E-Marketing Strategies for Changing Brand Perception – A Case Study of Nike
E-marketing manages to promote the product across the globe so that required market can be grabbed in a short interval of time. Academics suggest that e-Marketing strategies are found to be effective in this era as customers are more related to the technology this is why E-marketing supports in the quick expansion of product. The study is based on the case of Nike and its consumers, therefore the target respondents of the study included the consumers of the brand Nike.
In addition to this the marketing managers of Nike were also participants if the research since their views were important for evaluating the online marketing strategies used by a brand and its impact realized at the company’s end. A comparison of traditional approach and modern approach of marketing has also been presented to assess that which marketing communication channel is appropriate for an organization and what are the benefits an organization can acquire after the application of modern marketing approach. This study supports in understanding the involvement and impact of involving technology in the marketing procedures; the impact of such practices in the advancement of the sales of the firm is also stated as the scope of the study.
The assessment of the impact of E-marketing in shifting the customer’s perception is the significant fact that further supports in understanding the importance of advanced technologies in marketing. In this era, internet has become the basic tool that has been used by the customers for their daily routine affairs; internet is known as basic implement that has been expended for communication, business, shopping and other affairs. Moreover, in this study, the impact of different strategies such as emailing, text messaging and visual messaging on the consumers’ brand perception is realized through this study.
In order to conduct the research, it is important to create some objectives based on which the conclusions and analysis can be made. The objectives of the research are cited below:
To study the conceptual framework of e-Marketing tools used by organizations
To highlight the use of e-Marketing by organizations to boost brand image
To analyse the impact of e-Marketing on the brand image of Nike
To present a set of recommendations to Nike on how to improve their brand image and use e-Marketing tools
1 – Introduction
Background of the Study
Scope of the Study
Motivation of the study
Outline of the study
2 – Literature Review
Concept of E-Marketing
Traditional Marketing in contrast with E-Marketing
Framework of E-marketing Tools and Techniques
Strategies of E-Marketing
Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Marketing
Brand Perception of Customers
E-Marketing and Brand Image Integration
Benefits of E-Marketing and Brand Image Integration
3 – Methodology
Customers’ brand Perception
Visual illustration of text message
Means for social sharing
The Variables and Measurements
Sampling and Data
Description of Data
Data Collection Instruments
Techniques for Data Analysis
4 – Data Analysis
Descriptive Frequency Analysis
5 – Discussion
6 – Conclusion
Findings of the Study
Area of Future Studies
Limitations of the research
I hope you enjoyed reading this post on E-Marketing Strategies for Changing Brand Perception and how it affects Nike. There are many other titles available in the marketing dissertation collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.
Investigating the Impact of “Price” As a Positioning Factor in the UK Supermarket Industry: A Study of Tesco
Dissertation Topic: Price Positioning in the UK Supermarket Industry. Tesco is currently the market leader in the UK retail industry (and has been since 1995), since the launch of the Tesco Clubcard. It has been claimed that Tesco has created customer loyalty by introducing the Clubcard. However, it is possible that the Clubcard does not necessarily create loyalty; rather, it helps the company to understand and predict customer behaviour, and to an extent, influence customer behaviour through various price deals and offers.
It has been established that customer loyalty can certainly improve the probability that an organisation’s profits will increase. In the case of Tesco, loyalty has not actually been created although the company has established a way of predicting and influencing consumer behaviour (to an extent) through the loyalty card. Since customer satisfaction is one of the key ingredients that contributes towards customer loyalty, it can be said that at the moment, Waitrose, Aldi, and Lidl are at a better position to create customer loyalty, for whatever reasons.
Customers generally do not differentiate the companies based on the prices they offer, rather, they differentiate the products based on the perceived quality. The problem is that companies such as Tesco, Morrisons, and ASDA have similar price structures, and as such, pricing may not be the point of difference for the consumers. Tesco’s positioning on the basis of price (every little helps) may not help the company to gain a significant advantage over the competitors, although it may contribute to maintaining this advantage.
