Business Management Essay Topics University

Business Management Essay Topics

Below you will find a great range of business management essay topics for you to purchase. These business management essay topics are here to help inspire you in creating your own Business essay or assignment. Our sample business management essay topics will prove helpful in formulating your own dissertation topic, objectives, literature review, methodology and analyses. Our sample Business essays are an ideal tool for any student struggling to start their own business management essay topics.

Business Management is an essential part of any organisation and there are many elements of Business Management. By browsing our collection of business management essay topics, you will get ideas for your Business essay through the following Business subjects: Global Business, Business Strategy, Corporate Social Responsibility, Change Management, Project Management, Organisational Behaviour, Leadership, Globalization, Strategic Management, Entrepreneurship, Technology and Innovation Management. We hope you find the business management essay topics you are looking for.

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MBA Change Management Assignment: Snap-on Incorporated. For an organisation to remain competitive, flexible in changing market conditions and at the forefront of their particular market segment, change has become an essential part of the management process. Change does not necessarily have to form part of the day-to-day operations once a particular activity has been agreed. However, to prevent as little disruption to normal business practices as is completely necessary the resultant effect of the change must form part of the organisations longer term, three to five year, strategy. Snap-on Incorporated is a global leader and developer of automotive diagnostic solutions and, over the last several years, has been faced with stiffening competition and the threat of new entrants from diverse markets. Snap-on Incorporated has throughout this time been reorganizing its facilities in order to sustain these challenging times and prepare itself for long term growth. It is now time to review how the recent change activities have aligned Snap-on Incorporated to ensure long-term success. [2,000 words]

Management Theory: Conflict Is An Essential Part Of Management.  Conflict is a state of mind. It has to be perceived by the parties involved. If two or more parties are not aware of a conflict, then no conflict exists. This broad definition encompasses conflicts at different levels within an organisation. Conflicts are based upon differences in interest and values, when the interests of one party come up against the different interest of another. Parties may include shareholders, managers, departments, professionals and groups; while conflict issues can include dividends, control and wage levels. [2,300 words]

Management Theory: Analysis Into Approaches & Evolvement Of Management. There are a number of management theories that have emerged and evolved over the years. The importance of management theories didn’t materialise until the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries. The growth of large organisations with high concentrations of people and resources in one area created a need for co-ordination and organisation which highlighted the need for management [3,300 words]

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Management Theory: An Evaluation of Taylor and McGregor’s Management Theories. Organisational theories develop from different backgrounds, experiences, and way of life and through unique set of frameworks, which in retrospect offer new perspectives to old conceptions and theoretical frameworks. Organisation theory can be defined as the study of the structure, functioning and performance of organisations; and the behaviour of groups and individuals within them [4,000 words]

Change Management: Human Relations & Organisational Behaviour. Change is an organizational reality. External forces for change include the marketplace, government laws and regulations, technology, labour markets, and economic changes. Internal forces of change include organizational strategy, equipment, the workforce, and employee attitudes. Changes within an organization need a catalyst. Managers can serve as change agents by becoming the catalyst for change in their units and by managing the change process. People who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process are called change agents. Any manager can be a change agent. A no manager can also be a change agent. Internal managers who act as change agents may be more thoughtful and possibly more cautious. As change agents, managers initiate change because they are concerned with improving their organization’s effectiveness [1,700 words]

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Demand Chain Management. Demand chain management can be seen as a further development to the existing supply chain management theory. Demand chain is essentially a concept that focuses more on the market need than on the efficiency of supplying the product. This concept is becoming more relevant as manufacturers strive to be more competitive by adopting mass customization approach [3,000 words]

Analysis into Knowledge Management. There are major obstacles to the management of knowledge. The most important one is the people in the organisation. Knowledge is in people’s heads and therefore, without them there would be no flow of knowledge. People can be obstacles to knowledge management if they do not seek advice and learn from others; this could be because of psychological reasons such as pride or maybe because the environment is not the one that encourages a flow of the knowledge [2,000 words]

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Management Theory: Managing Diversity within the Organization. Diversity within the workplace has certainly increased over the last decade, being a key issue among organizations of today. This paper will identify and discuss some of the important issues when managing diversity within the workplace. The paper will also document numerous key challenges that managers face regarding workplace diversity. Key strategies to overcome such challenges will be employed. Finally, some important opportunities and benefits that arise as a result of workplace diversity will be examined [2,000 words]

MSc Procurement Management: Managing Relationships & Multicultural Negotiations. The reform and open door policies initiated by the Chinese Government through its Ten Year Programme for Social and Economic Development in 1978 has led the country to unprecedented economic growth. The key strategy that was adopted by the Chinese in order to accelerate these reforms was to attract foreign investment frequently in the form of joint ventures. These joint ventures are often complex processes and should not be underestimated by foreign executives. Specific consideration must be given to the negotiation process at which time difficulties such as language, cultural differences and political barriers will develop [3,000 words]

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MBA Strategic Management: A Strategic Appraisal of Vodafone. The aim of this report is to appraise Vodafone’s current strategic direction and choices with a view to making relevant recommendations on options for future direction. Vodafone appears to be at crossroads strategically, it has reached what may be termed a mature stage as a company and investors are applying increasing pressure due to what they see as under performance by the company. Includes PEST, SWOT, BCG Matrix, Ansoff Matrix and KSF analysis [17,000 words]

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MBA Project Management: Analysis of the Success of the Channel Tunnel. The purpose of this report is to determine whether the Channel tunnel project was a success or a failure as a project management exercise. Based on the supporting documents and investigation into the project the following report will identify key aspects of project management, fundamental to any project succeeding, and if these have been applied. Necessary recommendations at the end of this report will support any findings. Initial reports would support the decision that this project was a failure due to the fact of it costing twice the original planned budget, the final product being delivered several years late, loss of life during the project life cycle and numerous well documented failures of rolling stock and significant lapses in security arrangements [2,000 words]

Business Management: Low Costs Airlines – What Impact Have They Had On Tourism? The report will look at how, and in what way, low cost airlines affect tourism. While air travel was once a luxury only the rich could afford, the entry of more airlines serving the busiest and most profitable routes has caused airfares to plummet. Some of the airlines that will be analysed are Buzz, Go, Ryan Air, and EasyJet. These are well known low cost airlines [1,600 words]

Business Management Essay Topics
Business Management Essay Topics

Analysis into Organisational Behaviour. Hackman’s model identifies a causal link between group effectiveness and factors related to the task, group composition, managerial support and processes of the group. The implication is that when these factors are favourable, the result will be a greater level of group effectiveness, determined by such outcomes as the acceptability of the output, meeting of team members’ needs and the continuity of the group. The model asserts that challenge, complexity and interdependence are requisite task characteristics for maximum group effectiveness for the sake of efficiency and succinctness, it will be assumed henceforth that this is the ultimate objective and justification for recommendations proposed [3,000 words]

Contemporary Management Theory: Analysis into Customer Relationship Management (CRM). The management of customer relationships has changed in the past decade. Previously, organisations had a very personalised relationship with customers that can be referred to as ‘one-to-one’ relationships. It was argued that companies were able to do this -at the time -due to their refined customer base, where they were able to customize products to suit individual needs and tastes. As a consequence, customers remained satisfied and loyal. In the mid 20th century, however, product availability increased substantially and so changed the way organisations have relationships with customers. Evidently, companies lost the uniqueness of this relationship and the ability to track customers’ ever changing needs and wants. Presently, however, organisations are very much looking to regain this one- to-one exchange, to establish loyalty in a very competitive market place. Subsequently, a new phenomenon of customer relationship management (CRM) has been introduced. This includes the management’s guidelines that are needed to develop the long-term relationship between organisations and customers, which they crave. The initiation of this management issue has sparked criticism however, where its application has been described as ‘just another buzzword’. Yet other theorists have contradicted this idea and denoted it as ‘the holy grail’ [8,000 words]

