. F., & Yeung, H. W.-C.
(n.d.). Thinking geographically. In Conceptual Foundations.
Walker, R. A. (n.d.). The geography of production.
The UK fashion clothing market has been hit by many changes in the last decade. The UK’s plan to exit from the European Union has been one of the main changes that are facing business in the UK. The EU has been regulating trade in its member states and the UK’s exit will present a new environment for fashion retail market in the country (Dhingra, Ottaviano, Sampson, & Reenen, 2016). UK Fashion retailers have been enjoying free trade under the membership of the EU. In the past cloths are presented in shops where buyers could come and buy. Then come e-commerce. Cloths are sold over the websites and marketing is done through social media, a change that many clothing retailers are struggling to come into terms with. The economic recession presents an environment where businesses struggle to grow due to low sales and the high cost of doing business. This report will refer to Zara fashion Company to analyze the key changes in the UK fashion clothing market and suggest strategies to fix the changes.
UK Fashion – An Introduction to Zara Fashion Company
Rosali Mera and Amancio Ortega founded Zara in 1975 in Galicia, Spain, under the name Zorba. They later changed the name to Zara after noticing that there was a bar several meters away which had the same name. The company opened many other outlets in Spain during the 1980s. During the 1980s, Ortega started using a group of designers rather than individual retailers to respond to the new trends in the market in the fastest way possible. He also introduced information technologies to reduce lead times. In 1988, the company started to expand internationally and by 2011, the company had many retailing shops in the UK, China, Estonia, Russia, Philippines, South Korea, India, Australia, and South Africa. The company sells over 480 million clothing items every year in its shops.
In 2010, the company launched an e-commerce site where the cloths can be sold. The site was available in the UK, Germany, France, Portugal, and Italy. After five years, its online services extended to all other countries where it has shops. In 2014, RFID technology was made available in its shops. RFID technology involves fixing RFID chips on clothes before they are sold which notify them when a cloth is sold for an immediate replacement.
Zara retails on both men and women clothes. Children cloths are also sold under the name Zara Kids (Zara.com, n.d.). Zara uses consumer trends in the market to supply the clothes. The company spends less than 15 days before new cloths reach the shops after they have been manufactured.
Changes within the UK Fashion Retail Market
A report made by the World Bank puts the UK at number fifth in the world of the largest economies. The high population of the UK and enabling infrastructure enables smooth business which makes the country attain the fifth largest GDP in the world after the US, Japan, and Germany. However, the UK was hit by the economic recession in 2008 and the recessionary conditions are just decreasing gradually. Zara has been storing new clothes in its shops twice a week but during the recession period, the target could not be achieved. The recession period presented a high cost of living to citizens making it difficult to buy cloths every time. Zara had to store its clothes in stores for a longer period than expected.
Another economic change that has hit the UK market is increased inflation rates. The inflation rate in the UK reached 3.1% percent in November 2017. This increase in inflation rates translated to increased prices on clothes which make it difficult for consumers to purchase the clothes (Cowling, Liu, Ledger, & Zhang, 2015). Zara stores cloths which have been manufactured in its plant in Spain. The inflation rates in the UK makes the cost of importation to be high which forces the company to sell its cloths at higher prices than before. The consumer confidence in the UK is depreciating due to an unexplained increase in the company’s products. The company is struggling to restore consumer confidence and at the same time sell at prices that can make it make profits.
Corporate taxes has been increasing in the UK. The corporate taxes were 17% at first before they increased to 19% and now the Labour Party promises to increase the corporate taxes from the current 19% to 21%. The corporate taxes are one of the largest expenses of the company as they account for 19% of the profits that are made. Increasing the corporate taxes will lead to a reduction of the amount of money that is shared to the owners of the business (Suárez Serrato, & Zidar, 2016). They increase the cost of doing business which forces retail companies to increase their prices.
Political Changes in UK Fashion
The UK is set to exit from the EU. The company faces uncertainties of whether the importation tariffs will increase and by how much. The company sells which have been manufactured in Spain cloths in its UK shops. The UK and Spain being member states of the EU enjoy free trade. By free trade policies of the EU, the company pays zero importation tariffs to import its goods to the UK. This means that it can sell the sale the cloths at the same prices as those in Spain.
However, the UK’s exit from the EU (Brexit) will come with changes in trade terms which will include the introduction of importation tariffs since the UK will no longer be a member state of the EU. The companies will have to pay importation tariffs for the goods imported from Spain. This will increase its cost and make the company increase the price of clothes. Selling the cloths at high prices than those of the competitors like Arcadia UK fashion group which sell clothes made in the UK will have adverse effects on its business.
The pre-Brexit policies have not been formulated which brings further uncertainties about how the business will be done after the UK withdraws from the EU. The minister of trade in the UK held a meeting with the UK Fashion and Textile Association in December 2018. However, a clear direction was not given to the fashion retailer on how they will do their business after the Brexit.
The UK provides one of the fasted bandwidths on the continent. The penetration of smartphones in the country has been high in the last decade. This enabling environment has made people within the market to change their shopping preferences to online shopping. People are now preferring to shop over the websites (Peng, An, & Vecchi, 2017). UK Fashion retail companies are facing this challenge by investing in e-commerce and launching shopping websites. Zara has never been left out in this campaign and in 2014, it launched its online boutique in the UK.
