The existing competitive business environment requires the entrepreneurs to identify unique problem-solving strategies to make them overcome competition. Hence, it is vital for them to protect their exclusive creation from other parties who can benefit from the knowledge. Plainly, intellectual property is a new invention that results from the creativity of an individual who has full entitlement to it. Such ideas need protection to deter other parties from using them in making a profit without the consent of the owner. Particularly, the possessors need a statutory protection of their products by registering them to ensure that they can legally claim the ownership of the invention. Different intellectual properties provide complete cover to various kinds of new ideas. Considerably, Sam had an intellectual property right over the list he created despite committing a tort by shoving Natalie.
Specifically, there are four broad categories of intellectual property which include copyright, patent, trademark, and trade secret (Posner, 2005, p. 66). Markedly, copyright deals with the original works of authors, film producers, or programmers. Thus, they include books, movies, computer programs, and articles among others. Ideally, a patent is an invention of an object that improves its performance. On the other hand, trademark involves symbols, words, or a phrase that uniquely identifies a person or a company. Finally, trade secrets are secret formula or information possessed by an individual to gives him or her competitive advantage over others. Sadly, the information that falls under this category are not original enough to merit the protection of copyright, neither are they novel to sufficiently guarantee a patent protection. Nevertheless, the endorsement of the federal law limits the theft of trade secrets (Kinsella, 2001, p. 5). Agreeably, Sam’s client list falls into this category since it gave him an advantage over other employees and he needed to keep it private, justifying his actions by copying the files without the knowledge of the authority.
Essentially, the law provides for the best plans to incorporate in safeguarding the fresh ideas that other people may steal. As in the case with Sam, he had his client list that he did not want any other party to access. Since he did not want to follow the lengthy procedure that the law requires in registering newfound knowledge, he decided to keep the data without the assistance of the authority. Unfortunately, his choice proved costly because he stored the data in the workstation of ABC Paper Corp. Interestingly, keeping the data in the computers of the company gave the firm a right to the information therein (Posner, 2005, p. 68). Therefore, leaving his client list in that location granted the company all the rights over the details in his file. Consequently, Sam was to communicate with the relevant authorities regarding the information stored on their computers rather than sneaking into the room of equipment and plugging in his drive. Thus, the first unethical act committed by Sam was accessing the room and the computers without authorization.
Moreover, plugging a drive into the computer of the firm was unethical. Most enterprises forbid employees from plugging in external drives into the company’s computer system since such actions lead to loss of valuable information, access to private data, the spread of malicious software, or spying the network. Given that Sam was committing a prohibited activity, Natalie had to act. Since he suspected that he had committed an offense, he resolved to run away instead of explaining his actions to Natalie. As a result, Sam’s behavior confirmed to the boss that he had been compromising the security of the company. Unfortunately, he shoved Natalie aside in her attempt to prevent him from escaping. Undoubtedly, all the negligent acts of Sam were unethical. Henceforth, although he sought after his client list, the procedures he used convicted him for criminal activities.
In essence, the government has established laws to protect the public from undue injuries. Accordingly, tort laws safeguard and handle the treatment of the injured individuals due to the recklessness of another party. A tort occurs when a person inflicts an injury on another person and the latter sues for the damages caused (“Babcock Law Firm,” 2017). Usually, an injury case can result in different categorizations that require the law to have defined procedures for handling each occurrence. As a result, tort lawsuits are the largest group of civil litigation (“Babcock Law Firm,” 2017). However, there is three generalization of the types of injuries handled by the law namely negligence, intentional torts, and strict liability.
Accordingly, intentional torts result from the purposeful engagement in an activity that can cause damage to another person. For instance, initiating a fight against another person exposes the offender to an intentional tort. On the other hand, negligence tort illustrates the every citizen has the moral code of conduct that one should follow. Failure to adhere to such rules poses a risk to other individuals and can lead to injuries or damages. The occurrence of these injuries does not rely on the planned activities of the offender but the carelessness of the party and failure to grant the obligation owed to another. Agreeably, this is the most common type of tort (“Babcock Law Firm,” 2017). Undoubtedly, Sam committed negligence tort when he shoved Natalie aside while escaping interrogation. He did not intend to injure her, but the push caused the concussion. In truth, Sam failed to follow the procedures of safeguarding his data and acquiring the same. Therefore, he resolved to other activities that threatened another party, Natalie. Truly, he was the only offender who committed a tort.
Most of Sam’s actions subjected him to criminal liability. Specifically, he plugged in his external drive to the computer without the authorization of the firm. After that, he decided to run away when the boss arrived to investigate the matter. He was supposed to explain the issue to Natalie instead of fleeing. Escaping made him guilty of committing an unknown offense. During his escape he shoved Natalie aside, committing the negligence tort. Hence, due to the illegal entry into the company’s workstation, copying the data, and causing injury to Natalie, Sam was criminally liable for his acts.
All in all, intellectual property ensures that the new works of people are safe from access by other individuals. Accordingly, Sam’s client list merited trade secret protection since it gave him a competitive advantage over others. Throughout his dealings, Sam faced criminal liabilities which include a negligence tort when he caused injury to Natalie. Therefore, his poor plans in protecting his intellectual property put him at risk of prosecution.
Kinsella, N. S. (2001). Against intellectual property. Journal of Libertarian Studies, 15(2), 1-53.
Posner, R. A. (2005). Intellectually property: The law and economics approach. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(2), 57-73.
The 3 different types of tort law. (2017). The Babcock Law Firm LLC.
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Below you will find a great range of business management essay topics for you to purchase. These business management essay topics are here to help inspire you in creating your own Business essay or assignment. Our sample business management essay topics will prove helpful in formulating your own dissertation topic, objectives, literature review, methodology and analyses. Our sample Business essays are an ideal tool for any student struggling to start their own business management essay topics.
Business Management is an essential part of any organisation and there are many elements of Business Management. By browsing our collection of business management essay topics, you will get ideas for your Business essay through the following Business subjects: Global Business, Business Strategy, Corporate Social Responsibility, Change Management, Project Management, Organisational Behaviour, Leadership, Globalization, Strategic Management, Entrepreneurship, Technology and Innovation Management. We hope you find the business management essay topics you are looking for.
