Human Resource Planning Management

Human Resource Planning

Human Resource Planning and Management. The firm’s position in the particular industry that it operates determines whether the profitability of the firm can be defined to be above or below the average profitability in the entire industry. Making the profit level of any particular company be above the industry average is a long-term goal of any particular company regardless of the industry in which it operates. To gain long-term above-average profitability level, two types of competitive advantages can help the company rise to such levels.

The first one is either cost management or differentiation. When any firm can keep the cost as low as possible, it will be in a position to charge less and have a broad market base, a factor which is important in improving the long-term profitability levels. The course that is taken by any particular company depends on the leadership focus on either of the two kinds of competitive advantage. The two kinds of competitive advantages lead to four generic strategies that are aimed at ensuring the profitability of the organization rises above average in the long-term. Such includes the broad cost leadership, focused cost leadership, broad differentiation, and focused differentiation. The four Porter’s generic business strategies regarding the business focus affect the human resource planning management of any particular organization in some factors, including in the selection process, screening, training, and compensation among many other factors affecting human resource planning in any specific organization.

Leadership of any organization can decide to focus on any of the two factors of competitiveness depending on the environment in which they are operating as well as their goals. As noted by Pfeffer (2007), any of the generic competitive generic styles that are adopted in any particular organization have and influence on the staffing models adopted by the organization. A choice of one particular style will best fit one staff modeling, which may not be suitable for a different strategy. For example, a choice of one style can result in what Pfeffer (2007) describes as “…disengagement and diminished productivity is the pervasive and growing conflict between work and family…” (117). The style adopted, therefore, influences all the stages of the human resource planning from the selection to retention. The reason is that each style of leadership requires a different pool of employees regarding their qualifications, motivations as well as focus as described by Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller (2015).

Humphrey, Morgeson, and Mannor (2009) describe an organization to comprise of physical, financial and human capital. The three compositions are affected by the leadership choices and focus that are made by any particular organization. Mainly, the generic competitive strategy adopted by different organizations depend and what can be described as “workforce quality” as well as the “workforce quantity” (Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2015). The staffing strategy of an organization focuses on HR planning, recruitment, and selection, employment as well as retention of the employees. An organization that mainly focuses on the reduction of the cost will first of all look at the staffing strategy that will cost the organization the least amount of resources. Therefore, apart from just focusing on the operational cost of the organization, broad cost leadership strategy will include in cost of hiring and retention in the costs of the organization. Given that the staff pool of the organization has a major impact on the total cost of the organization, a broad cost leadership will pay attention to the total cost that goes to its human resource department.

Staffing strategies and staffing models of an organization have impacts on market share, environmental sustainability, deployment, customers’ satisfaction among many other determinants of profitability. Specifically, in the development of the organization’s staffing strategy and models, the leadership pays attention to the effects of these factors on the two kinds of competitiveness which are cost as well as differentiation (Terpstra and Rozell, 1997). For example, broad differentiation business strategy won’t pay much attention to compensation of the employees. This strategy will mainly focus on the quality that the employees bring to the organization without paying much attention to their pay demands. However, the broad cost leadership strategy will focus more on the pay demands of the employees and therefore go for the cheapest means through which they can achieve their objectives. The similarity between the two strategies is that the focus on a wide area as opposed to the focus strategy.

The focused cost leadership and the focused differentiation leadership have some unique characteristics that affect the human resource planning strategies that are adopted by an organization. Rather than focusing on the entire industry, this two generic business strategies pays attention to specific segments of the industry and then pay attention to either cost or differentiation in these particular segments. The main idea as noted by Humphrey, Morgeson, and Mannor (2009) is therefore that these two styles of leadership focus on a narrow competitive scope as compared to the “broad-based” leadership styles. Whether the leadership style in the particular segment focuses on cost or differentiation affects the staffing strategies and models just the same way the broad-based leadership affects this factors, but in a narrow scope for this case.

The cost focus strategy seeks to gains cost advantage in a particular segment of the industry. Therefore, in its staffing strategy, the management and the human resource department will look at the cheapest means to compose its employee’s pool. The screening and the selection process will mainly focus on employees that can help the organization reach its cost limits. Also, the training process of the employees will mainly focus on methods of reducing the cost of operations in the organization. Under this strategy, the organization will be willing to retain a small number of employees that will help in the reduction of the total cost that is incurred by the organization.

Human Resource Planning
Human Resource Planning

On the other hand, differentiation focus will seek to achieve differentiation in a particular segment of the industry. The differentiation focus, therefore, tries to make the products of the company look different from those of the competitors and therefore gain market advantage. Differentiation is an important factor in profitability, and therefore any particular organization must pay attention to it. According to Cole et al. (2004), the level at which the organization achieves product differentiation depends on the pool of employees that they have. Therefore, just as it is with the cost focus, the differentiation focus will also influence the staffing strategies and staffing models that are adopted by an organization. The organization will pay much attention to the “quality” of the employees that will help it in achieving the differentiation target rather cost. Since product differentiation can help an organization keep the prices higher but maintain the customers base, the organization using this strategy will therefore not pay much attention to the cost of establishing this strategy.

Human Resource Planning Strategy

The strategy that any business chooses to adopt has far-reaching effects the entire planning process of the organization. More specifically, the cost focus or differentiation focus of any organization will determine the steps and the processes that will be adopted in the human resource planning process. Human resources planning is defined by Clardy (2008) as the process of adjusting the flow of workers in any organization, both in and out of the firm. The goals of the organization will specifically affect the process of human resource planning as well as the aspects that the planning process pays attention to. The role of the human resources planning for this case will ensure that the organization has a workers pool that will help it achieve the kind of competitive advantage that it has chosen to focus on. The planning process will pay attention to the skills that it requires the employees to have, both today and in the future to achieve the competitive advantage that it requires.

