Title: Network Design – When implementing a network in an organisation, there are some design issues that must be considered before implementation. The requirements of the network must be clearly defined and all the network components to be used have to be clearly defined. Some of the considerations are discussed below.
Network Design and Network Architecture
Network architecture is the infrastructure consisting of software, transmission equipment, and communication protocols define the structural and logical layout of a computer network. The mode of transmission of a network can be wired or wireless depending on the requirements in an organisation. There are various types of networks that can be applied in an organisation depending on the network size. Local area network (LAN) refers to network in a small geographical area, Metropolitan area network (MAN) refers to network in a city, and wide area network (WAN) refers to network that is spread geographically in a wide area. Among the three types of network, the company would implement LAN since it is only covering a small geographical area.
The transmission medium of a network can be wired or wireless. Wired medium involve use of coaxial cables or fiber-optic cables while wireless media involves wireless transmission of data. Depending on the bandwidth, throughput and goodput we are able to determine the best medium of transmission. Fiber optic cables have low signal loss since they avoid collision, and they are efficient in data transfer in high traffic networks. Coaxial cables are less expensive compared with fiber optic cables, but they have high signal loss caused by collisions. Wireless transmission is efficient in local area network where there are few computers.
Network Design Management Method
The management method of a network can be either peer to peer or client-server. Peer to peer is where there is communication between several computers without a central computer. Client-server is where each client is independent and a central server provides services to the clients. In a peer to peer network, many computers can share a single application installed in one computer. In a client-server, they are designed to support large number of clients where the clients do not share resources. The client-server model security is enhanced because security is handled by the server. It is also easy to upgrade a client server model to meet new requirements in an organisation.
Figure 1, a client server model
Network topology is divided into physical and logical topology. Physical topology refers to the way in which computers and other devices are connected. Logical topology describes the layout of data transmission in a network. Bus, ring, star and mesh topologies are the main types of topologies. Bus topology is a where all devices are connected with a single cable. The topology works for small networks, but it is slow and collisions are common. Ring topology is where the cable runs around where each node is connected to each other. There are fewer collisions compared with a bus topology. A token ring is used to avoid collision. In a star topology, all the devices are connected to a central hub. There is a central management making it is faster in upgrading, but failure of the central hub brings down the entire network. Mesh topology connects all the devices to each other for fault tolerance and redundancy to improve performance.
Network Design Security Requirements
Networks are frequently attacked by hackers and other malicious people. This makes security one of the key considerations when designing a network. To reduce the number of attacks on computer networks, the network should have firewalls, intrusion detection systems, VPN, and DMZ. These measures reduce the threat and detect malicious people in the network.
This refers to the ability of the network to grow. The network should be scalable enough to cater for growth in the network infrastructure.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
This is a design consideration where many computers in a private network access the network using one public IP address. This is a measure to enhance security in a network.
Figure 2, Network architecture
Figure 3, Showing how VPN is implemented
OSI Reference Model in Network Design
The OSI model has seven layers as highlighted in the diagram. The communication system is sub-dived into layers where each layer sends service requests to the layer below it and receives service requests from the layer above it (FitzGerald & Dennis, 2009).
Layer 1: Physical Layer
Physical layer refers to the hardware and all network devices used in the network. The layer defines the physical devices and the transmission medium. The layer receives service requests of the data-link layer and performs encoding and decoding of data in signals. Protocols in this layer include CSMA/CD, and Ethernet (Liu, 2009).
Layer 2: Data-Link Layer
Data-link layer receives service requests of the network layer and sends service requests to the physical layer. The main function of the data-link layer is to provide reliable delivery of data across networks. Other functions performed by the layer include framing, flow and error control, and error detection and correction. There are two sub layers of the data-link layer; media access control layer, and logical link control layer. Media access control performs frame parsing, data encapsulation and frame assembly. Logical link control is responsible for error checking, flow control and packet synchronisation. Protocols in this layer include; X 25, frame relay and ATM.
Layer 3: Network Layer
Network layer is responsible for managing all the network connections, network congestions, and packet routing between a source and destination. The layer receives service requests of the transport layer and sends service requests to the data-link layer. The main protocols in this layer are IP, ICMP, and IGMP.
Layer 4: Transport Layer
The main purpose of this layer is to provide reliable data delivery which is error free by performing error detection and correction. The layer ensures that there is no loss of data, and data is received as it was sent. The layer provides either connection-less or connection oriented service. There are two protocols in this layer: UDP and TCP.
Acknowledgements and windowing flow control
No reliable delivery
No acknowledgements and no windowing flow control
Layer 5: Session Layer
The main purpose of this layer is to establish and terminate sessions. The layer sets up and terminates connection between two or more processes. It also manages communication between hosts. If there is login or password validation, this layer is responsible for the validation process. Check-pointing mechanism is also provided by this layer. If an error occurs, re-transmission of data occurs from the last check-point. Protocols in this layer include; RIP, SOCKS, and SAP.
Layer 6: Presentation Layer
This layer is responsible for data manipulation, data compression and decompression, and manages how data is presented. The layer receives service requests of the application layer and sends service requests to the session layer. The layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the data in transmission. Data encryption and decryption (cryptography) is used to provide security in this layer. Protocols involved in this layer include; ASCII, EBCDIC, MIDI, MPEG, and JPEG.
Layer 7: Application Layer
This layer provides interaction with the end user and provides services such as file and email transfers. The layer sends service requests to the presentation layer. It has several protocols used in communication; FTP, HTTP, SMTP, DNS, TFTP, NFS, and TELNET.
