Management Information Systems Overview

Management Information Systems Overview

Assignment Title: Information Systems Overview. With the passing time, business markets are becoming more complicated and financially complex. Management authorities are trying to find out different ways to stay in advantageous position in the market. An information system is considered as a well-known tool, which is helpful to gather necessary information from the market and contributes actively in the management decision making. According to Baskerville and Wood-Harper (206), there are different types of the information system that are helpful to generate information for specific users depending on their needs. Information systems can be used in day to day work or for a long term planning. Development of information systems are important in terms of improving the decision making management and stay ahead in the competition. Since change is a constant scenario in the business market, the information systems need to go through development continuously.

Managing an information system and its development is costly. However, it is not only important but also crucial to consider information system properly. It is mainly because the growth of the organization or industry is hugely dependent on the information systems used by the management. According to Ward and Peppard (2016), the information should be utilized by the directorate as well as by the employees. It is found that some information systems are developed to aid the management in decision making where the some of the other information systems are designed to meet the needs of the employees.

From the study of Melville (2010), it is noticed that employees in different levels bear various types of responsibilities. Therefore, when the position of an employee changes, it is found that the information systems can help that employee to learn about the increased responsibilities. Unlike the employees, the supervisors and other operational managers use a different type of information systems. Although various types of information systems exist in the business management out of which four kinds of information systems are considered as the most important. These four types of information systems may include transaction process system, management information systems, decision support systems and executive information systems. These four types of information systems also help to cover all of the functional areas within a business such as sales and marketing, finance and accounting, product manufacturing and human resource.

With the support of this research, it is tried to explain the importance of information systems within a business structure. Among the different types of information systems, four major types of information systems are selected and discussed in this essay. Advantages and disadvantages of using information systems can be identified. It can be assumed that a set of recommendation scan be developed based on the findings of the work.

Aim

The purpose of the current essay is to understand the importance of information systems in terms of producing more accurate and targeted information about customers, markets, suppliers and competitors to improve the decision making capabilities of the business.

Objectives

  • To identify the relevant types of information systems in business
  • To understand the impact of different types of information systems on business
  • To determine advantages and disadvantages of using information systems

Identification of the various types of Information Systems

As opined by Bonham-Carter (2014), different types of information systems can be identified through a classification procedure. In business management, classification of information systems is a process that helps to determine and categorize the information systems in such a way that they can be treated as a group. The authors mentioned that the classification of information systems is a bit confusing because any natural law does not control the information systems but the human factors (Watson, Boudreau and Chen, 2010). A “type’ of information systems is just a “concept,” which is developed based on the kinds of information need by the authority or client. Therefore, it can be said that depending on different concepts of information required the information systems can be categorized. As opined by Ian (2010), one of the oldest methods, which is widely used to classify the information system is the pyramid model.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Information System

The achievement and benefits of an organization are hugely dependent on their skills of using the information systems. The purpose of using information systems is to deliver the right information to the right person so that it can enhance the decision-making system. Following are the advantages and disadvantages identified of using the information systems.

There are many benefits of using the information system. These advantages may include the improvement of communications, reduction of globalization and cultural gap and development of new job roles. With the implementation of the information system, the management can share the information and develop a good employee relation within the organization (Urquhart, Lehmann and Myers, 2010). On the other hand, the use of information technology helped an organization remain open for 24×7 in all over the world. It is also proved as helpful to manufacture cost effective products within minimum time. The application of information systems promotes effective work culture within the organization, which in turn improves the decision making process. Although many of the employees get frustrated to use information systems, it is found that the development of frustration is the result of inadequate training and poor performances of systems.

The numbers of disadvantages of using the information systems are also not negligible. The major disadvantage of using the information systems is the increase of lack of job opportunity and unemployment.

With the help of information systems, most of the paper workers can be completed within short time, and the financial transaction can be easily calculated without the involvement of any extra employees. With the implementation of higher technologies, the organizations tend to decrease their employee number. Apart from that, the implementation of information systems globalized the business system, which may experience dominance of greater power on the weaker one, which can hamper the decision-making system. With the use of information systems, the communication mode of business is becoming English. Therefore, people with lack of English proficiency are suffering to get a job. The expense of implementing information systems is too heavy for many organizations. Therefore, strong economic backup required before implementing an information system.

Management Information Systems
Management Information Systems

Transaction Process System

Transaction processing system is concerned as an information system that contributes towards the collection, modification and retrieving of the data transaction for a concerned enterprise. The system is efficient for the production of the accurate data related to consumers and suppliers that are essential for the businesses. This system is associated with providing the reliable processes transaction towards the commercial organizations that ensure the consumers’ order met on time (Stair and Reynolds, 2013). It is also concerned with the partners and suppliers to get the payment and make the payment on time. Thus, it has ensured a vital portion of the effective business management process for the business organizations.

It is associated with several characteristics that enable the transaction processing systems to offer the deals with the consideration of smooth flow of data and maintain the progression of the process throughout the enterprises. Rapid processing feature enables the system to perform the transactions instantly, reliability incorporate comprehensive safeguard to the disaster recovery system to make it error free, and standardization process helps in the process to acquire identical data for each transaction regardless of the consumers (Siponen and Vance, 2010). Apart from this controlled access, atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability helps in the process of batch processing and real time processing of the information.

Management Information Systems (MIS)

Management information system is capable of providing the managers of an organization, the ability to organize, evaluate and effectively manage the departments within the organization. MIS is providing the tool towards the managers with a computer-based system. The principal purpose of the system is concerned with providing the managers the opportunity to make strategic, tactical and operational decisions to manage the data with efficient and productive manner (Chaffey and White, 2010).

