Organizational Ethics Program

Organizational Ethics Program

Organizational ethics refers to the principles and standards upon which businesses function according to the business’s references. The principles, as well as set standards, are mostly demonstrated over the deeds of objectivity, reliability, decency, compassion and obligation. The strategy for both business venders as well as the officials is to confirm that all the workers comprehend to the set standards as well as the principles. This can be done by initially communicating the organizational ethics to the employees through the act of training the employees on the standards of the company. Based on the basis of illustrating the goals of an organizational ethics program, essentials necessary in constructing and ensuring the function of the organizational ethics program together with the ways of implementing the procedure in favor of an organization’s future will be discussed.

The Goal of the Organizational Ethics Program

Based on the different sectors that the set organizational principles and standards function, such as on uniform treatment, considerations, financial ethics as well as dealing with the social responsibility of a particular business, the connection established is used to construct a uniform organizational goal to be attained on the course of operation. To start with, the set standards and principles ensures uniform treatment amongst all employees based on the same respect regardless of their culture, race, religion or even lifestyles. The ethics program in business through this role establishes the provision of equal promotion chances to the employees whereby the issues can be addressed during sensitive training, holding seminars as well as through inviting outside experts to disclose these issues unto the employees.

Secondly, on achieving an organization’s goal, financial stability has to be met that is protected by the compliance of the organizational ethics program in the business. This is for the purpose of business owners to establish clean business operations with respect to finances, expanding as well as investing for their companies. For example, the standards and principles may be set on prohibiting and taking action to those who bribe state legislators for either tax privileges or even credits (Johnson, 2018). On the consideration basis, a company’s ethics program ensures the provision of care to the employees who are mentally challenged, with substance abuse problems including alcohol and drug dependency. The ethics of the business through the set principles as well as standards helps the employees to overcome such problems if possible, such as putting them through employee advisor programs.

Ethics are also mandated to protect the community as well as establishing and maintaining safety standards to the nearby residents. They ensure the communication of chemical dangers by the organizations steered on ethical environmental practices. Through the joint functions established by the organizational ethics program, actions, as well as company decisions, are governed on ensuring welfare amongst the employees, customers and the community at large thus establishing the organization’s ethical philosophy hence defining its reputation on efficiency and effectiveness.

Essential Elements of an Organizational Ethics Program

For corporate compliance to organizational ethics, the standards, as well as principles, should be set to align with the company’s operations as well as objective strategies. In this approach, standards and control that includes both the code of conduct, procedures as well as standards and policies are based as the foundational elements of a functional organizational ethics program (Doppelt, 2017). Another pillar is the training feature that ensures the employees are well acknowledged on the relevant company corporate policies, laws, prohibited conduct as well as the set regulations to be applied in practice. After communicating all the critical information from the management, the questions on whether the employees of the particular company are answered through an oversight approach that includes monitoring, auditing and responding to the organizational issues.

Monitoring involves both reviewing and detecting the process of ethics compliance whereas the auditing process comprises of limited review that is based on targeting particular business components, region or even a sector of the market within a specific timeframe. Both efforts, therefore, require responding from the top management for the need of adopting any change if required in compliance with the organizational standards and principles.

Organizational Ethics Dissertation
Organizational Ethics Dissertation

Implementing the Changes based on Future Organization of a Project Management

During the process of practicing to initialize, plan, execute, control as well as close the activities of a particular team to achieve certain goals as well as meeting a specific criterion over a specified time, implementation of organizational ethics program counts to be of great significance. I work in project management that involves the planning, initializing, executing, controlling and closing different works from various teams, and observing activity operation under undefined standards and principles is a challenging issue. This is because most project management work fails as a result of unification in carrying out specific activities (Hornstein, 2015). On the other hand, you find that the initializing process of a task is simple amongst a particular team group, and the work collapses upon reaching the planning as well as the execution process. This fails due to the lack of ethical procedures to unify different plans as well as execution processes that establish the concept of how to control and finalize the work.

However, implementing the ethical changes will increasingly create a foundation for the achievement of future organizational effectiveness as well as efficiency in its operations. Further, the implementation process should be based on strategies to educate and acknowledge new as well as the existing employees on the changes that have occurred regarding compliance of the company’s standards and principles. For example, implementing these changes on my expertise area, project management, ensures mutual initializing, planning and execution of different tasks, that is closed under a unified system of control thus increasingly constructing a good reputation based on the concept of effectiveness and efficiency.