MBA Change Management Assignment: Snap-on Incorporated. For an organisation to remain competitive, flexible in changing market conditions and at the forefront of their particular market segment, change has become an essential part of the management process. Change does not necessarily have to form part of the day-to-day operations once a particular activity has been agreed. However, to prevent as little disruption to normal business practices as is completely necessary the resultant effect of the change must form part of the organisations longer term, three to five year, strategy. Snap-on Incorporated is a global leader and developer of automotive diagnostic solutions and, over the last several years, has been faced with stiffening competition and the threat of new entrants from diverse markets. Snap-on Incorporated has throughout this time been reorganizing its facilities in order to sustain these challenging times and prepare itself for long term growth. It is now time to review how the recent change activities have aligned Snap-on Incorporated to ensure long-term success. [2,000 words]
Management Theory: Conflict Is An Essential Part Of Management. Conflict is a state of mind. It has to be perceived by the parties involved. If two or more parties are not aware of a conflict, then no conflict exists. This broad definition encompasses conflicts at different levels within an organisation. Conflicts are based upon differences in interest and values, when the interests of one party come up against the different interest of another. Parties may include shareholders, managers, departments, professionals and groups; while conflict issues can include dividends, control and wage levels. [2,300 words]
Management Theory: Analysis Into Approaches & Evolvement Of Management. There are a number of management theories that have emerged and evolved over the years. The importance of management theories didn’t materialise until the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries. The growth of large organisations with high concentrations of people and resources in one area created a need for co-ordination and organisation which highlighted the need for management [3,300 words]
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Management Theory: An Evaluation of Taylor and McGregor’s Management Theories. Organisational theories develop from different backgrounds, experiences, and way of life and through unique set of frameworks, which in retrospect offer new perspectives to old conceptions and theoretical frameworks. Organisation theory can be defined as the study of the structure, functioning and performance of organisations; and the behaviour of groups and individuals within them [4,000 words]
Change Management: Human Relations & Organisational Behaviour. Change is an organizational reality. External forces for change include the marketplace, government laws and regulations, technology, labour markets, and economic changes. Internal forces of change include organizational strategy, equipment, the workforce, and employee attitudes. Changes within an organization need a catalyst. Managers can serve as change agents by becoming the catalyst for change in their units and by managing the change process. People who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process are called change agents. Any manager can be a change agent. A no manager can also be a change agent. Internal managers who act as change agents may be more thoughtful and possibly more cautious. As change agents, managers initiate change because they are concerned with improving their organization’s effectiveness [1,700 words]
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Demand Chain Management. Demand chain management can be seen as a further development to the existing supply chain management theory. Demand chain is essentially a concept that focuses more on the market need than on the efficiency of supplying the product. This concept is becoming more relevant as manufacturers strive to be more competitive by adopting mass customization approach [3,000 words]
Analysis into Knowledge Management. There are major obstacles to the management of knowledge. The most important one is the people in the organisation. Knowledge is in people’s heads and therefore, without them there would be no flow of knowledge. People can be obstacles to knowledge management if they do not seek advice and learn from others; this could be because of psychological reasons such as pride or maybe because the environment is not the one that encourages a flow of the knowledge [2,000 words]
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Management Theory: Managing Diversity within the Organization. Diversity within the workplace has certainly increased over the last decade, being a key issue among organizations of today. This paper will identify and discuss some of the important issues when managing diversity within the workplace. The paper will also document numerous key challenges that managers face regarding workplace diversity. Key strategies to overcome such challenges will be employed. Finally, some important opportunities and benefits that arise as a result of workplace diversity will be examined [2,000 words]
MSc Procurement Management: Managing Relationships & Multicultural Negotiations. The reform and open door policies initiated by the Chinese Government through its Ten Year Programme for Social and Economic Development in 1978 has led the country to unprecedented economic growth. The key strategy that was adopted by the Chinese in order to accelerate these reforms was to attract foreign investment frequently in the form of joint ventures. These joint ventures are often complex processes and should not be underestimated by foreign executives. Specific consideration must be given to the negotiation process at which time difficulties such as language, cultural differences and political barriers will develop [3,000 words]
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MBA Strategic Management: A Strategic Appraisal of Vodafone. The aim of this report is to appraise Vodafone’s current strategic direction and choices with a view to making relevant recommendations on options for future direction. Vodafone appears to be at crossroads strategically, it has reached what may be termed a mature stage as a company and investors are applying increasing pressure due to what they see as under performance by the company. Includes PEST, SWOT, BCG Matrix, Ansoff Matrix and KSF analysis [17,000 words]
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MBA Project Management: Analysis of the Success of the Channel Tunnel. The purpose of this report is to determine whether the Channel tunnel project was a success or a failure as a project management exercise. Based on the supporting documents and investigation into the project the following report will identify key aspects of project management, fundamental to any project succeeding, and if these have been applied. Necessary recommendations at the end of this report will support any findings. Initial reports would support the decision that this project was a failure due to the fact of it costing twice the original planned budget, the final product being delivered several years late, loss of life during the project life cycle and numerous well documented failures of rolling stock and significant lapses in security arrangements [2,000 words]
Business Management: Low Costs Airlines – What Impact Have They Had On Tourism? The report will look at how, and in what way, low cost airlines affect tourism. While air travel was once a luxury only the rich could afford, the entry of more airlines serving the busiest and most profitable routes has caused airfares to plummet. Some of the airlines that will be analysed are Buzz, Go, Ryan Air, and EasyJet. These are well known low cost airlines [1,600 words]
Analysis into Organisational Behaviour. Hackman’s model identifies a causal link between group effectiveness and factors related to the task, group composition, managerial support and processes of the group. The implication is that when these factors are favourable, the result will be a greater level of group effectiveness, determined by such outcomes as the acceptability of the output, meeting of team members’ needs and the continuity of the group. The model asserts that challenge, complexity and interdependence are requisite task characteristics for maximum group effectiveness for the sake of efficiency and succinctness, it will be assumed henceforth that this is the ultimate objective and justification for recommendations proposed [3,000 words]
Contemporary Management Theory: Analysis into Customer Relationship Management (CRM). The management of customer relationships has changed in the past decade. Previously, organisations had a very personalised relationship with customers that can be referred to as ‘one-to-one’ relationships. It was argued that companies were able to do this -at the time -due to their refined customer base, where they were able to customize products to suit individual needs and tastes. As a consequence, customers remained satisfied and loyal. In the mid 20th century, however, product availability increased substantially and so changed the way organisations have relationships with customers. Evidently, companies lost the uniqueness of this relationship and the ability to track customers’ ever changing needs and wants. Presently, however, organisations are very much looking to regain this one- to-one exchange, to establish loyalty in a very competitive market place. Subsequently, a new phenomenon of customer relationship management (CRM) has been introduced. This includes the management’s guidelines that are needed to develop the long-term relationship between organisations and customers, which they crave. The initiation of this management issue has sparked criticism however, where its application has been described as ‘just another buzzword’. Yet other theorists have contradicted this idea and denoted it as ‘the holy grail’ [8,000 words]
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Using relevant theories, discuss critically the validity of the contention that the motivation for staff to work well depends on more than a high salary and good working conditions. All people who work within an organisation need to maintain a level of motivation for a company to exist. Organisations are required to be financially viable, and the staff they employ are needed to ensure that this occurs – if these members of staff carry no motivation, then the company for which they work will incur major problems. What I intend to do, is to analyse proposed theories on this subject, in order to establish what it is that provides worker motivation, and which providing factors need to be considered [2,500 words]