It is necessary for the managers to rely on the particular data associated with the consumers, suppliers and competitors that enable the business managers of all level to rely on the reports generated by the system. Besides, MIS is effective enough that it helps in the process of evaluating the daily activities of the business and concentrate on the problems that enable the managers to make decisions and track progress in the firm.

Moreover, it is considered as the broadly used three-resource based system that required for effective organizational management. These resources are based on people, information, and technology. It is concerned with the computer automation service that contributes towards the quality and efficiency determination of the business operation and improves the human decision making capabilities (Chen et al., 2010).

Decision Support Systems

Decision support system is mainly considered as the set of the related computer program and data that assist the business organizations to analyze and make a decision within the internal operations. The program is capable of collecting the data related to consumer and suppliers and present the data towards the management to make the decision-making process easy.

It is different from the operational application and rather known as the informational application. Considering the application of the DSS at the enterprise level, it has been found that it serves as an informational application (Galliers and Leidner, 2014). With the aid of the informational application, DSS helps in the process to gather information related to comparative sales figures of every week; revenue figures projected based on the new product sales assumptions, and provide data related to the consequences of the previous experiences (Rainer et al., 2013).

DSS is considered as the broad scope application of the Management Information System that helps in the process to report on the performance based on cost and profitable or unprofitable projects. Applications of the DSS system in the organizations have indicated that it is a powerful tool as it depends on the OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies (Bharadwaj et al., 2013). It provides the permission of browse, query, analyzes and summarizes the large extent of data with interactive and dynamic way.

Executive Information Systems

Executive Support System is concerned with the application of the executive information system that associated with the development of facilitating and supporting the senior executive information that maintains the decision-making needs of the organization. The system is capable enough that it maintains the access balance between the internal and external information and keep it coordinated to achieve the organizational goal (Teece, 2010). ESS is concerned with various characteristics that help the organization keep track of the information related to the business such as consumer and suppliers data. Informational features help in the process to produce relevant information; orientation characteristics offer secure access to data, managerial characteristics supports the need and executive capabilities offers the telecommunication capacity to be implemented in the enterprise (Boehm and Thomas, 2013).

Also, the development of the ESS is mainly based on the integration and aggregation of data that mainly display the pattern to the enterprise to understand better. Moreover, the application of the ESS is beyond the EIS that include the communication extent, office automation process, and provide the analysis support to the enterprise to make an effective decision (Willcocks, 2013).

Green Information Technology

Green IT is associated with maintaining the positive relationship between the environment and the use of the computers. The process is helping the organization in the aspect of managing the corporate social responsibility efficiently. This information technology is concerned with the energy related issues such as rising cost of the energy, power limitation, and enhancement of the performance demand. It has enabled the organizations to concentrate towards the design, manufacturing, disposal and reallocation extent to reduce cost and maintain effective consumer relationship (Laudon and Laudon, 2011).

The extent of the IT solutions that Green IT provides is associated with the data that metering energy concern and the network coverage. As for example related to the application of the Green IT, it has been found that arrangement of the video conference has reduced the carbon emission by reducing the travel expenses and transportation reduction. The basic working pattern of the Green IT system is associated with asset removal and logistics maintenance (Vom Brocke and Rosemann, 2010). On the other hand, pickup, sorting, and data destruction is concerned with asset tag removal and detailed reporting process. It also provides the disposition option to the organizations as it enables the company to recycle, lease return and employee purchase processes in the organization.

Conclusion

From the overview of the different types of information systems, it can be said that all of these information systems are essential for the growth of the organization. The use of information systems contributed in the globalization of the business management. The advanced use of information system already proved as beneficial for the extensive growth of the organizations.

The authors who worked in the field of business management identified several types of information systems. It is found that the types of the information system are dependent on the concepts of information required by the employees and the management authority. There is a misconception existing regarding the necessity of information systems. Previously it was assumed that only the management authority and operation management required the information systems. However, later it is proved that the use of information systems by the employees is also beneficial in terms of improving the responsibility senses among the employees. From the study of previous authors, it is found that employees are promoted from one level to another. With the help of information systems, the employees can quickly identify and understand their new job roles and responsibilities.

With the help of pyramid model, the authors showed the classification of information systems.  Four major types of information systems are identified that are widely used in the business sector, such as Transaction Processing System, Management Information System, Decision Support System and Executive Information System. All of these information systems are helpful in the collection of valuable data for a particular organization and improve their decision-making system. The Transaction Processing System or TPS is considered as a computerized system, which performs and controls information (transactions) that are required in business. Mainly it is a fund that the TPS accumulate and process the business transaction data. Therefore, it can be said that this particular information system is controlled by the management authority or the operation management of a particular company.

Certain changes in the transaction process can be easily evaluated with the Transaction Processing System. On the other hand, the Management information system or MIS is helpful to accumulate and process information that is required in the management of an organization. It is found that the management information system extract and process the data obtained from the Transaction Processing System. This information system helps the managers to direct the organization and control the functional areas in a better way.

This information system is also beneficial to of accurate feedback and offers pre-specified reports to the different level of managers. On the other hand, the decision support system is identified as an interactive information system, which is important to develop models and data manipulation tool regarding helping the managers in semi-structured and unstructured situations. Apart from these systems many other systems are identified that can have an impact on the decision-making systems, such as communication systems, office automation systems, and expert systems. However, several flaws of introducing the information systems are also identified such as increase of unemployment, security issues (data breaching) and expenses of implementing information systems.

Recommendations

Despite the positive sides of implementation of information systems, it can be said that few challenges are limiting the efficiency of information systems. Following are the recommendations offered based on the flaws identified in the implementation process of MIS.