The recessionary period in the UK presents an environment where business finds it difficult to grow at the expected rate. In as much as Zara Company want to expand by opening more sales in the UK, the environment discourages such a move. The recessionary environment also makes it difficult to make the expected prices and abide to its policy of replacing the stocks twice a week.
In May 2018, General Data Protection Regulatory (GDPR) came into force. The policy requires every social media firm and e-commerce sites to be transparent on how customers data is used. Zara Fashion Company is affected by the regulation since it owns an online boutique launched in 2014. To avoid litigations, the company should adhere to the General Data Protection Regulatory (GDPR) regulations. In April 2018, the bill passed by the UK parliament came into force. The bill required that all companies whose employee turnover is above 250 to publish the details of the employees including their gender and their salaries. This new rule affects Zara because it has more than 250 employees.
Unlike Spain where the market comprises of one main race with similar culture, the UK market features multi-ethnic cultures. The market has different design needs which should be fulfilled. Different people living in the UK have different design preferences.
Changes within the Micro Environment
Changing trends in the UK Fashion Market
The designs in the clothing market are subject to change within a short period of time. If the clothes are not sold within a short period of time they become useless to the customer and they might never be sold (Grewal, Roggeveen, & Nordfält, 2016). The company uses a group of designers to design every new design that is introduced as a tactic to respond to the changing trends in the market. The company also sells the cloths within a week to avoid cloths saying for long in the shelves which might render them useless. The RFID tag on clothes can monitor the clothes that have spent a long period in the shelves and change them.
Change in Marketing Strategies
decades ago Television sets and the print media were the well-known and
reliable marketing channels. However, the changes in technology have brought
digital marketing where marketing can be done over the internet. Social media
marketing is also a new trend in fashion marketing. Social media sites are
being used to market fashion products. Links are created on social media pages
which lead the user to the website of the retail company (Okonkwo, 2016).
Increased Competition in the Retail UK Fashion Market
The UK market has too many too many fashion companies which bring undue competition in the market. The competition has led to a reduction of prices by some fashion retailers. Large discounts are also being offered to lure customer.
Over the last decade, consumers have a switching motive from shopping in the malls to shopping over the e-commerce sites. Some customers prefer online shopping to shopping in the shops. Retailers in the UK fashion market are exerting pressure by using e-commerce sites to sale their products. The company’s in the market are now required by the standards set by the level of competition to have both selling channels. Zara Company uses its online boutique to respond to such changes in selling strategies. The company has now used its online platform for a period of four years.
Strategies and Tactics to Employ
Open a manufacturing plant in the UK
Zara Company depends on clothes that are made in Spain and transported to the UK. After the UK’s exit from the EU, there will be tariffs imposed on the imports. The tariffs will increase the price of clothes imported by Zara Company. To avoid import tariffs Zara should retail on cloths made in the UK rather than importing its stock from Spain. Zara has four manufacturing plants where its cloths are made. The plants are in Spain, Morocco, Portugal, and Turkey. The cloths made in Spain are freely exported and sold in European Union member states including the UK, Spain being a member of the EU. However, after the Brexit, it will not be easy to transport them under free trade terms to the UK.
One of the challenges in retail fashion market is the ever-changing trends in the market. A new design can register large sales today and become an old fashioned cloth with a year. If such cloth spends a year on the shelves without beings customers will start ignoring it for new fashions. Although Zara has been using trend in the market to sell its clothes, staff training is essential. The staff should be trained on how to respond to ever-changing trends in the fashion market (Dillenburger, 2017). With the incorporation of new technologies in its business process, the company should also train its staff on how to use the new technologies.
The interaction of the staff with customers is also very important in ensuring that the customer buys the product and that the customer is maintained to purchase in the future. The staff should be trained on how to interact well with the customers. Every staff member should be trained in good customer relations.
Using both traditional marketing
strategies and Digital Marketing
Both digital marketing and traditional channels like print media and television sets are useful when making advertisements. The company should employ both channels to boost its sales without ignoring either of them. Many people use the internet on daily basis and targeting those people through digital marketing is a wise idea. However, the two channels are not mutually exclusive and television sets, radios, and the print media can be used to reach people. Many people use these channels and digital marketing should never be used in place of them.
Every part of the world has cloths which are highly preferred to others. The company should be carrying research on which clothes to sell to a particular ethnic group as the market in the United Kingdom comprises of many cultures. This will reduce the risks associated with clothes being on the shelves for many days.
People in business are continuously innovating new strategies to make more sales. Retailers are not an exception and they should be innovative enough to be ahead of their competitors. A big challenge that is facing the retail market in the UK is increased competition from other retailers. Innovation is a tool that can be used to reduce competition. Innovation can involve using a shared economy by using the resources of other firms to boost sales. There are online platforms which sell various products without being fashion retailers or specializing in a particular product. Zara should partner with such firms so that the firms can be selling the products of Zara on top of Zara’s online boutique.