References

Doppelt, B. (2017). Leading change toward sustainability: A change-management guide for business, government and civil society. Routledge.

Hornstein, H. A. (2015). The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), 291-298.

Johnson, C. E. (2018). Organizational ethics: A practical approach. Sage Publications.

Relevant Links

Marketing Ethics

Business Management Dissertations

If you enjoyed reading this post on organizational ethics, I would be very grateful if you could help spread this knowledge by emailing this post to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.

Project Control Construction

Project Control

Project control is vital since it ensures that resources, budgets, and time are used effectively. In addition, the project control is significant as it enables the project manager to evaluate the progress of the project and adjust on the shortcomings and risks that are encountered during the completion of the project as discussed below.

Earned Value Management Techniques

As a project manager of a 5000m2 retail development construction project, the project control measures are very vital in the quest to achieve the goals. Control of this project can be conducted using the Earned Value Management, EVM. The EVM evaluates the progress of the project embracing the objective approach (APM, 2013: 7). This technique is very significant as it enhances the control work which can be conducted at any period, hence, determining the current status of the project. The EVM embraces the use of a baseline project plan to control the desired outcome. In this method, the cost management as well as the schedule of the project evaluations are conducted in an integrated manner (APM, 2013: 9).

Some of the goals of the 5000m2 retail development construction project include maintaining budget and minimizing costs. This necessitated the allocation of specific amount of the resources including the human capital. In this regard, project control enables the project manager to have a control of how the project progresses considering the time taken for each activity undertaken (APM, 2013: 9). More so, the cost of the project is controlled using EVM is necessary to evade the misuse of the resources and finance allocated for the project which could jeopardize the outcome. Apart from that, EVM project control is vital since there is absolute need to deliver positive results which are useful in answering the business case (APM, 2013: 7).

Project Control Measures

Using measures such as the evaluation of the performance reports can be of great importance in ensuring that project scope including project plan, schedule among others are helping the project manager deliver the goals of the project as stipulated before the project commenced (Fleming and Koppelman, 2010: 54-55). As the project work progresses, the project manager should be informed about the achievements made as well as the cost that has been used by the time performance reporting was been conducted. EVM also enables the manager to have an estimation of the final cost of the project together with time that is likely to be consumed (APM, 2013: 9). The EVM gives a clear overview of the progress and the status of the project which is essential for the project management since the resources as well as activities are arranged in logical sequence. This ensures that the activities are at as planed in the baseline project (APM, 2013: 9).

Project Control Dissertation
Project Control – Roland Wanner

Project Control Risk Planning Initiative

As a manager, it is necessary to initiate the risk planning so that the risks that are encountered in the project can be handled (APM, 2013: 60). The progressive evaluation of the status of the project vividly indicates the risks that the project faces. In addition there is a clear forecast of the future risks that the project might encounter. Therefore, planning for the risk is inevitable in a construction project. The previous projects can be used to evaluate the project risks.

In addition, benchmarking on similar projects can be a useful technique under the EVM control of risks. Moreover, the risk management software can be incorporated to deduce both the cost risk analysis as well as the schedule risk analysis (APM, 2013: 68). This is because the construction project’s completion time is usually scheduled and there is a need to manage the time so that the project does not run behind the schedule. Moreover, the finances and other resources are allocated in a sequential and logical manner. Hence, conducting schedule risk analysis ensures that the project status is as outlined in the baseline project (APM, 2013: 69).

More so, any discrepancies are managed using the appropriate methods that does not cause cost variance. This is because the allocation of finances is done when the project plan is made. Furthermore, the change control management is vital so that the risks mitigation processes can achieve the desired goals of the project (Fleming and Koppelman, 2010: 206).

Controlling the Project Plan and Schedule

As  project manager, it is necessary to ensure that the baseline project and project plan are achievable and useful in supporting the business case. In this regard, the project plan can be changed if the project manger determines that there are shortcomings to its effectiveness and validity. In addition, if there are some external and unplanned forces such as the political instability, the project plan can hence be altered (APM, 2013: 73).