The role of human resource planning is ensuring that the organization has the right number of employees as well as employees that have the right skills to drive the agenda of the organization. As defined by Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller (2015), human resource planning aims at ensuring that the right number of employees are at the right place, at the right time and capable of effectively and efficiently delivering the needs of the organization. It ensures that the organization achieves its objectives through having the right composition of employees. Therefore, human resources planning is essential for any particular organization. The process is greatly affected by the strategy that the organization decides to pursue. This includes all the processes of human resource planning ranging from the screening and selection to the retention stage. Whether an organization chooses to focus on cost or differentiation will affect the whole process of human resource planning, staffing planning, and diversity planning.

When an organization decides to pursue the low-cost strategy, the human resource planning will mainly focus or ensure the organization has the right pool of employees that will help the organization keep its costs as low as possible. Under the low-cost strategy, the firm is trying to take advantage of the prices and therefore have to focus on reducing the prices since this will help them in keeping the prices as low as possible. The main objective of this case is to earn a larger market share through specializing in reducing the prices of the goods and services that the organization offers. This is only possible is the human resource planning will be effective in ensuring that the organization a pool of workers that first understands the goal of the organization and secondly have the right skills to pursue this goal. For the cases of the organizations that focus on differentiation, the human resource planning process must understand that the employees in the organization are a key part of achieving the competitive advantage and differentiation that requires. Therefore, the human resources planning for the case of a firm that chooses to specialize in differentiation will focus on accessing the organization with the right pool of employees that will make the products and the services of the organization look different as compared to other competitors in the market.

Succession Planning

Succession management is important as the workers in the organization need to have certain competencies and skills that will help an organization in achieving its objectives. The human resource planning focuses on the succession management by ensuring that the organization gets the right pull of workers depending on whether the organization focuses on lowing the cost or making its products and services look different when compared to the services that are offered by their competitors. The human resources management for this particular case focuses on training and job security as well as employees’ loyalty, depending on their focus (Clardy, 2008).

The staff planning process of any particular organization is also affected by the strategy that is adopted by the organization. What the organization decides to pay attention to will affect all stages of the planning process. Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller (2015) define staff planning as the process of ensuring that the organization has the right skills at its disposal. Just as human resources planning, staff planning seeks to ensure that the organization has the right number of employees and at the right time and employees possess the required skills to fulfill the objectives of the organization. The staff planning takes into consideration both the internal and external factors and therefore is important in ensuring that the organization achieves its objectives. The recruitment and selection process in staffing and human resources planning deals with discovering the manpower requirement of the organization depending on what the organization wants to achieve. For this case, the selection and recruitment stage in the human resources and staffing process will pay much focus on cost for the low-cost strategy and differentiation abilities focus on the differentiation focus. The staffing planning will focus on attracting a large pool of workers so that it can have the liberty to select the best from the pool.

As explained by MacKenzie, Klaas, and McClendon (2012), the organizations that focus on low cost will focus less on the selection and recruitment process. The organization will try as much as possible to keep the recruitment budget as low as possible. The recruitment processes will mainly use the mouth to mouth and online application to try and reduce the cost of recruitment and selection. However, when the organization decides to focus on differentiation as its tool of differentiation, the recruitment and the selection process will pay attention to different factors. The process will focus on employees that have a large pool of skills and competencies, a factor that is essential in ensuring that the products and services of the organization are slightly different from those of the competitors.

Diversity planning is also important in an organization. The diversity planning focuses on ensuring that the organization has the right mix employees. The process is vital in ensuring that the organization achieves its current and future objectives. Diversity planning will pay attention to the composition of the workforces on numerous factors including the skills mix, sustainability as well as flexibility of the workforce. The diversity palling process is directly affected by the focus of the organization. Whether the firm decides to either focus on cost or differentiation will affect the mix of the employees that the organization would like to have (Highhouse, 1997). For example, for an organization that chooses to focus on differentiation, it would wish to have a more diversified workforce as compared to an organization that pays attention to cost. The low-cost strategy will focus on a mix that that lowers the cost while the differentiation strategy will focus on developing a diverse workforce that will ensure that the organization achieves either perceived or real differentiation.

Under Porter’s generic business strategies, the firm chooses either to focus on cost or focus on differentiation. Also, the firm chooses whether to focus on the entire market or a specific section of the market. The focus of the organization has major influences on the human resource planning management and staffing policies that are adopted by the organization. More specifically, whether an organization decides to focus on a particular segment of the market or the entire market affects that assessment processes as well as the reliability and validity of the assessment process.

Broad differentiation leadership target a large market area and aims at gaining market advantage through differentiation across the entire industry. The strategy concentrates on one or more criteria in the market, and the strategy is always related to creating a premium price in the market. The differentiation strategy is about creating a premium price and then convincing the customers on why they should prefer such products as compared to the products of the other producers, through their prices may be low. This focus will affect the selections process as well as the reliability and validity of the selection assessment processes (Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2015). The selection assessment process for this case will focus on creating differentiation in a large area, and therefore the selection process will mainly focus on skills and competencies that will enable the organization achieves this objective. The differentiation criteria that can be used include superior products, branding, wide distribution channels as well as constant promotion, specifically focusing on a larger area for the case of broad differentiation leadership.

HRM Dissertation Topics
HRM Dissertation Topics

Under the differentiation focus, the organization divides the market into segments and decides to focus on one segment of the market. Therefore, for this case, the organization would both pick a small area in the market or a single product and then decide to focus on that area or product. The choice of the company will influence the selection assessment methods that will be applied by the firm. The organization will focus on the segment since they have seen an opportunity in the provision of goods and services in such an area and believes focusing on differentiation on the region will help the organization achieve competitive advantage. The difference between the broad differentiation and focus differentiation leadership is the target market, with the broad differentiation focusing on a large market while the focus differentiation pays attention to a segment of the market. Such specialization will have an impact on the employees’ assessments methods in the selection process (Clardy, 2008). The methods are mainly affected by what the methods decide to concentrate on. The concentration of the particular selection assessment methods will dictate how valid or reliable the methods used are.