Marketing Communications Strategy: Analysis Into Marketing Communications of Sainsbury’s. Sainsbury’s main objective is to increase sales to retain their number one spot in the supermarket industry within the UK. Sainsbury’s goal to achieve their objective is by delivering an improved quality shopping experience for its customers with high quality products for low prices. Sainsbury’s are trying to gain back the customers that they have lost in the past years. Today Sainsbury’s are competing against the major leaders of the supermarket industry. These include Tesco who happens to be the market leader in the UK, ASDA which Wal-Mart took over and also happens to be the market leader in the world, and Morrison’s which is also a well-established supermarket retailer [2,000 words]
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International Management: Management Styles In India. This MBA essay discusses about the organisational culture of India and than compare its culture with cultures of UK and Japan. It will be done with the help of different models. Like human civilisation, where they have a set of values, beliefs, traditions and behaviours, which define the way the people live on day to day basis, every organisation have its own culture, which defines the ‘way the things are done here’. These cultures are mainly influenced by the society or country, these organisations are operating in. India is an emerging market in the global market, therefore most of the management researchers are trying to figure out the kind of management and leadership styles that are used in India and which can be useful for foreign corporations to be used in India. These researchers have found that the westernised management styles can not be used in India because of its history and family oriented business [2,500 words]
Global Advertising: Ford Fiesta Project. This project focuses on the Ford Motor Company and its take on advertising. The project aim is to analyse competitive advertising in the car manufacturing industry. In 2005 Ford came third in the world ranking of car makers behind General Motors and Toyota. Ford has exited for over 100 years and has managed to penetrate global markets on a large scale and is thus recognized worldwide as a leading brand. Nonetheless, Ford itself, aside from its sister brands, is not positioned in the premium market. In fact, the main advert that we have selected portrays Ford’s Fiesta Zetec Climate, which is priced from £8,995. Similarly, prices for Ford cars in the UK range from just over £7,000 for 3-door hatchbacks up to £20,000 for 7-seaters with vehicle (mainly vans) prices ranging from £10,000 to £23,000, which clearly positions Ford in the affordable prices market [2,300 words]
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MBA Project: Market Analysis Of LG Consumer Durables & Dealer Development In India. Before the liberalization of the Indian economy, only a few companies like Kelvinator, Godrej, Allwyn, and Voltas were the major players in the consumer durables market, accounting for no less than 90% of the market. Then, after the liberalization, foreign players like LG, Sony, Samsung, Whirlpool, Daewoo, and Aiwa came into the picture. Today, these players control the major share of the consumer durables market. Consumer durables market is expected to grow at 10-15% in 2007-2008. It is growing very fast because of rise in living standards, easy access to consumer finance, and wide range of choice, as many foreign players are entering in the market [10,000 words]
MBA Project: Analysis Into The Major Segments In The Indian Retail Market. The retailing sector of India can be split into two major segments. They are the informal and the formal retailing sector. The informal retailing sector is comprised of small retailers. For this sector, it is very difficult to implement the tax laws. There is widespread tax evasion. It is also cumbersome to regulate the labour laws in this sector. As far as the formal retailing sector is concerned, it is comprised of large retailers. Stringent tax and labour laws are implemented in this sector. If the retail industry is divided on the basis of retail formats then it can be split into the modern format retailers and the traditional format retailers. The modern format retailers comprise of the supermarkets, Hypermarkets, Departmental Stores, Specialty Chains and company owned and operated retail stores. The traditional format retailers comprise of Kiranas, Kiosks, Street Markets and the multiple brand outlets. The retail industry can also be subdivided into the organized and the unorganized sector. The organized retail sector occupies about 3% of the aggregate retail industry in India [10,000 words]
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Project Management and Control & IT Project Management Methodologies. IT project has deliverables: a delivery date and a budget, and each stage of the project lifecycle carry its own risks. Since IT projects are often difficult to estimate and manage, the project should not be allowed to go from one phase into the next until a formal Risk Assessment has been performed, in order to achieve deliverables and expectations and to meet with user’s satisfaction. Risk assessment can take place at any stage and during any time of the project lifecycle, though the sooner the better. In this paper risk management and assessment in the early stages of IT projects will be discussed, along with methodologies on project management that will help ensure that a project start off with a reasonable chance of being successful. Emphasis will be on the TenStep methodology [3,500 words]
Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurial Behaviour. There is a common understanding that entrepreneurs in general can be stereotyped, however all entrepreneurs are different, and subsequently the reasons for why they initially start their businesses is unique to each of these individuals. Due to this it does not exist any valid general agreement on what the definition of what an entrepreneur is. Likewise, there exists multiple differences within social entrepreneurs. What is clear, however, is that social entrepreneurs differ from other entrepreneurs in their mission of creating superior social value for their clients. In today’s society, the common consensus of improving the world through social responsibility and environmental accountability seem to attain growing importance. We are increasingly becoming more educated in terms of the augmented social needs in our integrated world, and therefore social entrepreneurship is attracting an increased amount of talent, money and attention from multiple sectors [5,000 words]
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Leadership: Donald Trump & Sir Richard Branson. The chosen leaders of our team are Donald Trump and Sir Richard Branson, each possessing extraordinary leadership skills, allowing them to soar high in their respective enterprises and succeed. They are among the most prolific brand builders in the world, irrepressible businessmen whose corporate empires are created in the image of their over sized personalities. Donald Trump and Richard Branson continue to extend the reach of their personal brands to remote corners of consumerism which is fueled in part by their showmanship. They are a study in contrast: Donald Trump, the boastful, button-downed, grim Yankee deal maker who has ridden the real estate boom and his personal myth making to phenomenal business success; Sir Richard, the toothy British adventurer who sprouts new businesses as quickly as the hairs of his bushy goatee [4,500 words]
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Methods for Managerial Decisions: Application of Inferential Statistical Tests in Quality Control. Technology is moving forward with contactless products. Contactless products allow the consumer to purchase without a human intervention while using electronic technology to make purchases or payments. The most valued part of this new technology is that the consumer is apt to use this type of ‘card’ more often, thereby increasing the credit card company’s revenues. “Issuers hope contactless technology will help them convert the mostly cash payments at such locations into card transactions. The magnetic strip will remain on the cards for now for larger purchases [2,000 words]
What is Six Sigma? Six Sigma has been sweeping the business world with remarkable results to the bottomline of many organizations since its adoption in the late Eighties, driving breakthrough improvements in product and service quality. Today Six Sigma as a business strategy has been proved to be successful in reducing costs of poor quality, improving cycle times of various processes, eliminating errors or defects from processes, enhancing customer satisfaction and so on. So what is Six Sigma? [2,500 words]
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Porters 5 Forces – The BBC. Knowledge of the environment in which a firm operates is vital for it to work at full efficiency and achieve its goals. The BBC was the first national broadcasting organisation and was founded on 18 October 1922 as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd; it was subsequently granted a Royal Charter and was made a publicly funded corporation in 1927. The corporation produces programmes and information services, broadcasting globally on television, radio, and the Internet. The stated mission of the BBC is “to inform, educate and entertain” (as laid down by Parliament in the BBC Charter); its motto is “Nation Shall Speak Peace Unto Nation”. In this paper, I will analyze issues facing the BBC using Porter’s 5 forces [2,500 words]
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Critically evaluate a B2B organisation of your choice – Yahoo. In this report it is my aim to critically evaluate a B2B organisation in order to gain a sound knowledge of the business, the area it operates in and also to be able to make recommendations in how the organisation can improve. Typically B2B organisations tend to be out of the spotlight of customers, as it is there nature to operate business to business. Examples of these kinds of organisations include IBM, EMAP and obviously more well known Microsoft. They operate on a grand scale within the B2B sector and are obvious choices when discussing B2B organisations [2,500 words]