Based on the assumption that pricing is not the factor by which consumers differentiate companies, the following research objectives have been composed:
To analyse the extent to which pricing is a differentiating factor (as seen by the customer) that influences consumer buying behaviour in the supermarket industry
To identify whether price positioning (as seen by the customer) is a viable option for supermarkets
1 – Introduction
Statement of the Problem
2 – Research Methodology
The Research Philosophy
Position on Philosophy
Data Collection Techniques
Sampling and Population
Focus Group Interviews
Scope and Limitations
Gaining Access and Research Ethics
3 – Literature Review
Price Image Dimensions
Price as a Market Cue
Ego-involvement and Price
Price and Retail Patronage
Price Premiums and Brand Equity
Role of Price in Strategic Positioning
Expectation Theory in Consumer Behaviour
Henry Assael Model
4 – Discussion and Analysis
Qualitative Research Report and Analysis
Quantitative Research Report and Analysis
Discussion on the Findings
Is price a differentiator in the supermarket industry?
Is the low end price position viable for retailers?
I hope you enjoyed reading this post on the Impact of “Price” As a Positioning Factor and how it affects the UK Supermarket Industry. There are many other titles available in the marketing dissertation collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.
The research and analysis was conducted on the topic of marketing strategy for Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry to attract SME’s in order to bring FDI in Japan. Five objectives were designed in order to get vital information and understand the importance of foreign direct investment and the effect of different marketing strategies on foreign investment. The objectives were related with government policies, METI’s marketing strategies for acquiring and motivation of foreign investment, different promotion strategies used by METI and recommendations for influence of potential investors towards investment. In this regards author have collected important information and data regarding foreign direct investment.
Mostly respondents’ age was between 35 to 45 years which indicate that they were young and have strong knowledge about foreign direct investment regarding issues and different strategies that need to be used for acquiring of investment in the country. There was 5-likert questionnaire which comprised on 21 questions and 6 questions for interview have designed. Total 57 respondents’ responses on 5-likert questionnaire and 11 respondents’ responses through interview were collected. Mostly respondents stated that foreign investment plays an important role if government should take initiatives towards motivation and with the help of marketing strategies and also provide some incentives for foreign investors. In this regards, METI is playing an important role for acquiring and motivating of foreign investors in order to get more satisfaction and growth in country’s economy. In which METI have introduce some promotion activities and legal actions such as social medial, technological interaction, intellectual property protections and other aspects that influence the foreign investors to invest more and more.
To identify problems involved in hampering FDI in Japan
To study the relationship between the foreign investors and METI
To perform a validation for current marketing strategy of METI and propose a new framework for the marketing strategy depending upon the research
To devise and suggest appropriate strategies for Japan that are based on the use of modern marketing tools and techniques
To know how Social Media Marketing, E-Marketing, and internet promotional tools specifically can be brought to use to develop a positive repute for investing in Japan
If you enjoyed reading this post on marketing strategy, I would be very grateful if you could help spread this knowledge by emailing this post to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.
When it comes to automobiles, one of the most recognized brands out there is General Motors. The American multinational corporation based in Detroit, Michigan designs, manufactures and sells vehicles as well as automotive parts.
With a history that dates back to 1908, General Motors has had a critical role in both the American as well as global auto industry. Some of General Motors well-known brands presently in the market include Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet and General Motors. The company builds cars and trucks through its other units: General Motors Daewoo, Isuzu, Opel, Vauxhall and Holden units.
The present General Motors that we know today is a result of a company split following a government backed Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization. In November 2010, General Motors had its initial public offering, which was one of the highest ever recorded (General Motors, 2014).
Marketing Strategy and Environmental Scanning
The core of any effective business plan is a marketing strategy that will outline how a business will set out to deliver its products to the satisfaction of its customers. Success requires effective marketing in order to remain competitive in today’s global market.
Organizations, regardless of its size must be able to identify and understand external influences to be able to adapt to the present realities that will ensure the company’s survival and success (Albright, 2004: 39).
Plans are based on forecasts which in turn are based on assumptions about what is to be. Scanning the horizon of possibilities is a prudent measure that companies take in order to identify new developments that will test past assumptions or provide insight on new perspectives to possible future threats or opportunities (Gordon & Glen).