As noted by Highhouse (1997), the organization is in fierce wars of getting the most talented workers from the labor market. They invest large sums of money with the aim of getting the best employees from the available pool of employees in the labor market. The strategies used include job advertisements and recruiting strategies. This is due to managers understanding that the pool of employees is essential to achieving the objectives of the organization. On this note, depending on the strategy of the organization, the organization will select a selection assessment that they feel is best for identifying employees that best fit what they are looking for. Numerous selection methods can be used by an organization depending on whether the organization has decided to focus on a larger market or specialize in a single segment of the industry. For organizations that mainly focus on differentiation, formal assessment methods are used. This is because the firms are keen on getting the right pool of employees that will push the agenda of the firm forward.

The specialization that the firm chooses to focus on regarding differentiation affects the job analysis in the selection process. There are procedures as noted by MacKenzie, Klaas, and McClendon (2012) that are used in the development of the selection criteria. The procedures are affected by the size of the market that the organization decides to focus on. The competencies and skill that each strategy looks for are different, a factor that affects the selection assessment procedures. One of the most used assessment methods is the Cognitive Ability Tests. The methods mainly focus on measuring the mental ability of the prospective employees.

Other criteria measured under the test includes the reasoning ability, reading comprehension as well as mathematical abilities. The cognitive selection assessment criteria have been used as a predictor of the job performance of the employees. For the case of this test, the broad differentiation leadership will focus on employees with higher mental abilities that can help the organization achieve competitiveness through differentiation in a larger segment of the market. On the other hand, as observed by Heneman, Judge, and Kammeyer-Mueller (2015), the focus differentiation leadership style will focus on abilities that will help the organization focus on a particular segment of the market. Whether the organization focuses on the larger area or a segment of the market will also affect the applicability of this selection assessment method. The broad differentiation strategy mainly relies on this selection criteria since it focuses on the ability of the employees to deliver the competitive criteria of the organization. The reasoning, mathematical and verbal abilities of the employee are essential for this strategy.

Other selection test Personality Tests, Biographical Data test, Integrity Tests, Structured Interviews, and Job Knowledge Tests. The job knowledge test is another selection test that is influenced by the strategy that is used by any particular firm. This selection assessment method measures the knowledge area that is required for a person to perform a certain job effectively. For this case, the broad differentiation technique will be paying attention to employees that can deliver differentiated products focusing on a large area.

For the case of focus selection assessment methods, it will pay much focus on the ability of the employees to focus on a given section of the market. The reliability and validity of this selection criteria are also affected by the strategy that the organization seeks to pursue. This criterion is mainly used by firms that seek to focus on a given region (Kulik, Roberson, and Perry, 2007). The firms under this test look for the best employees that know the particular segment. Therefore, this method is more valid and reliable under the focus differentiation leadership as opposed to broad differentiation leadership. When used under the broad differentiation leadership, the test focuses on employees who know a bigger segment of the market, which the firms seek to sell the differentiated products and services. Therefore, as shown by the analysis of the cognitive selection assessment and the job knowledge test, the focus of the organization regarding differentiation significantly influences the selection assessment methods as well as the reliability and validity of the methods.

References

Clardy, A. (2008). The strategic role of human resource development in managing core competencies. Human Resource Planning Development International, 11(2), 183-197.

Cole, M., Field, H., Giles, W., & Harris, S. (2004). Job type and recruiters’ inferences of applicant personality drawn from resume biodata: Their relationships with hiring recommendations. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(4), 363-367.

Heneman III, H., Judge, T., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. (2015). Staffing Organizations (8th Edition). Middleton, WI: Mendota House/McGraw-Hill.

Highhouse, S. (1997). Understanding and improving job-finalist choice: The relevance of behavioral decision research. Human Resource Planning Management Review, 7(4), 449-470.

Humphrey, S., Morgeson, F., & Mannor, M. (2009). Developing a theory of the strategic core of teams: A role composition model of team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology,   94(1), 48-61.

Kulik, C., Roberson, L., & Perry, E. (2007). The multiple-category problem: Category activation and inhibition in the hiring process. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 529-548.

MacKenzie, Jr., W., Klaas, B., & McClendon, J. (2012). Information use in counter-offer decisions: An examination of factors that influence management counter-offer decisions. Journal of Labor Research, 33, 370-387.

Pfeffer, J. (2007). Human Resource Planning from an organizational behavior perspective: Some paradoxes explained. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(4), 115-134.

Terpstra, D., & Rozell, E. (1997). Why some potentially effective staffing practices are seldom used. Public Personnel Management, 26(4), 483-495.

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Best HRM Dissertation Topics For University Students

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HRM Dissertation Titles

Did you find any useful knowledge relating to Human Resource Planning in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.

Best University Dissertation Examples

Dissertation Examples

We believe that reading and examining others work is the best way to complete your own work perfectly, so before starting dissertation writing, students must remember and take care of analyzing others work first. This is where dissertation examples come into their element. Writing a dissertation is not difficult if you have searched for existing dissertations that will help you in writing your own dissertation. This would cover what structure and format you should follow up until the point of submission. Below are some guidelines to ensure that you will get the best dissertation examples and ideas:

University Libraries

If you are looking for dissertation examples then look at what your university library has to offer. This is the best possible place where you can find credible work from previous graduates and your university has elected to keep the dissertation examples on file for future use for other university students. Browsing a university library is the most authentic method when choosing a title or topic for your own dissertation.

Internet

The most accessible source where you can find dissertation examples is the internet. You will instantly gain access to a plethora dissertations across a wide variety of subjects. Be mindful that the dissertations you are viewing have no doubt already been submitted to universities and the contents have been used by many students in the same way you wish to use the contents. Don’t be tempted to cut and paste any online content from any dissertation examples you encounter as you will fail your degree unless you reference appropriately in accordance with your university guidelines.

