Organization Culture, Strategy and Leadership

Organization Culture, Strategy and Leadership

Organization Culture, Strategy and Leadership Project – Strategy formulation is one of the responsibilities and roles of effective leadership (John & Allen 1998, p. 45). According to John & Allen (1998, p. 45-46), the perspective of strategy assumes assumptions of the task of leadership especially due the emphasis given to guiding, shaping and controlling the organization environment.

Effective strategy formulation is one of the essential elements of ensuring the business success. Failure by the business executives to exhibit effective strategy formulation could lead to the failure of the business. As such ensure effective strategy formulation within the organization requires the managers and the business executives to exhibit strong leadership skills. Strategy and leadership cannot be alienated as one influences the other (John & Allen 1998, p. 47).

A strategy is an action or a plan designed within the organization for the purpose of achieving an overall or a major goal. On the other hand, leadership can be described as the ability to influence others towards a particular direction within the organization (Pride, Hughes & Kapoor 2010, p. 201).

This paper will analyze Wal-Mart stores generic business strategy, organization culture and formal organization structure. Wal-Mart store is multinational retail store operating a chain of hypermarkets, grocery stores, and discount department stores.  Studies show Wal-Mart as the most profitable retail store in the world. Currently, Wal-Mart operates in 26 countries outside of the United States (Vosburgh 2011, p. 10).

Generic Business Strategy

A generic business strategy can be described as the strategy that is adopted by a business to gain a competitive edge over its competitors in the industry (Goldman & Nieuwenhuizen 2006, p. 22). Goldman & Nieuwenhuizen (2006, p. 23) argues that a generic business strategy is vital to the success of the business especially in a competitive industry.

Michel Porter designed three generic strategies that can be used by a business to gain a competitive advantage in the market. The porter’s generic strategy is used to describe how an organization can pursue a competitive edge within its market scope (Tanwar 2013, p.13). The modern business world is characterized by increased competition. As such to ensure business survival it is essential for the business to pursue activities that would give it a competitive advantage over the competitors within the industry.

Competitive advantage is the distinct feature of the business that gives it an edge over the competitors in the market. The more competitive business is, the better the chance for the business to survive in the current global market. According to Tanwar, R., 2013, p. 13-15) Porter identified three generic strategies which include cost leadership, differentiation, and focus. 

To ensure efficient utilization of organization resources, porter argues an organization must choose only one of the three strategies. The porter’s generic strategies show the relationship between the strategies of cost reduction, market focus, and the product differentiation.

In the argument of Porter, an industry has various segments that can be exploited by the organization.  To gain a competitive advantage over the rivals, a business is expected to make a choice about the kind of competitive advantage that it seeks and its scope.

The basic types of competitive advantage include product differentiation and lower cost. Making the choice on the appropriate strategy for the business requires proper leadership skills. Choosing an inappropriate strategy could lead to the loss of organization competitiveness within the industry. As such it is appropriate for the business to ensure enough resources are devoted to conducting research for the purpose of understanding the industry.

In the argument of Stankeviciute, Grunda & Bartkus 2012, p. 1201) Wal-Mart is ranked as one f the most successful retail store in the world. The company success largely is associated with its cost reduction strategies.  Wal-Mart stores operate in the retail sector that is largely characterized by huge competition not only from the large stores but also from small scale traders (Stankeviciute et al. 2012, p. 1202).

Stankeviciute et al. (2012, p. 1202-1204) further argue to survive in the retail industry and to ensure organization competitiveness an organization needs to establish itself as the cost leader. The Wal-Mart use of the cost leadership strategy and its integration with the porter’s five forces has provided the company a competitive advantage in the industry enabling the company to be ranked as one of the must successful retails stores.

The adoption of cost leadership strategy by Wal-Mart has to some extend acted as the price barrier within the industry thus reducing the number of competitors.  Wal-Mart has adopted various strategies to ensure the success of its core cost leadership strategy. Some of the strategies adopted by Wal-Mart to ensure cost reduction include the adoption of technology, elimination of stock holding costs and sourcing its products directly from the manufacturers’ thus eliminating wholesalers cost (Stankeviciute et al. 2012, p. 1203). 