A vital tool that will aid companies to focus on strategic and tactical plans is environmental scanning. Environmental scanning is the internal communication of external information about issues that may potentially influence an organization’s decision-making process. It helps organizations flush out external threats thus enabling them to maneuver appropriately (Albright, 2004: 40).
Environmental scanning may act as an early warning system that will detect and warn companies about important changes and “danger zones” allowing for plans to be altered as necessary. Futurists do environmental scanning in one way or another, all with the ultimate goal to distinguish what is constant, what changes, and what constantly changes. The basic goal of a scanning system is simply to find early indications of possibly important future developments to gain as much lead-time as possible (Gordon & Glen).
Stoner and Freeman (in Costa & Teare, 2000: 156) defined strategic planning as “the development of long range plans for the effective management of environmental opportunities and threats in the light of corporate strengths and weaknesses.” It is therefore accurate that through scanning or the so-called “realized” approach identification and management of environmental opportunities as well as threats can be helpful in the fundamental management of competitive advantages of companies.
In addition to this, environmental scanning can be classified under different areas including social, economic, technological, and political/regulatory. An analysis of these different areas will give an organization a comprehensive assessment regarding the organization (Ginter & Duncan, 1990: 91).
Previous experience on the environmental scanning process has revealed that too much priority is given on the short term which has led to a limited understanding of information. This has led to a basic goal of extracting information, customer service, and the like which ignores the other factors present in the general environment (Costa & Teare, 2000: 157).
The General Motors Way
In analyzing the advantages of General Motors as an organization, there have emerged a number of key strengths including its industry knowledge. With its long history in the automotive field, General Motors has an expertise many can replicate. Time and time again it has been a proven industry leader. In addition to this, technology and innovation has critically improved the company’s products and services and as such have provided customers with key technological advancements that are not only necessary but highly demanded.
Analysis of Strategies, Strengths and Limitations
Recognizing the abovementioned realities, there are still a number of areas of improvement that General Motors needs to focus on including its human resource inefficiency and mediocre scientific achievements, to name a few.
From a marketing standpoint, these situations are potential marketing threats. These internal and external issues hurt the image of General Motors as a company.
In the recent years, General Motors has undergone a number of changes, including its marketing strategy. With a new vision and communications platform called “Find New Roads,” General Motors aims to be the touchstone for the brand as it develops new products and technologies for sale in more than 140 markets (Evans, 2013).
With regards to General Motors efforts, a well done environmental scan has enabled it to identify the realities of the industry and understand its key competition and potential difficulties in meeting the challenge of competitors (Albright, 2004: 40). In this key aspect, General Motors has been able to realign its focus and capitalize on the opportunities that can be found in Asia, specifically China.
In reconsidering its emerging-market strategy, General Motors has been working towards positioning itself for emerging markets of its Chinese partner SAIC Motor Corp (Shirouzu, 2013).
Globalization is a market reality; in order to improve upon the new direction of General Motors to move towards Asia, strategists need to take its efforts a step further and stress test their scanning models. Geographical expansion brings about different considerations. It’s important that through analysis, General Motors can determine the circumstances of desirability as well as risk and restrictions (Beinhocker et al, 2009: 56).
By delving into developing markets, General Motors will be able to think about producing a lower end range of vehicles that consumers from developing markets would be keener on purchasing. An environmental scan would show that emerging markets are not as badly hit by financial setbacks and thus still possess a higher growth rate which equates to an increasing buying power. This would mean while other regions would have slower auto sales, areas in Asia could be a strong sales point.
Scanning would also bring about competitive intelligence as a result of an analysis of competitors and competitive conditions in particular industries or regions. This would enable managers to make informed decisions about marketing, R&D, as well as long-term tactical business strategies. It enables managers to cast a wider net and analyze information about the various sectors of its external environment that will support forward planning (Choo, 1999).
In the case of private transportation sales, a market like China has a high demand for automobiles and it can be safe to say that there will not be any environmental emission deals coming up soon. This can show this as a great potential for profit given the smaller investment, rapid production and low initial costs.