  • It is found that the use of information systems is constrained within the hand of managers and the operation management. The limited use of information may be influencing the decision-making process, but it is certainly not helpful for the overall growth of the company. To maintain overall growth within the organization, different level of the information system should be accessed by the employees. The use of information system by the employees helps them to monitor their growth rate and understand their job responsibilities easily.
  • The information system is dynamic in nature based on the changes occurring in the universe. It is sometimes difficult to the managers to keep pace with the sudden changes that took place in information systems. Henceforth, strategies should be taken by the managers so that can easily tailor the available information and use them effectively. Strategies should be taken to remain up to date with the current market situation.
  • Different departments use information systems in a different way, which may affect the decision-making system. In order to improve the decision making system, it is important to maintain a proper alignment and communication between different departments. Henceforth, steps should be taken to align the strategic plan of the various departments with the business objectives. Matching the current capabilities of the organization with the future needs of the information technology is required.
  • Before implementation of the information system, it is important to identify the possible threats. With the help of information technology, an organization can evaluate the market risks and analyze the possible difficult situation. Implementation of information system without proper risk assessment can be limited its performance. On the other hand, an action plan should be developed to minimize the risks that are related to information systems.
  • Improvement of the technology infrastructure is crucial to implement the information system quickly. Lack of proper technological infrastructure cannot ensure the proper outcome of information systems. Therefore, the organizations need to ensure that the performance of the available technical supports meets the department computing objectives. Apart from that, they need to adopt different hardware (advanced models), which are cost effective.
  • Maintenance of the system security is vital for an organization. With the implementation of the information systems, the organizations are becoming more dependent on the computers to keep their data and its logical result. The lower security system can lead to the security breaching, and the company can lose valuable information that can affect their market positioning. Procedures should be implemented to report, detect and respond the security threats. Firewalls should be activated that can control and limit internet protocols through the firewall.
  • The recruitment of physical security is also essential to secure the information technology and its related equipment from theft. Also, steps should be taken to maintain disaster recovery.

References

Baskerville, R.L. and Wood-Harper, A.T., 2016. A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. In Enacting Research Methods in Information Systems: Volume 2 (pp. 169-190). Springer International Publishing.

Beynon-Davies, P., 2013. Business information systems. Palgrave Macmillan.

Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O.A., Pavlou, P.A. and Venkatraman, N.V., 2013. Digital business strategy: toward the next generation of insights. Mis Quarterly, 37(2), pp.471-482.

Boehm, M. and Thomas, O., 2013. Looking beyond the rim of one’s teacup: a multidisciplinary literature review of Product-Service Systems in Information Systems, Business Management, and Engineering & Design. Journal of Cleaner Production, 51, pp.245-260.

Bonham-Carter, G.F., 2014. Geographic information systems for geoscientists: modeling with GIS (Vol. 13). Elsevier.

Chaffey, D. and White, G., 2010. Business information management: improving performance using information systems. Pearson Education.

Chen, D.Q., Mocker, M., Preston, D.S. and Teubner, A., 2010. Information systems strategy: reconceptualization, measurement, and implications. MIS Quarterly, 34(2), pp.233-259.

Galliers, R.D. and Leidner, D.E., 2014. Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge.

Ian, H., 2010. An introduction to geographical information systems. Pearson Education India.

Laudon, K.C. and Laudon, J.P., 2011. Management information systems (Vol. 8). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Melville, N.P., 2010. Information systems innovation for environmental sustainability. Mis Quarterly, 34(1), pp.1-21.

Rainer, R.K., Cegielski, C.G., Splettstoesser-Hogeterp, I. and Sanchez-Rodriguez, C., 2013. Introduction to information systems: Supporting and Transforming business. John Wiley & Sons.

Siponen, M. and Vance, A., 2010. Neutralization: new insights into the problem of employee information systems security policy violations. MIS Quarterly, pp.487-502.

Stair, R. and Reynolds, G., 2013. Principles of information systems. Cengage Learning.

Teece, D.J., 2010. Business models, marketing strategy, and innovation. Long range planning, 43(2), pp.172-194.

Urquhart, C., Lehmann, H. and Myers, M.D., 2010. Putting the ‘theory’back into grounded theory: guidelines for grounded theory studies in information systems. Information systems journal, 20(4), pp.357-381.

Vom Brocke, J. and Rosemann, M., 2010. Handbook on business process management. Heidelberg: Springer.

Ward, J. and Peppard, J., 2016. The Strategic Management of Information Systems: Building a Digital Strategy. John Wiley & Sons.

Watson, R.T., Boudreau, M.C. and Chen, A.J., 2010. Information systems and environmentally sustainable development: energy informatics and new directions for the IS community. MIS Quarterly, pp.23-38.

Willcocks, L., 2013. Information management: the evaluation of information systems investments. Springer.

Yoo, Y., Henfridsson, O. and Lyytinen, K., 2010. Research commentary-The new organizing logic of digital innovation: An agenda for information systems research. Information systems research, 21(4), pp.724-735.

I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on Management Information Systems (MIS). There are many other titles available in the IT Dissertation Collection that should be of interest to information technology and computer science students and information technology professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of information technology such as Network Security, Information Systems, ERP, Software, IT  Infrastructure, Programming, Telecommunications, eLearning, eCommerce, Wireless Networks and Systems Analysis. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Network Design and Structure Dissertations

Network Design and Structure

Title: Network Design – When implementing a network in an organisation, there are some design issues that must be considered before implementation. The requirements of the network must be clearly defined and all the network components to be used have to be clearly defined. Some of the considerations are discussed below.