One of the possible ways is the EVM Compass Maturity Model (APM, 2013: 73). This model is necessary as it ensures that capability project control is improved. This is done through rating the progress of the project on a scale of 5 with 5 as the highest score. Therefore, project manager and stakeholders evaluates the EVM attributes such as cost, time, resources, and finances, among others and rate their performance relying on the realistic and evidence based approach (APM, 2013: 73-74). On the other hand, the baseline review is another method that can be used to control the project plan and schedule. The baseline reviews can be conducted by an independent firm hence giving reliable information about the status of the project, the project manager can thereafter act accordingly.

Data trace assessment is another technique embraced under the EVM since all the data carried out in the project is evaluated and a detailed and valid status of the project (Fleming and Koppelman, 2010: 211). In addition, tracing the resources will help in project control as the will safeguard the time schedule of the project. Tracing resources is another technique which shows the progress of the project as it evaluates the distribution of resource within the different areas of the project. This is necessary in ensuring that time is effectively managed as well as ensuring that the resource use is matching their viability (APM, 2013: 75).

Reviewing Collected Data and Acting

Acting on the collected data is vital as the possible and necessary changes for the project are enhanced. Reviewing the schedule performance index determines how far behind or ahead the project is running which enables time management. Moreover, the cost performance index which represents the cost of the earned value to the total costs of the project helps in budgeting trace which controls the finance management (APM, 2013: 80). Comparing the current performance of the project is a suitable way to forecast and plan for the future.

Evaluating EV Reports

The test of project reasonableness can be conducted through evaluating the Earned Value reports. These reports can be produced progressively as the project work advances. The EV reports are vital as they enable the project manager to improve on the management techniques so that the project goals as outlines in the plan are realized (APM, 2013: 90). More so, evaluating these reports ensures the current risks are encountered as well as laying down concrete plans for the forecasted risks.

In addition, setting the cost and variance a threshold ensures the parameters such as cost and schedule of the projects are analyzed effectively (APM, 2013: 105). If the variance or the cost is above the threshold at any given time then there should be drastic changes. The project manager controls the project to ensure that reasonableness is always maintained (Fleming and Koppelman, 2010).

References

Association of Project Management HandBook (2013) Earned Value Management ISBN 13: 978-1-903494-47-9

W Fleming and Joel M Koppelman (2010) Earned Value”, Project Management, Fourth Edition – ISBN – 978-1-935589-08-2

Roland Wanner (2014) “Earned Value Management”, The most important methods and tools for an effective Project Control by Roland Wanner 2014 – ISBN – 978-1500850234

Relevant Posts

Construction Management Dissertations

Project Management UAE Construction Industry

Construction Dissertation PMO Implementation

If you enjoyed reading this post on project control within construction I would be very grateful if you could help spread this knowledge by emailing this post to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.

Project Management UAE Construction Industry

Assessment of the Application of Project Management in the United Arab Emirates Construction Industry

Subject: Project Management in UAE Construction Industry. This dissertation aims to critically analyze the application of project management for successful project completion in the construction industry. Literature review covers extensively the development history of project management since the old ages to modern era project management techniques.

The first three objectives are covered during the desk study of reviewing different literature available. Major reasons of project failure in achieving designed project goals are identified and how the market slowdown is affecting the construction industry of United Arab Emirates. The role of project Management becomes essential when complexities such as introduction of new technologies, tasks to perform which are inter dependent, large and distant teams spread across different departments, different projects or sometimes different parts of the World and constraints of time, quality, cost are imposed.

Modern project management tools and techniques are discussed in detail and use of new technology to improve the performance of project management hence construction industry is highlighted. These findings of literature review are used further in research methodology to develop an online survey questionnaire (quantitative) to evaluate the aims and objectives set for the research, e.g. the level of awareness of PM tools and techniques and to investigate if the current industry demands are met by project management and to discuss any potential improvements/features that can lead the construction industry to achieve better results in project success.