The Zara Company has tried to be innovative by introducing RFID chips to monitor the movement of cloths and introducing Zara online boutique to boost its online sales. The company and other fashion companies in the UK market should use the following challenges to meet the changes in the fashion market.
should open a manufacturing plant to avoid import tariffs after the Brexit. The
UK might impose tariffs on the goods imported from Spain after the UK’s exit
from the EU.
should use a variety of channels to make sales. Online shopping and shopping in
the shops are all important.
marketing is becoming popular in the retail market. The company should use both
digital marketing and traditional forms of marketing.
Innovation is the
best tool to use to have a competitive advantage over other companies. The
company should be continuously innovating to meet the challenges in the market.
litigations against a company risks its existence and loss of funds through
settling fines. The company should comply with the regulations set by the
relevant authorities. It should be transparent on user data usage and should
publish the details of its employees.
The changes in the fashion market have been a
challenge to Zara and other companies in the market. The Brexit has also
brought confusion about how cross border trade will be after the UK withdraws
from the AU. Zara retails on clothes which have been by its plant in Spain
which puts it under a threat of incurring import tariffs to the UK just after
the Brexit. This threat can be met by setting up a manufacturing plant in the
UK. Considering all channels in selling products and all forms of marketing can
help the company meet the challenges in the market.
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medium-sized enterprises in a global economic recession? UK evidence on sales
and job dynamics. International Small Business Journal, 33(5),
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and conceptual issues. Journal of Business Research, 69(3),
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I hope you enjoyed reading this post on changes in the UK fashion and how it affects the clothing market. There are many other titles available in the Marketing Dissertation Collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.
Globalisation and Diversified International Patterns of Consumption
Title: With the evolution of human communication and transportation modes over decades and centuries, this world is squeezing smaller and smaller day by day in terms of interaction among people of different regions, ethnicity, races, and obviously different mind-sets. This changing characteristic of the world is perceived as the globalisation and the world is seemed to be a global village. The globalisation of this world has changed certain patterns of its villagers in terms of their thoughts, lifestyle, communication, buying and selling trends, and also their patterns of consuming the goods and commodities. The contemporary and recent researches on the cultural issues targeted the process of cultural change among migrants and minority people within the mainstream strata of a given culture; however, limited research is conducted on the behavioural transformation as a product of globalisation (Sobol, Cleveland, and Laroche, 2014).
This research essay is purposefully written to explore the underlying scenario related to this topic by including and referring to different literature and viewpoints of the scholars and experts. The theme of this essay will be to discuss and assess the aftermaths of globalisation on transforming the behavioural patterns of the people towards consumption of goods.
The term ‘globalisation’
not only encompasses the economic and trading practices, but also the human
agents or the practitioners whose behavioural
attributes can impact the globalisation
phenomenon itself. In this way, the globalisation curtails the influence of
cultural or societal differences related to paradigm development and also widens
its scope while including the economic and financial activities regarding
consumption of services and products. Another understanding of the world globalisation can be established by considering
it as the international transfer or exchange of public, money, commodities,
knowledge and the cultural norms, which resulted in the boosting the awareness
level of people in the two last decades of the last century (Jadoon, Butt, and Hayat, 2016).
In the context of social sciences including culture,
sociology, political science, and also economics, the term globalisation is treated as comprising the
international classification, electronic media, and the international treaty
World Trade Organisation (Cornwell and Drennan, 2004).
It is explored through researches
that the globalisation directly
influences the patterns of consumptions and the society. The consuming trend
and style a society adapts mostly rely on the development of thoughts and their
needs. The significance of technological revolution in guiding the consuming
patterns is pertinent for consideration. Moreover, the online shopping system
has impacted the traditional trends and patterns enormously (Jadoon, Butt, and Hayat, 2016).
As per Ruediger
John (2005), globalization process does not ensure the one’s freedom and
security. It also lacks the definition of nations-wise social values along with
the enforcement of global law pertaining to address human psychology and behaviours. Moreover, instead of politically
addressing the cultural developments, the emphasis of globalisation is more on the spread and sharing of technology and economical boom (John, 2005).
Divid Howes (1996) in his book used the term
homogenization which refers to the unity in the global village. The terminology
depicts the paradigm of cultural and social influences in the international
markets are due to the intrusion of commodities and products in the form of
imports based on the knowledge gained through globalisation.
This paradigm also emphasises the need to
understand and accept the rise in the cultural and social differences occurred
due to the export of domestic goods and the import of goods mostly produced in
the western world. One contemporary contextualisation
of the consumption patterns of people in
the global village is the motivation of consumers or the people to choose the
goods as per their own liking and disliking instead of being a blind victim of globalisation. This is because the people of
the underdeveloped countries are often
influenced to purchase those products which are not only new and alienated but
most of the time also serves as damaging the local culture rather replacing it
with the imported culture (Howes, 1996).
There is a need to go deeply to understand that the consumers’ attitude is influenced by both internal and external factors in the form of domestic culture and the consequences of globalisation respectively. Several types of research have been continuously conducted to examine the consumers with the help of examining their lifestyle. A consumer’s lifestyle is the agent of the tendency of adapting the change in behaviour for consuming items and products of a single or multiple manufacturers. It is again the globalisation which enforced manufacturers all around the world to be indulged in an extensive competition in order to win the consumer’s satisfaction. This ultimately helped the consumers in terms of having competitive quality in products (Dunn, 2015).