The process looked into identification of emerging issues and trends as well as situations and drawbacks that may affect its success and future. This new strategy opens a lot of opportunity for rapid sales (Shirouzu, 2013).
This example as well as others shows that General Motors has made efforts to stay ahead of the game but this is not enough. General Motors marketing strategies have a need for more improvement. It’s been noted that while their global presence cannot be underestimated, their focus and primary marketing strategies are centered on a limited number of countries. Each country requires its own marketing approach given each economy and marketing conditions vary from each other. A much more tailored, innovative and globally applicable strategy must be applied to achieve multiple targets on a larger scale.
As an example, consider nature, in the last few years, the market has seen an increase in the demand for alternative fuel technologies. Environmental scanning would flag this as rising market trend that General Motors needs to look into. Research and development must be supported to work towards being able to address this future pattern. The company must look towards tweaking its image to make it more concerned for the environment to achieve credibility in this area.
However, the company is already lagging behind its competitors, specifically Toyota. Although General Motors has been producing more efficient products, it is not rising to the challenge that its rivals have been able to in the last few years.
As mentioned earlier, there are various aspects that a scan can look into, be it social, economic, technological and the like. For businesses like General Motors, given its size and holdings, focus tends to be on the economic but such a one-sided scan can lead to misrepresentation or error in analysis leading to a gap between the goal and the outcome which puts an organization in jeopardy. It is imperative scans be as holistic as possible. This is related to the earlier recommendation on the unique marketing strategies per region. A wider analysis of current and potential change and the assessment of the impact of changes on the organization (Ginter & Duncan, 1990: 91)
In reviewing the marketing strategies of General Motors as discussed in their annual reports, their efforts bulk in the areas of publicity, direct marketing, sales promotion as well as traditional advertising.
For General Motors to continue on its path to growth and success, its marketing strategy must be on point. A vital component of its marketing system should include a comprehensive environmental scanning process.
The process should emphasize market research that focuses on specific target markets with strategic identification and unique approaches per market. There should be a parallel unique point of sale concept per targeted area that takes into consideration not only competition and economics but a holistic review of the various factors affecting market conditions.
Relatedly, strategic expansion will require optimal strategies form increasing sales. Realities of this shift in economic power, especially in emerging markets, should focus on affordability and practicality with a balance of quality and optional luxuries.
The research has revealed that General Motors has taken steps in the right direction but fail to grasp the full extent of the shifting patters in the global consumer market.
General Motors (2014) About Our Company, [Online]
Evans, H. (2013) General Motors Develops New Global Marketing Strategy, [Online]
Albright, K.S. (2004), Environmental scanning: radar for success, Information Management Journal, May-June, p.38-45.
Shirouzu, N. (2013) ‘General Motors rethinks emerging market strategy, hedges on China partner’, Reuters, 27 Jan.
Costa, J. and Teare, R. (2000) ‘Developing an environmental scanning process in the hotel sector’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, p.156-169
Beinhocker, E., Davis, I and Mendonca, L. (2009) ‘The 10 trends you have to watch’, Harvard Business Review, 87, 7/8, pp. 55-60, Business Source Premier, EBSCO Host,
Ginter, P.M. and Duncan, W.J. (1990) ‘Macroenvironmental analysis for strategic management’, Long Range Planning, Vol. 23, No. 6, p.91-100
Gordon, T. J., and Glenn, J. C., ‘Environmental Scanning’, AC/UNU Millenium Project, Ver 2, p. 1-33.
Choo, C. W., ‘(1999) ‘The Art of Scanning the Environment’, Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, vol. 25, No. 3.