Conclusions are drawn from the analysis of data received based on online questionnaire from professionals in the industry and the aim of dissertation is achieved by meeting all the objectives set for this dissertation. In the end, recommendations are made that can lead the construction industry to achieve better results in project success.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To critically analyze the available literature on project management development history; addressing the demand of the construction industry, and how it has been assisting the industry in managing projects of extensive nature
  • To identify the major reasons of project failure in UAE construction industry in achieving the designed project goals
  • To identify how the market slowdown is affecting UAE construction industry
  • To investigate the level of awareness of new project management tools and techniques
  • To investigate if the current industry demands are being met by Project management techniques, and to identify any potential improvements/features that can lead the construction industry to achieve better results in project success

UAE Construction Industry Dissertation
UAE Construction Industry Dissertation

Dissertation Contents

1: Introduction
Rationale
Aim
Objectives
Research Methodology
Dissertation Structure

2: Literature Review
Project Management
Project Management History
Concept of Modern Project Management
Project Management Process Groups
Initiation
Planning
Executing
Monitoring and Controlling
Closing
Major Causes of Project Failure
Facts about Projects Failure
Causes of Projects Failure
Project Management Associations, Standards and Applications
Need for Project Management in Construction
Why Project Management
Benefits of Project Management
UAE Construction industry and Market Slowdown
UAE Construction Set Back
UAE Construction SWOT Analysis
Competitive Environment during Recession in UAE
Development of Project Management Tools and Techniques
Project Management Software
Over View of Prevalent Software Products
Evolution / Merging of Primavera with Oracle

3: Research Methodology
Objectives of Research Data anthology
Research Approaches
Quantitative Methods (Deductive Approach)
Qualitative Methods (Inductive Approach)
Mixed Methods
Research Strategy
Questionnaire Design
Questionnaire Sampling

4: Survey Data Analysis and Results
General Introduction Questions
Project Management General Understanding
Performance of Construction Industry in UAE
Modern PM and UAE Construction Industry
Further Improvements

5: Conclusions and Recommendations
Conclusions of the Objectives
AIM of Dissertation
Recommendations
Limitations of the Research

References

Appendix
Questionnaires

Other Relevant Blog Posts

Construction Management Dissertation Topics

Sustainable Construction in Abu Dhabi

View This Dissertation Here: Project Management UAE Construction Industry Dissertation

If you enjoyed reading this post on the application of project Management in the UAE construction industry. I would be very grateful if you could help spread this knowledge by emailing this post to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.

Dissertation Managing Project Complexity

The Importance of Experience in Project Managers when Managing Project Complexity – A Study into the UAE

Traditionally, the success of a project lays on the shoulders of project managers and its achievement is constantly measured by the properties of cost, time and quality, which appear to be a simple way of measuring within the construction industry. Interest for project management is becoming fundamental. Yet, projects keep on failing at an astounding rate. This research has investigated the education level of project managers in managing project complexity, by understanding the current educational level of project managers and also to understand whether advanced education is required before achieving the designation of project manager.

Managing Project Complexity
Managing Project Complexity

This dissertation also investigates the leadership qualities and skills required for project manager to handle complex project. This research was done in 2 steps; first step of the research is to review the literature. The literature review consists of project success, complexity, background experience, skills, leadership qualities and education. Second step is to conduct an online survey by preparing 20 questions and is sent to 50 selected project managers and directors of different companies and sectors. Out of 50, 31 responded to the survey.

After analyzing the results from survey, it was found that most of the project managers have not achieved any advanced education before achieving the designation and their current education emphasized more on engineering – technical aspects and less on management aspects. The project managers who had advanced education were given more importance to hard skills (which are scope, time, quality and cost) and soft skills (which are communication, social, conflict management, etc.).

In this dissertation, many project managers had different view on project complexity. However, most of them stated that the factors relating to complexity are due to financial problems, uncertain designs and no proper construction details. Finally, the dissertation has been concluded by saying that advanced education is required for project manager to manage uncertainty and complexity. However having experience is one of the most important factors in addition with education for project success.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To investigate the educational level in project managers and to understand their abilities in adapting with change in project complexity
  • To understand the skills and experience needed to become a project manager and for project success
  • To measure project success in complexity
  • To understand the leadership qualities required for project success

1 – Introduction
Background
Rationale
Aim
Objectives
Research Methodology

2 – Project Success

3 – Complexity
Introduction
Complexity in Construction
Measuring complexity in construction