An argument in the work of Elena Kell (2012) supports
that the globalisation forms and leads to
a consumption based society in which consumption has become indispensible and along with its ethical
practices. Consumers are generally unaware of the supply chain and operations
management involved in the availability of products imported from foreign
countries. Hence the ethical aspect of consumption addresses the consumer’s
responsibility to be updated of the steps involved in the processes (Kell,
McCoid (2010) differentiate the consumption in its
three shapes. According to that categorisation, the consumption of goods will
not remain sustainable if the resources are used more than what exactly
required, and this is called overconsumption. This mechanism often leads to the
lower quality of life and damages the environment. On the contrary, the
under-consumption is the utilisation of
resources much less than the required, hence causing poor quality to health the
lifestyle. It is observed that the main cause of under-consumption in the age
of globalisation is the inequality in the
social distribution of resources. Both
forms of consumption do not contribute to
sustainability. The sustainable consuming patterns,
however, do not cause the environmental damage and the human health. In order
to develop the consumption pattern in a sustainable way, there is a need to
accept the relationship of over and under consumption with the globalisation, because in a global village, the
under-consumption of most groups causes
the over consumption of few groups (McCoid, 2010).
On a critical side, the contemporary consumption
patterns have negatively impacted the development of human wellbeing on the individual as well as on societal levels. This change happens in a way that it spread the social
inequalities among groups and even countries through globalisation. The inequalities are spread due to the differences
in the quality of products and services for all different social classes within
a certain society or the region. The global consumption pattern is also
promoting and supporting the flow of resources to a limited class of people and
groups who have much more wealth to spend on even luxurious items instead of
just the basic needs, hence the poor class of people in the world continues to
suffer the lacking of even basic needs due to the lack of resources. Similarly, the globalisation
has intruded the consumption of food based items which are most of the times
either not synchronised with the eating
habits of the people of a particular country or are much expensive than their
local alternatives. The adaption of
foreign goods and items also often creates environmental problems in the form
of waste disposal and discharge (Khor, 1998).
The increase in the free trade between countries has
also enhanced the availability and quantity of goods and services for the end
users. This scenario was for sure cannot be imagined the effectiveness of
various global trade pacts, agreements, and the role of unions worldwide. With
the increase in the quality as well as a variety
of products through globalisation, the
consumption pattern among people has drastically changed. People pay due
importance in conducting a preliminary survey, physical or online, regarding
the particular product they are going to buy. Moreover, unlike before, the brand has been given comparatively less
importance by the consumers (Scriven, 2014).
The technological advancement, globalisation and the integration of countries around the world
have significantly changed the consumption pattern of people all over. The
internet facility got the users of around fifty million in only five years;
hence it is pertinent to accept that through internet lives of thousands and
millions of people in all countries evolved positively. The comparative survey
has become much easier through the internet
for everyone regarding any product before its purchase. Everyone in the global
village can be informed of the patterns of the lifestyle
of any other person or group in other parts of the world (Kónya and Ohashi, 2004).
This research essay has explored different theoretical
perspectives of various authors to explore the aftermaths of globalisation on transforming the behavioural patterns of the people towards
consumption of goods. It can now be concluded after a comparative analysis of
various viewpoints on the topic, that the globalisation has certainly opened
the door of opportunities for not only sharing of knowledge, technology, and goods, but also played and has
been playing a significant role in designing and changing the behavioural
patterns of consumption among consumers and end users all around the world in
this global village. Some paradigms consider it as positive while the other as
the negative role of globalisation because,
in some perspectives, it has also led towards social and financial inequalities
among societies and classes of people.
T.B. and Drennan, J., 2004.
Cross-cultural consumer/consumption research: dealing with issues emerging from
globalization and fragmentation. Journal
of Macro marketing, 24(2),
K., 2015. Globalization and consumer: What marketer needs to know. The Neumann Business Review,
D., 1996. Cross-cultural
consumption: global markets, local realities. Taylor & Francis US.
A.K., Butt, A.R. and Hayat, M.A., 2016. Development of Measurement Models for
Globalization, Consumption Patterns and Culture: A Case Study of Three Big
Cities of Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan
Economic and Social Review, 54(2),
John, R., 2005. Globalized Culture, Consumption and Identity. Translated by Gunilla Zedigh. Baden,
E., 2012. Ethical consumer in a globalized world: challenges for the
individual’s identity. A study on ethical consumers in Lund and Malmö.
Khor, M., 1998. Globalisation, Income Distribution,
Consumption Patterns and Effects on Human and Sustainable Development (no. Hdocpa-1998-06). Human
Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Kónya, I. and Ohashi, H., 2004.
Globalization and consumption patterns among the OECD countries.
McCoid, C.H., 2010. Globalization and
the Consumer Society. Global
Security and International Political Economy–Volume II, p.49.
Scriven, J., 2014. The Impact of
Globalization on the Consumer. The
Nouman Business Review, pp.13-23.
Sobol, K., Cleveland, M. and Laroche, M., 2014. Globalization, Culture and Consumption Behavior: An Empirical Study of Dutch Consumers.