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Using relevant theories, discuss critically the validity of the contention that the motivation for staff to work well depends on more than a high salary and good working conditions. All people who work within an organisation need to maintain a level of motivation for a company to exist. Organisations are required to be financially viable, and the staff they employ are needed to ensure that this occurs – if these members of staff carry no motivation, then the company for which they work will incur major problems. What I intend to do, is to analyse proposed theories on this subject, in order to establish what it is that provides worker motivation, and which providing factors need to be considered [2,500 words]

Marketing Communications Strategy: Analysis Into Marketing Communications of Sainsbury’s. Sainsbury’s main objective is to increase sales to retain their number one spot in the supermarket industry within the UK. Sainsbury’s goal to achieve their objective is by delivering an improved quality shopping experience for its customers with high quality products for low prices. Sainsbury’s are trying to gain back the customers that they have lost in the past years. Today Sainsbury’s are competing against the major leaders of the supermarket industry. These include Tesco who happens to be the market leader in the UK, ASDA which Wal-Mart took over and also happens to be the market leader in the world, and Morrison’s which is also a well-established supermarket retailer [2,000 words]

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International Management: Management Styles In India. This MBA essay discusses about the organisational culture of India and than compare its culture with cultures of UK and Japan. It will be done with the help of different models. Like human civilisation, where they have a set of values, beliefs, traditions and behaviours, which define the way the people live on day to day basis, every organisation have its own culture, which defines the ‘way the things are done here’. These cultures are mainly influenced by the society or country, these organisations are operating in. India is an emerging market in the global market, therefore most of the management researchers are trying to figure out the kind of management and leadership styles that are used in India and which can be useful for foreign corporations to be used in India. These researchers have found that the westernised management styles can not be used in India because of its history and family oriented business [2,500 words]

Global Advertising: Ford Fiesta Project. This project focuses on the Ford Motor Company and its take on advertising. The project aim is to analyse competitive advertising in the car manufacturing industry. In 2005 Ford came third in the world ranking of car makers behind General Motors and Toyota. Ford has exited for over 100 years and has managed to penetrate global markets on a large scale and is thus recognized worldwide as a leading brand. Nonetheless, Ford itself, aside from its sister brands, is not positioned in the premium market. In fact, the main advert that we have selected portrays Ford’s Fiesta Zetec Climate, which is priced from £8,995. Similarly, prices for Ford cars in the UK range from just over £7,000 for 3-door hatchbacks up to £20,000 for 7-seaters with vehicle (mainly vans) prices ranging from £10,000 to £23,000, which clearly positions Ford in the affordable prices market [2,300 words]

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MBA Project: Market Analysis Of LG Consumer Durables & Dealer Development In India. Before the liberalization of the Indian economy, only a few companies like Kelvinator, Godrej, Allwyn, and Voltas were the major players in the consumer durables market, accounting for no less than 90% of the market. Then, after the liberalization, foreign players like LG, Sony, Samsung, Whirlpool, Daewoo, and Aiwa came into the picture. Today, these players control the major share of the consumer durables market. Consumer durables market is expected to grow at 10-15% in 2007-2008. It is growing very fast because of rise in living standards, easy access to consumer finance, and wide range of choice, as many foreign players are entering in the market [10,000 words]

MBA Project: Analysis Into The Major Segments In The Indian Retail Market. The retailing sector of India can be split into two major segments. They are the informal and the formal retailing sector. The informal retailing sector is comprised of small retailers. For this sector, it is very difficult to implement the tax laws. There is widespread tax evasion. It is also cumbersome to regulate the labour laws in this sector. As far as the formal retailing sector is concerned, it is comprised of large retailers. Stringent tax and labour laws are implemented in this sector. If the retail industry is divided on the basis of retail formats then it can be split into the modern format retailers and the traditional format retailers. The modern format retailers comprise of the supermarkets, Hypermarkets, Departmental Stores, Specialty Chains and company owned and operated retail stores. The traditional format retailers comprise of Kiranas, Kiosks, Street Markets and the multiple brand outlets. The retail industry can also be subdivided into the organized and the unorganized sector. The organized retail sector occupies about 3% of the aggregate retail industry in India [10,000 words]

Strategic Business Management Essay Topics

Project Management and Control & IT Project Management Methodologies. IT project has deliverables: a delivery date and a budget, and each stage of the project lifecycle carry its own risks. Since IT projects are often difficult to estimate and manage, the project should not be allowed to go from one phase into the next until a formal Risk Assessment has been performed, in order to achieve deliverables and expectations and to meet with user’s satisfaction. Risk assessment can take place at any stage and during any time of the project lifecycle, though the sooner the better. In this paper risk management and assessment in the early stages of IT projects will be discussed, along with methodologies on project management that will help ensure that a project start off with a reasonable chance of being successful. Emphasis will be on the TenStep methodology [3,500 words]

Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurial Behaviour. There is a common understanding that entrepreneurs in general can be stereotyped, however all entrepreneurs are different, and subsequently the reasons for why they initially start their businesses is unique to each of these individuals. Due to this it does not exist any valid general agreement on what the definition of what an entrepreneur is. Likewise, there exists multiple differences within social entrepreneurs. What is clear, however, is that social entrepreneurs differ from other entrepreneurs in their mission of creating superior social value for their clients. In today’s society, the common consensus of improving the world through social responsibility and environmental accountability seem to attain growing importance. We are increasingly becoming more educated in terms of the augmented social needs in our integrated world, and therefore social entrepreneurship is attracting an increased amount of talent, money and attention from multiple sectors [5,000 words]

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Leadership: Donald Trump & Sir Richard Branson. The chosen leaders of our team are Donald Trump and Sir Richard Branson, each possessing extraordinary leadership skills, allowing them to soar high in their respective enterprises and succeed. They are among the most prolific brand builders in the world, irrepressible businessmen whose corporate empires are created in the image of their over sized personalities. Donald Trump and Richard Branson continue to extend the reach of their personal brands to remote corners of consumerism which is fueled in part by their showmanship. They are a study in contrast: Donald Trump, the boastful, button-downed, grim Yankee deal maker who has ridden the real estate boom and his personal myth making to phenomenal business success; Sir Richard, the toothy British adventurer who sprouts new businesses as quickly as the hairs of his bushy goatee [4,500 words]

Global Business Management Essay Topics

Methods for Managerial Decisions: Application of Inferential Statistical Tests in Quality Control. Technology is moving forward with contactless products. Contactless products allow the consumer to purchase without a human intervention while using electronic technology to make purchases or payments. The most valued part of this new technology is that the consumer is apt to use this type of ‘card’ more often, thereby increasing the credit card company’s revenues. “Issuers hope contactless technology will help them convert the mostly cash payments at such locations into card transactions. The magnetic strip will remain on the cards for now for larger purchases [2,000 words]

What is Six Sigma? Six Sigma has been sweeping the business world with remarkable results to the bottomline of many organizations since its adoption in the late Eighties, driving breakthrough improvements in product and service quality. Today Six Sigma as a business strategy has been proved to be successful in reducing costs of poor quality, improving cycle times of various processes, eliminating errors or defects from processes, enhancing customer satisfaction and so on. So what is Six Sigma? [2,500 words]

University Business Management Essay Topics

Porters 5 Forces – The BBC. Knowledge of the environment in which a firm operates is vital for it to work at full efficiency and achieve its goals. The BBC was the first national broadcasting organisation and was founded on 18 October 1922 as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd; it was subsequently granted a Royal Charter and was made a publicly funded corporation in 1927. The corporation produces programmes and information services, broadcasting globally on television, radio, and the Internet. The stated mission of the BBC is “to inform, educate and entertain” (as laid down by Parliament in the BBC Charter); its motto is “Nation Shall Speak Peace Unto Nation”. In this paper, I will analyze issues facing the BBC using Porter’s 5 forces [2,500 words]