Ethernet – provides transfer of information on Ethernet cable between physical locations
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) – used for data encapsulation in serial lines.
Point to point protocol (PPP) – this is an improvement of SLIP, performs data encapsulation of serial lines.
Internet Protocol (IP) – provides routing, fragmentation and assembly of packets.
Internet Control Management protocol (ICMP) – help manage errors while sending packets and data between computers.
Address resolution protocol (ARP) – provides a physical address given an IP address.
Transport control protocol (TCP) – provides connection oriented and reliable delivery of packets.
User datagram protocol (UDP) – provides connection-less oriented service and unreliable delivery of packets.
Domain name service (DNS) – provides a domain name related to a given IP address.
Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) – used in the management and control of IP addresses in a given network.
Internet group management protocol (IGMP) – support multi-casting.
Simple network management protocol (SNMP) – manages all network elements based on data sent and received.
Routing information protocol (RIP) – routers use RIP to exchange routing information in an internetwork.
File transfer protocol (FTP) – standard protocol for transferring files between hosts over a TCP based network.
Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) – standard protocol for transferring mails between two servers.
Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) – standard protocol for transferring documents over the World Wide Web.
Telnet – a protocol for accessing remote computers.
Figure 5 shows the TCP/IP architecture
Layer 1: Network Access Layer
This layer is responsible for placing TCP/IP packet into the medium and receiving the packets off the medium. This layer control hardware and network devices used in the network. Network access layer combines the physical and data-link layer of the OSI model.
Layer 2: Internet Layer
It functions as the network layer in the OSI model. The layer performs routing, addressing and packet addressing in the network (Donahoo & Calvert, 2009).
Layer 3: Transport Layer
The layer has the same functions as the transport layer in the OSI model. The main function of this layer is to provide reliable data delivery which is error free. The layer receives service requests of the application layer and sends service requests to the internet layer.
Layer 4: Application Layer
This is the layer that has applications that perform functions to the user. It combines the application, presentation and session layers of the OSI model.
TCP/IP Commands Used To Troubleshoot Network Problems
There are many TCP/IP commands that can be used to show that there is a break in communication. The commands are: PING, TRACERT, ARP, IPCONFIG, NETSTAT, ROUTE, HOSTNAME, NBSTAT, and NETSH.
Hostname is used to display and show the host name of the computer
Arp is used for editing and viewing of ARP cache.
Ping is used to send ICMP echo to test the reachability of a network
Event viewer shows all the records of errors and events.
Donahoo, M. J., & Calvert, K. L. (2009). TCP/IP sockets in C: Practical guide for programmers. Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann.
Fall, K. R., & Stevens, W. R. (2012). TCP/IP illustrated. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley.
FitzGerald, J., & Dennis, A. (2009). Business Data Communications and Network Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Leiden, C., & Wilensky, M. (2009). TCP – IP. Hoboken: For Dummies
Liu, D. (2009). Next generation SSH2 Network Design and Implementation: Securing data in motion. Burlington, MA: Syngress Pub.
Odom, W. (2004). Computer networking first-step. Indianapolis, Ind: Cisco.
Ouellet, E., Padjen, R., Pfund, A., Fuller, R., & Blankenship, T. (2002). Building a Cisco Wireless LAN and Network Design. Rockland, MA: Syngress Pub.
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An Investigation into the Concept, Design, Development, Applications and Future of Cloud Based Manufacturing and Design
Dissertation Title – Cloud Manufacturing. It is widely known that manufacturing challenges today are certainly more complex than what they were in prior times. We find ourselves as cogs of a fast moving world, connected to each other. Additionally, a booming and constantly moving global economy, drastic growth in consumer-driven technology, and constantly changing and somewhat unpredictable purchasing behaviors of consumers, jointly present their opportunity and risk. Therefore, in light of the reasons presented, the need for manufacturers to invest in next-gen industrial automation solutions is now, more than ever before, and the time is right to embrace the cloud.
In the introductory section of the dissertation, a brief background of the topic is given, to highlight some elements of the topic. Furthermore, the aims and objectives are mentioned, which have assisted in guiding the entire research project, from start till finish. Also, problem statement as well as the significance/scope of the research is mentioned, illustrating the significance of cloud manufacturing in today’s global economy. Finally, a brief overview of the report is listed, to provide a breakdown of the chapters. The evolution of manufacturing engineering systems has taken place with the aim of meeting various objectives.
These range from cost reduction, the need for reducing lead times, seamlessly integrating new processes, sub-systems, technology and / or upgrades; interoperability; reducing waste due to production activities, instantaneous reconfiguration capabilities and the ability to promptly adapt to events of an expected and unexpected nature.
Some of the most problematic areas of familiarizing with the concept and working of cloud manufacturing involve developing application level technologies that meet all the user requirements, and are adaptable with the existed distributed network for manufacturing. Another key challenge faced by organizations is the access to such machinery and equipment that allows them to utilize the unique system of manufacturing.
Cloud Manufacturing Dissertation Aims and Objectives
To develop a holistic framework and appreciate the concept of cloud manufacturing by examination of all the relevant data, to structure a comprehensive understanding on the research topic.
To analyze the transformation of cloud computing to cloud based manufacturing and design, and its integration with the global manufacturing networks.
To investigate the concept of cloud manufacturing, and relate with the different stages of development, design procedures, deployment models, manufacturing paradigms and maintenance.