Did you find any useful knowledge relating to globalisation and diversified international patterns of consumption in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.
Title: Ethical and Legal Issues in Nursing Practice. Professional ethics involves the use of reasonable and regular communication, information, medical skills, emotions and doctrines in nursing practice. The mission of nurses is to provide health care of high quality and improving and maintaining public health. Ethics being a vital element of professionals in the healthcare department plays a major role in the moral behaviors of nurses to patients. This, in turn, influences patients’ health improvement.
principles of nurses are to respect human rights, dignity and values. Nursing
comprises three basic principles of caring, namely ethics, clinical judgement,
and care. Nurses must adhere to ethical rules and carry out their duties
according to governmental and governing statutes. Moreover, nurses encounter
various dilemmas, ethical or legal in nature in the middle of performing their
duties. However, other nurses may be unprepared to tackle dilemmas and be
unable to answer questions pertaining to their conduct.
Ethics is a principle that describes what is expected in terms of right and wrong while a law is a set of rules that involves punishment in the event of an offence. A nurse often encounters the law through possible litigation in which the nurse may have unlikely involved in. Furthermore, a nurse can also encounter the law in case of the unlawful act is done like malpractice and negligence. Nurses undergo various situations and may be classified as ethically correct but not legally accepted, or legally unaccepted but ethically correct. Circumstances such as death, euthanasia, and abortion may put a nurse into a quagmire.
In the event of a nurse giving a patient incorrect medication, the nurse automatically hides the fact to protect himself or herself from being caught by the law. This scenario raises relevant questions focusing on the legal and ethical issues of nurses. Another circumstance that is ethical but not legal is whereby a patient is allowed to smoke bhang as a remedy for an illness. In addition to that, there is a situation that relates to ethical and legal issues focusing on a patient being forced to a drug or a test contrary to his or her will or without proper information.
existing between the Law and Ethics in the Nursing Practice
When nurses are faced with dilemmas and need to make professional decisions, the nurses are held amid two contradictory sets of demands. The first set is from a professional mission and the second one is from lawful provisions. Healthcare professionals and nurses become entangled in civil or unlawful justice organizations. This occurs when nurses commit an unlawful act by not renewing the license for nursing in time.
Other unlawful actions may involve abuse of the substance, as in the case where nurses obtain medications by not following procedures within medical settings. Nurses ought, therefore, to differentiate morality and law as an action may be immoral but legal. For example, a directive to carry out resuscitation for a patient who is dying might be legal but immoral. However, an act might be illegal but moral like in a case where there is an emergency of a patient falling ill at home, a driver may pass the speed limits when taking the patient to the hospital and this may be considered as illegal but it is moral.
Conflict may emerge between the law and ethics in the case where a nurse decides that there is no reason for certain medical services such as therapy services. In such a case, the professional code of ethics states that no fees should be charged by the practitioner for such services. Meanwhile, nurses are legally obligated to render services to the patients indiscriminately. In relation to that, conflict in the nursing practice might arise from customer expectations and opinions such as a patient’s rejection of blood transfusion. In some instances, agreement with a legal obligation might look as unjust, harmful, or invalid.
Besides that, nurses stay away from an absolute agreement, particularly when the law seems as contradicting ethics. Sometimes, nurses are not ready to sacrifice own values or patient well-being to a system that is not perfect outlining regulations and rules. For example, the failure of nurses to adhere to professional responsibility in revealing private information. Additionally, conflicts may emerge between ethics and law in the process of making a decision for the dying and incompetent, as well as matters regarding people with disability and the right to life matters.
Ways by which
Nurses can Negotiate Conflicts Existing between the Law and Ethics
conflict between the law and ethics might manifest might rotate around values
such as fairness, patient choice, truthfulness, privacy, patient well-being,
respect for life, confidentiality and privacy, and preserving commitments to
oneself, patients, colleagues in nursing, a profession in nursing, and practice
settings. The values remain importantly shared by the public. However, in the
case where two of the set values can be applied to a condition, though
supporting diverging courses of action, conflict emerges.
The ethics code defines the mission of nursing practice of meeting patient needs and answering to surrounding forces that may stem conflicts between law and ethics. What may put a nurse to a risk in the profession of nursing is when there is a conflict between a nurse’s ethical duty to a patient and the nurse legal duty to the employer.
There are no sufficient procedures in resolving the quagmires prominent in the practice of nursing. Nurses that acts as a patient advocate may not be legally protected by the ethical codes and might be abstract to put on with regularity. On the contrary, the government in some instances does not permit nurses to attend to certain individuals or carrying out their practice in certain manners. This is in contrary to the practice in the nursing, specifically on the grounds of responsibility to care for patients.
The nurses, therefore, are expected by the practice code to respect the conclusions taken by the patient, so long as it is well-versed consent. Sometimes patients or patients’ families may not follow recommendations provided or treatments by the provider which in turn brings conflict and a moral quagmire for the nurse. Moral dilemma comes from situations’ where two concise or more moral values apply, but they backup mutually varying foundations of action.