Evaluating Relevant Material

Here you will be utilising existing material you have already written during your university studies. Take a step back and look at the work you have produced in the first and second year of your degree, it is safe to say you will find material that you can add to your dissertation. In some cases students formulate a dissertation topic on previous research carried out. This is something I did during my undergraduate degree, I wrote a dissertation on entrepreneurial behaviour as previous modules in this subject area stirred my imagination and interest in this field of study.

University Dissertation Examples
University Dissertation Examples

You need to pick a project topic that is feasible, which means ‘do-able’ in the short time that you have. What is ‘feasible’? Many student project proposals are initially over- ambitious. They are often very wide-ranging in their focus and could present significant problems for students in collecting primary data. The best projects are those where:

  • The topic is of particular interest to you
  • You can easily collect information – the information is readily available, or you can collect and analyse it easily, and within a short time period
  • The aim of the project is focused on a particular aspect of a chosen topic

Business Dissertation Examples

The likely reason for you to examine business dissertation examples is to get a clear understanding on how to structure your own dissertation. Writing your own dissertation is usually carried out in accordance with accepted guidelines set out by at your university. This is designated to help the reader or examiner to understand exactly what message is to be conveyed in the dissertation. The best way to learn on how to best structure your business dissertation is to assess previously submitted business dissertation examples. Be sure to analyze any dissertation examples carefully and make sure your reference any material accordingly. Below is a list of business dissertation examples for you to look into, this also includes a vast collection of MBA dissertation examples.

Business Dissertation Examples | MBA Dissertation Titles

Marketing Dissertation Examples

There will be a period of time during your marketing degree when you need to start planning in advance to your final year. I do suggest to students to start investigating and formulating a dissertation topic and dissertation title during the second year of a degree. You do not want to leave this task until the last year or final semester of the last year as you will be at a disadvantage. Students should start looking at marketing dissertation examples as soon as possible especially if there is a break in the studies. Always do the ground work well in advance, I knew the dissertation topic I wanted to write part way through my second year. Soon after, I carefully analyzed dissertation examples in this field of study.

Students should obtain a good set of undergraduate and postgraduate marketing dissertation examples. As mentioned above, these can be obtained from university libraries, the internet and research material you have already written. Below are links that will take you to a large quantity of marketing dissertation examples. I’m sure you will find marketing dissertation topics that are relevant to your field of study.

Marketing Dissertation Examples | Marketing Dissertation Titles

Construction Dissertation Examples

There are a number of techniques where you can access existing construction dissertation examples and use them as a foundation for your own work, thus trying to understand the specifics of the thesis or dissertation you have to produce. As previously mentioned, do try to see if the university library has dissertation topics and titles for you to analyse, if not, search the internet for research material and construction related forums and blogs. We do offer construction dissertation examples and we often visit related blogs such as The Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB), Constructionomics and BDCnetwork all of which will help you with your own research dissertation as the material on offer is first class, current and expansive. The link provided below will illustrate the vast amount of construction dissertation examples we have to offer.

Construction Dissertation Examples

HRM Dissertation Examples

This post sets out to help students select the most appropriate topic for their HRM dissertation and to provide practical advice on how a HRM dissertation should be structured in order to achieve the best possible grade. You may have already looked at the HRM dissertation titles we have on offer and we appreciate that there is a wide variety of topics in this subject area, so it may be prudent to seek out and analyse HRM dissertation examples available at your university library or internet.

Below are links to access an extensive list of quality HRM Dissertation examples. Students may use them to meet the requirements of their own HRM dissertation, or view the titles in order to gain some inspiration. Either way, ensure you reference all material accordingly as you do not want fall foul of plagiarism.

HRM Dissertation Examples

Finance Dissertation Examples

Finance and accounting is often perceived as a difficult subject area especially when it comes to writing a dissertation. When you choose your finance dissertation topic try to keep in mind that the topic chosen should current and up to date. Don’t write a finance dissertation on stock performance from the last decade or on failed banks as that is too predictable. Have a look at what is happening now in the world of finance, or try to write a finance dissertation that predicts the outcome of a seismic event such as Brexit or potential collapse of the Euro currency. That is why looking at current finance dissertation examples is a must as you will be kept abreast of any new theories in this field of research.

When writing your finance dissertation you have to make decisions regarding the content, area of study and formulate the topic. Below are finance dissertation examples that will help you in your studies. We urge you to take a look and reference any material accordingly.

Finance Dissertation Examples

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Where Can I Find Finance Dissertations

Best HRM Dissertation Topics For University Students

Best University Dissertations
Best University Dissertations

Dissertation topics chosen will be wide ranging and students are encouraged to work in areas of particular personal interest, providing they are relevant to the objectives of the pathway. There is no doubt that student will be required to complete the Research Methods module to provide the underpinning skills and knowledge required to undertake a dissertation.

Dissertation Writing Outcomes

To enable students to undertake a substantial piece of empirical research within a topic area of their own choosing relevant to the objectives of the pathway

  • To allow students to demonstrate their ability to undertake a piece of work requiring an element of original inquiry
  • To enable students to identify a specific research question, review the literature in that area, select and justify using a particular research methodology to collect, analyse and interpret secondary and primary data, the balance of which will vary depending on the individual project
  • To allow students to display their initiative and develop their time management skills
  • To develop students ability for critical thought and evaluation

Once you have completed your own dissertation you will be able to:

  • Produce clearly stated analytical framework for the study including aims and objectives
  • Systematically develop an empirical investigation, using a research methodology to gather data for analysis and critical interpretation
  • Present firm conclusions and recommendations (as appropriate) demonstrating that the objectives set have been achieved
  • Write a formal research report to professional standards
  • Provide evidence on the use of initiative, time management and self expression

Start writing your dissertation early. Write a section at a time as you complete them; don’t try writing the report all at once. Give yourself plenty of time for revision, correcting and for formatting the document – this can be very time-consuming. Discuss and agree with your supervisor arrangements for sending and returning completed text to each other. Don’t forget to reference dissertation examples accordingly.