Network Design and Network Architecture

Network architecture is the infrastructure consisting of software, transmission equipment, and communication protocols define the structural and logical layout of a computer network. The mode of transmission of a network can be wired or wireless depending on the requirements in an organisation. There are various types of networks that can be applied in an organisation depending on the network size. Local area network (LAN) refers to network in a small geographical area, Metropolitan area network (MAN) refers to network in a city, and wide area network (WAN) refers to network that is spread geographically in a wide area. Among the three types of network, the company would implement LAN since it is only covering a small geographical area.

Transmission Media

The transmission medium of a network can be wired or wireless. Wired medium involve use of coaxial cables or fiber-optic cables while wireless media involves wireless transmission of data. Depending on the bandwidth, throughput and goodput we are able to determine the best medium of transmission. Fiber optic cables have low signal loss since they avoid collision, and they are efficient in data transfer in high traffic networks. Coaxial cables are less expensive compared with fiber optic cables, but they have high signal loss caused by collisions. Wireless transmission is efficient in local area network where there are few computers.

Network Design Management Method

The management method of a network can be either peer to peer or client-server. Peer to peer is where there is communication between several computers without a central computer. Client-server is where each client is independent and a central server provides services to the clients. In a peer to peer network, many computers can share a single application installed in one computer. In a client-server, they are designed to support large number of clients where the clients do not share resources. The client-server model security is enhanced because security is handled by the server. It is also easy to upgrade a client server model to meet new requirements in an organisation.

Figure 1, a client server model

 

Network Design
Network Design

Network Topology

Network topology is divided into physical and logical topology. Physical topology refers to the way in which computers and other devices are connected. Logical topology describes the layout of data transmission in a network. Bus, ring, star and mesh topologies are the main types of topologies. Bus topology is a where all devices are connected with a single cable. The topology works for small networks, but it is slow and collisions are common. Ring topology is where the cable runs around where each node is connected to each other. There are fewer collisions compared with a bus topology. A token ring is used to avoid collision. In a star topology, all the devices are connected to a central hub. There is a central management making it is faster in upgrading, but failure of the central hub brings down the entire network. Mesh topology connects all the devices to each other for fault tolerance and redundancy to improve performance.

Network Design Security Requirements

Networks are frequently attacked by hackers and other malicious people. This makes security one of the key considerations when designing a network. To reduce the number of attacks on computer networks, the network should have firewalls, intrusion detection systems, VPN, and DMZ. These measures reduce the threat and detect malicious people in the network.

Scalability

This refers to the ability of the network to grow. The network should be scalable enough to cater for growth in the network infrastructure.

Network Address Translation (NAT)

This is a design consideration where many computers in a private network access the network using one public IP address. This is a measure to enhance security in a network.

Figure 2, Network architecture

Network Architecture Dissertation
Network Architecture

Figure 3, Showing how VPN is implemented

VPN Implementation
VPN Implementation

OSI Reference Model in Network Design

The OSI model has seven layers as highlighted in the diagram. The communication system is sub-dived into layers where each layer sends service requests to the layer below it and receives service requests from the layer above it (FitzGerald & Dennis, 2009).

OSI Model
OSI Model

Layer 1: Physical Layer

Physical layer refers to the hardware and all network devices used in the network. The layer defines the physical devices and the transmission medium. The layer receives service requests of the data-link layer and performs encoding and decoding of data in signals. Protocols in this layer include CSMA/CD, and Ethernet (Liu, 2009).

Layer 2: Data-Link Layer

Data-link layer receives service requests of the network layer and sends service requests to the physical layer. The main function of the data-link layer is to provide reliable delivery of data across networks. Other functions performed by the layer include framing, flow and error control, and error detection and correction. There are two sub layers of the data-link layer; media access control layer, and logical link control layer. Media access control performs frame parsing, data encapsulation and frame assembly. Logical link control is responsible for error checking, flow control and packet synchronisation. Protocols in this layer include; X 25, frame relay and ATM.

Layer 3: Network Layer

Network layer is responsible for managing all the network connections, network congestions, and packet routing between a source and destination. The layer receives service requests of the transport layer and sends service requests to the data-link layer. The main protocols in this layer are IP, ICMP, and IGMP.

Layer 4: Transport Layer

The main purpose of this layer is to provide reliable data delivery which is error free by performing error detection and correction. The layer ensures that there is no loss of data, and data is received as it was sent. The layer provides either connection-less or connection oriented service. There are two protocols in this layer: UDP and TCP.

TCP

  • Sequenced
  • Connection oriented
  • Reliable delivery
  • Acknowledgements and windowing flow control

UDP

  • No sequencing
  • Connection-less
  • No reliable delivery
  • No acknowledgements and no windowing flow control

Layer 5: Session Layer

The main purpose of this layer is to establish and terminate sessions. The layer sets up and terminates connection between two or more processes. It also manages communication between hosts. If there is login or password validation, this layer is responsible for the validation process. Check-pointing mechanism is also provided by this layer. If an error occurs, re-transmission of data occurs from the last check-point. Protocols in this layer include; RIP, SOCKS, and SAP.

Layer 6: Presentation Layer

This layer is responsible for data manipulation, data compression and decompression, and manages how data is presented. The layer receives service requests of the application layer and sends service requests to the session layer. The layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the data in transmission. Data encryption and decryption (cryptography) is used to provide security in this layer. Protocols involved in this layer include; ASCII, EBCDIC, MIDI, MPEG, and JPEG.

Layer 7: Application Layer

This layer provides interaction with the end user and provides services such as file and email transfers. The layer sends service requests to the presentation layer. It has several protocols used in communication; FTP, HTTP, SMTP, DNS, TFTP, NFS, and TELNET.