Business Operations: AAPL vs. DELL. Over the years many businesses and corporations has been changing PC’s to Mac because they found that Mac was much easier to use and user friendly and smooth in just about every way, and due to lack of services provided by the Dell customer care services, if they had a problem they would call it a nightmare because it would just take almost forever for them to get something done, unlike Apple services which is known to be excellent and fast. Apple Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries design, manufacture, and market personal computers, portable digital music players, and mobile communication devices, and sell various related software, services, peripherals, and networking solutions. Dell Inc, was founded in 1984 and is headquartered in Round Rock, Texas, together with its subsidiaries, engages in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, sale, and support of computer systems and services worldwide [2,500 words]
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MBA Global Business Context: Retail Banking Industry; Focusing on the Changes in the Market Industry and Cross Border Restructuring. For the past ten years a serious changes have been occurring in the banking industry. Significant transformations can be noticed in the financial sector market structure due to the mergers and acquisitions. Decrease in credit institutions operating in the Western Europe and noticeable increase in concentration and competition. Additionally the total value of assets increased in all examined countries. Western Europe market as a whole saw an increase of almost 100% in the asset value. The total number of operating banks declined to around 7000 institutions, a decline of 30% during the time period. The concentration ratio increased in majority of the countries with Estonia and Netherlands holding the biggest CR5 ratios. The number of micro and macro environmental factors contributed to the changes in the industry. The most influential and therefore important were political factors, including changes in regulations and policies regarding consolidation in the banking sector. Economic, Social and Technological factors were less effective with economic growth being the most influential force [2,800 words]
Global Business: With Reference to Business Fortunes, Compare and Contrast the Economies of India and China. In this assignment, I will be investigating India’s and China’s background and comparing their economies to develop an understanding of their position in the world economy and how it was achieved. In addition, I will be looking at the differences in their economic growth as well as problems both countries may encounter as they try to become the world’s leading economies. My assignment will be supported by books such as The Business Environment by Ian Worthington and Chris Britton as well as the internet. The key indicators which affect the economy are growth, population and gross domestic product [1,500 words]
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Global Business: Russia’s Accession to the WTO Discuss Barriers and Opportunities of This Entrance. Russia’s entrance in the World Trade Organization is very actual issue today and this is very important for Russian business and economic environment. This issue is important also for the other countries which are members of the WTO, because World Trade Organization’s main objective is to develop and facilitate open international trading system and adjudicate trade disputes between or amongst member nations. As the Georgia is the member of the WTO it is very important for us, whether Russia will enter this organization or not. The main purpose of our project is to discuss positive and negative consequences for Russia that might result from entering the WTO, will they gain much by entering this organization or they will not. We will discuss why President Vladimir Putin made it a top priority to enter the World Trade Organization [3,000 words]
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Managing Culture using Hofstede’s 5 Cultural Dimensions & Trompenaar’s 7 Cultural Dimensions. Power Distance means the less powerful members of organizations accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. In high power distance countries, such as India, Mexico and South Korea, employees always accept and obey superior therefore the organization’ structure is centralized and tall. On the other hand, the structure of low power distance countries, for instance Finland, Ireland and Austria, is flat and decentralized. Universalism versus Particularism, universalism search for general rules and applies judgment to every circumstance. While, particularism look for finding exemption and judgments are influenced by relationships and environments [3,500 words]
MBA Project: Management People and Organisations Assignment Employment practices at A & B. In order to fully understand the marketing directors proposal, a situation analysis technique known as SWOT” has been used to identify the salient points. Also, underpinning my theory is the HRM “Warwick Model”. Influencing factors of Warwick Model: (a) More clearly illustrates the effect of external forces. For example; the political, technical, competitive and economic climates on internal decision-making. (b) Recognises the influence, internal culture, leadership and structure has on business strategy and the HRM context. (c) Acknowledges the effect that work systems, reward systems and employee relations have on the ability to deliver business strategy. (d) Supports the view that the workforce is a valued resource and key to the organisational development [3,000 words]
Supply Chain Management & Logistics Strategy. Identify and critically evaluate the major supply chain issues of conventional volume car manufacture and explain how these issues had been addressed by the Smart Concept and Logistics at MCC. The smart car is definitely one of the best innovations of the hundred years. It is usually the simplest businesses on this planet that generates profit while materializes ecological safeguarding visions. The smart car is definitely an ideally little auto that is made from synthetic whole body panels as well as a strengthened metal covering, which suggests less energy and heavy-industrial substances necessary in the process of producing them. The best characteristic in this auto is its superb fuel gas consumption. Quite simply, the smart car is petrol useful, which will not, just helps the car owner reduce your bills gasoline, but additionally minimizes the Carbon dioxide release from shedding the gasoline, for that reason tremendously contributes to the safeguarding of our environment [2,500 words]
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A Strategic Analysis of United Parcel Service (UPS). United Parcel Service (UPS) is one of the oldest and most successful courier companies in the world. It was founded in the year 1907 and started as a messenger company in the United States of America. Sine their humble beginnings UPS has grown from strength to strength to a $36 billion dollar corporation. UPS is a multinational company and is one of the world’s most recognized and admired brands around the globe. They are also one of the largest package delivery companies in the world and a major competitor of FedEx and DHL in supply chain management operations. Every day, they manage the flow of goods, funds, and information in more than 200 countries and territories worldwide [5,500 words]
International Trend Analysis – The Evolution of Green Cars. Change is a phenomenon that affects all aspects of life. In the business sector, change determines the directions taken by business venture. The survival of any business venture is largely dependent on how the sector responds to change. There are trends in a business environment that acts as indicators of the possible events in a sector. The current automobile industry is a product of trends in the world social economic front for the last century. The car has become an integral part of modern society and therefore subject to the changes in every society. Source of energy to the automobile engine has been subject to different market trends. The history of the car is characterized by shifts from the steam driven engine where coal was the major energy source to use of oil [4,000 words]
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MBA Change Management Assignment – Leadership challenges to the communication silos in business organizations. Overcoming numerous barriers in organizational communication is one of the major challenges for managers in business organizations. In business literature, a silo is defined as an organizational entity that resembles as an information container working as a communication barrier to other organizational entities. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the communication silo and its cause and impact on Royal Greenland and to provide suggestions to overcome this barrier. The method of the research is qualitative where a cumulative method of data collection and analysis were followed. It has been found that Royal Greenland lack of a proper corporate culture, and the communication silo existed in every corner of the organization, where the senior managers were actively involved [6,000 words]
Analysis of Apple Inc. business Strategic Unit (iPad unit) Apple is an American-based multinational company that deals in the sale and design of personal computers, computer software plus a range of hand-held gadgets. Apple Inc. is best known for its hardware products branded as Macintosh. Started in 1976 by Steve Jobs, Apple has grown to become one of the current day’s iconic designers of consumer electronics. Although Apple deals in a wide range of products, the company treats every product line in a unique way. Each product of Apple is treated as a standalone business unit. This report singles out the Ipad product of Apple Company and analyses this business unit in terms of its strategic competitive position, its external environment and the value addition proponent of its strategic position. This report is based on the UK market [3,000 words]
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Managing Corporate Culture In Nando Fast-Food Company
This post discusses corporate culture in great length. The operation of business on a global scale requires that firms should cultivate their international business by respecting the national differences in the countries where they expand to. This is what Nando had failed to observe. It has rigidly and excessively stuck to its corporate culture exhibited in South Africa. It failed to note that South African’s national culture is not the same thing as what applies in countries in European and Asian states.