Strategic marketing entails that an organization utilizes its resources in adapting with the changes in the marketing environment in which it operates. For an organization to gain competitive advantage and curve a niche over its rivals it need to cultivate and implement a niche marketing strategy that would make it capture consumers to its products in the mist of other competitive goods. In an ever increasing competitive global business arena, the need to strategies and be in tune with current trends in an industry where an organization operates, this is very germane to the success level the organization would attain. Strategic marketing entails that the organization carries out an effective planning that would coordinate the whole marketing operates of the organization and make it adapt to its environment through effective utilization of available resources. Thus, the different marketing strategies; pricing strategy, distributive strategy, promotional strategy, sales strategy, product creation and branding strategy, among others, these are synchronize in meeting the marketing objectives of the organization. The strategic marketing and management pattern goes to reflect the structure of the organization. One strategic marketing pattern adopted in contemporary times is niche marketing.
Niche Marketing Concept
Niche marketing is a marketing concept where a producer tries to differentiate his/her product from what is obtainable from the industry in which it operates. Niche marketing cuts across every industries and it is operational when an organization exhibit a product differentiation strategy, in order to make its product unique in quality, branding, taste, size and shapes. In this regards, Fuduric, et al (2005, pg 3) defines niche marketing as “a marketing scheme designed to distinguish a product from its competition, in regards to products elements such as taste or freshness, inter-alia. This is done with the motive to increase consumer product awareness and demand”.
Producers of goods use niche marketing to catch those opportunities that exist in the industries they operate, as the uniqueness and quality of the niche catcher’s product would be attractive to consumers. The product uniqueness increases consumers’ awareness of the product. For example in the agricultural industry, such professionals that grows cash crops or engage in fish farming have ways of branding their product in such as a way that would differentiate their product from others engaging in the same product production. Examples of such thriving niche marketing in the agriculture industry include the producer of certified Angus beef and Mississippi catfish.
As earlier stated niche marketing is applicable to different industries, be it in agriculture, confectionaries, electronic, automobiles, fashion, among others. Where there exist competition for products in an industry, niche marketing is applicable for gaining market opportunity, and curve greater advantage over market competitors.
Niche marketing, also deals with product value build up, alongside with product differentiation. The producer using niche marketing should be ready to add more value to the organization product in order to give it that unique quality that attracts consumers to it. Branding and labelling plays significant role in niche marketing.
The branding of a product goes a long to determine the first impression that consumers would form concerning such product. Thus, the appeal attached to a product is contributed through branding and the product’s quality.
In creating niche market, the producer, apart from laying emphases on the product’s quality, as demanded by consumers, need to adopt methods that would enhance the product’s production, and structure channel marketing that would give the product its regional identity. When this is done, the advantages associated with niche marketing would be attained. Those advantages associated with niche marketing include the following:
Niche marketing gives uniqueness associated with a product, thus differentiating it to enable producers earn more;
It creates avenue for product rearrangement in a food chain structure, in order to discover more appropriate ways of product distribution to bypass intermediaries;
Niche marketing also, intensifies the communication bond between the producer and consumers of the products. Those salient qualities the consumers desire would be easily communicated to the producer as a way of improving the quality of the product;
By satisfying the consumer through niche marketing, the producer stands to gain greater market share in the industry it operates.
In this era where consumers are becoming conscious to the effect products have on the environment, their choice and taste for products graves fro those with little or no harmful effect to the environment. Many consumers of fresh fruits and vegetables, seafood, among others, would prefer those produce with less chemical hazard causing substance. For instance, many consumer do not want organic products, they prefer those grown naturally. With this level of taste and awareness, a producer can make his product with in line with those tastes and wants the consumers’ desires. When this is done the process of niche marketing is enhanced.
A successive niche marketing strategy should be able to adequately utilize the organization’s resources in adapting to the business environment in which it operates. Here, through the strategic moves the organization is able to increase the sales level for the organization and customer patronage. In doing this, the organization’s strategy should be centred round the customers through its marketing mix. Here, strategizing should take acknowledgement of the product, place (distribution), the price, and promotional strategies in building a competitive base for the organization, through customer’s satisfaction. In this view, Oden (1997:3) argues that “many of today’s most successful organizations continue to survive because many years ago they offered the right product at the right time. Most product, market, and process venture decisions of the past were made without the benefit of strategic thinking or planning. However, present-day managers increasingly recognize that venture decisions must be made in the context of a venture strategy. As they find themselves in ever more complex and turbulent environments, their past internally oriented, reactive approach to decision making is giving way to an externally oriented proactive approach that requires more analysis”. Communication plays a significant role in contemporary marketing strategy, even more in an organization that adopts niche marketing strategy. Thus, for an organization to put up a good niche marketing strategy it must always communicate with consumer to know those changes they desire in its products, so as to keep them attracted to the product continually.