If you enjoyed reading this post on how to obtain and use existing dissertations I would be very grateful if you could help spread this knowledge by emailing this post to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.

Best HRM Dissertation Topics For University Students

HRM Dissertation Topics

Your HRM dissertation is an extended piece of work on a topic of your own choosing. Working on a dissertation often involves searching for more specialized subject information beyond your University library catalog. You may like to look at the HRM Dissertation Topics we have on offer.

Your HRM dissertation aims to integrate your human resource management skills and knowledge with the published research in the area under study so that the project meets the high academic quality and high relevance to the HRM communities for which it has been written. While this blog post is designed to provide all the information that you need to write your own HRM Dissertation Proposal and formulate a handful of HRM Dissertation Topics.

We would advise you to visit our HRM Dissertation Topics pages, where you can find additional information as well as guidance. Our website offers support for the HRM dissertation you will undertake. Students and HR Professional will be offered the opportunity to explore the HRM Dissertation Topics we have on offer.

Please note that your dissertation supervisor might not have the same research interest as you but he/she is the ultimate source for providing students with guidance on how to succeed in writing your own HRM Dissertation. The role of the supervisor is to oversee your academic and professional development and to assist you.

The aim of the team at study-aids is to help students develop their research skills, knowledge and understanding of the human resource management. This will give new insights into HRM research, which will enable you to commission, undertake and evaluate HRM research in your chosen area of management throughout your future career. We recognize that for many of you formulating HRM Dissertation Topics can be a daunting task. For this reason, we expect you to ask questions and clarify your understanding as and when necessary. Remember that effective and successful HRM Dissertation involves asking as many questions as possible from yourselves and from the people around you.

What Is A Dissertation?

Before you begin to think about possible HRM Dissertation Topics for investigation, make sure you are clear in your own mind about what a dissertation is. You will be familiar with the principles of HRM, but it is worth reviewing briefly what a HRM Dissertation is really designed to do, and looking at how a HRM dissertation may mirror but also differ from a standard dissertation in a different subject area.

Different subject disciplines may emphasize different features, but, broadly speaking, a dissertation is a continuous piece of writing, arranged in clearly demarcated paragraphs, in which an argument (a clear line of thought) is developed, in response to a central question or proposition (thesis). The line of argument is supported by evidence you have acquired through research, which you are required to analyse, and which supports or contradicts the various perspectives explored in the course of that argument. Your HRM Dissertation then reaches a conclusion in the final section which pulls together the threads of your argument, supporting, qualifying or rejecting the original dissertation.

HRM Dissertation Topics
HRM Dissertation Topics

It is worth bearing in mind that your HRM dissertation is not a piece of writing designed to reproduce information available elsewhere, but something new and expressive of your individual abilities to analyse and synthesise. In addition, the process of academic writing will, of itself, help you to learn, by enabling you to work with concepts and information relevant to your subject, and thereby developing your intellectual skills.

Your HRM Dissertation should follow the fundamental principles of academic writing, but bear in mind the following key points. It is an extended piece of writing, usually divided into chapters. Make sure that you know the lower and upper word limits acceptable for your HRM dissertation, and what that will look like in terms of word processed pages. Be sure to find out whether you should be following a particular sequence of chapter headings for example, introduction followed by literature search followed by an experiment or a survey and, or an analysis of your research and whether you are expected to devise your own sequence and structure.

Your HRM dissertation contains a detailed exploration of evidence. The evidence referred to may comprise evidence from published texts, for example if you are exploring the literary texts of a particular writer, or it may consist of primary data gathered by your own, first hand research, for example a sociological study of attitudes to gender roles based on research methods such as interviews and questionnaires.

You are required to be clear about the nature of the methodology you will use for gathering the evidence why are you collecting data or analyzing evidence in that way rather than in another way it must be underpinned throughout by awareness of theory your argument should be placed within the context of existing theory relevant to the human resource management subject. It has to be presented in a professionally finished manner. Your supervisor should give you precise details about the format, layout and stylistic requirements of your assignment. Make sure that you know exactly what these are.

The importance of having a dissertation and evaluating it critically remember that you are constructing an argument from the beginning to the end of your assignment. Think of this central idea, and the logical development of your argument (train of thought) around this, as being the central path of your HRM dissertation, and make sure that you do not have sections or paragraphs which are somewhere in the shrubbery out of sight of the main path. Every paragraph should further the central argument, by providing another angle on it, additional evidence, and evaluation of that evidence in relation to your HRM Dissertation.

HRM Dissertation Topics

Comparative Management Practices (Especially With Regard To China)

Co-Operative (And “Partnership”) Aspects of Employment Relations

Cross-Cultural Communication (And Mis-Communication) In Business

Enterprise Restructuring In Emerging and Formerly Socialist Economies

Equal Opportunities and Managing Diversity

Ethical Aspects of Organisational Activities

Gender Aspects of Work and Management

Government Vocational Education and Training Policy

HRM and Organisational Performance

HRM and Shareholder Value In Management

HRM in Buyouts

HRM in the SME Sector

Industrial/Employment Relations

Inter-Organisational Relationships (Mergers, Alliances, Acquisitions Etc)

Knowledge Management

Leadership

Managing Culture

Organisational Change

Performance Related Pay

Recruitment and Selection

Team Working

Technology Change in Organisations

Trade Unions

HRM Dissertation Samples

There is so much to explore within the field of human resource management. The following is a list of HRM dissertation topics that have been written by successful HRM graduates and are used by HRM professionals.

Strategic Role of Human Resource Management Policies and Practices in Organizational Change

The Relationship between Employee Benefits and Employee Satisfaction at Google

The Importance of Training Staff in the Modern Workplace Era

Managing Workforce Diversity

Can Flexible Working Act as Employee Recruitment and Retention Tool?

Formulating Your Own HRM Dissertation

A HRM dissertation is a good example of a scientific work which needs more than merely writing and research skills. It must be kept in mind that such writings as HRM dissertation have specific rules to follow and the special instructions to keep to.