How Nursing Conflicts between the Law and Ethics were handled historically by the Nurses: Reacting to prejudicial rules
in the event that a nurse encounters a burden that is reasonable, conscientious
objection, a personal danger, and matters pertaining personal competence. A
burden that is not reasonable manifests in the event that the nurse’s
competence to provide safe care and satisfy Standards of Practice is challenged
by expectations that are not practical, insufficient resources, and threats on
personal welfare. Nurses are neither allowed to neglect their patients nor are
they authorized to position themselves in circumstances where the care delivery
would bring dangers that are not logical to their individual safety. This
involves diseases that are communicable, violence, sexual, and physical abuse.
In the case of personal competence, the expectation from nurses is that they
should practice constantly and competently acquire new knowledge and skills
within the surrounding environment of practice.
Nurses are only
allowed to provide care that is not beyond their level of competency. In the
rural areas, the nurse may encounter cases whereby he or she is requested to
provide care beyond his or her capability hence the nurse often provides care
that he or she is capable to offer. It is therefore appropriate for a nurse to
seek advice from his or her employer in case of conscientious oppositions where
a certain method of care conflicts with the nurse’s religious beliefs and
moral. The nurse should, therefore, refrain at all cost to provide care. An
individual judgement which conflicts with the patient’s lifestyle ought not to
provide a basis for conscientious objection.
Historically, nurses have made use of the expert code of practice in resolving conflicts which emerge between law and ethics by polite communication, and the direction provided by the code of conduct in the nursing practice. This code comes from the common belief that the main roles of nurses involve preventing ailments, easing client’s suffering, and the safeguarding, promoting and restoring patient’s health among the caring of people, families, groups, and societies. Institutions that deals with healthcare are expected to offer multidisciplinary ethics committees that provide education, support and counselling on ethical matters.
Through this, a platform on which variable views are expressed, provide support for caregivers and reduce legal risks for the institution. Professional standards help the nurses to understand the conduct of professional nursing by making sure that the nurses are in the track of providing unique care for the sick, the nurses showing signs of commitment to the communities, outlining the essential ethical morals for professional conduct, offering guidance to the nursing professionals in their mission for self-regulation.
Nurses should therefore,
apply the codes to practice in coming up with decisions of ethics by
recognizing the patient’s right to competent, ethical and safe care. However,
in some cases, the nurse’s personal rights and principles can be in contrary to
the patient’s right to be given care. In such a situation, nurses are required
to define the facts and point out the dilemma. Upon highlighting the dilemma,
the nurses are required to simplify the dilemma, after which the nurses should
implement options that are available and come up with a plan and ultimately
implementing the suggested plan. Nurses should not contravene the set of
ethical and legal standards in the nursing practice on the basis of satisfying
client well-being. In the event of a group of nurses violating the set legal
and ethical standards due to the conflict between held principles and the
ethical obligations, it is important to guarantee that the nurses’ behaviors
are rooted in sound legal judgment, instead of self-interest, rationalization,
Danjuma, A., Adeleke, I., & Ominiyi, S. (2015).
Knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing ethics and law among nurses at
Federal Medical Centre, Bida. American Journal of Health Research, 3(1-1),
Dehghani, A., Mosalanejad, L., & Dehghan-Nayeri, N.
(2015). Factors affecting professional ethics in nursing practice in Iran: a
qualitative study. BMC medical ethics, 16(1), 61.
Zahedi, F., Sanjari, M., Aala, M., Peymani, M., Aramesh, K., Parsapour, A., & Dastgerdi, M. V. (2013). The code of ethics for nurses. Iranian journal of public health, 42 (Supple), 1.
Title: Marketing Concepts for Marketing Students. Marketing is a mode of communication that exists between an individual or a company and their clients with the intention of selling them their products and services. Being able to communicate the value of a company or an individual’s product or service is a significant aspect or element of marketing. As such, various marketing concepts that including advertisement, promotion, marketing mix, marketing research, pricing, packaging, personal selling, brands, business markets, buying behaviors of customers, retailing, sales management, distribution channels, global markets, innovations, and trends in marketing, among others exist. In particular, this research paper presents an evaluation of marketing mix, market research, and pricing with an intention of creating a further understanding of the concepts. The general understanding is that marketing defines everything under the management process via which merchants and services provided move from being mere concepts to the point where they reach the end users or customers.
This concept defines a planned or scheduled mix of the controllable fundamentals of the marketing plan of a product commonly referred to as 4Ps: promotion, product, place, and price. These elements are continuously attuned until the correct recipe that meets the desires of the customers purchasing the product is established, while yielding optimum profit.
In some cases the ‘P’ of product is replaced with presentation. With a combination of the 4Ps, business managers have to avail the right products in the right location or place, at the right timing and price. Essentially, a business is compelled to develop a product that a specific segment or group of personalities want, avail it for sale at a location that those personalities regularly visit, and tag a cost on it or price it such that its value matches the actual value that they feel they obtain from it; and actually implement all this within a duration or time when they are in demand. This whole concept defines marketing mix.
Luan and Sudhir (2010) argue that the 4Ps act as the parameters that an organization’s marketing manager regulate or control, based on the external and internal constraints of the business or marketing surrounding (environment). The objective is to come up with decisions that focus the 4Ps on the clients in the market that is targeted with an intention of creating a perceived product value and give a positive feedback.