4 – Project Manager’s Experience and Skills Required for Project Success
Project Manager’s Experience
Project management skills
Required skills for managing complexity

5 – Leadership in Project Managers for Project Success
Leadership in Construction Industry
Different Leadership challenges faced in Complexity
Leadership Styles and Competencies in Construction
Political skills, Leadership and Project success
Modern Leadership in Construction Industry

6 – Education for Project Managers
Challenges faced in project management training and education
Evolution of project management and project managers
Approaches in educating project managers
Advanced training in educating project manager

7 – Research Methodology and Design
Research Methodology
Survey Questionnaire

8 – Data Results and Analysis
Data Results
Data Analysis

9 – Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary
Recommendations

References

View This Dissertation Here

I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on Importance of Experience in Project Managers when Managing Project Complexity. There are many other titles available in the construction dissertation collection that should be of interest to construction management students and building professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of construction such as project management techniques, environmental management, building and construction methods to name a few. It took a lot of time to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

System Development Life Cycle SDLC

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Seven Step SDLC

The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) ensures end-state solutions in accordance to the requirements provided by the user in support of business strategic goal and objectives. It represents a structured, systematic approach that aims at developing information systems. The SDLC incorporates a comprehensive checklist of rules and regulations governing IT systems. The provisions are aimed at ensuring system developers adhere to the different set guides. The seven step SDLC incorporates seven phases that need adamant consideration by the developers to ensure accurate realization of the intended goals. The phases include planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance.

Seven Step SDLC
Seven Step SDLC

First, the planning phase of the SDLC demands the developers need to determine a solid plan for developing the information system desired. In the phase, three primary activities need to be ensured for optimality. The system to be developed must be defined, identified and selected in accordance with the strategic goals of the organization (Balaji& Murugaiyan, 2012).  Secondly, the developer needs to consider the scope of the project. The scope provides the high-level system requirements. It is the basic definition of the system. Lastly, the system development team needs to define the project plan. Hoffer (2012) argues that a plan responds to the what, when and who questions in the system developing activities together with all the activities to be performed including the individuals and resources to be involved in the SDLC process.

Secondly, the analysis phase, which involves the end users and IT specialists. The two stakeholders gather, understand and document business requirements for the intended system. Primarily, the developers at the stage aim at gathering sufficient information regarding the business or end user requirements (Rosenblatt, 2013). The requirements are the knowledge workers’ requests that the system must meet to be qualified as successful. This can be undertaken using a Joint Application Development (JAD) session. A process in which knowledge workers and IT specialists engage one another to define and review business requirements.

In the third phase, the design, the developers build a technical blueprint detailing how the proposed system will work. According to Rosenblatt (2013), the point of view shifts from a business perspective to a technical one. Immediately, the development phase follows. The phase takes consideration of all detailed design documents from the design phase and transform them to an actual system. The developers during the phase build the different technical architecture by purchasing and setting it up. In addition, the necessary software programs are written in the database for ease of navigation by the end user.

Once the system is developed, there is a need to test the program. This comes in handy as the fifth step in the seven step SDLC. Here the system is verified on whether it executes all the business requirements as defined in the analysis phase. A detailed test condition is developed and performed with the expected results evaluated. Once the developers are satisfied that the system works appropriately, they proceed to the implementation phase. In this step, the system is distributed to all knowledge workers who begin using the system to perform their routine jobs. However, a user documentation must be provided, which details how the knowledge workers will use the system.

The implementation phase might take different approaches depending on the end user and the developing team (Leau, Loo, Tham & Tan, 2012). Such include the pilot, phased, plunge or the parallel implementation. Each of the implementation holds merit and demerits that the stakeholders need to consider.

The seven step SDLC considers maintenance as the last phase. In the phase, stakeholders monitor and support the new system to ensure its ability to enable the business to realize its goals. During the phase, the developers and knowledge workers can advance the system with the different changes of the business environment.

Four Step SDLC Model

Four Step SDLC
Four Step SDLC

The four-step SDLC model considers a different number of steps to be involved in the development of a system for a business entity. The different steps include identification, design, construction and evaluation and risk analysis. Under the four step SDLC, the project goes through the four phases in iterations (Boehm, 1988). The SDLC model similar to the seven-step model begins by the identification of the objectives in relation to the business that the developers and the knowledge workers desire to execute using the system.