  1. One must understand that a HRM dissertation requires that students could demonstrate specific skills. Thus, students are supposed to do the following, according to the HRM dissertation requirements.
  2. Students must demonstrate the ability to choose the methods for their research on their own, HRM dissertation rules say.
  3. A typical HRM dissertation would presuppose that a student can perform an appropriate inquiry without assistance.
  4. A HRM dissertation demands that students should take a critical approach to the issues which are being researched in their HRM dissertations, so that the students could conduct an independent research.
  5. Among the demands to those who are writing their HRM dissertation, there is the one concerning the so-called subject-specific skills. Narrowing the research of the dissertation, this demand concerns the bibliographical material. Such dissertations are supposed to be grounded on a profound aspect of specific literature, and the chosen area of HRM dissertation must embrace all possible literature, including the most modern one.
  6. There is also a demand to HRM dissertations which says that a good dissertation must make a good use of the research data to construct a well-built argument.
  7. The way in which the data in the HRM dissertation is going to be presented matters much as well. The data in your HRM dissertation must be arranged well represent a logical structure and suggest a problem which will further on be developed into an enticing argument. Such are the basic demands to a good HRM dissertation

Choosing HRM Dissertation Topics

This is often the hardest part of the dissertation. This is because you must choose the topic, your supervisor cannot do it for you (though she or he can help you refine ideas that you do have). There are no hard and fast rules about the topic for your dissertation, but the following guidelines may help. Think about the areas of HRM that you are most interested in or a topic that you yourself are particularly interested in to which a sociological angle can be discerned. Also consider which theories and concepts have interested you the most. Along these lines, consider the courses you’ve taken so far. Which lectures or courses most captured your imagination? You can go back and look at your notes and textbooks to jog your memory.

Do not try to be too ambitious about what you can achieve given your time and resource constraints. The best dissertations are analyses of modest scope done well rather than broad ones done poorly. Think about the kind of research that you will actually do, and make sure that it is something that you yourself can feasibly do in the time available. A general word of advice is to choose quality HRM dissertation topics that are interesting to you. You will spend a great deal of time working on a relatively narrow issue, so choose one you will enjoy! Members of staff may be able to help you refine your thoughts, but the ideas and the motivation has to come from you.

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Employee Benefits

Relationship between Employee Benefits and Employee Satisfaction at Google

This dissertation contains the findings of a research project that investigated the relationship between employee benefits and employee satisfaction at Google. The performance of an organization highly depends on how motivated the employees are as this directly impacts on the efforts of the employees. Satisfied and motivated employees would put in the right efforts that will help an organization achieve the set objectives and goals. Therefore, this dissertation explores the types of employee benefits at Google, employee satisfaction and the impact of employee satisfaction on the operations of Google. This study has centred on exploratory research process rather than analytical research as the topic under research is itself exploratory. The findings presented are based on exhaustive questionnaires and interviews with 70 respondents being employees and remaining 30 respondents being managers respectively.
Employee Benefits-Dissertation
Employee Benefits-Dissertation
The interviews were recorded, decoded and analysed using descriptive statistics mainly the SPSS. On the other hand, the questionnaires were issued to the employees and after being filled, they were analysed using the descriptive statistics. The findings in both cases were presented graphically for better and easier understanding. In terms of the sex and age of workers, the study showed that most workers are male with a higher percentage of 55 as compared to the female percentage of 45 although most of these workers are young with an age bracket of 31-40 years. However, 78.3% of employees believe that the various benefits offered by Google have helped motivate them in their duties. Nevertheless, most employees prefer the retirement plan benefits (38.3%) and workers  compensation plan (31.7%).

The aim of this dissertation is to conduct an investigation on the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google Inc. The business environment is quickly changing with increased emphasis being put on corporate growth and productivity. As such, job loyalty and satisfaction by employees have received outstanding attention from organizations. To achieve this, employee benefits motivate workers to be retained pending the investigation of the inquiry.

Research Objectives

  • To identify the various form of employee benefits offered by Google
  • To critically analyse the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google
  • To investigate the relationship between employee satisfaction and improved organizational performance at Google

1 – Introduction
Background of the Study
Problem Statement
Research Aim
Research Objectives
Research Hypothesis
Dissertation Structure

2 – Literature Review
Conceptual Framework
Forms of Employee Benefits
Workers Compensation
Unemployment Insurance
Social Security Taxes
Family and Medicare Leave
Health Insurance
Retirement Plans
Life Insurance
Dental Insurance
Employee Training
On-the-Job Training
Off-the-Job Training
Mini-Summary
Role of Employee Benefits
Employee Benefits and Satisfaction
Employee Satisfaction and Organizational Performance
Commitment
Motivation
Job Involvement

3 – Methodology
Research Process
Research Paradigm
Positivist Ontology
Positivist Epistemology
Research Approach
Research Strategy
Research Type
Methods of Data Collection
Primary Method of Data Collection
Secondary Method of Data Collection
Sample Size and Sampling Technique
Data Analysis Plan
Ethical Issues in Research

4 – Results
Part A: Descriptive Statistics
Part B: Inferential Statistics

5 – Discussion
To identify the various forms Employee benefits at Google
To critically analyse the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google
To investigate the relationship between employee satisfaction and improved organizational performance at Google

6 – Conclusion

7 – Critical Evaluation

8 – Self-Evaluation

References

Appendix
Questionnaire

View This Dissertation Here

Reward System HRM Dissertation

Reward System

Before discussing the elements of a reward systems, their aims, other issues related to design strategic reward system, reward strategies, implementation of chosen strategy along the evaluation; it seems worthwhile to explain the reward system which would make the discussion coherent. Armstrong (2004:4) explains the reward system in very lucid words as he regards employee reward system, an organizations’ integrated policies, processes and practices through which organization reward their employees on the basis of their skill, competence, their market worth and their overall contribution to the organization.