To assess and illustrate the numerous applications of cloud manufacturing, and the scope and global impact of on-demand-supply of data and services through the cloud network.
Finally, to demonstrate how future products, services and organizations will be influenced by cloud manufacturing, and to delve deeper in to the ongoing research that will shape the future of cloud based manufacturing.
1 – Introduction
Aims and Objectives
Background of Research Topic
Significance of Research
2 – Literature Review
Aims and Objectives
Cloud Computing Paradigm
Cloud Computing Hierarchy
Advantages of Cloud Computing
Trade capital expense for variable expense
Benefit from massive economies of scale
Stop guessing capacity
Increase speed and agility
Stop spending money on running and maintaining data centers
Go global in minutes
Product Lifecycle Management
Paradigms of Manufacturing Systems
Central production planning / manufacturing systems
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) / Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)
Cloud-Based Design and Manufacture (CBDM)
Characterization of CBDM
Physical resource providers (PRPs)
Infrastructure as a Service
Platform as a Service
Software as a Service
Benefits of Cloud Manufacturing
For the Economy
For the Supply-Chain
For the Workforce
For Big Data
Applications of CM
3 – Research Methodology
Aims and Objectives
Justification for Selection of Interpretive Philosophy
Justification of selection of Inductive
Justification for Selection of Exploratory
Justification for Selection of Qualitative Analysis
Data Collection Methods
Primary Methods of Data Collection
Secondary Methods of Data Collection
4 – Findings and Analysis
Aims and Objectives
Rationale for Manufacturing Solutions
Challenges and Trends
Big Data Management
Cloud Agile Manufacturing – Concept
Cloud Agile Manufacturing – Pros and Cons
Integrate the cloud
Manufacturing Execution Systems of Cloud Connect
Current Progress in CM
5 – Conclusion
6 – Future Work
Information, Communication and Cyber Security
How to Best Integrate Agile Software Development Methods (XP and Scrum) By Introducing Usability Practices and Methods
Dissertation Topic: Agile Software. This dissertation aims to investigate how end user involvement can be made possible without disrupting the agile process using ground theory and practical approaches. It will attempt to integrate light-weight usability methods incorporated into the agile processes. It will also describe the key question as to how usability legit-weight methods could be integrated in agile process in order to create efficient and effective usable software in a short span of time.
This dissertation proposes an integrated process model that will ultimately integrate Light-Weight Usability methods In Agile Software Development Processes, light-weight methods (Use case technique, Personas, low-fidelity prototyping and Guerilla testing) in agile different iterations. This would assist the design and development team to produce enhanced product that are aimed at increasing customer satisfaction while simultaneously reducing the risk of incurring additional costs due to ‘redesigns’.
To provide a clearer perspective on the direction of the research questions, the entire research will focus on agile software development or to some extent, at least compatible with agile development methods using SCRUM as a referral point due to the fact that Scrum is both the most widely used agile methodology as well as the system that is applied by the subject company. The researcher has formulated the research questions in a manner that would not only benefit the company in the case study but as well as for other companies that are similar. The proposed research questions are as follows:
How to analyze the end user requirements in agile software development processes?
How product evaluation with end users might be made possible in agile short iterations?
The research questions are based on the fact that although many software development companies have adopted the agile methodologies over the last decade for a variety of reasons, improving usability is rarely among these reasons. When the ratio of usability increases in importance, software developers with limited knowledge of usability or interactive interface designs are irresolute over making the new priority attuned with their development process principally due to the fact that the agile literature provides little direction. This research hopes to provide answers towards managing this scenario effectively and efficiently.
Dissertation Aims and Objectives
To develop a greater understanding about agile software development processes, and to critically evaluate the existing literature to highlight its vital elements, focusing in particular on end-user requirements in context of usability.
To provide a mechanism for product evaluation by end users in agile processes, which comprise of short iterations?
To analyze the precedence, if any, of integrating usability with agile methods and provide a feasible framework to this hybrid approach.
To highlight the benefits of integrating usability techniques with agile methods; and to offer guide-lines that facilitate software development companies that are using agile development processes.
To incorporate the findings of this research, to the subject company “Easysport” and provide conclusive evidence as well recommendations, which benefits the organization in terms of efficiency and productivity.
Communication – with the current rate of technological improvement, people now have many ways to relate with other. We eventually modify how we form our relationships and come up with more diverse methods of interacting. However, there are strength and weakness as well as drawbacks regarding on which methods we use.
Computers have made a big impact on relationships. The invention of electronic devices such as mobile phones has simplified the way people get into contact with each other (Sara, 2004). Also coming from social networks has made a diversification in communication. With a computer, people can chat with family and friend’s members over the internet. Computers are bringing the world together via communication.
This assignment will study the effects of computers on communication in day to day lives.
How has the invention of the computer affected communication?
What are the positive and negative impacts of computers on communication?
What are services offered by the computer during communication?
Effects of computers intervention on communication
The invention of the computer has had revolutionary effects on communication (Sara, Jane & Timothy, 2004). What would take years to achieve a century ago can now be accomplished within an hour thanks to the computer. However, this invention has not only had positive impacts on communication; it has also had many weaknesses of communication like face-to-face communication. Communication is not only associated with the act of sending and receiving information. There are many other aspects such as taking non-trivial actions on the information, reacting to the demands of the information and giving feedback.