Business Analysis – Lidl. Question 1: Use the model of input/output procedure and critically analyse the importance of managing resources and identify the techniques that have been applied to deliver Lidl’s outputs. Question 2: Discuss and provide the evidence of Lidl’ main operation performance objectives to remain competitive in retail industry? Question 3: Apply Slack, Chambers and Johnston’s adaptation or Parasuman’s SERVQUAL Model to discuss how quality gaps can be diagnosed; and evaluate how Lidl’s quality planning and control can be improved by understanding any gaps evident from your examination of customers/operation domains [2,000 words]

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Business Management Essay Topics

Critically evaluate a B2B organisation of your choice – Yahoo. In this report it is my aim to critically evaluate a B2B organisation in order to gain a sound knowledge of the business, the area it operates in and also to be able to make recommendations in how the organisation can improve. Typically B2B organisations tend to be out of the spotlight of customers, as it is there nature to operate business to business. Examples of these kinds of organisations include IBM, EMAP and obviously more well known Microsoft. They operate on a grand scale within the B2B sector and are obvious choices when discussing B2B organisations [2,500 words]

Business Operations: AAPL vs. DELL. Over the years many businesses and corporations has been changing PC’s to Mac because they found that Mac was much easier to use and user friendly and smooth in just about every way, and due to lack of services provided by the Dell customer care services, if they had a problem they would call it a nightmare because it would just take almost forever for them to get something done, unlike Apple services which is known to be excellent and fast. Apple Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries design, manufacture, and market personal computers, portable digital music players, and mobile communication devices, and sell various related software, services, peripherals, and networking solutions. Dell Inc, was founded in 1984 and is headquartered in Round Rock, Texas, together with its subsidiaries, engages in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, sale, and support of computer systems and services worldwide [2,500 words]

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MBA Global Business Context: Retail Banking Industry; Focusing on the Changes in the Market Industry and Cross Border Restructuring. For the past ten years a serious changes have been occurring in the banking industry. Significant transformations can be noticed in the financial sector market structure due to the mergers and acquisitions. Decrease in credit institutions operating in the Western Europe and noticeable increase in concentration and competition. Additionally the total value of assets increased in all examined countries. Western Europe market as a whole saw an increase of almost 100% in the asset value. The total number of operating banks declined to around 7000 institutions, a decline of 30% during the time period. The concentration ratio increased in majority of the countries with Estonia and Netherlands holding the biggest CR5 ratios. The number of micro and macro environmental factors contributed to the changes in the industry. The most influential and therefore important were political factors, including changes in regulations and policies regarding consolidation in the banking sector. Economic, Social and Technological factors were less effective with economic growth being the most influential force [2,800 words]

Global Business: With Reference to Business Fortunes, Compare and Contrast the Economies of India and China. In this assignment, I will be investigating India’s and China’s background and comparing their economies to develop an understanding of their position in the world economy and how it was achieved.  In addition, I will be looking at the differences in their economic growth as well as problems both countries may encounter as they try to become the world’s leading economies.  My assignment will be supported by books such as The Business Environment by Ian Worthington and Chris Britton as well as the internet. The key indicators which affect the economy are growth, population and gross domestic product [1,500 words]

MBA Business Management Essay Topics

Global Business: Russia’s Accession to the WTO Discuss Barriers and Opportunities of This Entrance. Russia’s entrance in the World Trade Organization is very actual issue today and this is very important for Russian business and economic environment. This issue is important also for the other countries which are members of the WTO, because World Trade Organization’s main objective is to develop and facilitate open international trading system and adjudicate trade disputes between or amongst member nations. As the Georgia is the member of the WTO it is very important for us, whether Russia will enter this organization or not. The main purpose of our project is to discuss positive and negative consequences for Russia that might result from entering the WTO, will they gain much by entering this organization or they will not. We will discuss why President Vladimir Putin made it a top priority to enter the World Trade Organization [3,000 words]

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Managing Culture using Hofstede’s 5 Cultural Dimensions & Trompenaar’s 7 Cultural Dimensions. Power Distance means the less powerful members of organizations accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. In high power distance countries, such as India, Mexico and South Korea, employees always accept and obey superior therefore the organization’ structure is centralized and tall. On the other hand, the structure of low power distance countries, for instance Finland, Ireland and Austria, is flat and decentralized. Universalism versus Particularism, universalism search for general rules and applies judgment to every circumstance. While, particularism look for finding exemption and judgments are influenced by relationships and environments [3,500 words]

MBA Project: Management People and Organisations Assignment Employment practices at A & B. In order to fully understand the marketing directors proposal, a situation analysis technique known as  SWOT” has been used to identify the salient points. Also, underpinning my theory is the HRM “Warwick Model”.  Influencing factors of Warwick Model: (a) More clearly illustrates the effect of external forces. For example; the political, technical, competitive and economic climates on internal decision-making. (b) Recognises the influence, internal culture, leadership and structure has on business strategy and the HRM context. (c) Acknowledges the effect that work systems, reward systems and employee relations have on the ability to deliver business strategy. (d) Supports the view that the workforce is a valued resource and key to the organisational development [3,000 words]

 

Supply Chain Management & Logistics Strategy. Identify and critically evaluate the major supply chain issues of conventional volume car manufacture and explain how these issues had been addressed by the Smart Concept and Logistics at MCC. The smart car is definitely one of the best innovations of the hundred years. It is usually the simplest businesses on this planet that generates profit while materializes ecological safeguarding visions. The smart car is definitely an ideally little auto that is made from synthetic whole body panels as well as a strengthened metal covering, which suggests less energy and heavy-industrial substances necessary in the process of producing them. The best characteristic in this auto is its superb fuel gas consumption. Quite simply, the smart car is petrol useful, which will not, just helps the car owner reduce your bills gasoline, but additionally minimizes the Carbon dioxide release from shedding the gasoline, for that reason tremendously contributes to the safeguarding of our environment [2,500 words]

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A Strategic Analysis of United Parcel Service (UPS). United Parcel Service (UPS) is one of the oldest and most successful courier companies in the world. It was founded in the year 1907 and started as a messenger company in the United States of America. Sine their humble beginnings UPS has grown from strength to strength to a $36 billion dollar corporation. UPS is a multinational company and is one of the world’s most recognized and admired brands around the globe. They are also one of the largest package delivery companies in the world and a major competitor of FedEx and DHL in supply chain management operations. Every day, they manage the flow of goods, funds, and information in more than 200 countries and territories worldwide [5,500 words]

International Trend Analysis – The Evolution of Green Cars. Change is a phenomenon that affects all aspects of life. In the business sector, change determines the directions taken by business venture. The survival of any business venture is largely dependent on how the sector responds to change. There are trends in a business environment that acts as indicators of the possible events in a sector. The current automobile industry is a product of trends in the world social economic front for the last century. The car has become an integral part of modern society and therefore subject to the changes in every society. Source of energy to the automobile engine has been subject to different market trends. The history of the car is characterized by shifts from the steam driven engine where coal was the major energy source to use of oil [4,000 words]

International Business Management Essay Topics

MBA Change Management Assignment – Leadership challenges to the communication silos in business organizations. Overcoming numerous barriers in organizational communication is one of the major challenges for managers in business organizations. In business literature, a silo is defined as an organizational entity that resembles as an information container working as a communication barrier to other organizational entities. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the communication silo and its cause and impact on Royal Greenland and to provide suggestions to overcome this barrier. The method of the research is qualitative where a cumulative method of data collection and analysis were followed. It has been found that Royal Greenland lack of a proper corporate culture, and the communication silo existed in every corner of the organization, where the senior managers were actively involved [6,000 words]