Also, the Nando’s management in the South African headquarter had given no room for the management of its firms in other countries to operate freely; this has given them no room for innovative strategic marketing planning in observance to the environment in which they operate in. the national culture of South Africa has greatly influenced the corporate culture of the Nando’s organization and it thus constituted a negative impact when its adherence and transfer to other national culture that is not compatible, led to the unprofitable business operations in these countries.
The level of competition in the fast food industry in contemporary times is getting tense, with expansion in big firms and new entrants to the business. Thus for organization like Nando the need to observe people’s custom, taste, national culture in carrying out its strategic marketing this is germane for their effective and successful operations as they expand the business.
The dynamic environment where modern businesses operate pose challenges for them to maintain effective management of innovation. These environments are also characterized by uncertainties. The managements of contemporary business and their resources are becoming ever tasking because of changes in management, which emanates from the introduction of new strategies, keen competition, and improvement in technology, inter-alia. Change is a constant phenomenon that is bound to occur, but in a situation where its vicissitudes become a frequent occurrence managers of business are put in a tight corner to adequately strategize in order to follow the trend in the industry and the environment where they operate. The external environment in which an organization operates goes a long way in influencing its strategic management. Hence, changes in these environmental segments- the demographical segment, economic segment, political/ legal segment, technological segment, socio-cultural segment, and global segment- these need to be inculcated in the organization strategic management for the organization to compete adequately with its rivals. In this view Peter (2005:7), argue, “Dynamic in nature, the strategic management process is the full set of commitments, decisions and actions required for a firm to achieve strategic competitiveness and earn above average returns”.
As an organization continues to expand in its operational base, it is a noticeable fact that these expansion tend to affect the pattern of existing corporate culture the organization had hitherto operated on. This becomes more prominent when the organization is venturing into a different environment or country with different corporate culture from the exhibited national culture.
Strategic marketing is thus, faced with high challenges in the aspect of cultural harmonization of an organization operating with several units and outlets in trans-nationals and across borders operations. In an ever increasing competitive global business arena, the need to strategies and be in tune with current trends in an industry, this is very germane to the success level the organization would attain.
This study looks at Nando a medium scale business enterprise with its problem in operations of its franchised business, as a result of the difference in environmental corporate culture where the firm plans to extend its operations.
Background of Nando
Nando is a South African fast-food firm with restaurants that operate in many outlets in the country. The restaurants have over the years operated an organizational and corporate culture that depicts the South African environment in which it operates. The local South African dishes are widely served. Nando’s corporate culture is built around preparing chicken delicacy with a corporate culture that reflects the ‘Nandocas’ (Nando’s people) attitude, values, pride, passion and their courage. Nando believes in 100 percent satisfactions of its customers. Thus, as an organization, it has embraced the phrase that “100 percent” and “GEES’ which means ‘spirit’ in Afrikaans language, to build a corporate culture in giving satisfaction to its numerous clients.
Nando started operating in South Africa since 1987, and has used its marketing strategy to effectively ensure growth for the firm, thereby making the firm to begin franchising its operation to other countries, outside South Africa.
Nando’s Corporate Culture and Failure to Franchise to International Markets
The Nando’s organization has sought for drive for its expansion into the international fast-food market. Thus, it has embraced the plan to expand its operation through franchising to other international countries. From the Rothwell’s five generations of innovation, Nando is currently applying the second-generation Innovation process (Rothwell 1994, pg 8). The firm wants to diversify its operations by making its appearance in new international market. However, it has placed more emphasize on static scale of economies by holding tight to its corporate culture. Thus, the pattern of Nando organizing new restaurants operations in the same old South African fashion and technology has made the organization fail in its franchising and plan to gain market share in international market.
The expansion of Nando organization to other countries, this has adopted strategy of management the organization in a way where it focused greatly and concentrated on its national organization’s corporate culture. The marketing strategy introduced into its operation in European and Asian countries have towed the culture in South Africa. Hence, the over concentration on the existing South African culture, with little or a little (insufficient) focus on existing cultures in countries where the Nando’s expansion operations are directed to, this has being a major reason why the attempt at the franchising the organization’s concept failed. The sticking to past way of conducting business in South Africa, is not enough to see its foreign operations to success; there is the need to carry out a thorough research and analysis on the corporate culture existing within a country where the organization intend to expand its operation to. In this view, Oden (1997:3) argues that “many of today’s most successful organizations continue to survive because many years ago they offered the right product at the right time. Most product, market and process venture decisions of the past were made without the benefit of strategic thinking or planning. However, present-day managers increasingly recognize that venture decisions must be made in the context of a venture strategy. As they find themselves in ever more complex and turbulent environments, their past internally oriented, reactive approach to decision making is giving way to an externally oriented proactive approach that requires more analysis”.
The need for Nando to analyze both its internal and external environments is a needed strategic framework for the organization to thrive in international corporate venture and strategy. Hence, this long-range strategic and proactive orientation to decision making is an important element of the innovation culture (ibid). The need for an organization to adapt to the corporate culture in the environment where it operates goes a long way to show how successful it would be. The strategy in place should take into cognizance those cultural variables that would blend with the environment and people’s life style and taste. This is where the management of Nando International has missed the mark. There is the intention to transfer the Nando’s South African corporate culture to countries that has no cultural similarities; such as Israel, England, Australia, Japan, and Canada. The reason why Zimbabwe could thrive is adduced to the fact that it shares the same cultural similarities with South Africa; Nando’s home country.
To buttress this argument Ulijn et al (2000), illustrated that, “when a multinational firm, such as Philips, operates in the United States, it is accepted almost as a U.S. firm since it is loosely related to the individualistic U.S. society where interaction is explicit, low context, and monochromic. On the other hand, to be successful in Japan, Philips should behaves as a Japanese firm, where national culture and corporate culture overlap in a tight, collectivistic society where interaction is implicit, high context, and polychromic”. The above illustration shows that every country has its own cultural characteristics and variables that would compact with the environment in which business operation is done.
Also, the head office of Nando in South Africa has no flexible guide on the operation of its international businesses outlets, setting rules and guidelines for their operations. This has prevented the management in the different international countries from considering the variables and existing corporate culture where they operate, and strategize towards this line for effective operation. These tend to constitute hindrance to a successful implementation of Nando’s franchising attempt of its concept internationally.
The Role of National Culture in Nando’s Expansion
National culture is a great reckoning force which the Nando’s organizations have greatly imbibed in. the emphasis on maintaining the South African culture, in the organization, this is shown in every aspect of the business. To make this national corporate culture to be retain every new staff are adequately orientated on the existing cultures they are recruited., and it is expected they keep to this culture. The adaptation to national culture by the Nando outlets and operation in South Africa, this can be say to be a major factor that has resulted in the success story recorded in the country. As the organization’s activities are built round the national culture, this is reflected in the management style, relationship between staff and management, selection of partners. The inherent national culture in Nando is a factor that has made its Zimbabwe operations to succeed. This is adduce to the fact that South Africa and Zimbabwe have similar national culture
Corporate identity is an important factor to enable an organization competes favorably in an industry. “Based on this notion the effective management of an organization’s identity result in the acquisition of a favorable corporate image and, over time, of a favorable corporate reputation which leads an organization’s key stakeholders and stakeholder groups to be favorably disposed towards it” (Balmer & Wilson, 1998). According to Balmer (1997), cited in Balmer & Wilson (1998), an important pre-requisite for a corporate reputation to contribute to business survival and success is that it offers a distinct advantage in relation to the organization’s external environment”. For Nando South African operations, it has greatly utilized its corporate identity and culture in building a favorable reputation for itself. And this has led to the success and expansion of the business. It can be said here that the corporate identity exhibited by the organization operations in South Africa, this is very conformable to the national culture of the country’s environment in which the organization operates. To show the level in which national culture plays in the success of Nando’s operations in South Africa, when the expansion of the organization gets to European and Asian countries, with the dogged move of the management to inculcate the same corporate culture in a different environment made the operation there unprofitable and unsuccessful.