Computers affect communication, both positively and negatively (Sara, Jane & Timothy, 2004). There are various aspects of modern day communication that would not be achieved in old days since there were no computers. However, there are other vital aspects of traditional communication that have been lost in modern days due to the use of computers in communication (Gordon, 2002). The relationship between computer and communication can be analyzed with a focus on the various effects computers pose on communication. Computers can either aid or frustrate communication between people. Positive impacts of computers in communication describe ways in which computers aid communication. The negative implications of computers on communication using computers describe ways in which computers frustrate communication efforts. These impacts can be analyzed by comparing past day communication with present day communication.
Positive effects of computers on communication
Technological improvement has a great impact on the societal communication methods particular with its improvement in the last centuries (Christina, 2006). From the coming up of telegraph together with telephones to the advancement of internet, technology provided us with a tool to express our feelings and opinions to a wider number of recipients.
Keeping in touch/ long distance communication
Telegrams are quicker than letters; telephone calls, also, are speedier than telegrams, and additionally less demanding and more charming, since they require no go-between and permit clients to hear one another’s voice. Phones make this one stride further, permitting individuals to call and talk with one another regardless of their location. Online communication of various types is the most productive yet, with email being a close quick form of the paper letter; webcams, combined with communication programs, for example, Skype, Google Video Chat, make it conceivable to see the individual you are talking with as opposed to hearing his voice simply.
The same computers that have simplified and enhanced individual communication have additionally had the same valuable consequences for business. Communication between partners is close prompt whether they are a few rooms or a few nations separated (Sundar, 2014). For example, video conferencing permits organizations to have specialists scattered all over the world while yet hold productive gatherings and talks; business systems administration is made simpler by online networking and online systems composed particularly for that reason, for example, LinkedIn. Maybe above all, organizations can extend beyond their nearby market and pick up a more extensive client base basically by keeping up dynamic online vicinity.
The computer had both enhanced communications for crippled individuals and made it conceivable where it wasn’t (Gordon, 2002). Portable amplifiers support hence becoming aware of mostly hard of hearing individuals, making it less demanding to comprehend discourse, while cochlear inserts restore hearing to the deaf. Discourse producing gadgets give individuals with extreme discourse hindrances an approach to communicating: maybe the most acclaimed client of such a gadget is researcher Stephen Hawking. Further advances in innovation may bring about useful cerebrum computers interface frameworks, restoring the capacity to impart to individuals who have lost it completely, for example, sufferers of the secured disorder.
Reaching a Wider Audience
As individuals’ capacity to communicate enhances, the reach of their messages enlarges (Gordon, 2002). This can be particularly essential in politics campaigns and activism. For example, photographs and video recorded secretly through a phone can be rapidly and effortlessly shared online through sites, for example, YouTube, making it harder for onerous administrations to keep control; social media, for example, Facebook and Twitter can be utilized to sort out and arrange gatherings and challenges. The Egyptian revolution of 2011-2012 was impelled significantly by online networking.
An individual turns out to be more skilled to take a decision because of the computer because the choice is given by the computers on time to all the data required to be taken. Therefore, any people or establishments get achievement quick.
The individual working at the administrative level turns out to be less subject to low-level staff like representatives and bookkeepers (Christina, 2006). This enhances their working patterns and effectiveness, which advantage the association and eventually influences the general public.
In like manner life Likewise, an individual gets profited with computers innovation. Whenever airplane terminals, healing centers, banks, departmental stores have been electronic, individuals get snappy administration because of the computers framework.
Negative Effects of Computers on Communication
Computers have changed the working environment and society as a whole. Individuals and associations have gotten to be reliant on computers to connect them to colleagues, merchants, clients and data (Roundtable., 1999). Computers are utilized to track timetables, streamline data and give required information. In spite of the fact that computers have given laborers innumerable devices to business and simpler access to data close-by or abroad, there are negative impacts. These incorporate more than the clearly feared framework disappointments and digital violations.
Due to the commonness of computers in the work environment, email is presently a typical method of professional’s communication. This has brought on a plenty of miscommunication issues. Numerous employees lack appropriate writing skills and can accordingly battle with effectively conveyance of their messages. Yet, even the most-gifted author can in any case experience difficulty with passing of tone in electronic messages. Along these lines, without the utilization of articulation and non-verbal communication, messages implied as neutral or even complimentary can be translated as rude or critical. To add to this, numerous specialists are so reliant on email that they have not effectively manufactured a positive establishment relationship by means of exposure or telephone calls.
One of the principle issues with computers interceded communication originates from an absence of accountability with clients (Jungwan Hong, 2014). Individuals can speak to themselves as whatever they need on Internet discussions or informal communities, and this makes communication issues in both headings. A client may contort who he is by not giving precise insights about himself, and this absence of genuineness influences how that individual is seen. The shroud of obscurity permits a client to possibly encroach upon socially acknowledged practices like resistance or respectfulness.
The way that most communication is occurring on computers comes as content can really be a negative as far as our capacity to comprehend things clearly. Indeed, even with email (Roundtable., 1999), it is workable for data to be confused or the feeling of an announcement to be missed. Saying “you rock” to somebody in an email message, for example, could be utilized to truly hand-off appreciation. Then again, it could demonstrate a negative sentiment somebody being placed in an intense position. The setting pieces of information that a man gives their non-verbal communication and manner of speaking are lost in this situation. Clients get around some of this disarray by utilizing emoticons – console characters that serve as a shorthand for temperament and feeling – however a lot of nuance can be missed without perceiving how somebody responds with their non-verbal communication and voice.