A reward system could include financial rewards (fixed and variable pay) and employee benefits, which together comprise total remuneration. The system also incorporates non- financial rewards (Recognition, praise, achievement, responsibility and personal growth) and in many cases, performance management processes. The non-financial compensation, financial rewards and employee benefits form the total reward system (Armstrong, 2004).

Aims and Purpose of a Reward System

Armstrong & Murlis (2007) put forward number of aims of reward management/system which are very helpful to understand what businesses want to drive through these reward systems which are as follows:

  • To create total reward processes that are based on beliefs about what the organization values and wants to achieve;
  • To reward the employees for the value they have created for the organization;
  • To bring into line the reward practices with the employee values and business goals and objectives;
  • To develop the positive psychological contract and employment relationships with the employees;
  • To reward right behaviours in order to deliver the positive message to the employees that what organization expects from them in terms of outcomes and behaviours;
  • To win the war of the talent by attracting and retaining the talented, skilled and competent pool of employees that organization need to make the difference;
  • To gain the commitment and engagement of the employees by motivating them through reward practices;
  • To cultivate and sustain the performance culture within the organization.

Structural Design Issues of Reward system

There are number of options for the organization to design its reward system because there are number of ways through which rewards are given and distributed among the employees in the organization. The reward’s content dimension or structural dimension denotes the practices (e.g. the performance appraisal forms, and the salary structure), formal procedures and mechanisms (Lawler, 1993). In relation to the structural dimension, there are many issues which organization will have to address, some of them are briefly discussed below:

  • Market Position- the organizational preference and its market position would influence not only the organizational environment but also the reward strategy. If business wants itself ahead of its competitors, it would rather go for setting the higher pay levels than the competitors. If organization sees its employees less important for the organizational effectiveness, it would be likely to have different reward system (Marchington & Wilkinson, 2005).In conclusion, market position of organization could influence its overall structural design of reward strategy.
  • Structure- the structural choice of organization also influence the organization overall reward system as what type of structure, an organization wants to pursue whether it would like to have the flexible and broad banded structure or comparatively formal (narrow-banded) and hierarchical (Armstrong, 2004).
  • Reward Priorities-The organizational reward priorities have influence on the reward system. Organization decides whether it has to limit the reward to the small number of key players only or it wants to share the reward many in the organization in order to support the steady improvement of many (Armstrong, 2004).
  • Reward Mix- The form of rewards actually shows that what type of culture or environment an organization wants to cultivate and maintain. Whether it wants to give the mix of rewards (base pay, benefits, non-financial reward) or it allows employees to choose their own package (such as Cafeteria-Style Approach) influence the overall reward system (Marchington & Wilkinson, 2005).

Strategic Reward

According to Armstrong & Murlis (2007:30)‘’Strategic reward management is the process of looking ahead at what an organization needs to do about its reward policies and practices in the middle or relatively distant future’ ’It enables the organization to drive its reward management to deal with the wider business issues for obtaining its long-term business goals (Armstrong & Murlis, 2007).

Reward Strategies

Reward strategy drives an organization to achieve business goals by developing and implementing the reward practices, processes and policies in order to address critical reward issues in the long-term (Armstrong & Brown, 2006:31). The three reward strategies are discussed below along with their strengths and weaknesses:

  • Financial Rewards: -A various ways by which a company can gives money to its employees is known as financial rewards. According to Armstrong (2007), financial rewards can be the one of the component that could motivate people in the workplace to work hard and to be able achieve higher standard as these rewards will be only given if the workers are competent in their jobs. These rewards come in ‘Pay packages’ such as salaries, fringe benefits, time-rate pay, commission, performance-related pay and pensions. However, the drawback of the rewards is that the company might not be able to pay the market rate and can be at the risk of losing a worker if the others organizations are offering higher standard of pay mix.
  • Non-Financial Rewards: -Some businesses find non-financial rewards methods are more approachable when it comes to motivate staff and it involves indirect payments. An achievement, autonomy, recognition, scope to use and develop skills, training, career development opportunities and high quality leadership which concerned with expectations and self-efficacy all are a part of non-financial rewards (Armstrong, 2007). These rewards can boot employee’s confidence and can satisfy employees. The possible downside of the reward could be that the employees can have better opportunities in the competitors company, who are willing to offer financial rewards along with non-financial rewards.
  • Total Reward Strategy:-According to Manus & Graham (2003) as cited in Armstrong (2006:629)‘’ total reward includes all types of rewards- indirect as well as direct, and intrinsic as well as extrinsic’ ’This strategy is proved to be very successful for many companies who implemented this strategy to motivate their employees as mentioned by Armstrong (2006). This is the holistic strategy in which every aspect of reward practices are employed so employees could gain satisfaction through their work Armstrong (2006). Maintaining the balance in financial and non-financial reward while pursuing according to the organization’s circumstances could be very difficult for the organization which could be regarded as the weakness for using this approach.

Implementation of Chosen Strategy

The chosen strategy of total reward could be implemented as it has number of benefits and it incorporates both the financial and non-financial rewards. Developing reward strategy is easy but implementation is hard. According to Armstrong (2006), implementation initiates the challenge of change management. The guidelines for implementation of chosen strategy which are as follows:

  • The value in-depth employee consultation should never be undervalued.
  • Without looking at the return on investment, no initiative should be implemented.
  • Actions should be taken as required and effectiveness of programmes should be evaluated.

Evaluation and Monitoring of Implemented Reward Strategy

After implementing the reward strategy, through number of ways effectiveness of implemented reward strategy is assessed and evaluated. Armstrong (2010) puts forward number of suggestions to assess and evaluate the reward strategy as follows:

  • A reward review should be done through gathering and researching from qualitative and quantitative information on the reward practices inside the organization.
  • By using this information the effectiveness of the delivery of reward goals from various reward practices should be assessed.
  • The time to time audit should be performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the reward investment.
  • Through reward surveys, employees could be asked and analysed in order to monitor the effectiveness of the implemented reward strategy.
Reward System Dissertation
Reward System Dissertation

Motivation and Reward Practice

One cannot separate the process of motivation and the reward practices. It is very essential to comprehend those factors which motivate the employees and it would be recommendable for the organizations to design their reward strategies and practices in the light of those factors in order to increase performance of employees throughout the organization. Practical guidance is provided by the motivation theories in developing the reward systems. The theories of motivation tell that what factors exactly encourages individual, or group of employees to adopt something behaviour or to do something differently. These factors guide the human behaviour and could affect their efforts to do something (Armstrong, 2007). So, designing reward practices in the light of motivating factors could be very beneficial and effective.