As earlier stated corporate culture is a reflection of the national culture and the environment in which the organization operates. The national culture of a state should be adapted onto by the corporate culture for the organization to thrive in its operation.
The role of national culture in Nando’s expansion can be said to be effective and successful at the national level, i.e. in South Africa. But internationally, the excessive emphasis place on the national culture in the expansion operation in Europe and Asian countries, this is a negative aspect that has affected the successful outcome of operations in these countries. The Nando’s have concluded that the Nando’s national culture could be transferred to international operation; hence, there is the disregard for the inherent cultures existing in these international countries. Thus, this incompatible corporate culture and the existing national cultures in the international countries is a factor responsible for the unprofitable operations at this level.
Hence, as a way out of this, it becomes a difficult challenge for the Nando to blend its South African corporate-cum-national culture with what operates internationally. The advertisement of Nando’s product, services, and organization’s operations, this also goes to buttress the role of national culture on the organization’s operations; adverts done for the South African outlets cannot adequately be utilize for operations in European and Asian countries. This also goes to show that the Nando organization’s success in South Africa is greatly tied to its ability to compact with its national culture and the effective utilization of this for the organization’s advantage.
Industrial Analysis and How It Affected the Corporate Culture of Firms like Nando
The level of global competition in the fast food industry is always on the increase. This is adduced to the in flock of new entrants, the expansion of existing firms to other countries. Big name in the industry such as McDonald, which has over 23,000 restaurants in 110 countries, a close rival to MacDonald is Burger King which operates a total of 9,644 restaurants in 110 countries, followed by Wendy; second largest rival to MacDonald, with a total of 6776 restaurants in 32 countries, Hardee operates 3080 restaurants in 20 countries (McDonald. ca, 2005). With this high level of expansion of major players in the fast food industry, coupled with the springing up of new firms entering the industry, these have led to the increase in the competition level in the industry. An organization operating in this industry need to adequately strategize in its marketing activities for it to curve a niche for itself.
The high competition level in the industry can be analyzed using Porter’s five forces. The threat of new entrants in the fast food industry is significantly high, as there are new entrants springing up every moment. This is due to low capital outlay required in setting a small fast food business, also the basic skills required to run a fast food restaurant is basically not to high that would require long term training. And there are abundant of skill labour that can be recruited to man the fast food joint when created. These f actors are responsible for the ease at which new entrants flock the industry and this has helped in increasing the level of competition in the industry. According to Porter (1985), the intensity of rivalry among existing competitors depends on the balance of competitors, industry growth, the size of fixed or storage costs, the amount of differentiation or switching costs, the minimum size of investment, the types of competitors, the strategic stakes, and the size and type of exit barriers.
Another threat in the industry is the threat of substitute product or services. In recent times, most fast food restaurants have come up with innovative pattern of preparing there food and service delivery; some have developed services for a targeted group in the society such as busy workers. This innovative way of operating leaves the customers, and those who patronize fast foods, many room to choose from the available substitutes. The treat of substitute product and services tend to reduce the level of profit that is available for the organization operating in the industry. In this industry there are firms that produce similar products; this also tends to constitute a threat to the operations of firms in the industry.
The bargaining power of suppliers, who supply raw materials for processing the food in this fast food industry, is very high, since there are many firms operating in the industry they would have many buyers wanting to buy from them; thus increasing the demand level. Many big firms like McDonald, have engage on their own backward linkages programme, whereby they produce most of the food stuff and livestock use in operating their fast food restaurants. Buyers also may have high bargaining power in this industry, since there are different substitutes and operators in the industry; thus forcing the price down for buyers.
The strategic challenges thus facing firms in the industry has to do with how they ca n strategize and carry out their marketing function in a way to make them have competitive advantage in the mist of the high competition in the industry. And profit maximization tend to be low if the marketing strategy is not effective enough to increase the level of sales made available to a firm operating in this industry.
Recommended Ways Nando Could Develop Its Business Operation
As earlier stated the competitive level in fast food industry is very tense; thus, for a firm to operate adequately in this industry there is the need that an effective marketing strategy is put in place; which would be goal oriented and enthusiastically pursued. For firms like Nando that is expanding, its operation to foreign countries there is the need that the issue of environment where the expanded business is position, this is critically considered in line with the organization existing corporate culture. “…a number of theoretical perspectives related to the role of firm-specific knowledge in competitive strategy-resource-based view of the firm, dynamic capabilities knowledge-based view of the firm, organizational learning-have began contributing to our understanding of international strategic alliances” (Simonin, 1999). And it is germane that modification to existing corporate culture is made to be in tune with the features of the environment that are on g round. The importance associated with paying attention to a country’s culture and environment in the management of business operation, especially as applicable to fast food business, this is for the organization to operate effectively and adequately apply its resources in order to adapt to the environment and also to meet set objectives at the most efficient manner. “Given the global strategic perspective, the corollary that it should be accompanied by a universal standardization is difficult to sustain as such a stance is product oriented and in defiance of the marketing concept. It is also apparent that different nationalities buy similar products for different reasons and different versions of a product for reasons of values, custom and preference as well as price” (McCall & Stone, 2004:5).
From the fore going, organization such as Nando as should strategize in a way where the custom in a country, that the national culture is respected. It is not as if one is saying that they should lose their cooperate corporate culture and concepts, due to expansion, but people’s custom, taste, preferences, reasons for patronizing a firm’s product and service, all these are different. So it becomes germane that for the firm to operate adequately well in the international arena, these considerations need be put in place for proper marketing strategy.
The model below is modified to shows a full recognition to the external context environment and how it should Nando’s business units are coordinated to operate; and it identifies a two- way rather than a one – way relationship with organisational strategy. There is also important recognition of the impact of the role of the personnel function on the human resource strategy content.
Source: Original by Henry and Pettigrew, (1992:139) “Model of strategic change and human resource management” in ‘Patterns of strategic change in the development of Human Resource management’ in British Journal of Management.
The model above diagram shows the effects of Nando’s corporate culture on its outlets, in other international countries where the business is franchising. It shows that franchised business should be allowed to operate uniquely, but not totally out of the parent organization’s corporate culture. Certain environmental influences from political, economic and cultural and social segments of the environment should be recognised for the Nando’s outlet to operate adequately in the country there are established.