Society’s reliance on computers for communication is likewise a risk amusement, as outside powers can avert communication in an assortment of ways (Christina, 2006). Quakes, surges and sea tempests have brought on different log jams and stoppages of Internet availability for individuals everywhere throughout the world. Moreover, dependence on interpersonal organizations and email can have the unintended result of opening a man up to recognize burglary endeavors and email tricks. Indeed, even the outside power of political agitation can debilitate a client’s capacity to impart, as the 2011 exhibitions in Cairo and Libya brought about government shutdowns of the Internet, radically abridging every nation’s capacity to convey, both broadly and globally
Communicating by means of computers can help individuals connect across large geographical crevices and access remote data, however doing as such may open up a man’s privacy more than he may need. With an in-individual meeting or telephone discussion, there is a relative affirmation that subtle elements of those sharing will stay private. On the other hand, with email, content informing or message sheets, there is a record of what individuals say (Christina, 2006). Data is not simply tossed out into the air like discourse, however it, put away as a lasting record. There is an inalienable risk when outsiders can get to these online “discussions.” Similarly, interpersonal organizations and other Internet-based specialized apparatuses are defenseless against protection break, as clients regularly participate in these exercises on open systems; leaving individual data, conceivably, out in the open.
Computers complicate conflict resolution mechanisms in communication: Multiple transfers of information, the increment of anonymity and fast flow of information makes conflict resolution in organizations extremely complex (Christina, 2006). With computers, it has been extremely hard to control access to information among various, unintended groups such as children, junior staff, political opponents, among others (Christina, 2006).
Computers have affected communication in various ways. There is some important difference between modern communication and the old communication. The old day communication was characterized by aspects such as slow movement of information, heavy expenses, ineffective transfer of information and limitations on the amount of transferable information (Sundar, 2014). On the other hand, for the modern communication, it is fast, less expensive, highly efficient, and clear. However, the modern communication without computer is not possible independently functioning very well.
Services Offered By Computer in Communication
The internet is a popular tool for gaining access to information, enlarging commercial works and communication with each other. Studies show that the dominant use of net in different houses is used for a person to person communication. Email on time message is sending, availability of chat rooms and support system sites have changed the way people pass information to others through the use of computers.
Computers allow users to talk to each other via a connected network and social sites (Sara, 2004). Computers also have the capability to connect different users to the internet through phones lines or cabled connections enabling users to share data and information e.g. one can use computers to send a message to other computers through a connected network globally. Data transfer and messaging as a useful services provided by computers in communication globally.
Just around a century ago, a substantial number of developments occurred during the first industrial transformation. Within a short time period, numerous nations got to be industrialized. Presently we are in the first place of another technological insurgency (Gordon, 2002). The significant reason for the second technological insurgency is the creation of Computers. Computer is the most flexible machine people have ever made. It assumes an imperative part in our regular life. It covers gigantic region of utilization including instruction, commercial ventures, government, prescription, and exploratory examination, law and even music and expressions.
Over the next decade, national and international computers networks will be generated and connected together (Asthmatics, 2010). Some of these computer networks will be specialized acting as a links between national informational stores and data warehouses where some will give general computing capabilities.
Computers information store on every aspect of the work performed by the society will be generated with a high frequency and with wider coverage and be accessible to a different level to groups and individuals with different qualifications.
The computer networks will be more accessible at a cost low to the whole public and to all groups with small resource. For example, the cost of renting a computer terminal in London currently is around 72 dollars for a single installation per month without adding the cost per hour in which the terminal is used (Jungwan Hong, 2014). Such cost will tend to reduce to a point where a terminal is normal equipment in an office.
There will be an increase in essence at which communicate directly to one another globally. The use of video chats will enlarge while facilitating the effects of individual in many areas over a long period of time.
Computers have positive and negative effects on communication. Weighing the side of positive effects and negative effects, there is clear evidence that computers do more good to communication than harm (Asthmatics, 2010). Computers have a very important role in the facilitation of communication. People should utilize computers to expand the circle of friends and relations globally but also we should learn how to control and treasure our relations and use of computers in order not to let things that can be regretted occur.
Asthmatics, G. (2010). The revolution of communication and its effect on our life. Pavaresia. Academics International Scientific Journal, 100-108.
Christina, K. (2006). The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Informal Scholarly Scientific Communication: A Literature Review. Maryland: University of Maryland Press.
Gordon, B. (2002). Computers in Communication. UK: McGraw-Hill International Electronic Version.
Jungwan Hong, S. B. (2018). Usability Analysis of Touch Screen for Ground Operators. Journal of Computer and Communications, 1-20.
Roundtable., N. R. (1999). Impact of Advances in Computing and Communications Technologies on Chemical Science and Technology. Washington: National Academies Press.
Sara, K. J. (2004). Social Psychological aspects of Computer Mediated Communication. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon University.
Sundar, S. S. (2014). Communication theory. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 85.
The exposure of cloud computing is being increased day by day. Each and every organization, whether it’s online or offline, is trying to induce the effective cloud computing due to countless number of reasons and benefits. The federal government of US is has also planned to incorporate the cloud computing services due to number of benefit such as the reduction of costs, relief to taxpayers, robustness, reliability etc. The first part of this paper talks about the term of cloud computing as it defines it through various perspectives. The second part of this paper talks about the architectures of cloud computing which have been developed and being utilized with the real world and further talks about these architectures briefly. The next part of this paper highlights the needs of federal government which urge for the development and deployment of cloud computing infrastructure. The upcoming part reflects the impacts of cloud computing on federal government along with the issues, risks and benefits after the implication. The next part talks about the models which have been developed for cloud computing and are being utilized by the federal government. The upcoming part of this paper talks about the issues and risks which are being faced by the government due to the implementation of cloud computing models. The upcoming parts talk about the accumulative advantages and disadvantages.