Network Protocols

  • Ethernet – provides transfer of information on Ethernet cable between physical locations
  • Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) – used for data encapsulation in serial lines.
  • Point to point protocol (PPP) – this is an improvement of SLIP, performs data encapsulation of serial lines.
  • Internet Protocol (IP) – provides routing, fragmentation and assembly of packets.
  • Internet Control Management protocol (ICMP) – help manage errors while sending packets and data between computers.
  • Address resolution protocol (ARP) – provides a physical address given an IP address.
  • Transport control protocol (TCP) – provides connection oriented and reliable delivery of packets.
  • User datagram protocol (UDP) – provides connection-less oriented service and unreliable delivery of packets.
  • Domain name service (DNS) – provides a domain name related to a given IP address.
  • Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) – used in the management and control of IP addresses in a given network.
  • Internet group management protocol (IGMP) – support multi-casting.
  • Simple network management protocol (SNMP) – manages all network elements based on data sent and received.
  • Routing information protocol (RIP) – routers use RIP to exchange routing information in an internetwork.
  • File transfer protocol (FTP) – standard protocol for transferring files between hosts over a TCP based network.
  • Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) – standard protocol for transferring mails between two servers.
  • Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) – standard protocol for transferring documents over the World Wide Web.
  • Telnet – a protocol for accessing remote computers.

Figure 5 shows the TCP/IP architecture

TCP/IP Architecture
TCP/IP Architecture

Layer 1: Network Access Layer

This layer is responsible for placing TCP/IP packet into the medium and receiving the packets off the medium. This layer control hardware and network devices used in the network. Network access layer combines the physical and data-link layer of the OSI model.

Layer 2: Internet Layer

It functions as the network layer in the OSI model. The layer performs routing, addressing and packet addressing in the network (Donahoo & Calvert, 2009).

Layer 3: Transport Layer

The layer has the same functions as the transport layer in the OSI model. The main function of this layer is to provide reliable data delivery which is error free. The layer receives service requests of the application layer and sends service requests to the internet layer.

Layer 4: Application Layer

This is the layer that has applications that perform functions to the user. It combines the application, presentation and session layers of the OSI model.

TCP/IP Commands Used To Troubleshoot Network Problems

There are many TCP/IP commands that can be used to show that there is a break in communication. The commands are: PING, TRACERT, ARP, IPCONFIG, NETSTAT, ROUTE, HOSTNAME, NBSTAT, and NETSH.

Hostname is used to display and show the host name of the computer

Arp is used for editing and viewing of ARP cache.

Ping is used to send ICMP echo to test the reachability of a network

Event viewer shows all the records of errors and events.

References

Donahoo, M. J., & Calvert, K. L. (2009). TCP/IP sockets in C: Practical guide for programmers. Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann.

Fall, K. R., & Stevens, W. R. (2012). TCP/IP illustrated. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley.

FitzGerald, J., & Dennis, A. (2009). Business Data Communications and Network Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Leiden, C., & Wilensky, M. (2009). TCP – IP. Hoboken: For Dummies

Liu, D. (2009). Next generation SSH2 Network Design and Implementation: Securing data in motion. Burlington, MA: Syngress Pub.

Odom, W. (2004). Computer networking first-step. Indianapolis, Ind: Cisco.

Ouellet, E., Padjen, R., Pfund, A., Fuller, R., & Blankenship, T. (2002). Building a Cisco Wireless LAN and Network Design.   Rockland, MA: Syngress Pub.

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Cloud Manufacturing Dissertation

An Investigation into the Concept, Design, Development, Applications and Future of Cloud Based Manufacturing and Design

Dissertation Title – Cloud Manufacturing. It is widely known that manufacturing challenges today are certainly more complex than what they were in prior times. We find ourselves as cogs of a fast moving world, connected to each other. Additionally, a booming and constantly moving global economy, drastic growth in consumer-driven technology, and constantly changing and somewhat unpredictable purchasing behaviors of consumers, jointly present their opportunity and risk. Therefore, in light of the reasons presented, the need for manufacturers to invest in next-gen industrial automation solutions is now, more than ever before, and the time is right to embrace the cloud.

In the introductory section of the dissertation, a brief background of the topic is given, to highlight some elements of the topic. Furthermore, the aims and objectives are mentioned, which have assisted in guiding the entire research project, from start till finish. Also, problem statement as well as the significance/scope of the research is mentioned, illustrating the significance of cloud manufacturing in today’s global economy. Finally, a brief overview of the report is listed, to provide a breakdown of the chapters. The evolution of manufacturing engineering systems has taken place with the aim of meeting various objectives.

Cloud Manufacturing Dissertation
Cloud Manufacturing Dissertation

These range from cost reduction, the need for reducing lead times, seamlessly integrating new processes, sub-systems, technology and / or upgrades; interoperability; reducing waste due to production activities, instantaneous reconfiguration capabilities and the ability to promptly adapt to events of an expected and unexpected nature.

Some of the most problematic areas of familiarizing with the concept and working of cloud manufacturing involve developing application level technologies that meet all the user requirements, and are adaptable with the existed distributed network for manufacturing. Another key challenge faced by organizations is the access to such machinery and equipment that allows them to utilize the unique system of manufacturing.