Analysis of Apple Inc. business Strategic Unit (iPad unit) Apple is an American-based multinational company that deals in the sale and design of personal computers, computer software plus a range of hand-held gadgets. Apple Inc. is best known for its hardware products branded as Macintosh. Started in 1976 by Steve Jobs, Apple has grown to become one of the current day’s iconic designers of consumer electronics. Although Apple deals in a wide range of products, the company treats every product line in a unique way.  Each product of Apple is treated as a standalone business unit. This report singles out the Ipad product of Apple Company and analyses this business unit in terms of its strategic competitive position, its external environment and the value addition proponent of its strategic position. This report is based on the UK market [3,000 words]

Case Study of the Strategy Adopted by Japan Airlines Corporation. By external and internal analysis as well as SWOT analysis, the report points out the strength and weakness of JAL, analyses the opportunities and threats of JAL, and puts forward the three key strategic issues confronted by JAL, i.e, financial crisis, lack of capital, overdue liabilities and the inability to maintain sustainable development; the decrease in attendance due to external factors such as economic crisis and security issues, etc; redundant organization structure, low efficiency in operation, high human resource cost, all of which lead to heavy burden on the JAL. By Ansoff Matrix analysis, the report puts forward the three strategic options faced by JAL: market penetration, market development and diversification. By comparative analysis, the report indicates the adoption of market penetration strategy would be the optimal choice for JAL and there are two issues to be resolved if JAL adopts market penetration strategy [3,000 words]

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MBA Operations Management Essay. Operational Management is a subject which applies for every organization as well as for individuals, from accomplishment of organizational goals to run the day-to-day operational activities. In this report author will discuss an operational issue which face by a leading Sri Lankan financial institute. And currently they are experiencing some bottleneck effects along their lending process and it started to cause long delays which lead to unsatisfied customers, time waste as well as frustration among staff members. Through this report author will describe what the causes for process constraints are and propose a set of recommendations and processes with the use of operational management theories to overcome these issues [4,500 words]

Critically evaluate the extent to which the growth strategies of large MNCs in China are affected by local institutions. The paper examines the ways in which indigenous Chinese firms are competing with FDI influx in China and how MNCs operating in China are trying to come out victorious in face of such stiff competition. International Marketing is a subsystem of marketing that thrives on the interaction of nations since it involves business transactions across the borders and is therefore grossly transnational in nature. These transactions help turn geographical boundaries into frontiers and therefore influence the world markets immensely. Since most developed nations are slowly turning towards a more and more services sector centric economy, and the retail sector being one of the foremost of the industries dominating the services sector across the world, international business cannot afford to do away with the impact that the retail sector has made on the economy [2,500 words]

Total Quality Management (TQM). This paper examines critical factors of TQM Implementation in most popular electronics companies, Samsung and Apple. Various levels of researches have been made to evaluate the performance, predictions, workouts and requirements not only for company’s personal growth but also for customer’s satisfaction. This research paper covers Total Quality Management of two giant companies representing their quality control system against their software whether it’s mobile or relative product. Need of SQA is quite demanding today as it involves 100% end user’s satisfaction where there are most likely chances of deficiencies, bugs and problems in software area nowadays [4,000 words]

Leadership Challenges to the Communication Silos In Business Organizations. Overcoming numerous barriers in organizational communication is one of the major challenges for managers in business organizations. In business literature, a silo is defined as an organizational entity that resembles as an information container working as a communication barrier to other organizational entities. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the communication silo and its cause and impact on Royal Greenland and to provide suggestions to overcome this barrier. The method of the research is qualitative where a cumulative method of data collection and analysis were followed. It has been found that Royal Greenland lack of a proper corporate culture, and the communication silo existed in every corner of the organization, where the senior managers were actively involved [5,500 words]

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IKEA Business Strategy. IKEA is Swedish furniture emporium. Nowadays, IKEA has become the largest furniture and household goods emporium in the world, the range of products IKEA offers focuses on better design and function at a lesser price. It offers smart home furnishing solutions for all areas of a house. The brand caters to the likes and needs of different people; for those who prefer a romantic touch, to the minimalist and everyone in between. In order to give the people a better everyday life, IKEA asks the customer to work as a partner [5,000 words]

Analysis of the internal and external business environment of Vodafone. Vodafone Group is among one of the world’s largest mobile communications companies by revenue operating in over 30 countries across the globe providing a range of communications services including mobile voice, messaging, data, and fixed broadband. The company has its operations in the United Kingdom, Continental Europe, The United Stated (under the name Verizon), Asia Pacific, Africa and the Middle East through its subsidiaries, investments, joint ventures and associates. In this report, I aim to analyze the business and management of Vodafone UK with the help of a number of models and theories to understand the internal and external environment of the company. Porter’s Diamond Model, PESTEL Analysis, Value Chain Analysis, Global Environmental Analysis and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis [4,000 words]

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Business and Project Management. This individual report discusses in detail the association between business objectives, programs, computer systems projects and benefits realisation. The next section discusses how a business can be organised for taking advantage of project management methodology and a PPSO (Programme and Project Support Office) for achieving the business strategy. Next part focuses on the safety management system which is incomplete without the predictions of the risk management done by proper research. These both terms are often considered as independent but these are linked together. Further the associated project structures required for implementing a project management methodology such as PRINCE2 and a review of the stages, processes and components necessary as well as how quality is discusses in detail in the project [3,000 words]

Strategic Management In Government and Voluntary Organisations. Government and nonprofit organization encounter the problem of strategic management most of the time during their operations to curb the problem it is very crucial to have better understanding of it true sense and meaning. Strategic management is defined as successful achievement of organizational goals stem from development of competent edge in the industry by the allocation of resource available at disposal and a comprehensive analysis of internal and external industrial environment in order to carve the strategies and all this is found as blessing of strategic management by managers [4,500 words]

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Oxfam Case Study. Oxfam is a name today internationally acclaimed for their humanitarian services. The non-governmental organisation today consist of seventeen Oxfam organisations all working together in ninety-four countries around the world. The key mandate of Oxfam is an organisation, which strives to get solution to the looming poverty experienced in some countries as well as find solution also for issues, which the organisation considers as injustices globally. The organisation has been successful since they work with communities and together form a strong lobby group, which then influence those in power to ensure the poor get a chance to improve their lives through their voices. The entire different organisation under Oxfam all work in unison globally, which allows the overall organisation to achieve its objectives better [3,000 words]

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MBA Dissertation PDF Examples University

MBA Dissertation PDF Examples

MBA Dissertation PDF examples provides students with decision-relevant information to pursue the strategic objectives of their organization. In this course, students will learn a broad repertoire of techniques, which facilitates strategic decision-making, organizational planning, performance measurement, and control. The covered techniques include among others product costing, activity-based management, cost-volume-profit analysis, financial planning and analysis, responsibility center accounting, balanced scorecard, transfer pricing, and capital budgeting. By the end of this course, students are equipped to put strategy into action by using management accounting techniques. They will have fostered their business problem solving and decision-making skills, which will enhance their management and leadership capacity.

Learning Outcomes Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

  • Identify and apply the appropriate management accounting techniques within the canvas composed of economic, political, social, environmental, technological, personal values and ethical issues
  • Identify, analyze, and adopt effective and efficient strategies of the firm’s mission, goals, and objectives. Thus, adopt a sustainable strategy
  • Make appropriate business decisions, e.g., selling price, sales mix, sales volume, downsizing, expanding, cost control, or quality
  • Design appropriate incentive compensation plans that will enhance the achievement of the firm’s goals

Undertaking a MBA dissertation PDF should be regarded as one of the most rewarding academic ventures you will engage in during your MBA degree. It is unlike any other course you have so far taken. It should be seen as the culmination of an academic and intellectual journey that you have been on since arriving in university, allowing you to draw on the full range of subject material covered over the previous two years of study. Past students are quick to reflect that defining, researching and writing a MBA dissertation PDF was one of the most satisfying and interesting experiences of their postgraduate days.