In the initial phase, identification, business requirements are gathered and later a system appropriate for the requirements identified. In addition, subsystem requirements and unit requirements are executed at the phase to ensure consistency during the development phase. Therefore, the knowledge workers and the developer need to interact excessively to ensure a mutual content on the needs that the system should satisfy. Significantly, the different alternatives and constraints are identified by the parties who later see a way of mitigating each of the shortcoming for the benefit of developing a perfect system.

Once the identification stage is complete, the team launches the design phase. The phase involves a conceptual design and an architectural design, logical design, physical product design and the final design. The different designs serve a greater role in ensuring systematic analysis of the project at each level of design to address any likely challenges. The construction stage comes in handy after the two phases are successfully executed. In the phase, the actual system is developed and engaged for the different needs.

A Proof of Concept document needs to accompany the system during the delivery to the knowledge workers to get feedback on the system (Boehm, Lane, Koolmanojwong & Turner, 2014). The information is often used for advancing or corrective measures necessary to ensure client satisfaction. The testing of the project is also done at the stage to optimize correction of the system.

In the last phase of the four-step SDLC process, the developer and client conduct a risk analysis procedure where they identify, estimate and monitor any technical feasibility probable. The appropriate management risks are engaged to ensure optimal results. For instance, a schedule slippage and cost overrun can be conducted to optimize the process. The customer needs to evaluate the system developed to determine whether it meets the project specifications provided during the first phase. In case the client or the developer identifies any issues concerning the system, the necessary steps are undertaken to resolve the problem. Considering the short cycle of the four-step model, reviews are inevitable in each phase (Boehm, 1988). The client and developers concerned with the system development analyze the previous cycle. The review covers all products developed in the previous cycle, including the plans for the next cycle. In addition, the required resources are evaluated for executing the subsequent cycle.

Comparing and Contrasting the Seven Step and Four Step Models

The seven-step and four-step model elicit similarities and differences worth considering in the study. The two models embrace the need to conduct preliminary analysis and ensure constant communication between the client and developer for the efficiency and effectiveness of the system. In the planning and identification phases, the need to optimize on information gathered, especially the objectives to be realized by the system is highlighted. Additionally, the design phase between the two models also elicits similarities. The two models rely on analysis, although the latter does not provide a higher prominence when compared to the seven-step model, which assumes analysis as a phase in the system development process (Boehm, Lane, Koolmanojwong & Turner, 2014).

Contrastingly, the four-step model considers the elimination of risk in the system establishment as the focus in defining the success of a system. This varies with the seven-step model that considers the adoption of the client needs into the system as the focus. As such, the four-step system ensures preliminary evaluation of risks in each phase. The review process in the four-step model is engaged at each phase. This is different to the seven-step that tends to review the project during the maintenance stage. As such, maintenance is cheaper in terms of cost and time for the four-step compared to the seven-step. The review explains why the four-step model does not have any phase identified as maintenance iterations (Boehm, 1988). In addition, the high status of the review in the different phases optimizes the ability of the developer to minimize any risk that might destabilize the organization. Thus, the system is developed in accordance with the inherent risks within the organization. Therefore, easy to customize the system to suit the needs of the organization.

References

Balaji, S., & Murugaiyan, M. S. (2012). Waterfall vs. V-Model vs. Agile: A comparative study on SDLC. International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management, 2(1), 26-30.

Boehm, B. W. (1988). A spiral model of software development and enhancement. Computer, 21(5), 61-72.

Boehm, B., Lane, J. A., Koolmanojwong, S., & Turner, R. (2014). The incremental commitment spiral model: Principles and practices for successful systems and software. Addison-Wesley Professional.

Hoffer, J. A. (2012). Modern Systems Analysis and Design, 6/e. Pearson Education India.

Leau, Y. B., Loo, W. K., Tham, W. Y., & Tan, S. F. (2012). Software development life cycle AGILE vs traditional approaches. In International Conference on Information and Network Technology (Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 162-167).

Rosenblatt, H. J. (2013). Systems Analysis and Design. Cengage Learning.

View Project Management Dissertations Here