Science Marketing and Art Marketing

Science Marketing and Art Marketing: Marketing research and branding

Science Marketing and Art Marketing: Marketing research is the processes through which the marketing managers collect relevant information about their product and the customers. It also involves an evaluation of the necessary strategies required to develop the correct product that will capture the attention of the customer. It provides the basis for the development of the correct marketing mix and the correct style of marketing. Branding, on the other hand, is the process through which a business develops and creates a unique image and name for a product in the customer’s perspective.

Branding incorporates information marketing research to create a brand that is attractive and present in the customers’ mind. The information from marketing research is important as it presents the customer’s expectations. In other words, branding is the art through which the marketing management delivers the customer’s expectations. It is the means through which the marketing management showcases creativity and ability to meet the customers’ expectation. Combining the two strategies creates a mix of art and science that delivers the right product in the eyes of the customer.

Market research

Market research is the process through which managers gather important information about the product from the consumer. It is a science because it involves a combination of processes designed to gather information and knowledge. The science of market research is objective because it aims at gathering relevant information about the customers. Its main objective is to determine the viability of the product from the perspective of the customer. Market research is the process through which the company identifies the possible market and the customer base for the product. It involves understanding the needs of the customers and the means through which the company can modify the product to meet the customer’s expectation. Also, market research involves gathering the necessary information about the customers’ purchasing power and the ability to purchase the product. Through market research, the company can determine the best marketing mix that would help maximize revenue (Burns et al. 2014). Also, the company can use market research to gather information about preexisting segments in the market. Hence, market research is also useful in market segmentation and product differentiation.

Market research is an objective process that involves the identification of the desired market and the development of strategies for information gathering. The management must also analyze the data collected to extract useful information (Burns et al. 2014). It involves the collection of qualitative and quantitative data concerning the customers. The company can either correct the data directly or through existing research. Therefore, the company has to decide whether to use primary or secondary data sources. Primary data refers to the type of data that has not been used in prior research and that the company collects through primary data collection tools. Secondary data, on the other hand, refers to information gathered in a prior research.

The use of prior research implies that secondary data collection involves another entity. When a company chooses to use primary data collection methods, the management has to decide on the objective of the research. The management can decide to collect answers to previously identified issues. Therefore, the management identifies areas of concerns and seeks to collect answers to the questions through market research. The management may also choose to identify new issues in the market. Using this route, the management seeks to collect an array of questions that the customers would like answers to. Whether the company chooses secondary or primary data, the main purpose of market research remains the same, the company seeks to fulfill a certain set of objectives.

Science Marketing and Art Marketing
Science Marketing and Art Marketing

Market research is mostly applicable or put into use when an organization seeks to venture into a new market. It is also necessary when the company seeks to rejuvenate its market competitiveness or brand position. Organizations may also opt to identify the characteristics and needs of a special group in its marker. Researching the market may also be necessary when the company seeks to introduce a new product in its existing market (Burns et al. 2014).

Based on the reason behind market research, every form of research will have different objectives and strategies for obtaining the required set of information. For example, a company seeking to venture into a new market has to conduct an investigation of the current interest for the product in the new market. In other words, the organization must collect information to justify the viability of the new product in the target market. Based on the outcome of the research and information gathered, the management can then decide on whether to actualize the plan. If the company establishes that the customers have a viable interest in the product, the move to invest in the new market becomes feasible. However, interest alone is not enough to make a decision to venture into the new market. The organization also has to investigate the price viability and customers’ ability to purchase the product. Hence, the management must develop a strategy that answers all the necessary questions


Branding is the means through which the management answers to the expectations of the customer by providing the product in a manner that the customers are likely to accept. It involves positioning the product in the mind of the customer and presenting the product in a likable manner. It is an art because it involves the use of knowledge and skills to develop a product. The art of developing a brand is subjective to the information gathered and the need to present a final product that meets the customer’s needs and expectations. Branding involves the development of the product and means to position the product in the minds of the customers (Latif et al., 2014). Therefore, the art of branding involves the physical aspect of designing and developing the brand in form of the product appearance and composition. The physical aspect of branding involves the development of an attractive and memorable product. The physical aspect of branding involves creatively designing the aspects of the company that relates directly to the customer. One is the physical appearance of the product. A good example of vigorous branding is the Fanta brand of Coca-Cola that continuously changes shape and appearance to capture the customers’ attention.