In their discussions, Luan and Sudhir (2010) define a product as tangible objects, including services, which are offered by a company or an individual. Decisions that marketing managers can make on products include, but are not limited to choosing a brand name, packaging, warranty, functionality, accessories, services, styling, repairs, quality, support, safety and styling of the product.
defines where buyers obtain a good or service from. Under the element of
‘place,’ a variety of questions can be asked to meet the quest or need of
customers (Luan & Sudhir, 2010). For instance, a marketing manager may want
to know how to access the right and best distribution channel, determine
whether to use sales force, or may be become part of a trade fair, make online
product submissions, or better yet still mail product samples to catalogue
organizations or companies. Imperative to note under this concept is equally
determining what one’s competitors are doing, how they do it, the lessons that
can be learnt from their actions, and finally determine a differentiation
or the cost charged for a service obtained or a product purchased is equally a
significant element of the 4Ps. According to O’Cass and Heirati (2015), one
requires to work extra hard to determine what customers really want, in
addition to identifying where a majority of them do their routinely shopping.
Important to note is that getting just one of this elements wrong could be a
recipe for disaster. For instance, a product might be priced too high or too
low with an intention of attracting clients, but if the target group have no
capacity to afford the costly product or its too much cheap or below their
standard, then the product might not be bought or assumed to be of low quality
respectively (O’Cass & Heirati, 2015). Essentially, getting right the
marketing mix acts as a leading edge where any marketing manager should begin
when thinking through their plans to offer a particular service or product, and
it majorly helps them evade simple mistakes.
the context of marketing mix, the element of ‘promotion’ takes into
consideration the numerous dimensions of marketing communication, and
specifically the communication of the details of the product or service with
the intention of achieving a positive response from the customers (Powers &
Loyka, 2010). Decisions that can be made under marketing promotion or
communication include whether to use a push, pull, or other forms of
promotional scheme, identifying the modes of doing adverts, sales improvements
and promotions, publicity works and public relations, the budget for marketing
communication, in addition to making use of individual selling strategies or a
sales team (Powers & Loyka, 2010).
the elements of marketing mix are used to help marketing managers to
successfully position their goods and services, or what could be referred to as
market offers. The aforementioned elements or the 4Ps of marketing are used by
marketing managers to define their marketing options based on their product,
place, price, and promotion (4Ps). This kind of model can be used when an
individual is making plans for a completely new business venture, in the
evaluation of an already existing business offer or product, and finally in the
optimization of the effect or impact of a venture in regard to a targeted
the product refers to the physical commodity that is sold to the market by the
seller. The product forms an important element in the marketing mix because it
gives different products the require matrix. The product might occur both in
physical and invisible form. Products which are visible might be categorized
further on the basis of service, warranty, packaging and stature. Product
differentiation is based on increased level of appearance and product
price is the amount of money which is paid as an exchange of the products.
Prices vary due to the quality and quantity of commodities and services. The
major reason why price forms an extensive aspect of marketing is because of the
relationship between the price levels and the movement of goods from one
location to the next. Price includes discounts, leases, promotion, and profits.
Marketing mix has been related to the number of companies which operate within
the designated places. This
is the most significant element among the 4Ps of marketing mix because it is
the only one that generates an income for the company. The other three elements
actually have impacting costs when implemented. For instance, it will cost the
business money to design and develop or produce a new product, distribute it, and
finally promote it in the market.
Promotion refers to the marketing of products to the designated buyers and
sellers. Since prices could be extremely large, marketing is an important
concept because it helps to eliminate any disadvantages related to the product.
The major role of promotion is to reduce competition between different
products. Promotion also helps in determination of the worth of other customers
in relation to the to the promotion and advertising decisions.
Marketing Concepts Research
Marketing managers are in need of data or information so that they successfully introduce a service or product that would create a lasting value in the mind of clienteles (McDaniel & Gates, 2005). However, the opinion of value is personal, and whatever clients attach so much value to this year may be completely different from what they would attach value in the coming years or years. In this manner, the attributes that create a perception of value cannot merely be deduced from ordinary information.
Rather, a marketing manager must collect and analyze data. The objective of the concept of marketing research is to provide managers with the facts in addition to informing their direction or decisions, more specifically those that involve marketing choices. In order to fully benefit from the concept of marketing research, the individuals that make use of the collected data have to understand the process of carrying out the research in addition to considering its limitations (Malhotra, 2010).
Burns and Bush (2000) describe the process of marketing research to include the collection, analyzing and interpreting data or information as regards a market, and in regard to the services or products to be offered for sale in that market, plus about the history, current and possible clients for the service or product ; research delving into the desires of the targeted market of business, characteristics, location, and needs of the targeted business market, the overall industry, in addition to the specific competitors that the business has (Burns & Bush, 2000).
The foundation of all the successful business ventures is accurate and detailed information since it issues a wealth of data or information as regards prospective and existing clients, the competitors, and the general industry. It gives business owners the freedom to determine the viability of a business before committing considerable amounts of money or resources to the business venture.
research provides a marketing manager or the overall company with the relevant
information that would help them solve their likely future challenges, more so
in the marketing segment, which makes it a critical aspect in the process or
managing and planning a business venture (Burns & Bush, 2000). In actual
sense, business strategies that include market segmentation (spotting
particular groups within a target market) in addition to product
differentiation, which simply means identifying the distinguishing factors of a
business’ products or services as compared to those offered by competitors, are
completely impossible to establish or develop minus doing a marketing research
(Zarrella & Zarrella, 2010).