What makes the dissertation different is that it offers you the opportunity to develop intellectual independence while specializing in depth in a topic of interest. The emphasis is on constructing an independent, inquiry-based study. This involves seeking out a research problem, deciding on a relevant literature [and a related set of primary and secondary sources where appropriate], employing an appropriate methodology and drawing your subsequent research together to offer a sustained and analytically reflective argument. By, defining, researching and writing a dissertation you will develop a valuable set of transferable skills: time management, meeting a deadline, initiative in deciding upon and locating relevant academic and empirical sources, problem-solving, developing a capacity for independent research, communicating effectively in writing, and working with academic and empirical

MBA Dissertation PDF examples will help students who writes a politics dissertation will:

  • Develop deep knowledge about his/her chosen topic
  • Develop intellectual independence
  • Learn to define a research problem
  • Learn to decide upon appropriate academic and empirical sources
  • Deploy the scholarly apparatus of Bibliography and footnotes effectively
  • Learn to employ an appropriate methodology
  • Develop a sustained argument
  • Develop analytic skills
  • Learn to meet a deadline
  • Learn to communicate effectively in writing
  • Learn to deploy information from academic and empirical sources

The benefits of MBA Dissertation PDF Examples

Although researching and writing a dissertation is hard work, that experience can also be immensely satisfying and rewarding. When you begin, the dissertation will seem daunting. However, despite the inevitable anxiety, students who put in the work usually find that the dissertation is the most satisfying, interesting, and even enjoyable part of their postgraduate experience. The dissertation develops many transferable skills that are highly valued by employers: effective time management, capacity for independent work, using your initiative in finding sources, and problem solving. Together with a good dissertation mark, the development of these skills enables your tutor to write a better reference for you. At the same time, employers will often inquiry about it and how you as a student went about doing your dissertation. It is seen as a contribution that enhances an individual’s CV.

MBA Dissertation PDF Examples
MBA Dissertation PDF Examples

Part of the object of writing a dissertation is to enable students to learn how to define a research problem. Students should consult with their supervisors who will help them develop a topic for their dissertation and to narrow it to a research question. A student will choose a potential topic early in the first semester of a MBA degree in order and then decide upon a final topic by the end of the third week. By then, you will have needed to have read some of the literature about the chosen topic in order to develop or formulate a research question or problem. This is where MBA dissertation PDF examples become very useful.

In addition, in consultation with your supervisor, a student needs to ensure that the chosen topic can be done within the constraints of a MBA dissertation including ethic approval and that they will have access to the required materials, data, and academic literature. On the dissertation questionnaires, students have commented favorably upon Politics’ flexibility with regard to the range of dissertation topics. This flexibility reflects our desire that students define their own topics and pursue their intellectual interest. However, this flexibility also reflects a student’s responsibility for choosing a topic and developing a research problem.

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Problem Solving Decision Making Supply Demand

Problem Solving and Decision Making – Establishing a price for a new product using the law of supply and demand

Scientific methods are very important and help in problem solving and decision making process. Having good problem solving skills is essential and takes an organization to another level. Scientific methods assist in decision making process and are widely used in many businesses to increase productivity. The success of any business depends on effective decision-making and problem solving techniques. Businesses are faced with several problems and challenges including reduction in supply and demand. It is crucial for organizations to make appropriate decision without compromising the terms and condition of the business. The law of supply and demands plays a significant role in micro-economics and businesses. The law of supply states that quantity of a product supplied increases with decrease in prices (Gale, 2015). The cost of a products falls with an increase in supply or high demand.  Contrary, the law of demand argues that the quantity of a product decreases as the prices increases. Businesses are limited by the law of supply and demand making forcing them to establish equilibrium.  Market-clearing price helps firms to find a long-lasting equilibrium that balances both supply and demand. Proper problem solving and decision-making process using scientific evidence has a significant impact on businesses when establishing new prices utilizing the law of supply and demand.

Problem solving and decision making using the scientific method

It is fundamental for companies and businesses to have good decision-making skills and problem solving techniques. Businesses are required to make the appropriate decision when faced with complex issues. It is also important to establish a good approach that can solve a problem (Doctor, 2011). For instance, the law of supply and demand affects most businesses. The determination of prices should be done using scientific models. Appropriate problem solving and decision-making techniques need the application of critical thinking (“Systematic problem solving and decision-making”, 2016). Whenever a business is faced with numerous issues such as reduction in sales, it is crucial to make an appropriate decision. The law of supply and demand may cause the decline in sales. Solving a problem requires some pragmatics and logical reasoning.  Problem –solving has been defined as a cognitive and behavioral process that individuals and organizations use to identify, discover and invent effective means of coping with the problem faced.

Problem Solving and Decision Making
Problem Solving and Decision Making

There are four main steps used to identify a problem namely: problem definition, generating alternatives, evaluation, and selection of alternatives and implementation of the solutions. Defining a problem is the first step in problem solving (Gale, 2015). The business should start by identifying the issue causing the sales to reduce. It is important to diagnose the actual situation facing the company by analyzing and defining the causes. Generation of alternatives to solve the problem is the next stage. It is necessary to propose several alternatives that will increase the sales. Brainstorming the alternative helps to evaluate the alternatives (Doctor, 2011). Multiple alternatives enhance the value of the final decision. It is advised to generate the alternatives before making a final decision including evaluation and selection of the best alternative. Selection of best alternative is critical in the decision-making process. The best alternative should have minimal impacts compared to the rest. The last step in problem solving is the implementation of the best alternative.

Stabling the price of a new product depends on many factors including the law of supply and demand. The cost of production and demand should be used to determine the prices. The company should decide on the prices based on the demand curve and production cost. The cost of production should be minimal to ensure high returns (Doctor, 2011). It is essential to establish a suitable price that is affordable to customers. The product should meet the needs of the customers. If the demand is higher than production, the cost of the product should be elevated to sustain the supply chain. The company should make a decision using the best model.

Making appropriate decision on the prices of a new product is done systematically. The first step is identifying the problem facing the company. The process involve gathering of information, evaluating alternatives and implementing the final decision. Identification of a decision is the first step in the process. It is important to clearly define the decision and state it down. Gathering relevant information is vital and should be done before identifying alternatives (“Systematic problem solving and decision-making”, 2016). The information can be gathered through research and development. The company should involve customers by asking them what they think in relation to the new product prices. Both internal and external information is needed to improve the sales. Identification of alternatives is necessary. There is need to have many costs and choose one with minimal impacts. Weighing the evidences is also crucial. The alternatives should be considered using scientific evidence and methods.  The profit margin and production cost is determined using scientific evidence. Choosing the best alternative is important and is done after weighing the evidence (Doctor, 2011). Taking action and making the best decision is the last stage. The prices of the new product should be determined by taking into consideration the law of supply and demand. Reviewing the decision and identifying its impacts on the sales is necessary.

Conclusion

The law of supply and demand is important to all businesses. It limits the companies from exploiting customers. The decision on prices of a new product must be made using the scientific method. The company should identify the problem and use best techniques to solve. The demand for the product directly affects the prices. Prices increase with an increase in demand thereby affecting the supply chain.  It is vital for the businesses to establish the best prices after reviewing all the alternatives. The decision should have minimal impact on the business with equilibrium consideration between customer satisfaction and profit margin.

References

Doctor, R. (2011). Problem Solving and the Decision-Making Process. Physical Therapy, 51(7), 816-818.

Gale, D. (2015). The law of supply and demand. Mathematica Scandinavica, 3, 155

Systematic problem solving and decision-making. (2016). Long Range Planning, 23(6), 129

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International Trade Government Involvement

Impact of Government Involvement in International Trade

International trade can be described as the exchange of services and goods between countries, which gives rise to a world economy where prices are affected by global occurrences (Ajami & Goddard, 2013).  As indicated by (Wild & Wild, 2013, p. 123), international trade has the benefit of offering people in different countries a more expansive selection of goods and services at competitive prices.