Suggested Innovation Approach for Nando
Having looked at the failed bid of Nando to actually succeed in its expansion and franchising bids, it is recommended that the organization embrace a scenario building approach in studying the environment in which it wants to expand it business to before implementing the plans. This would enable the organization to be able to build up the right corporate culture and curtail challenges and uncertainties.
One way of managing the uncertainties associated in frequent change is through scenario planning. According to Ringland (1998), scenario planning is a tool for business to cop with the unpredictability of constant change and help them find better solutions for the future. Scenario are often thought of as a management development tool, which is use for creating shared vision, as well as better plans, in organization. Thus, it is utilized in facilitating strategic planning and helps in influencing people’s attitude towards questioning assumptions and accepting change (ibid). Scenario planning tends to be a better tool than other traditional management tools for the tackling high uncertainties and complexity in modern business management. Shoemaker (1991) defines scenario planning as a script- like characterization of a possible future presented in considerable detail, with special emphasis on causal connections, internal consistency, and concreteness. According to him, the focus is not on forecasting the future, or fully characterizing its uncertainty, but rather on bounding the uncertainty.
Thus, for Nando scenario building is a germane tool that would ensure cultural uncertainties from environments where it want to expand its fast-food operations are taken care of before the firm’s outlets are established.
Modelling as a way of improving innovation management for Nando
The above diagram shows the circular flow of innovative modelling. A model formulation is ensured through the desire to come up with a better model so as to gain more competitive advantage over rivals, and this need for improvement brings about the better allocation of resources that would result in the derivation of vital information for the effective operation of the organization. The derivation of better information would make Nando to see its previous innovative model as asymmetric and the desire to future improve this lead to another circle of innovative turn around and the engagement on new modelling session.
Two key aspects underlying this information innovation cycle are transparency and accountability. The transparency of information is in fact closely tied to accountability. Transparency can be defined as the ability of the public and of external regulatory bodies to view the actions, procedures, and outcomes of a particular business entity (or department within). Public access to information concerning the operations of a business or an entire industry facilitates independent evaluation (Ceres, 2003). Transparency translates to accountability when these independent evaluators have a significant influence over the fate of the company or industry in question. This influence might come in the form of policy making or buying power. When inferences made by the public have the ability to affect its welfare, such an entity becomes more than just morally or ethically accountable to that public. It also becomes incumbent upon that business or industry to perform in ways that are favorable and fair. Without transparency, therefore, there can be no accountability and without accountability, modelers will not have the motivation or incentive to take ownership of the models and therefore the cycle. However, with accountability and transparency working in tandem, model validation will foster an information innovation cycle, which in turn will lead to a lasting competitive advantage.
Corporate culture has a great effect on way an organization operates. It gives the organization its uniqueness, i.e., in other words corporate culture of an organization gives it corporate identity. The corporate culture may constitute a hindrance to the successful operation of the organization when the organization is operating a rigid corporate culture with no room for modification or change; this is more specially noticed when the organization is operating and expanding its business to different countries. As each country has its unique national culture, it then requires that when the organization is carrying out its strategic marketing planning this should be adequately taken into cognizance. Modification to existing corporate culture should be made so as to make the organization operates effectively and profitably well.
Balmer, J.M.T. & Wilson, Alan (1998) “Corporate Identity: There Is More To It Than Meets the Eye” in International Studies of Management & Organization. Vol.28, No 3
Ceres (2006) “Information transparency and corporate accountability” Ceres Benchmarking Electric Cost
McCall, J.B. & Stone, M.A. (2004) International Strategic Marketing: A (N) European Perspective. New York: Routledge
Oden, Howard W. (1997) Managing Corporate Culture, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Westport, CT: Quorum Books pp. 51
Porter, Michael E. (1985) Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York
Proctor, Tony (2000) Strategic Marketing: An Introduction London: Routledge
Ringland, Gill (1998), Scenario Planning: Managing For the Future. John Wiley & Sons Limited
Rothwell, Roy (1994) “Towards the Fifth-generation Innovation Process” International Marketing Review, Vol. 11 No. 1
Shoemaker, Paul J.H. (1991) “When and How to Use Scenario Planning: A Heuristic Approach with Illustration” in Journal of Forecasting. Vol. 10
Simmonin, Bernard L. (1999) “Transfer of marketing Know-How in International Strategic Alliance: An Empirical Investigation of the Role and Antecedents of Knowledge Ambiguity” in Journal of International Business Studies Vol. 30, No 3
Ulijn, Jan et al (2000) “Innovation, Corporate Culture and Strategy. What is the Mission for International Business Communication?” in The Journal of Business Communication .Vol. 37, No 3. pp. 293
Development Strategy for Business Resilience and Sustainability through an Incremental Strategy – A Study of British Telecom
This report discusses the comparative analysis of three strategies namely incremental, renovate and inventive within the context of the internal as well as the external environment of a company such as BT (British Telecommunications Limited) which is a multinational telecommunications services company headquartered in London. It also evaluates a change management programme that can bring about strategic change within this organisation. BT has a global services as well as a retail division. Its operations span 170 countries throughout the world.
Company’s Internal and External Environment and Its Strategy Type
In the current business scenario, intense competition, integration across global markets, changes in technology and the advancement of the telecommunications sector are some of the external factors that influence the change management program of BT. the Company’s managerial talent and the level of the motivation of its workforce are some of the internal factors influencing strategic management. In order to improve the effectiveness of the organisation, strategy is the key because it leverages the capabilities of the individuals and the institution in a cohesive manner. The ideal development strategy for a company like BT that seeks business resilience and sustainability throughout its line of operations is an incremental approach.
Incremental strategies are effective within the current dynamic environment. Regulatory convergence is a key factor in the selection of incremental strategy for handling change and sustaining profits. The challenges of global competition have to be seen within the broader regulatory framework for effective strategic management. The incremental approach to strategic management is in response to the complex and ever changing corporate environment. Consequently, the strategic process moved in an incremental manner adapting to changes in the internal and external environment of the company. Decisions will then be driven by multiple goals. BT has low levels of business resources with respect to its telecommunications services though it is steadily expanding in the field of broadband communications. BT has reported a fall in sales though it experienced a healthy profit in 2013. Moderate or high business resources imply greater strategic capabilities which enable the company to excel using innovation or denotative strategic management. Annual pre-tax profits of BT were up by more than 40% but sales fell by 4%.
Business Strategy BT Competitive Analysis
The major feature of the incremental strategy is that it is decentralised and it responds to dynamic environmental challenges. BT is facing a changing socioeconomic milieu wherein the incremental approach accounts for this variable. An incremental strategy enables the organisation to fulfil its mission by closing the divide between long as well as short term goals within a changing environment. Organisational design followed a contingency approach since landmark research was conducted by Emery and Trist (1965) as well as Lawrence and Lorsch (1967). When a company faces a challenging environment, incremental strategy is far better than inventive or renovate strategies on account of the challenging environment faced by the company. As a British MNC which has to face global competition, BT should opt for an incremental strategy to boost its prospects and sales. The degree to which the environment of a company is globalised also influences its development strategy. Porter has proposed the five force model for analyses of competition presented below:
Figure 1: Porter’s 5 Force Model from Michael Porter, “Competitive Strategies”
Porter’s model elucidates how competition from different sources can create industry rivalry. Competitive analyses in the context of an incremental strategy is suitable for organisations such as BT which want to cope with competition from different sources, as discussed in Porter’s model.