Marketing research entails two major forms of data, namely primary and secondary information. Primary data refers to the results of a research that a business owner decides to compile in person, or perhaps indirectly hire a different individual to perform the action of collecting information. Contrarily, secondary data makes reference to the information that is already compiled and organized in a specific format minus the researcher’s involvement. Sample secondary sources include reports from trade unions or associations, government agency studies, in addition to other business ventures within the same industry. Secondary data is commonly used in this process.
marketing managers, the significance of research is not only limited to
learning but also a vital element when making good managerial decisions.
Essentially, marketing research provides individuals with a general picture of
what is taking place or likely to happen. If implemented well, marketing
research avails offers as regards the alternative choices or decisions that can
possibly be made within a company. For example, a properly done research can
offer managers alternative methods on how to enter new markets and as well help
them introduce new products. Marketing decisions are known to be less risky,
more so when the marketing manager has a variety of options to choose from.
Marketing research is considered as the foundation of business marketing. Marketing decisions require to be substantiated through research so that the customers view the business as favorable. In addition, marketing research can help a business stand up to other external pressures in addition to competition. The general understanding is that all the areas covered under marketing, in addition to making marketing decisions, ought to be supported with some degree of research.
Even though marketing research is significant in making marketing decisions, it does not require any further elaboration to attain its purpose. Many a time, taking time to do a quick search via the internet will avail the required data or information. However, there comes a time when more complex processes of research are requisite, in addition to understanding the correct method of conducting a research, whether they are doing the work at a personal level or have hired someone to do it can make the projects much more successful.
current decade has seen an increased number of innovations. The innovations in marketing
have seen increased incorporation of technology and marketing. Several trends
have developed for the past five years and their impact on marketing has been
massive. The trends include;
reality; virtual reality emerged in the late 2000. Virtual reality incorporates
online marketing of products with virtual content. Virtual reality encourages
each firm to provide its customers with a 360 immersive story. The engagement
between the commercials provides a call to action procedure in each firm.
Increased online marketing has resulted in increased use of apps like Facebook
to make sales. Facebook has been at the forefront in provision of marketing for
Social media marketing; Google has revolutionized marketing strategies for the past three years. Increased level of functionality and presence of Facebook and twitter in the search engines has increased the marketing probabilities of different companies. The major revolution accompanied by these marketing strategies is the increased level of procedural sales that have increased the sales in different companies. Digital migrations and increased connectivity of social media sites has been the major reason why social media marketing has gained much more ground.
In a recent study, Facebook has been voted as the most appreciated social site among the other sites. Incorporation of advertising portals in Facebook has helped many business advertisements to receive much more attention. The conversion portal on Facebook includes the dominant pictures that could be included when making promotion on Facebook. The attribution model on twitter and Facebook is shown by the existence of both the website and an email which is used to log in. The attribution panel provides an extensive channel that is important for the formation of correct provisions. Twitter and Facebook have been the foremost media sites to embrace development of an expensive direct channel. The direct provision of advertisement is an essential strategy developed by Facebook in order to achieve this.
marketing; Global warming is a major topic in 21st century.
Increased demand for proper products has seen increased embrace of for green
products. Green products mean that the world is resolving to use products that
don’t emit much carbon or excessive methane. The target audience for green
products revolves around increased appreciation for products that use less
energy and don’t emit any poisonous gases to the environment. The concept of
green energy has been used in marketing especially for products that use power.
Increased appreciation for clean energy has led to reduced number of products
that use black energy. Green energy has been used by majority of firms to
increase the level of marketing (Blick, 2008).
automation; marketing automation is mostly based on the production of content
based advertisement methods in the markets. The current market systems have
been based on the increased level of competition that has been witnessed in
production procedures. Marketing automation is a new concept because it has
based its advertisement modes on content reproduction and analysis. Increased
level of production has increased the number of sales per production unit.
Improved marketing choices have increased the level of sales funnel within
certain regions. Sales automation has led to increased sales in different firms
because of the increased level of segmented customer levels (In, 2015).
Better relationship marketing; relationship marketing refers to the relationship between the buyers and the sellers in the appropriate way. Over the past years, increased level of relationship marketing has led to increased number of sales. In the past five years, better relationship marketing has been revolutionized through better marketing. Marketing dynamics for a long time have been based on the relationship between consumer surpluses and producer surpluses. Producer surplus means that there is a sale of an extra unit of production. Better relationship management limits the number of sales per unit to a specified number only.
The dynamics of marketing have been improved through better relationship management. Better relationship management has been enhanced by the adoption of smartphone technology. Smart phones possess apps which have been utilized by different companies in order to make increased sales per unit. A consumer who possesses a strong internet connection is likely to access more services. Dynamic trends in the marketing field have led to increased sales. The marketing of concepts through automation could be altered through the use of increased investment in content management and analysis. The concepts on marketing have been enhanced through the development of extensive development.
Marketing Concepts References
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