Given that the idea of international trade has dominated business scholarship for some time, differing opinions exist on whether the international trade should adopt a free trade approach or opt for a protectionist approach. Free trade, in this regard, implies the application of a laissez-faire style of commerce, without market restrictions. The central concept in the international free trade is that demand and supply factors, applied on a global level, ensure efficient production, requiring nothing to be done to either promote or protect business growth. In contrast, the philosophy of protectionism insists on the importance regulating trade to ensure proper functioning of markets. Proponents of protectionism hold that certain market inefficiencies can impede the benefits of international trade, thereby requiring the application of mechanisms to guide the market accordingly. This paper explores the primary motives of government interventions and critically analyzes the consequences of the methods of intervention.

Government intervention in international trade has had a significant impact on trade patterns. Unfair government intervention practices thus have had lasting negative lasing impacts on global economics. This paper looks at the global political economy, reasons for governments to intervene in international trade, consequences of government involvement and ways to prompt the global economy despite the political influence.

The Motives for Government Trade Intervention

Though free trade implies the pattern of exports and imports without any barriers, most governments impose controls on trade for cultural, economic and political reasons. While political motivations include protection of jobs, preservation of national security, response to apparently unfair trade practices of other nations and the quest for influence over other countries, the economic motives include the protection of infant industries and pursuance of strategic trade policy.

Political Motivation: One category of reasons offered for government intervention is political. Most of the political motivations for government interventions are connected to the need for the government to remain popular among its citizens. As indicated by Ajami and Goddard (2013), the political motivations may have little or nothing to do with the economic performance of the country (p. 21).

One such political motive is to protect jobs and, therefore, prevent an increase in unemployment levels. The idea informs the motive for restricting trade to protect jobs that international trade lowers the number of jobs available locally for the citizens of a country (Wild & Wild, 2013, p. 132). Though this may be true for certain industries, studies have established that trade does not necessarily reduce jobs, since business offers consumers a chance to purchase products at competitive prices, which, subsequently enables them to buy more goods and services. Given that most of the products are locally produced, the enhanced purchasing power of the consumer is likely to stimulate the creation of jobs internationally and locally. Moreover, the protection of certain jobs may not be entirely beneficial, and has been shown to lower economic efficiency. According to Silva, Afonso and Africano (2010), an economy can function at maximum efficiency only when its labor force is mobile, and people are willing to alternate jobs need arises (p. 369). Governments must acknowledge that the nature of the economy and, consequently, jobs are constantly metamorphosing, meaning that even their labor force must be flexible and ready to change.

Another political reason often offered for government restriction of trade is national security interests. According to Ajami and Goddard (2013), the argument of national security is often a legitimate argument, especially when it concerns the production of weapons and printing of domestic currency (p. 34).  Consequently, industries that are pivotal to national security are offered protection by governments for both imports and exports.

Governments can, for instance, place restrictions on imports to guarantee domestic supply which preserves national security. It is important to note that national security as it is used here is not exclusive to issues of war and armed security. Rather, the concept of national security implies those goods and services that are critical for the wellbeing of the citizens of the country, including currency, agricultural products, oil, and weaponry. For instance, many countries actively protect their agricultural sectors since countries that depend on agricultural imports to feed their citizens risk starvation in the event of war. Governments also place restrictions on the export of defense-related goods, especially if such exports pose threats to international security.

The government can also restrict trade in response to apparent unfair trade practices by other nations. In situations where there is a feeling that their governments give certain industries an unfair advantage through subsidies or reduced restrictions, unilateral reduction in restrictions can be applied. For instance, Fertö and Hubbard (2003) show that, compared to industrialized countries, developing countries have significantly relaxed environmental laws, reducing the costs of operation (p. 245). Governments are often inclined to introduce trade restrictions especially in the face of restrictions by other countries.

Government Involvement in International Trade
Government Involvement in International Trade

States can also use trade restrictions to gain influence over other nations, especially the economically less developed. For instance, the China Uses trade interventions to increase its influence in Africa. The idea here is for an economically stronger country to use its position to influence less developed countries, which ultimately offer a market for its products.

Economic Motives: Besides the political reasons for governments’ intervention in trade, arguments are often fronted on the economic foundations for intervention. Some of the arguments from the economic perspective include the protection of infant industries and pursuance of strategic trade policy. The case for the protection of infant industries is often made so that young industries are protected by the government until they become self-sustaining (Silva, Afonso & Africano, 2010, p. 369).

However, it is not only infant industries that seek protection. According to Melitz (2003), some mature industries insist that they are protected to enable them to adapt to new business environments and conditions (p.1696). Nevertheless, the idea of protecting companies seems to go against the spirit of healthy competition that allows only the most successful businesses to be sustained. This presents problems to the government seeking to intervene on trade based on the argument of the infant industry. The first challenge would concern how to pick winners and reject losers. The idea also leaves room for people within the echelons of power to use that power to initiate protection for their companies. Besides, protection has the potential of encouraging complacency by domestic companies towards innovation and can limit company competitiveness.

Regarding the pursuance of strategic trade policy, government intervention can enable a company to enjoy the first-mover advantages and the subsequent economies of scale. The concept of first-mover advantage can be described as a type of competitive advantage that accompany attains by being the first entrant into an industry or a market (Fertö & Hubbard, 2003, p. 251). The understanding here is that, by being the first competitor in a new market, the firm can gain an advantage over its actual and future rivals. This idea applies whether a company is seeking to develop new demographic markets or sections of existent markets, or whether it is looking to introduce new products into its already existent market segments.

When a business is the first to enter a market, it can form a defensible ground, allowing it to capture the large sections of the market share quickly without being concerns about rivals competing for the same market. Also, by the time the competitors arrive, the first-mover is likely to have advantages in the competition because its products will have gained familiarity, besides other factors like brand loyalty established distribution systems. For instance, being a first-mover in soda production, Coca-Cola was able to develop its brand and build a reputable force in the beverage industry. The biggest problem with the strategic trade policy is that government support is often subject to political manipulation, and certain interest groups can usurp gains with no benefit to the consumer.

Cultural Motives: Cultures are created and modified through interactions. Consequently, the exposure of citizens of a country to other people and products from other nations can gradually alter the culture of a country. In this line of thought, the undesirable cultural influence caused by interaction with certain products can cause the government to block imports. The United State, for instance, is often perceived as a threat to national cultures due to its influential entertainment, consumer goods, and media.

Methods of Promoting Trade

Other than specialization and increased business potential, international trade has been linked to greater efficiency and greater opportunity for foreign direct investment. As described by Wang et al. (2012), foreign direct investment implies the amount of money invested by individuals and corporations in business as well as in research and development (p. 627). By attracting foreign direct investment, economies can grow in their level of competitiveness and production efficiency. For the receiving government, foreign direct investment is a way through which expertise and foreign exchange can enter the country, further stimulating economic growth. Given the importance of international trade to governments as well as consumers, various states adopt steps such as subsidies, export financing, foreign trade zones, and individual government agencies to encourage international trade.

Subsidies: For our purposes, a grant can be defined as financial assistance to domestic companies in the form of low-interest loans, cash payments, product price supports, or tax breaks. The primary intention of applying subsidies is to increase the advantage of the local companies and compete favorably with international firms. According to the World Trade Report (2006), export subsidies generate incentives for producers to supply products for export rather than for domestic use within a country (p. 56). This can be a drawback since the withdrawal of supply from the local market can lead to increases in the local price of the products. Simultaneously, due to increase in supply to the world market world prices of the product is likely to fall. If the re-importation of products from the world market into the domestic market is prevented, the result is a wedge between the world price and the local price. All the same, the impact of export subsidies on the domestic country is contrary, with local consumers having to pay higher for a product that they are prevented from sourcing from the world market as a lower price.