Similarly, physical branding involves the development of the company’s logo in a unique and appealing manner. The logo is the main identifier for any given organization. Its uniqueness determines the company’s ability to position itself in the market (Latif et al., 2014). Therefore, the company must design the logo uniquely and outstandingly. It also involves the development of a company slogan. The slogan must reflect the values of the company and appear in a manner that keeps it viable in the eyes of the customers. Like the logo, the slogan will most likely be visible to the customers at all times. Hence, the slogan must stand out in the market. Most companies identify by the brand. A well-established brand often appears to be similar to the company. Most customers consider the brand to be the same as the company (Latif et al., 2014). Even for companies that have a brand name different from the company name, customers often confuse the company with the brand.

The art of branding involves several aspects that define the company’s position in the market. Brand positioning is particularly important in marketing (Latif et al., 2014). It involves the setting up the brand in a manner that is noticeable and memorable. The brand position is a marketing strategy that is directed at creating a unique appearance to the customers. Other than the design of the logo and the slogan, positioning the brand may also include printing the brand name, logo, and slogan on the company products. The art of positioning has evolved to include online presence and ease of accessibility of information in social media and on the internet. The company can also improve the position of the brand by carefully placing the logo or the slogan in the customers’ daily activities. The Coca-Cola Company is usually very active in brand positioning. For example, the share a coke market campaign positions the company logo and slogan at the heart of summer celebrations. The company also uses promotional campaigns to position the brand in sports and other activities to keep the brand in the customer’s minds.

Science Marketing and Art Marketing

Marketing requires a combination of science and art to achieve its objectives. The application of scientific strategies in marketing allows marketing managers to collect sufficient data. It allows managers to track marketing expenditure and effectiveness. According to Gross (2017), the ease of data collection and marketing research through digital marketing enables the success of marketing strategies. Such a scenario indicates the importance of data collection and market research. According to Gross (2017), the integration between science and art in marketing guarantees the success of any marketing campaign. The organization must find a balance between the art and science of marketing in order to achieve the objectives set. Strategic marketing management is the simply the development of strategies that combine the art and science in marketing. It involves developing the necessary skills and techniques that enable the company to achieve its marketing objectives.

Therefore, market research and branding are simple methods of defining a multifaceted and complex science and art marketing. The discipline involves developing a synergy between the science in market research and the art in branding. The data collected in market research is helping the company to design and develop a unique and lasting market brand. Other marketing strategies whether art or science come into play to make the processes successful. For example, marketing managers can employ strategic marketing to develop strategies for the implementation of research and branding. Similarly, the marketing managers can employ product design in branding as described above to position the brand on the products. By combining marketing science and art, marketing managers develop strategies to achieve marketing objectives. Therefore, the two forms of marketing must work together for the betterment of the marketing department.


Burns, A. C., Bush, R. F., & Sinha, N. (2014). Marketing research (Vol. 7). Harlow: Pearson.

Gross, J. (2017). Marketing: The Convergence of Art and Science. Forbes. December 1. 2017.

Latif, W., B. Islam, A. & Mdnoor, I. (2014). Building Brand Awareness in the Modern Marketing Environment: A Conceptual Model.

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I hope you enjoyed reading this post on Science Marketing and Art Marketing. There are many other titles available in the Marketing Dissertation Collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Dissertation E-Marketing Strategies

E-Marketing Strategies for Changing Brand Perception – A Case Study of Nike

E-marketing manages to promote the product across the globe so that required market can be grabbed in a short interval of time. Academics suggest that e-Marketing strategies are found to be effective in this era as customers are more related to the technology this is why E-marketing supports in the quick expansion of product. The study is based on the case of Nike and its consumers, therefore the target respondents of the study included the consumers of the brand Nike.