Business Strategy BT Competitive Advantage
BT needs to consider the complete gamut of competitors through an incremental approach to change management. Porter (1980) has argued that organisations should consider the behaviour of firms that are producing same/similar products as well as the action of suppliers, competitors producing substitute products and the customers themselves. An incremental strategy enables companies such as BT to develop a holistic view of the market to promote business resilience and boost profits. Competitive advantage has been discussed through a model proposed by Porter discussed below:
Figure 2: Porter’s Generic Strategies Model (Porter, 1980)
Ansoff (1985) has discussed how companies should also develop the strategy keeping in mind the flow of critical resources for production. They should also consider how they will impact non-market actors. Nonmarket actors or strategic interest groups also have an important role to play in influencing the development strategy of a firm. BT should follow a cost leadership strategy for low cost rather than aiming for product uniqueness as there are many rivals offering advanced services in this sector.
The culture of an organisation also plays a key role in influencing the strategy it adopts. The company’s abilities revolve around the resource, skills and procedures as well as its competencies. Attitudes and other cognitive factors reflect an organisation’s culture. The work culture at BT is unique. It focuses on completion of projects and garnering of crucial contracts. The organisational culture of a company influences its success in current times. BT needs to follow an incremental strategy whereby it adapts to changing global and domestic environment so that it can keep up with its competitors. The choice of a strategic management approach is based on several critical considerations such as an organisation’s strategic capabilities, competitive analyses, competitive advantage and culture.
An organisation must have a strategy that can meet the challenges of its internal or external environment (Ashby, 1961). Therefore, an incremental strategy would be ideal for enhancing the sustainability of business practices and the resilience of British Telecom. Consider the personnel, structure, systems and financial resources to be important factors in any strategy for change management. An incremental strategy follows a contingency approach which is ideal for British Telecom.
The organisation’s culture as reflected by collective values, experiences and beliefs of its members also has a critical role to play in its success. An incremental strategy for development and change management incorporates this effectively, making it the viable and effective choice for BT which has skilled employees. An incremental strategy is ideal for bringing about small but important changes in the organisational functioning compared to inventive or renovate strategies which focus on large scale change.
In order to possess business resilience and sustainability in its operations, BT needs to follow an incremental strategy to bolster its current organisational culture. Companies need to be proactive to cope with changes such as economic slowdowns, increased global competition and massive amount of technological advancement. BT would do well to adopt an incremental, contingency oriented approach to strategic management to cope with this.
Critical Evaluation of the Incremental Strategy
Incremental strategy is ideal for British Telecom. An incremental strategy enables the company to have flexibility in coping with uncertainties in the field of policy regulation and governance.
There is a need to bargain with stakeholders and integrate human and organisational capabilities to catapult the company to the path of success. Renovate and innovative strategies can only be effective in environments where there are less regulation uncertainties (Lindblom, 1979). Each of the different resources within a company plays a critical role in its success. Through an incremental approach, British Telecom can impact its employees in a positive way. By instilling coping skills and out of the box thinking to manage dynamic and changing situations, BT can boost its profits.
Employees also differ in terms of their personal knowledge, perception, limitations, and it is due to this inherent complexity that incremental strategy can be the perfect tool for change. Diversity is one of the chief features of the workforce at BT. Therefore; development strategies followed here should take advantage of this versatility. Incremental approaches to strategic management can accomplish this. Top managers within the same company can approach the same problem with different solutions (Bower & Doz, 1979).
Operations system provides guidance regarding how work procedures must be carried on and provides the framework for performing the work People are the key resources of any company. They are the prime assets which spur the growth and development of the organisation. Operations are a key area where rapid changes have to be kept pace with. The internal as well as external stakeholders also play a central role in the company’s success (Lindblom, 1959; Mintzberg, 1919). Balancing the goals and interests of stakeholders is the key to organisational success (Ansoff, 1985). BT should adopt an incremental strategy to improve operations.
Financial resources are necessary to accomplish goals and provide rewards. Money is one of the primary motivators for obtaining optimal performance from employees in the work setting. Annual pre-tax profits were up 42% to £2.4bn, last year for BT while sales were down 4%. An incremental strategy is ideal for a company such as BT which has ample financial resources.
Technology sets the stage for the company to maximise its capabilities if it keeps pace with it. Effective utilisation of resources is a must if a company has to progress and make healthy profits. An organisation’s culture is maintained and transmitted by its workers. Leaders of internal stakeholder groups are the key assets to instil positive change within an organisation. For companies such as BT that are facing moderate to heavy environmental turbulence, an incremental strategy for strategic management is needed (Mintzberg, 1973).
Several comprehensive reviews have been conducted by leading researchers in the field of strategic management (Hofer, 1976; Vancil, 1976; Armstrong, 1982). Research has found that degree of formality centralisation, hierarchical structure and comprehensiveness of any company is influenced by its environment, and complexity (Armstong, 1982, Hofer, 1976). In current scenario, an incremental strategy is optimal for BT.
Change Management Programme
A change management programme for British Telecom must incorporate an incremental approach. This is because its external and internal environment is more suited to an approach that makes allowances for sudden and rapid changes. Whether it is people, financial aspects, technological advancements or organisational culture, all aspects of an organisation’s functioning need to be taken into account for effective change management. A conventional approach towards change management will not be successful. In 1995, John Kotter published his landmark paper “Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail”. This paper cited how only 30% of change programs are successful.
The biggest advantages of a change management programme for British Telecom through an incremental strategy is that it will make allowances for the rapid changes in technology and competition that are taking place in the Indian telecommunications sector. Colin Price and Emily Lawson (2003) suggested that the conditions which must be met for employees within an organisation to embrace change include their agreement to the change, effective role modelling for inculcation of change oriented behaviours, and reinforcement systems that encourage the behaviour and the skills required for change. The structures, systems, processes and incentives within a change management program should be conducive towards a positive transformation of the company into a reliable and sustainable business.
An incremental approach to strategic management can bring about this transformation for British Telecom. But change management processes should have an appeal for employees. Businesses that want to do more than survive have to remodel themselves to match up to competitors. Change management programmes have incorporated various methods such as total quality management, rightsizing, restructuring, cultural change and turnarounds in a bid to improve their profit margins. British Telecom needs to follow a change programme that pursues innovation in a way that is flexible and keeps in line with the incremental strategy of adapting to changes. Too many companies fail to progress beyond a certain point when it comes to garnering market share because they do not anticipate change due to factors such as advances in technology and industrial competition. Even a change management programme based on the incremental approach can have a few pitfalls though. Anticipating change is not easy. Many times, market analysts may be predicting a trend which is short-lived. Kotter’s 10 year study of more than 100 companies found unsuccessful change management programmes failed to generate the urgency or formulate a vision that could be communicated well to bring about a complete transition.
Companies need to be practical and realistic in their aspirations. Only then can change management programmes succeed in a complete sense. Obstacles to the change management programme suggested in this paper include rapid changes in the regulatory framework, unforeseen innovations and advancements in the field of technology and lack of market foresight. Genuine transformations require game changing ideas which can bring about creative solutions to problems. A change management programme based on an incremental strategy can only succeed if company personnel have the objectivity to view successes and failures in accurate ways.
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