Cloud Manufacturing Dissertation  Aims and Objectives

  • To develop a holistic framework and appreciate the concept of cloud manufacturing by examination of all the relevant data, to structure a comprehensive understanding on the research topic.
  • To analyze the transformation of cloud computing to cloud based manufacturing and design, and its integration with the global manufacturing networks.
  • To investigate the concept of cloud manufacturing, and relate with the different stages of development, design procedures, deployment models, manufacturing paradigms and maintenance.
  • To assess and illustrate the numerous applications of cloud manufacturing, and the scope and global impact of on-demand-supply of data and services through the cloud network.
  • Finally, to demonstrate how future products, services and organizations will be influenced by cloud manufacturing, and to delve deeper in to the ongoing research that will shape the future of cloud based manufacturing.

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Problem Statement
Aims and Objectives
Background of Research Topic
Significance of Research
Overview

2 – Literature Review
Aims and Objectives
Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing Paradigm
Cloud Computing Hierarchy
Advantages of Cloud Computing
Trade capital expense for variable expense
Benefit from massive economies of scale
Stop guessing capacity
Increase speed and agility
Stop spending money on running and maintaining data centers
Go global in minutes
Product Lifecycle Management
Paradigms of Manufacturing Systems
Central production planning / manufacturing systems
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) / Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)
Discussion
Cloud-Based Design and Manufacture (CBDM)
Characterization of CBDM
Strategic Division
Users
Application providers
Physical resource providers (PRPs)
Deployment Models
On-Premises
Infrastructure as a Service
Platform as a Service
Software as a Service
Benefits of Cloud Manufacturing
For the Economy
For the Supply-Chain
For Security
For the Workforce
For Big Data
For Innovation
For Agility
Applications of CM
Data Transformation
Virtualization
Remote Collaboration
Cyber Security

3 – Research Methodology
Aims and Objectives
Research Philosophy
Positivist
Interpretive
Realism
Justification for Selection of Interpretive Philosophy
Research Approach
Deductive
Inductive
Abductive
Justification of selection of Inductive
Research Design
Exploratory
Descriptive
Explanatory
Justification for Selection of Exploratory
Research Methodology
Quantitative Research
Qualitative Research
Justification for Selection of Qualitative Analysis
Data Collection Methods
Primary Methods of Data Collection
Secondary Methods of Data Collection
Research Ethics
Limitations

4 – Findings and Analysis
Introduction
Aims and Objectives
Rationale for Manufacturing Solutions
Challenges and Trends
Trends
Challenges
Big Data Management
Cloud Agile Manufacturing – Concept
Cloud Agile Manufacturing – Pros and Cons
Industrial Automation
Integrate the cloud
Manufacturing Execution Systems of Cloud Connect
Current Progress in CM
Summary

5 – Conclusion

6 – Future Work
Cloud-Based Manufacturing
Cloud-Based Design
Information, Communication and Cyber Security

References

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Agile Software Dissertation

How to Best Integrate Agile Software Development Methods (XP and Scrum) By Introducing Usability Practices and Methods

Dissertation Topic: Agile Software. This dissertation aims to investigate how end user involvement can be made possible without disrupting the agile process using ground theory and practical approaches. It will attempt to integrate light-weight usability methods incorporated into the agile processes. It will also describe the key question as to how usability legit-weight methods could be integrated in agile process in order to create efficient and effective usable software in a short span of time.

This dissertation proposes an integrated process model that will ultimately integrate Light-Weight Usability methods In Agile Software Development Processes, light-weight methods (Use case technique, Personas, low-fidelity prototyping and Guerilla testing) in agile different iterations. This would assist the design and development team to produce enhanced product that are aimed at increasing customer satisfaction while simultaneously reducing the risk of incurring additional costs due to ‘redesigns’.

AGILE Software Dissertation
AGILE Software Dissertation

To provide a clearer perspective on the direction of the research questions, the entire research will focus on agile software development or to some extent, at least compatible with agile development methods using SCRUM as a referral point due to the fact that Scrum is both the most widely used agile methodology as well as the system that is applied by the subject company. The researcher has formulated the research questions in a manner that would not only benefit the company in the case study but as well as for other companies that are similar. The proposed research questions are as follows:

  • How to analyze the end user requirements in agile software development processes?
  • How product evaluation with end users might be made possible in agile short iterations?

The research questions are based on the fact that although many software development companies have adopted the agile methodologies over the last decade for a variety of reasons, improving usability is rarely among these reasons. When the ratio of usability increases in importance, software developers with limited knowledge of usability or interactive interface designs are irresolute over making the new priority attuned with their development process principally due to the fact that the agile literature provides little direction. This research hopes to provide answers towards managing this scenario effectively and efficiently.

Dissertation Aims and Objectives

  • To develop a greater understanding about agile software development processes, and to critically evaluate the existing literature to highlight its vital elements, focusing in particular on end-user requirements in context of usability.
  • To provide a mechanism for product evaluation by end users in agile processes, which comprise of short iterations?
  • To analyze the precedence, if any, of integrating usability with agile methods and provide a feasible framework to this hybrid approach.
  • To highlight the benefits of integrating usability techniques with agile methods; and to offer guide-lines that facilitate software development companies that are using agile development processes.
  • To incorporate the findings of this research, to the subject company “Easysport” and provide conclusive evidence as well recommendations, which benefits the organization in terms of efficiency and productivity.

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Communication Computing

How Computers Affect Communication

Communication – with the current rate of technological improvement, people now have many ways to relate with other. We eventually modify how we form our relationships and come up with more diverse methods of interacting. However, there are strength and weakness as well as drawbacks regarding on which methods we use.

Computers have made a big impact on relationships. The invention of electronic devices such as mobile phones has simplified the way people get into contact with each other (Sara, 2004). Also coming from social networks has made a diversification in communication. With a computer, people can chat with family and friend’s members over the internet. Computers are bringing the world together via communication.

This assignment will study the effects of computers on communication in day to day lives.