In addition to this the marketing managers of Nike were also participants if the research since their views were important for evaluating the online marketing strategies used by a brand and its impact realized at the company’s end. A comparison of traditional approach and modern approach of marketing has also been presented to assess that which marketing communication channel is appropriate for an organization and what are the benefits an organization can acquire after the application of modern marketing approach. This study supports in understanding the involvement and impact of involving technology in the marketing procedures; the impact of such practices in the advancement of the sales of the firm is also stated as the scope of the study.

E-Marketing Strategies Dissertation
E-Marketing Strategies Dissertation

The assessment of the impact of E-marketing in shifting the customer’s perception is the significant fact that further supports in understanding the importance of advanced technologies in marketing. In this era, internet has become the basic tool that has been used by the customers for their daily routine affairs; internet is known as basic implement that has been expended for communication, business, shopping and other affairs. Moreover, in this study, the impact of different strategies such as emailing, text messaging and visual messaging on the consumers’ brand perception is realized through this study.

Dissertation Objectives

In order to conduct the research, it is important to create some objectives based on which the conclusions and analysis can be made. The objectives of the research are cited below:

  • To study the conceptual framework of e-Marketing tools used by organizations
  • To highlight the use of e-Marketing by organizations to boost brand image
  • To analyse the impact of e-Marketing on the brand image of Nike
  • To present a set of recommendations to Nike on how to improve their brand image and use e-Marketing tools

1 – Introduction
Background of the Study
Problem Statement
Research Aim
Research Objectives
Research Question
Scope of the Study
Motivation of the study
Outline of the study

2 – Literature Review
Concept of E-Marketing
Traditional Marketing in contrast with E-Marketing
Framework of E-marketing Tools and Techniques
Strategies of E-Marketing
Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Marketing
Brand Image
Brand Perception of Customers
E-Marketing and Brand Image Integration
Benefits of E-Marketing and Brand Image Integration
Chapter Summary

3 – Methodology
Research Framework
Customers’ brand Perception
E-marketing Strategies
Email technique
Visual illustration of text message
Means for social sharing
Hypothesis Generation
Pilot testing
The Variables and Measurements
Sampling and Data
Sample Selection
Sample Size
Description of Data
Data Collection Instruments
Techniques for Data Analysis
Ethical Consideration

4 – Data Analysis
Reliability test
Descriptive Frequency Analysis
Regression analysis
Hypothesis assessment

5 – Discussion

6 – Conclusion
Findings of the Study
Area of Future Studies
Limitations of the research



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I hope you enjoyed reading this post on E-Marketing Strategies for Changing Brand Perception and how it affects Nike. There are many other titles available in the marketing dissertation collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Marketing Dissertation Price Supermarket Industry

Investigating the Impact of “Price” As a Positioning Factor in the UK Supermarket Industry: A Study of Tesco

Dissertation Topic: Price Positioning in the UK Supermarket Industry. Tesco is currently the market leader in the UK retail industry (and has been since 1995), since the launch of the Tesco Clubcard. It has been claimed that Tesco has created customer loyalty by introducing the Clubcard. However, it is possible that the Clubcard does not necessarily create loyalty; rather, it helps the company to understand and predict customer behaviour, and to an extent, influence customer behaviour through various price deals and offers.

It has been established that customer loyalty can certainly improve the probability that an organisation’s profits will increase. In the case of Tesco, loyalty has not actually been created although the company has established a way of predicting and influencing consumer behaviour (to an extent) through the loyalty card. Since customer satisfaction is one of the key ingredients that contributes towards customer loyalty, it can be said that at the moment, Waitrose, Aldi, and Lidl are at a better position to create customer loyalty, for whatever reasons.

Supermarket Industry Pricing Strategy
Supermarket Industry Pricing Strategy

Customers generally do not differentiate the companies based on the prices they offer, rather, they differentiate the products based on the perceived quality. The problem is that companies such as Tesco, Morrisons, and ASDA have similar price structures, and as such, pricing may not be the point of difference for the consumers. Tesco’s positioning on the basis of price (every little helps) may not help the company to gain a significant advantage over the competitors, although it may contribute to maintaining this advantage.