Export Financing: In export financing governments promote exports by assisting companies to finance their trade activities through loans as well as loan guarantees. Since funding is crucial, especially for entrants into the export business, the philosophy informing export financing is that by offering loans that would have otherwise been accessible of loans at reduced rates, the government can encourage export business, and enhance the competitive edge of the company. In the United States, for instance, export financing is offered by Export-Import Bank.

Foreign Trade Zones: A foreign trade zone is an area where goods can be landed, handled, reconfigured or manufactured, and even re-exported without going through customs authorities. The goods only become subject to the prevailing customs duties when they are moved to consumers in the country within which the zone is located. Organized in areas with various geographical advantages for international trade such as Singapore, Stockholm, Hong Kong, and Gdańsk, the primary purpose of the foreign trade zone is to eliminate seaport, border, and airport barriers to trade, often associated with complex customs regulations and high tariffs. Lowering customs facilitates international trade since customs duties elevate the cost of production as well as the time it takes for the products to reach the market. In the United States, for instance, the lowered customs duties are balanced by the created jobs.

Special Government Agencies: As a way of encouraging international trade, various governments create agencies charged with the promotion of exports. The agencies organize trips for business persons and trade officials to visit other nations and institute trade offices in other countries. These organizations, such as the Japan External Trade Organization not only promote exports but also occasionally encourage imports.

Trade Unions: Trade unions today play a critical part in moulding the lives of workers, though their influence has considerably diminished over the recent past. The union is often mandated to negotiate conditions and contracts with employers on behalf of the employee. Though the roles of trade unions are numerous, some being more prominent than others, the trade unions core functions can be summarized as social, militant, regulative, and fraternal. In this regards, the militant function implies the struggle that is likely to occur as the union tries to get employers to increase worker remuneration or to address the grievances presented by employees. The main issue addressed here is whether the perceptible incompatibility between industrial relations and employees can be resolved. Resolution of the conflict between trade unions and employers is only possible given the assumption that both parties share the objectives of employee development, fairness, and equity.

Unions need to acknowledge that collective bargaining may require some redesigning to include a lesser component increasing pay than in the past, and should push for involvement in skill-based and flexible elements of pay. Industrial relations remain the principal way of maintaining industrial order and should focus on approaches to avoiding and resolving disputes and conflicts.

Methods of Restricting Trade

Most governments restrict international trade to protect domestic companies from external competition, mostly from multinationals. One such method of restriction is through tariffs. Tariffs are taxes levied on imported products as they enter or leave the country. Tariffs can be categorized as import, transit and export. Import duties are further subcategorized into ad valorem, specific, and compound. An ad valorem tax is levied as a percentage of the cost of the imported good while specific tariff is levied according to each unit (by weight or number). On the other hand, the compound tax is levied as a percentage of the stated price of the imported product, and partly as a specific fee for each unit. According to Wild and Wild (2013), besides protecting local producers and employees from foreign competition, tariffs perform the function of raising revenue for the government (p. 232). Though domestic producers gain from import duties as they are shielded from foreign competition, this protection comes at a cost to the consumer. The consumers often have to pay more for some imported goods. Also, though the producers benefit from the lowered foreign competition, the lack of competitiveness may lead to laxity and reduced overall efficiency.

Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints (VER): Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints (VER) are restrictions directed towards the quantity of certain goods that can be imported into a country (Wild & Wild, 2013, p. 143). The quota limitation is usually imposed by allotting import licenses to a group of firms or individuals. The reason for issuance of allowances is to protect domestic producers by limiting the entry of certain goods into the country. This limitation enables local producers to maintain a considerable market share in to offer decent prices for their products within the country. Like in tariffs, the gain by producers comes at a cost to consumers, who have to contend with high prices caused by impeded competition. A VER, on the other hand, is a unique type of quota imposed by the exporting country upon the request of the government of the importing country. If the domestic producers do not limit production, consumers gain because of lowered prices from the increased supply. Other measures that can be applied by governments to restrict trade include embargoes, content requirements, administrative delays and even currency controls. Ultimately, the reasoning behind restrictions is to protect local companies from foreign competition and to ensure that the economic interests of the country are not ignored during the international trade.

Conclusion

Despite the theoretical benefits associated with international trade, governments are not always eager to openly welcome free trade at the expense of domestic businesses. This paper examined the reasons behind the government interventions to protect some of their local industries and the methods they use to offer such protection. Though it is evident from the analysis that many of the strategies like tariffs, the quota system, and subsidies appear to support domestic producers, this support often comes at a cost to the consumer, who often has to pay more for goods. Measures must be put in place to ensure that even in protecting the domestic companies, healthy competition that is important for production efficiency and reasonable pricing of products is not compromised.

References

Chaney, T. (2008). Distorted gravity: the intensive and extensive margins of international trade. American Economic Review, 98(4), 1707-21

Girma, S., Görg, H., & Wagner, J. (2009). Subsidies and exports in Germany, evidence from enterprise panel data. Applied Economics Quarterly, 55 (3), 175-195

Martincus, C. & Carballo, J., (2008). Is export promotion effective in developing countries? Firm-level evidence on the intensive and the extensive margins of exports. Journal of International Economics, 76, 89-106

Wang, C., Hong, J., Kafouros, M., & Wright, M. (2012). Exploring the role of government involvement in outward FDI from emerging economies. Journal of International Business Studies, 43(2012), 655-676

Wild, J., & Wild, K. (2013). International business: The challenges of globalization. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Limited

World Trade Report. (2006). Exploring the links between subsidies, trade and the WTO. World Trade Organization

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Supply Chain Management Business Success

The Impact of Supply Chain Management in Business Success

Title: Supply Chain Management in Business Success. Advancement in technology has played a major role in the success of businesses in the U.S. The internet in particular has played a major role in increasing the output and returns of companies selling goods and providing services all across the country. With globalization, escalating competition, geographical scope and complexity in the business environment has necessitated the continued improvements in the way technology is incorporated in businesses, both private and government owned.

Many companies in developed countries have been forced to adapt to the area of supply chain management has not escaped the proliferation of technological innovation. According to Cagliano, Caniato and Spina (2005), supply chain management is described as the broadened focus of management that emphasizes the combined implications of the stakeholders involved in the production of services and goods, including suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and the final consumer. In this understanding of the management of production and logistics networks, conviction is that all the participants in the process of delivering goods to consumers form part of a pipeline, network, or a supply chain.

Supply chain management can, therefore, be understood as encompassing everything needed for customer satisfaction, including the determination of the products that consumer prefer, how to produce such products, and how to deliver them to the final consumer. The aim here is to ensure that the consumers receive the right products at the appropriate time, in the desired location, and at a friendly price. Electronic mail and the internet have revolutionized the communication and data exchange process, supporting the required flow of information between firms in the supply chain. The present paper explores the impact of the internet on supply chain management with particular focus on order processing, customer service, transportation, managing vendor relations, inventory management, purchasing and procurement, and production scheduling.

The Benefits of Internet-Enabled Supply Chain Management

An important premise informing the philosophy of supply chain management is the consideration of the network of processes, facilities, and individuals that procure raw materials, convert them into finished products, and eventually circulate them to the consumer as an integrated chain, instead of a collection of separate, but rather interconnected, tasks (Wisner, Leong & Tan 2005). This integration of the supply chain is important since the links of the chain are essential in achieving the goal of customer satisfaction. As noted by Barratt and Rosdahl (2002), though every company may have a supply chain, not every company effectively manages its supply chain for the attainment of strategic advantage.