Focus questions:

How has the invention of the computer affected communication?

What are the positive and negative impacts of computers on communication?

What are services offered by the computer during communication?

Description

Effects of computers intervention on communication

The invention of the computer has had revolutionary effects on communication (Sara, Jane & Timothy, 2004). What would take years to achieve a century ago can now be accomplished within an hour thanks to the computer. However, this invention has not only had positive impacts on communication; it has also had many weaknesses of communication like face-to-face communication. Communication is not only associated with the act of sending and receiving information. There are many other aspects such as taking non-trivial actions on the information, reacting to the demands of the information and giving feedback.

Computers affect communication, both positively and negatively (Sara, Jane & Timothy, 2004). There are various aspects of modern day communication that would not be achieved in old days since there were no computers. However, there are other vital aspects of traditional communication that have been lost in modern days due to the use of computers in communication (Gordon, 2002). The relationship between computer and communication can be analyzed with a focus on the various effects computers pose on communication. Computers can either aid or frustrate communication between people. Positive impacts of computers in communication describe ways in which computers aid communication. The negative implications of computers on communication using computers describe ways in which computers frustrate communication efforts. These impacts can be analyzed by comparing past day communication with present day communication.

Positive effects of computers on communication

Technological improvement has a great impact on the societal communication methods particular with its improvement in the last centuries (Christina, 2006). From the coming up of telegraph together with telephones to the advancement of internet, technology provided us with a tool to express our feelings and opinions to a wider number of recipients.

Keeping in touch/ long distance communication

Telegrams are quicker than letters; telephone calls, also, are speedier than telegrams, and additionally less demanding and more charming, since they require no go-between and permit clients to hear one another’s voice. Phones make this one stride further, permitting individuals to call and talk with one another regardless of their location. Online communication of various types is the most productive yet, with email being a close quick form of the paper letter; webcams, combined with communication programs, for example, Skype, Google Video Chat, make it conceivable to see the individual you are talking with as opposed to hearing his voice simply.

Doing Business

The same computers that have simplified and enhanced individual communication have additionally had the same valuable consequences for business. Communication between partners is close prompt whether they are a few rooms or a few nations separated (Sundar, 2014). For example, video conferencing permits organizations to have specialists scattered all over the world while yet hold productive gatherings and talks; business systems administration is made simpler by online networking and online systems composed particularly for that reason, for example, LinkedIn. Maybe above all, organizations can extend beyond their nearby market and pick up a more extensive client base basically by keeping up dynamic online vicinity.

Overcoming Disabilities

The computer had both enhanced communications for crippled individuals and made it conceivable where it wasn’t (Gordon, 2002). Portable amplifiers support hence becoming aware of mostly hard of hearing individuals, making it less demanding to comprehend discourse, while cochlear inserts restore hearing to the deaf. Discourse producing gadgets give individuals with extreme discourse hindrances an approach to communicating: maybe the most acclaimed client of such a gadget is researcher Stephen Hawking. Further advances in innovation may bring about useful cerebrum computers interface frameworks, restoring the capacity to impart to individuals who have lost it completely, for example, sufferers of the secured disorder.

Reaching a Wider Audience

As individuals’ capacity to communicate enhances, the reach of their messages enlarges (Gordon, 2002). This can be particularly essential in politics campaigns and activism. For example, photographs and video recorded secretly through a phone can be rapidly and effortlessly shared online through sites, for example, YouTube, making it harder for onerous administrations to keep control; social media, for example, Facebook and Twitter can be utilized to sort out and arrange gatherings and challenges. The Egyptian revolution of 2011-2012 was impelled significantly by online networking.

An individual turns out to be more skilled to take a decision because of the computer because the choice is given by the computers on time to all the data required to be taken. Therefore, any people or establishments get achievement quick.

The individual working at the administrative level turns out to be less subject to low-level staff like representatives and bookkeepers (Christina, 2006). This enhances their working patterns and effectiveness, which advantage the association and eventually influences the general public.

In like manner life Likewise, an individual gets profited with computers innovation. Whenever airplane terminals, healing centers, banks, departmental stores have been electronic, individuals get snappy administration because of the computers framework.

Computing Communication
Computing Communication

Negative Effects of Computers on Communication

Computers have changed the working environment and society as a whole. Individuals and associations have gotten to be reliant on computers to connect them to colleagues, merchants, clients and data (Roundtable., 1999). Computers are utilized to track timetables, streamline data and give required information. In spite of the fact that computers have given laborers innumerable devices to business and simpler access to data close-by or abroad, there are negative impacts. These incorporate more than the clearly feared framework disappointments and digital violations.

Communication Breakdowns

Due to the commonness of computers in the work environment, email is presently a typical method of professional’s communication. This has brought on a plenty of miscommunication issues. Numerous employees lack appropriate writing skills and can accordingly battle with effectively conveyance of their messages. Yet, even the most-gifted author can in any case experience difficulty with passing of tone in electronic messages. Along these lines, without the utilization of articulation and non-verbal communication, messages implied as neutral or even complimentary can be translated as rude or critical. To add to this, numerous specialists are so reliant on email that they have not effectively manufactured a positive establishment relationship by means of exposure or telephone calls.

Anonymity

One of the principle issues with computers interceded communication originates from an absence of accountability with clients (Jungwan Hong, 2014). Individuals can speak to themselves as whatever they need on Internet discussions or informal communities, and this makes communication issues in both headings. A client may contort who he is by not giving precise insights about himself, and this absence of genuineness influences how that individual is seen. The shroud of obscurity permits a client to possibly encroach upon socially acknowledged practices like resistance or respectfulness.