Dissertation Objectives

Based on the assumption that pricing is not the factor by which consumers differentiate companies, the following research objectives have been composed:

  • To analyse the extent to which pricing is a differentiating factor (as seen by the customer) that influences consumer buying behaviour in the supermarket industry
  • To identify whether price positioning (as seen by the customer) is a viable option for supermarkets

1 – Introduction

Statement of the Problem
Research Objectives
Research Questions
Dissertation Outline

2 – Research Methodology
The Research Philosophy
Position on Philosophy
Research Approach
Combined Approach
Research Design
Research Strategy
Grounded Theory
Case Study
Data Collection Techniques
Sampling and Population
Focus Group Interviews
Scope and Limitations
Gaining Access and Research Ethics

3 – Literature Review
Price Image Dimensions
Price-Quality Link
Price as a Market Cue
Ego-involvement and Price
Price and Retail Patronage
Price Premiums and Brand Equity
Role of Price in Strategic Positioning
Expectation Theory in Consumer Behaviour
Henry Assael Model

4 – Discussion and Analysis
Qualitative Research Report and Analysis
Quantitative Research Report and Analysis
Discussion on the Findings
Is price a differentiator in the supermarket industry?
Is the low end price position viable for retailers?
The Hypothesis

5 – Conclusions


Questionnaire Summary

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I hope you enjoyed reading this post on the Impact of “Price” As a Positioning Factor and how it affects the UK Supermarket Industry. There are many other titles available in the marketing dissertation collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Marketing Strategy Japan

Marketing Strategy for Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry to Attract SME’s in order to Bring FDI in Japan

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The research and analysis was conducted on the topic of marketing strategy for Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry to attract SME’s in order to bring FDI in Japan. Five objectives were designed in order to get vital information and understand the importance of foreign direct investment and the effect of different marketing strategies on foreign investment. The objectives were related with government policies, METI’s marketing strategies for acquiring and motivation of foreign investment, different promotion strategies used by METI and recommendations for influence of potential investors towards investment. In this regards author have collected important information and data regarding foreign direct investment.

Marketing Strategy Dissertations
Marketing Strategy Dissertations

Mostly respondents’ age was between 35 to 45 years which indicate that they were young and have strong knowledge about foreign direct investment regarding issues and different strategies that need to be used for acquiring of investment in the country. There was 5-likert questionnaire which comprised on 21 questions and 6 questions for interview have designed. Total 57 respondents’ responses on 5-likert questionnaire and 11 respondents’ responses through interview were collected. Mostly respondents stated that foreign investment plays an important role if government should take initiatives towards motivation and with the help of marketing strategies and also provide some incentives for foreign investors. In this regards, METI is playing an important role for acquiring and motivating of foreign investors in order to get more satisfaction and growth in country’s economy. In which METI have introduce some promotion activities and legal actions such as social medial, technological interaction, intellectual property protections and other aspects that influence the foreign investors to invest more and more.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To identify problems involved in hampering FDI in Japan
  • To study the relationship between the foreign investors and METI
  • To perform a validation for current marketing strategy of METI and propose a new framework for the marketing strategy depending upon the research
  • To devise and suggest appropriate strategies for Japan that are based on the use of modern marketing tools and techniques
  • To know how Social Media Marketing, E-Marketing, and internet promotional tools specifically can be brought to use to develop a positive repute for investing in Japan

If you enjoyed reading this post on marketing strategy, I would be very grateful if you could help spread this knowledge by emailing this post to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.

General Motors Marketing Analysis

General Motors Marketing Analysis

Company Profile of General Motors

When it comes to automobiles, one of the most recognized brands out there is General Motors. The American multinational corporation based in Detroit, Michigan designs, manufactures and sells vehicles as well as automotive parts.

With a history that dates back to 1908, General Motors has had a critical role in both the American as well as global auto industry. Some of General Motors well-known brands presently in the market include Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet and General Motors. The company builds cars and trucks through its other units: General Motors Daewoo, Isuzu, Opel, Vauxhall and Holden units.

The present General Motors that we know today is a result of a company split following a government backed Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization. In November 2010, General Motors had its initial public offering, which was one of the highest ever recorded (General Motors, 2014).