Cloud computing is becoming more widespread in the IT industry. In fact, the demand for cloud computing services over the past few years has seen an enormous surge of investment in infrastructure and gained a reputation as a model with broad use. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST), cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. From an economic standpoint, cloud computing implementation benefits the federal government in several ways by: connecting its constituents more rapidly and efficiently, streamlining services and requests, making service more reliable, and providing significant expenditure savings.
What is Cloud Computing?
Cloud computing can be referred as an internet metaphor, the interconnected computers over internet in a diagram represents a cloud which further represents a network. In cloud computing the files are stored over the servers as they host these files and form a cloud by making those file available to countless servers and computers which are accessible over internet in web browser instead of desktop. (Miller, 2008, Ch. 1) The cloud computing makes the access to specific data effortless as the cloud formed by the hosted servers enables the user to access the file anywhere on any computer with the facility of internet as it just requires a web browser for this purpose.The cloud computing also enabled the users to work in collaboration in form of groups such as the group’s members can easily access the documents and programs without the barriers of location. The current technological situation has enabled every user to get involved in cloud computing for both the commercial and domestic purposes. There are countless programs which being utilized by individuals over internet without consent that they are using cloud computing, these applications consists Apple Mobile Me and Google calendar which are solely based over web. Apart from this, there are many online platforms which are offering the hosting and sharing facilities such website contribute to cloud computing. Picasa Web Album and Flicker are also an example of cloud computing where snaps are shared over the cloud and can be accessed anywhere in the world. One of the main reason for the implementation of cloud computing is that it offers faster, cost effective and flexible amalgam of technologies and involves various tools for its achievement. Cloud computing can be referred as a transformed model of computing where the operations and computation are carried out over the data somewhere on cloud. (Gillam, 2010 p. 3) The cloud can be referred as a center for data collection by third party. Cloud computing is referred to systems software, hardware which further include the applications which perform their services on internet. The cloud with the paid facilities for public is called public cloud.
Architecture of Cloud Computing
The architecture of cloud computing consist of specific design which is further based on software application, these application utilize on demand services and internet access (Gillam, 2010, p. 24) The architecture of cloud is an infrastructure which utilized its resources when they are asked to perform specific jobs, when the job is completed, these resources are relinquished after disposal. This architecture has enabled the cloud services to be utilized anywhere in the world using one cloud access point. The cloud services consist of platform, infrastructure and applications. The services which are provided by cloud work under real time environment over internet.
Software as Service (SaaS)
Software as a service or SaaS platform works concurrently; these services use the single instances to support both the application and the object code along with the interaction with the database. This service deals with the number of concurrent client connections in real time environment by using the shared resources. SaaS uses Application Service Provider models. The service providers using models are NetSuit, SalesForce.com, Microsoft and IBM etc.
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
This service is meant for developers as it enables the developers to work on a platform for the provision cloud services by development, deployment, testing, and implementation of web based applications services. Through this, it has become very easy for developers to craft the applications for business purposes to be utilized over internet. The very reason behind the invention of PaaS system was to solve the problem of creation and maintenance of infrastructure so reduce the time consumptions. There are many key examples of PaaS which include Microsoft’s Azure, Google AppEngine and Heroku etc. PaaS provides the swift development of services and tools as compared to the traditional methods in quick manner.
Hardware as a Service (HaaS)
This service model has been developed for enterprise solutions as it allows the consumers to acquire the hardware license in direct manner. It allows the pay as you subscriptions services to cope with the needs of data centers. The entrepreneurs mostly lean towards this model as it alleviates the need of management and building of data centers.
Infrastructure as services is also referred as IaaS, the computer infrastructure with this approach is utilized as service. It not only provides the flexibility but also provides the intelligent usage based scheme of payment such as the consumers only pay when they grow. This also gives the satisfaction to consumers that they are utilizing up to date technology. The consumers can easily acquire the swift delivery time with this type of services. There are various companies which are based on infrastructure as service include Flexiscale, GoGrid, AppNexeus, Layered Technologies, Mosso, Joyent and Rackspace etc. The cloud modes further consists of further 3 parts which are private cloud, Public Cloud and Hybrid Cloud.
Virtualization is referred as a technology which couples the abstraction of operating system and hardware. The physical resources are abstracted with logical resources to reduce cost reduction, enhancement of flexibility, agility which in return enhances business values. In cloud computing, there are different types virtualizations such as storage, network, server virtualizations. The server virtualization can be referred as multiple logical partition or representation of single physical resources. The virtualized environment enables to shrunk, expand, move or create the computing environment dynamically accordingly to the underlying demands. This is the very reason due which the virtualization is incorporated into the infrastructure of dynamic cloud as it offers significant advantages regarding isolation, sharing and manageability. There exist numerous solutions which are introduced in market for the management of various solutions such as VMWare, VirtualBox, XEN, KVM and MVMM etc.
Need of Cloud Computing and Federal Government
The US Federal Government has intended to save billions by incorporating the new technology of cloud computing to information systems. The new system development was initiated by the US federal government in order to save billions under the expanses of government operation along with the impact reduction over data centers operating under government. The very reason behind this initiative is to get rid of business regarding data centers. Currently the US federal government is running approximately 1100 data centers. (Stair, Reynolds, 2011, p. 512) For this purpose, the government is intending to outsource the data centers to the cloud operators under SaaS infrastructure which would also be responsible for the consolidation of remaining confidential and sensitive data storing operations with the new cloud computing technology of virtualization. Through this process, the accomplishment will require very less number of servers. The government would be able to reduce greenhouse gases emission along with the reducing in spending by reducing the data centers to 90%.