By enabling and connecting procurement, inventory management, order processing, transportation, production scheduling, and customer service, not only reduces costs associated with managing the supply chain, but also increases the efficiency of the entire process. Streamlining the entire process of supply chain management with internet technology requires a good understanding of the vital business processes involved in supply chain management and the appropriate technological solution for handling the complex flow of information, human resource management and material flow.

Purchasing and Procurement

The application of internet technology in the management of procurement is gradually developed in the recent past, with various studies indicating various applications of the internet in procurement processes, including communication with vendors, confirmation and comparison of vendor price quotes, and conducting purchases from the catalogs of the vendor (Croom 2000). An example of a company that uses the internet is General Electric, which reported reduced costs of procurement due online purchasing from vendor catalogs (Auramo, Kauremaa & Tanskanen 2005). By enabling purchases and negotiation from the vendor’s website at any time, the internet helps the company transcend the geographical restrictions that often characterized traditional procurement.

Supply Chain Management Dissertation
Supply Chain Management Dissertation

As shown by Gunasekaran and Ngai (2004), one of the benefits of using the internet in procurement is the reduced paperwork flows, and reduced time taken from the time the order is placed to the time the products are delivered to the company. In addition, the internet also streamlines the process of vendor negotiation by introducing and online form of negotiation that is more effective and efficient than face to face negotiation.

Such negotiations include bargaining, price agreements, renegotiation, and term agreements. Price negotiation is particularly improved by the internet since there is room for comparing different offers from vendors (Croxton et al. 2001). Another area where the internet supports procurement is by lowering the costs associated with handling returned or damaged goods enhancing the tracking of goods and by enabling notification by vendors before damaged goods can be shipped (Barratt & Rosdahl 2002; Gunasekaran & Ngai 2004). Other procurement issues handled through the internet include warranty issues and credits posted by vendors.

Despite the improved efficiency, competitive sourcing opportunities and inter-organizational coordination of the procurement process due to the use of the internet, it is important to note that the adoption of an e-procurement strategy is considerably complicated.

Consequently, Boyer and Olson (2002) advise that the challenges in implementing e-procurement can be mitigated through the adoption of an effective e-procurement strategy, setting and managing realistic managing expectations, and engineering procurement processes. Another problem in the e-procurement process concerns the verification of the credibility of the vendor. As shown by Auramo, Kauremaa and Tanskanen (2005), it can be challenging to determining the credibility of a company over the internet, leaving room for fraud and cons. Measures should be taken, therefore, to determine the credibility of a company before any business can be conducted over the internet.

Inventory Management

One of the most essential and significantly costly elements of the supply chain involves the management of inventory (Wisner, Leong & Tan 2005). Studies have also shown that lack of proper information flow in the process of inventory management can cause inventory buffers and inefficiencies in the management of the supply chain. Consequently, to keep inventory levels low and lower the overall costs of holding, while still offering high quality service to the customers is a significant challenge in strategic inventory management.

To mitigate such challenges, internet-enabled inventory management enables processes that can be used to reduce costs without compromising the quality of customer service (Kevin Chiang & Monahan 2005; Cagliano, Caniato & Spina 2005). For instance, the internet can be used in inventory management for the notification of stock-outs offered by companies to their clients, or even the communication of stock-outs made by clients to vendors.

The internet also enables companies to quickly implement electronic data interchange (EDI) information systems with their customers throughout the world. In inventory management, EDI is understood as the electronic exchange of information between the information technology systems of two or more organizations (Boyer & Olson 2002). With the help of the internet, EDI technology can be used to process order entry, order changes, order confirmation, pre-shipment notices, and invoicing. Through internet-based EDI, companies like Wal-Mart and Target realize success in the retail industry by quickly exchanging information with their suppliers, which would normally take long periods of data entry.

The internet also positively influences the ability of companies to proactively manage their inventory systems. For instance, using the internet, a company can track out-of-stock inventory items and ensure that customers are notified in case of order shipping delays and any inventory emergencies. The improved inventory management also enables the company to replenish the inventory without delays. Tracking of items in an efficient and timely manner is also enabled by the internet by integrating various technological applications such as communication technologies, radio frequency technology and the internet. Identification In addition, inventory information needed for informed decision-making can also be made available to the decision-makers in good time.

Order Processing and Customer Service

Other areas of importance of internet technology in strategic supply chain management are in customer service and order processing. For instance, using the internet to place orders has been found to streamline the process of quotation and result in reduced overall costs by enabling order placement and checking of order status as well as improved speed of processing. In this regard, reduced paperwork in the order processing not only saves time, but also lowers costs.

With regards to customer service, the internet enables improved communication between the customer and the vendor, thereby improving awareness of customer needs and preferences, and enabling the tailoring of products to meet customer needs. It also offers a platform for the customer to communicate concerns and suggestions. Ultimately, through improved customer service, the internet enables the company to build a strong customer loyalty for its products and services.

Implications on Management

With the rapidly increasing use of the internet in supply chain management, it is increasingly important for managers to leverage the benefits of the internet for competitive edge. It is important for the supply chain manager to react quickly to information and adjust inventory, transportation and production to ensure cost efficiency and quality of service. It is important to note that the information provided over the internet is only useful if it is delivered in a timely and comprehensible manner.

One implication on management concerns the dynamic pricing strategies enabled by the internet. As indicate by Keskinocak and Tayur 2001, the internet has altered the way goods are marketed and sold, and influences pricing. Supply chain managers can leverage the ability of the internet to offer flexible and dynamic pricing through online auctions and negotiation (Bapna, Goes & Gupta 2003). In addition, the internet offers collaboration of different components of the supply chain which can be leveraged to smooth the flow of products and information. This is important since collaboration between enterprises has been shown to be a considerable challenge to effective supply chain management (Lewis & Talalayevsky 2004).

Leveraging the potential of the internet offers the supply chain management accessibility and standards that enable the integration and transmission of data across the supply chain components (Bartezzaghi & Ronchi 2004). An important consideration for management is that the supply chain collaboration is enabled through information sharing, creation of supply chain communities, and coordinating plans. These must be invested in and effectively implemented for an effective supply chain.

Another important managerial factor concerning the internet and supply chain management is supply chain visibility, which is linked to reduction of the bullwhip effect. According to Jap and Mohr (2002), supply chain visibility implies to offering each level of the supply chain with accurate and complete information on customer needs and inventory levels, production levels, fulfillment needs, and shipment status. Managers need to understand that visibility reduces the bullwhip effect since if information on demand is shared, the actual customer demand data can be used to generate accurate forecast instead of depending on orders obtained from the previous stage. In addition, visibility of the supply chain enables the various components of the supply chain to coordinate production and distribution more effectively, subsequently reducing costs and lead times (Bartezzaghi & Ronchi 2004).

The important implication here is to ensure that the information is accessible to all partners in the supply chain and in a format that can enable business decision-making. Managers also need to invest in tools that enable the visualization, plan and make decisions based on large databases. Essentially, the proliferation of technology and the internet in business cannot be avoided. Ultimately, there is need to protect the data obtained and transmitted over the internet from fraudsters and identity thieves (Ngai & Gunasekaran 2004). Given the numerous benefits linked to the use of the internet in supply chain management, proper structures need to be developed for companies to leverage the potential of the internet.

Conclusion

The present analysis examined the role of the internet in effective supply chain management. From the analysis it is evident that the internet can offer supply chain management the benefits of reduced costs, improved customer service, enhanced procurement and order processing, as well as collaboration and visibility throughout the supply chain. It is also apparent that the internet enables partners in the supply chain to collaborate in order to improve planning and forecasting. Other benefits include improved customer service, data sharing, and product flow.

However, information sharing has various technological, legal and commitment implications, requiring observation of certain principles and goodwill from organizations. It is also important for organizations to adopt measures to protect the information obtained and shared over the internet. Ultimately, though the internet offers an important tool for improving the effectiveness of supply chains, security and management concerns must be addressed for the optimal benefits to be realized.

References

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