How Innocent Drinks Organization Has Adopted Niche Marketing In Its Product Enhancement
Innocent Drinks organization started operation in the production of drinks since 1998. The name ‘Innocent’ for the organization is derived to symbolize the organization’s products that are naturally made and unadulterated. “We call them innocent because our drinks are always completely pure, fresh, and unadulterated. Anything you ever find in an innocent bottle will always be 100% natural and delicious -and if it isn’t, get on the banana phone and make us beg for forgiveness” (Innocent Drinks, 2006). Innocent drinks organization involve in the production of drinks derived from its cow milk and fruit drinks. The organization has variety of brands of drinks, which are produced to give delight to its customers. The different range of the organization’s product range from smoothies; with brand for children and other varieties; superfoods; a natural smoothies produced for specific purpose such as when one feels tender; big carton smoothies for home keep and refrigeration. There is also thickies; probiotic yoghurt, and juicy waters containing juice and spring water all mixed up to make customers feel wonderful and satisfy.
Innocent Drinks has utilized the process of niche marketing in sustaining itself in the drink industry where it operates in European countries, and the United States.
The products of Innocent organization are produced in ways that consumers get the natural taste of the drinks they consume. Here, pure, fresh, and unadulterated drinks are produced in their quality form for customer’s satisfaction. The products are 100% pure of fruits or milk according to the different brands. Thus, customers are guaranteed that they are consuming hygienic, natural, and unadulterated drinks. Furthermore, the Innocent Drinks organization has different varieties of assorted smoothies, made of fruits and milk. The different brands of the organization are made to satisfy customers taste both young and old. The prices of the Innocent drinks are moderate and customer friendly. The drinks come in small bottled pack, which costs are affordable by all and sundry. Given the quality and pure unadulterated drinks consumers get from the Innocent drinks product range, they get the worth for their money. The strategy embarked by the Innocent organization where it recycle its products containers and bottles, this goes to reduce the cost of production of the organization’s product, hence, the price set for its products are low. “We are moving away from virgin finite materials to renewable materials, such as recycled plastic and plastic alternatives such as bottles made out of corn starch – a material known as Polylactic. To date, we have managed to get our plastic smoothie bottles to 50% recycled plastic (we’re working on the rest) and we have a corn starch, commercially compostable bottle due to launch in September 2006” (Innocent Drinks, 2006).
The distribution of the organization’s product is carried out through direct sales of the organization’s products to consumers by the aid of the organization’s cow van. The cow van helps to carry the organization’s product every nooks and crannies in the United Kingdom where it operates.
The promotion of the organization’s products is done through the strong brand it has built for itself. The cow van is easily recognized, and this serves as a medium of promoting the organization’s products as the vans engages in the distribution and sales of the organization varieties of drinks. The well-structured websites of the organization is another medium in which the organization promotes its ranges of products to a wider market in the international level.
All these 4 Ps of the organization’s strategic marketing are integrated to bring about the effective increase in sales of the organization’s products. Each of the strategies for product manufacturing, pricing system, promotion and distribution all are built in an integrated pattern to bring about the effective distribution of quality product at an affordable price to customers. Moreover, satisfaction of customers taste is the overall focus of the Innocent niche marketing strategies.
Fuduric, Joseph A., et al (2005) “Marketing Wild Caught South Carolina Shrimp: Lessons Learned from Agricultural Niche Marketing Programs” pp. 3
Innocent Drinks (2006) “The Innocent Foundation Organization”
Oden, Howard W. (1997) Managing Corporate Culture, Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Westport, CT: Quorum Books pp. 51
Rahmann, G., et al (2001) “Opportunities and Barriers for Niche Marketing of Lamb in
European LFAs Based on Consumer attitudes to Product Quality” pp. 42