The very first step for the implementation of clouding computing taken by the federal government was the introduction of an application store for the federal agencies. This application store www.apps.gov provided the links of essential business applications such as social media, productivity applications. These services are currently being provided by the PaaS, SaaS and IaaS vendors. These data centers are incorporated with the securities and service policies vetted by the government. These cloud services can enable the federal agencies to adopt and discover the services of cloud computing from this website for the development of their own system projects. A website www.infor.apps.gov has been introduced by General Services Administration (GSA) which has depicted the helping material which is responsible for the understanding development amongst agencies regarding the pros and cons related to cloud computing along with the discovery of useful applications. It is presumed that with the implication of cloud computing, the agencies would be able to save and reap the benefits of clouding computing by shifting their data from government data centers to cloud services. The data center project of government is being referred as the largest consolidation project by federal government. It depicts the trend of transformation of data from private and small data centers to big data centers such as Amazon, Google, Microsoft and many other vendors which are providing cloud computing services abiding by the government compliance and regulations.
Impact of Cloud Computer on Federal Government
According to analysts, the current economic situation and has badly impacted the financial situation of government and to minimize this stress, it is being urged to adopt the cloud computing first at government sector. It is fact that the new technology of cloud computing provides the financial rebates along with the lower energy consumption and higher utilization for the provision of availability of applications. Due to the availability of countless benefits of cloud computing, many organizations are eagerly willing to adopt this technology with intention to face the challenges related with it. Due to the tight budgets of governments, it has become mandatory to adopt the new technology of cloud computing as it is very cost effective methods of inducing new technologies into government. It is presumed that the shifting of government information systems to cloud computing would significantly aid the government for server management and also emphasize the critical technology in government agencies. The cloud computing technology enables the organizations to focus over the core business technologies. The impact of cloud computing, under the context of budget, is really eye opening on US federal government information systems.
The analyst firm from public sector has estimated that the investment by the federal government in IT sector would significantly increase at the annual rate of 3.5% which would further reach to $90 billion in 2014. Besides this, it is estimated that the growth with the implementation and deployment of cloud computing will boost the growth and it would be estimated 30% annually under the same time frame. The analyst firm further revealed that the investment by federal government over cloud computing services will be triple in upcoming five years. (Sobh, 2010, p. 8) This calculation has given an estimation that the federal government would need to invest approximately 1 billion for services offered by cloud computing. The market analyst has depicted that the cloud computing portrays the basic reconsideration of investment in IT sector. Furthermore, 40% compound annual growth rate has been depicted by market analysis for federal sector spending for cloud computing.
Current Cloud Computing Models in Federal Government
Computing clouds are based on deployment models and services (Sosinsky, 2011, p. 5). The deployment models refer to the management and location of infrastructure of cloud while the services models enable the provision of various services over the platform of cloud computing.
The major customer of computer resources is United States government and hence included in the significant users of cloud computing environments. The national institute of standards and technology (NIST) has defined the definition of working which further distinguish the deployment and services models of cloud computing. The model developed by the NIST did not ask for pool of virtual resources neither it falls under the definition of multi-tenancy. According to the latest definition of cloud computing by NIST, it is stated that the cloud computing networks support both the multi-tenancy and virtualization at the same time. The cloud computing is being renovated to architectures which are based on services and it is expected that the NIST may include those features in future in its model as well.
The Cloud Cube Model
The cloud cube model is maintained by an open group which is named as Jericho forum, the main focus of this group the security concerns of cloud computing networks. The interesting model invented by this groups categorizes the network into four dimensions which are physical location of the data, ownership, security boundary and sourcing.
A deployment model mainly defines the core purpose for the creation of a cloud along with its nature and location. There are four deployment models which are further defined by NIST which are public cloud, private cloud, hybrid cloud and community cloud. The infrastructure of public cloud is openly available to public usage and is run by the cloud service selling organizations. The private cloud infrastructure refers to the cloud being utilized for specific organization of government agency. The private clouds are operated, managed and maintained by third party or organization itself. The hybrid cloud consists of all public, private and community clouds as a single unit with boundaries between them. A community cloud is referred as a cloud where it serves or performs the common purpose or function.
The deployment models refer to the deployment of infra structure, since the cloud services provided by the different vendors have some addition of subtraction of additional services. For this type of services, service models are defined. The service models are defined as something as a service such as infrastructure as service (IaaS), platform as service (PaaS) and software as service (SaaS) which already defined above in this paper.
Issues Regarding Implementation and Deployment of Cloud Computing to Federal Government
Cloud computing paves both the negative and positive impacts such as the security of information can be increased or decreased in federal agency systems. The vigorous security benefits incorporate the latest technology named virtualization for faster development of security patches such as the scalability of economics which includes the cost reduction from threats. (Wilshusen, 2010, p.2) The risk is based over the assurance provided by the vendor and dependency upon the security measures as well. Furthermore it is also concerned with the computer resources sharing. The intensity of the risk may also be found varying as it also depends upon the deployment model. The implementation of private clouds into the federal government also bears the risks of low intensity. However, to address the security issues, a thorough examination is mandatory regarding the security controls before the implementation of cloud computing at place. Federal government is giving its hectic efforts to address the security issues related information systems for cloud computing. The very reason which preventing these efforts is lack of guidance due which all efforts have become vague and incomplete. Many federal government agencies have incorporated specific security measures according to their needs but there is not generic guidance has been developed. For instance, there are nearly nine federal government agencies which have undergone the agreement of cloud computing with vendors having the approved procedures and policies. Many federal agencies have also pointed out the issues and challenges which are being faced by already defined security guidance along with the implementation process. It also includes the concerns regarding the compliance of cloud computing service vendors with the information system security policies and requirements and the distribution of obligations between vendor and customers.