Marketing Strategy and Environmental Scanning

The core of any effective business plan is a marketing strategy that will outline how a business will set out to deliver its products to the satisfaction of its customers. Success requires effective marketing in order to remain competitive in today’s global market.

Organizations, regardless of its size must be able to identify and understand external influences to be able to adapt to the present realities that will ensure the company’s survival and success (Albright, 2004: 39).

Plans are based on forecasts which in turn are based on assumptions about what is to be. Scanning the horizon of possibilities is a prudent measure that companies take in order to identify new developments that will test past assumptions or provide insight on new perspectives to possible future threats or opportunities (Gordon & Glen).

A vital tool that will aid companies to focus on strategic and tactical plans is environmental scanning. Environmental scanning is the internal communication of external information about issues that may potentially influence an organization’s decision-making process. It helps organizations flush out external threats thus enabling them to maneuver appropriately (Albright, 2004: 40).

General Motors Marketing Analysis
General Motors Marketing Analysis

Environmental scanning may act as an early warning system that will detect and warn companies about important changes and “danger zones” allowing for plans to be altered as necessary. Futurists do environmental scanning in one way or another, all with the ultimate goal to distinguish what is constant, what changes, and what constantly changes. The basic goal of a scanning system is simply to find early indications of possibly important future developments to gain as much lead-time as possible (Gordon & Glen).

Stoner and Freeman (in Costa & Teare, 2000: 156) defined strategic planning as “the development of long range plans for the effective management of environmental opportunities and threats in the light of corporate strengths and weaknesses.” It is therefore accurate that through scanning or the so-called “realized” approach identification and management of environmental opportunities as well as threats can be helpful in the fundamental management of competitive advantages of companies.

In addition to this, environmental scanning can be classified under different areas including social, economic, technological, and political/regulatory. An analysis of these different areas will give an organization a comprehensive assessment regarding the organization (Ginter & Duncan, 1990: 91).

Previous experience on the environmental scanning process has revealed that too much priority is given on the short term which has led to a limited understanding of information. This has led to a basic goal of extracting information, customer service, and the like which ignores the other factors present in the general environment (Costa & Teare, 2000: 157).

The General Motors Way

In analyzing the advantages of General Motors as an organization, there have emerged a number of key strengths including its industry knowledge. With its long history in the automotive field, General Motors has an expertise many can replicate. Time and time again it has been a proven industry leader. In addition to this, technology and innovation has critically improved the company’s products and services and as such have provided customers with key technological advancements that are not only necessary but highly demanded.

Analysis of Strategies, Strengths and Limitations

Recognizing the abovementioned realities, there are still a number of areas of improvement that General Motors needs to focus on including its human resource inefficiency and mediocre scientific achievements, to name a few.

From a marketing standpoint, these situations are potential marketing threats. These internal and external issues hurt the image of General Motors as a company.

In the recent years, General Motors has undergone a number of changes, including its marketing strategy. With a new vision and communications platform called “Find New Roads,” General Motors aims to be the touchstone for the brand as it develops new products and technologies for sale in more than 140 markets (Evans, 2013).

With regards to General Motors efforts, a well done environmental scan has enabled it to identify the realities of the industry and understand its key competition and potential difficulties in meeting the challenge of competitors (Albright, 2004: 40). In this key aspect, General Motors has been able to realign its focus and capitalize on the opportunities that can be found in Asia, specifically China.

In reconsidering its emerging-market strategy, General Motors has been working towards positioning itself for emerging markets of its Chinese partner SAIC Motor Corp (Shirouzu, 2013).

Globalization is a market reality; in order to improve upon the new direction of General Motors to move towards Asia, strategists need to take its efforts a step further and stress test their scanning models. Geographical expansion brings about different considerations. It’s important that through analysis, General Motors can determine the circumstances of desirability as well as risk and restrictions (Beinhocker et al, 2009: 56).

By delving into developing markets, General Motors will be able to think about producing a lower end range of vehicles that consumers from developing markets would be keener on purchasing. An environmental scan would show that emerging markets are not as badly hit by financial setbacks and thus still possess a higher growth rate which equates to an increasing buying power. This would mean while other regions would have slower auto sales, areas in Asia could be a strong sales point.