Misinterpretation

The way that most communication is occurring on computers comes as content can really be a negative as far as our capacity to comprehend things clearly. Indeed, even with email (Roundtable., 1999), it is workable for data to be confused or the feeling of an announcement to be missed. Saying “you rock” to somebody in an email message, for example, could be utilized to truly hand-off appreciation. Then again, it could demonstrate a negative sentiment somebody being placed in an intense position. The setting pieces of information that a man gives their non-verbal communication and manner of speaking are lost in this situation. Clients get around some of this disarray by utilizing emoticons – console characters that serve as a shorthand for temperament and feeling – however a lot of nuance can be missed without perceiving how somebody responds with their non-verbal communication and voice.

Dependency

Society’s reliance on computers for communication is likewise a risk amusement, as outside powers can avert communication in an assortment of ways (Christina, 2006). Quakes, surges and sea tempests have brought on different log jams and stoppages of Internet availability for individuals everywhere throughout the world. Moreover, dependence on interpersonal organizations and email can have the unintended result of opening a man up to recognize burglary endeavors and email tricks. Indeed, even the outside power of political agitation can debilitate a client’s capacity to impart, as the 2011 exhibitions in Cairo and Libya brought about government shutdowns of the Internet, radically abridging every nation’s capacity to convey, both broadly and globally

Privacy

Communicating by means of computers can help individuals connect across large geographical crevices and access remote data, however doing as such may open up a man’s privacy more than he may need. With an in-individual meeting or telephone discussion, there is a relative affirmation that subtle elements of those sharing will stay private. On the other hand, with email, content informing or message sheets, there is a record of what individuals say (Christina, 2006). Data is not simply tossed out into the air like discourse, however it, put away as a lasting record. There is an inalienable risk when outsiders can get to these online “discussions.” Similarly, interpersonal organizations and other Internet-based specialized apparatuses are defenseless against protection break, as clients regularly participate in these exercises on open systems; leaving individual data, conceivably, out in the open.

Computers complicate conflict resolution mechanisms in communication: Multiple transfers of information, the increment of anonymity and fast flow of information makes conflict resolution in organizations extremely complex (Christina, 2006). With computers, it has been extremely hard to control access to information among various, unintended groups such as children, junior staff, political opponents, among others (Christina, 2006).

Computers have affected communication in various ways. There is some important difference between modern communication and the old communication. The old day communication was characterized by aspects such as slow movement of information, heavy expenses, ineffective transfer of information and limitations on the amount of transferable information (Sundar, 2014). On the other hand, for the modern communication, it is fast, less expensive, highly efficient, and clear. However, the modern communication without computer is not possible independently functioning very well.

Services Offered By Computer in Communication

The internet is a popular tool for gaining access to information, enlarging commercial works and communication with each other. Studies show that the dominant use of net in different houses is used for a person to person communication. Email on time message is sending, availability of chat rooms and support system sites have changed the way people pass information to others through the use of computers.

Computers allow users to talk to each other via a connected network and social sites (Sara, 2004). Computers also have the capability to connect different users to the internet through phones lines or cabled connections enabling users to share data and information e.g. one can use computers to send a message to other computers through a connected network globally. Data transfer and messaging as a useful services provided by computers in communication globally.

Discussion

Just around a century ago, a substantial number of developments occurred during the first industrial transformation. Within a short time period, numerous nations got to be industrialized. Presently we are in the first place of another technological insurgency (Gordon, 2002). The significant reason for the second technological insurgency is the creation of Computers. Computer is the most flexible machine people have ever made. It assumes an imperative part in our regular life. It covers gigantic region of utilization including instruction, commercial ventures, government, prescription, and exploratory examination, law and even music and expressions.

Over the next decade, national and international computers networks will be generated and connected together (Asthmatics, 2010). Some of these computer networks will be specialized acting as a links between national informational stores and data warehouses where some will give general computing capabilities.

Computers information store on every aspect of the work performed by the society will be generated with a high frequency and with wider coverage and be accessible to a different level to groups and individuals with different qualifications.

The computer networks will be more accessible at a cost low to the whole public and to all groups with small resource. For example, the cost of renting a computer terminal in London currently is around 72 dollars for a single installation per month without adding the cost per hour in which the terminal is used (Jungwan Hong, 2014). Such cost will tend to reduce to a point where a terminal is normal equipment in an office.

There will be an increase in essence at which communicate directly to one another globally. The use of video chats will enlarge while facilitating the effects of individual in many areas over a long period of time.

Conclusion

Computers have positive and negative effects on communication. Weighing the side of positive effects and negative effects, there is clear evidence that computers do more good to communication than harm (Asthmatics, 2010). Computers have a very important role in the facilitation of communication. People should utilize computers to expand the circle of friends and relations globally but also we should learn how to control and treasure our relations and use of computers in order not to let things that can be regretted occur.

References

Asthmatics, G. (2010). The revolution of communication and its effect on our life. Pavaresia. Academics International Scientific Journal, 100-108.

Christina, K. (2006). The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Informal Scholarly Scientific Communication: A Literature Review. Maryland: University of Maryland Press.

Gordon, B. (2002). Computers in Communication. UK: McGraw-Hill International Electronic Version.

Jungwan Hong, S. B. (2018). Usability Analysis of Touch Screen for Ground Operators. Journal of Computer and Communications, 1-20.

Roundtable., N. R. (1999). Impact of Advances in Computing and Communications Technologies on Chemical Science and Technology. Washington: National Academies Press.

Sara, K. J. (2004). Social Psychological aspects of Computer Mediated Communication. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon University.

Sundar, S. S. (2014). Communication theory. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 85.

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