However, there are many organizations which have initiated the security measures regarding cloud computing which are General Services Administration (GSA), Office of Management and Budget (OMB). OMB has started the strategies for cloud computing which were under process, during this process GSA has started its own strategies for the procurement of cloud computing and undergone countless challenges. On the other hand, NIST has also induced its efforts for information security concerns for cloud computing but still it has not promulgated the security guidance for cloud computing security. It is comprehended that if the agencies remain unable to develop the authentic and effective security guidance, it might become impossible to implement significant security controls for cloud computing applications.
Advantages of Cloud Computing
There are countless advantages which are associated with cloud computing consist of up time, scalability, cost, convenience along with environment can be referred as few major beneficial constraints (Kozloff, 2010, p. 7).
The federal government can easily limit the expanses by adopting the cloud computing environment in a convenient way as it offers the mature infra structure where the federal government would not be worried about the delivery of electricity or power. The services are provided on demand, which makes the acquisition of information or data convenience as it reduces and balances the load significantly. So, the data shifted to cloud computing can be acquired from any communicating device.
One of the major advantage which is associated with cloud computing is the cost effectiveness. It is misunderstood by many consumers that the cloud computing services are only available to federal agencies due to heavy costs and expense. But, in fact, the cloud computing services are much affordable and come with the structured price plan. It is also a fact that cloud computing cannot be considered as the cheapest solution but it still saves the consumer from overrun costs. Hence federal government has introduced the cloud computing to prevent the overrun costs annually.
The federal government, with the implementation of cloud computing, can easily alleviate the need of data centers. These services are offered by the data centers having specialization in software, personal management along with the hardware setup. These data centers further accommodate frequent update and upgrade of both the operating software and underlying hardware. Cloud computing is referred as mirror such as the consumer can reach it from anywhere in the world without having any problem regarding location while the data is placed on another location. This phenomenon gives the federal government regarding the reliability of sensitive information and data as it would be able to keep the location of cloud secret while it would be accessible by federal departments.
One of the major advantage which is favored by the federal government for the deployment of cloud computing is its scalability. It means that according to the governmental changing demands, the cloud computing environment can be extended or shrunken according to changing needs.
The virtualization technology under cloud computing has made its application of flexible due to limiting the utilization of resources during work. The virtualization has enhanced the performance of cloud computing by just making several images of single physical server to allow it work simultaneously. This type of environment has saved the federal government from the waste of many both internal and external useful resources.
There are several potential risks and issues are associated with the cloud computing which consists of security, privacy, network and internet dependency, service quality etc.
One of the major concern which is being analyzed seriously is the security issue with cloud computing. Apart from federal government departments, there many organizations which percept that they can control the flow of data by keeping the data centers under lock and key on premises this would ensure them the low levels of data leakage outside of that organization. But it cannot happen like this as high levels of expertise, skills and equipment are required to ensure the security measures which are very expansive. This is the very reason which hurdles the implementation of cloud computing. One of the main reasons is that the security guidance regard cloud computing in federal government is vague and incomplete due which it makes it inefficient for the deployment. However, many agencies and organization have sorted out and created their own security guidance and policies but they are not generalized hence cannot be utilized with other departments. However, the datacenters are equipped with the hardware and software layers with the proper protection to prevent the data theft along with the network attacks.
The federal government agencies would never tolerate the issue with privacy and they would not even tolerate the server management at different locations. For such cases, the regulation of data storage compliance is ensured as Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) and Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX). For this purpose, federal government needs the regulations for the retention of data along with the varying needs. However, the implementation of private cloud can easily alleviate this issue along with the proper compliance of regulations.
Internet and Network dependency
The internet is considered the crucial part for cloud computing services as without internet connectivity, it would be impossible to communicate with the data centers at other locations. However, VPN can solve the problem of connectivity to data centers with the security and reliability.
To conclude, the cloud computing is no doubt a lucrative approach for the implementation and deployment of cost effective datacenter for federal government. Cloud computing have opened the chances for federal government to reduce the expenditures which are incurred for the creations, development, implementation and maintenance of own data centers. The cloud computing provides the virtual environment which ensures the robustness, reliability and assurance of data delivery under the specific constraints. The initial deployment of cloud computing has significantly paved its impacts on the performance and transportation of data. The cloud computing is based on architectures which are based on platform, hardware and software. However, federal government has provided the tools to all agencies to incorporate them and produce the cloud computing applications according to their needs. Agencies are free to use the architecture of their own choice or they may also develop one according to their standards or needs. Virtualization is another technology which falls under the cloud computing. The federal government strictly intending to deploy the virtualization technology, one of the major issues which are preventing the deployment of cloud computing is the guidance regarding security measures. NIST and other departments are failed to provide the appropriate security guidance for the progress is pending and efforts are incomplete. But, no doubt, the implementation of cloud computing in federal government would save the taxpayers and billions of annual expenditure of government.
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