Scanning would also bring about competitive intelligence as a result of an analysis of competitors and competitive conditions in particular industries or regions. This would enable managers to make informed decisions about marketing, R&D, as well as long-term tactical business strategies. It enables managers to cast a wider net and analyze information about the various sectors of its external environment that will support forward planning (Choo, 1999).

In the case of private transportation sales, a market like China has a high demand for automobiles and it can be safe to say that there will not be any environmental emission deals coming up soon. This can show this as a great potential for profit given the smaller investment, rapid production and low initial costs.

The process looked into identification of emerging issues and trends as well as situations and drawbacks that may affect its success and future. This new strategy opens a lot of opportunity for rapid sales (Shirouzu, 2013).

This example as well as others shows that General Motors has made efforts to stay ahead of the game but this is not enough. General Motors marketing strategies have a need for more improvement. It’s been noted that while their global presence cannot be underestimated, their focus and primary marketing strategies are centered on a limited number of countries. Each country requires its own marketing approach given each economy and marketing conditions vary from each other. A much more tailored, innovative and globally applicable strategy must be applied to achieve multiple targets on a larger scale.

As an example, consider nature, in the last few years, the market has seen an increase in the demand for alternative fuel technologies. Environmental scanning would flag this as rising market trend that General Motors needs to look into. Research and development must be supported to work towards being able to address this future pattern. The company must look towards tweaking its image to make it more concerned for the environment to achieve credibility in this area.

However, the company is already lagging behind its competitors, specifically Toyota. Although General Motors has been producing more efficient products, it is not rising to the challenge that its rivals have been able to in the last few years.

As mentioned earlier, there are various aspects that a scan can look into, be it social, economic, technological and the like. For businesses like General Motors, given its size and holdings, focus tends to be on the economic but such a one-sided scan can lead to misrepresentation or error in analysis leading to a gap between the goal and the outcome which puts an organization in jeopardy. It is imperative scans be as holistic as possible. This is related to the earlier recommendation on the unique marketing strategies per region. A wider analysis of current and potential change and the assessment of the impact of changes on the organization (Ginter & Duncan, 1990: 91)

In reviewing the marketing strategies of General Motors as discussed in their annual reports, their efforts bulk in the areas of publicity, direct marketing, sales promotion as well as traditional advertising.


For General Motors to continue on its path to growth and success, its marketing strategy must be on point. A vital component of its marketing system should include a comprehensive environmental scanning process.

The process should emphasize market research that focuses on specific target markets with strategic identification and unique approaches per market. There should be a parallel unique point of sale concept per targeted area that takes into consideration not only competition and economics but a holistic review of the various factors affecting market conditions.

Relatedly, strategic expansion will require optimal strategies form increasing sales. Realities of this shift in economic power, especially in emerging markets, should focus on affordability and practicality with a balance of quality and optional luxuries.

The research has revealed that General Motors has taken steps in the right direction but fail to grasp the full extent of the shifting patters in the global consumer market.


General Motors (2014) About Our Company, [Online]

Evans, H. (2013) General Motors Develops New Global Marketing Strategy, [Online]

Albright, K.S. (2004), Environmental scanning: radar for success, Information Management Journal, May-June, p.38-45.

Shirouzu, N. (2013) ‘General Motors rethinks emerging market strategy, hedges on China partner’, Reuters, 27 Jan.

Costa, J. and Teare, R. (2000) ‘Developing an environmental scanning process in the hotel sector’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, p.156-169

Beinhocker, E., Davis, I and Mendonca, L. (2009) ‘The 10 trends you have to watch’, Harvard Business Review, 87, 7/8, pp. 55-60, Business Source Premier, EBSCO Host,

Ginter, P.M. and Duncan, W.J. (1990) ‘Macroenvironmental analysis for strategic management’, Long Range Planning, Vol. 23, No. 6, p.91-100

Gordon, T. J., and Glenn, J. C., ‘Environmental Scanning’, AC/UNU Millenium Project, Ver 2, p. 1-33.

Choo, C. W., ‘(1999) ‘The Art of Scanning the Environment’, Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, vol. 25, No. 3.

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