Process Theory of Motivation and Reward

Porter & Lawler (1968) modified Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (1964) as cited in Morris & Vascular (2005:8) expectancy theory of behaviour. Bartol and Locke (2000, p. 111) as cited in Morris & Vascular (2005:8) state that expectancy theory “…holds that people make choices based on (1) their expectancy that their efforts will lead to a certain 8 level of performance, (2) their belief that their performance will lead to valued outcomes (instrumentality) and (3) the degree of value they place on those outcomes (valence).”

Expectancy theory underpins best fit thinking because it provides a design framework so that each element of a reward system can be used to the element’s best advantage. Lawler’s (1995) as cited in Morris & Vascular (2005) new pay model provides guidance on what behaviours to measure. They must be linked to organisational strategy. However, Lawler (1981, p. 22)as cited in Morris & Vascular (2005:8) emphasises in an earlier work, the importance of the implementation process when he states: “In order for employees to believe that a performance-based pay relationship exists, the connection between performance and rewards must be visible, and a climate of trust and credibility must exist in the organization.”

The measurement of performance is a critical characteristic of ‘new pay’. Armstrong (2002) as cited in Morris & Vascular (2005) emphasises the need for a robust performance management process. Schuster and Zingheim (1992, p. 210) as cited in Morris & Vascular (2005:8), states “measurement is the core of new variable pay because it provides the justification for sharing performance improvements with employees.”

Content Theory of Motivation and Reward

Best practice advocates rely on content theories of motivation as the basis of their reward systems. Herzberg (2003, p. 91) as cited in Morris & Vascular (2005:8) found ‘…that the factors involved in producing job satisfaction (and motivation) are distinct form the factors that lead to job dissatisfaction.’ Motivators, the source of job satisfaction, are intrinsic to the job including ‘achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility and growth or advancement.’ (Herzberg, 2003, p. 92) as cited in Morris & Vascular (2005:8) Hygiene factor, including salary, are extrinsic to the job and are a potential source of job dissatisfaction.

Performance Related Pay

Provision of financial rewards in terms of increment in the basic pay or any cash bonuses after assessment of the individual’s performance against the set objectives is regarded as performance related pay (Armstrong, 2002). Research and surveys show the both negative and positive aspect of the performance related pay.

One survey showed that, 14% respondents have opinion that PRP has made the fairness worse, 67% respondents have opinion that it conveys the message of clarity regarding performance of organization, while 57% respondents thinks it is fair to be get rewarded by performance related pay (Armstrong, 2002). However, study of IPM in 1997 found no relationship between the performance-related pay and the enhanced organizational performance (Armstrong, 2002).

When decisions are being in regards to the type of reward system, the main strategic decision that needs consideration is whether or not the reward system will be made on the basis of performance, which allows most of the reward systems feature to fit into the right places. However, it could also be based on seniority. In most government agencies, the pay rates are based on factors such as the roles of the employee and the length of their service. Although, in Japan, seniority is mostly used to decided individual pays, employees also receive bonuses based on the performances of the corporate (Lawler 1993).

According to Milkovish and Wigdor (1991) as cited by Lawler (1993), in America, most businesses use individual performances to reward its employees using the pay system and promotion system which is known as merit systems in America. Although it is believed that having a merit pay or promotion system in place helps businesses stay organised but according to Kerr (1975) as cited in Lawler, (1993) it is better to keep pay and promotion separate from performance and find ways to improve performances of an individual. There is a lot of evidence (Whyte, 1955; Lawler, 1971; Schuster and Zingheim, 1992 as cited in Lawler, 1993) that suggest that having a merit system could be harmful.

In order to improve team work and produce integration, organisational and group bonus plans have proven to be effective. A group and organisational plan means that everyone contributes towards the financial results of higher performance. Therefore, an individual work effectively and efficiently as everyone support, empower and encourage each other. People are more likely to empower and support others workers if they feel their performance would benefit them which is less likely to happen under individual plans as it increase competition and differentiation (Lawler 1993).

There are other factors that could arise from using performance based reward system such as poor practise, small rewards and failure to explain the system. Nevertheless, it is hard to determine whether or not pay should be based on performance as there is a lot of evidence to support the system. In conclusion, the negative impact of having such systems should not be overlooked (Lawler 1993).

Reference

Armstrong, M. (2004), Employee Reward: 3rd ed. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Armstrong, M. (2006). A handbook of employee reward management and practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Kogan Page Limited

Armstrong, M. (2007), A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 10th ed London.

Armstrong, M. and Brown, D. (2006), Strategic Reward: Implementing More Effective Reward Management: 2nd. Philadelphia.

Armstrong, M. and Murlis, H. (2007), Reward Management: A Handbook of Remuneration Strategy and Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia.

Armstrong, M., Brown, D. and Reilly, P. (2010), Evidence-Based Reward Management: Creating Measurable Business Impact from your pay and reward practices. Philadelphia.

Lawler, E.E. (1993) Effective Reward Systems: Strategy, Diagnosis, Design, and Change. Online.

Marchington, M and Wilkinson, A. (2005). Human Resource Management at Work: People Management and Development. 1st ed. London: Chartered Institute of Personal and Development.

Morris, D. & Vascular, M. (2005) Strategic Reward Systems: Understanding the difference between ‘Best Fit’ and ‘Best Practice’. Online.

Armstrong, M. (2004), Employee Reward: 3rd ed. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

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