In the argument of Stankeviciute et al. (2012, p. 1203-1205) Wal-Mart has also adopted waste reduction measures by investing in a stock management system that helps monitor stock levels in real time. The stock management system has been instrumental in minimizing waste costs. Wal-Mart adoption of cost leadership as its generic business strategy has enabled the company to achieve its low-cost price strategy.

Adopting a cost leadership strategy is essential to business since it enables a business to charge a relatively low price compared to the price of the competitors. Charging a low price can act as a barrier to entry of new competitors and can also drive away the existing competitors due to continued sustained loses. In the case for Wal-Mart cost leadership strategy has enabled the business to control a large market share in the industry and create a competitive advantage for the company.

To maximize its sales, Wal-Mart also discounts its products since it has a significant cost advantage over its rivals in the industry.  To ensure effective cost-leadership strategy a close cooperation between all the areas of the business is required. As such effective leadership is required in all the functional areas of the business (Stankeviciute et al. 2012, p. 1205).

Organization Culture

In the recent past, there has been a growing concern in the manner in which organizations conduct business. One of the components that have been identified as essential in growing the business is the organization culture. According to Schein (2010, p. 96), organization culture is the shared experiences, norms, and beliefs within the organization.

As a leadership concept, organization culture can influence the success or the failure of an organization. It is the responsibilities of the business leaders to impose the right culture in the organization. In the argument of Schein (2010, p. 97) organization culture is influenced by various factors. One of the factors influencing organization culture is leadership.

To a large extent, organization culture is influenced by the business leadership. The attitude of the business leaders can determine whether the business will succeed or fail. As such leader’s attitude could form the basis of the organization culture. Often employees within the organization look up to their leaders for direction and guidance.

Therefore, the way the leaders interact with their employees and solve the day-to-day challenges forms a basis of the organization culture (Sadri& Lees 2001, p. 854). The organization culture is also likely to be created by what leaders reward and punish, pay attention to and allocate resources.

According to Sadri & Lees (2001, p. 854), the organization culture influences the organization strategy. An organization is more likely to be successful if the organization culture has a close relation with the business strategy. The business leaders should thus ensure that the organization has the right culture that supports the business strategy. The organization culture influences the manner in which things are done in the organization. Organizational culture is, therefore, central to the operations of the business and its success (Klein 2011, p.23).

The success of Wal-Mart has been attributed to the organization culture. Wal-Mart has been described as having a strong and pervasive culture that gives the company a competitive advantage in the market.  The culture of Wal-Mart is attributed to have been formed by the founder Sam Walton.

Wal-Mart has managed to retain its organization culture elements since it started operating. The organization culture of Wal-Mart is created around the brand and the image of the company. According to Klein (2011, p.24), the organization culture of the organization can be assessed by having an understanding of its behaviors and artifacts, shared perspectives, awareness and the unconscious assumptions of the business. 

Studies indicate that the organization culture has an influence on the performance of the organization (Davies 2007, p.6). It is therefore highly likely that successful businesses are supported by a strong organization culture.  Various studies conducted on Wal-Mart stores indicate that the company has a strong organization culture which is the driving force of its success. The organization culture of Wal-Mart has contributed to the company recognition by both the insiders and the outsiders of the company (Jacques, et al. 2003, p. 514).

According to Davies (2007, p.9-14) Wal-Mart organization culture is characterized by; first, strong leadership- Wal-Mart has adopted both the transformational and the transactional leadership styles. The transformational leadership is described as the type of leadership that changes the life of the community and people in the area in which the leader operates.

Transformational leadership has been at the center of Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart has been able to change the life of the people and society within its area of operation through its various corporate social activities as well as its low pricing strategy. On the other hand, transactional leadership has given the company vision and strategy.

Transactional leadership is the type of leadership that is responsible for the strategy execution and the daily running of the business operations. Second, low price products- Wal-Mart culture has been formed around offering low price products since the inception of the company. The low-price strategy has given the company a competitive edge in the industry, which makes it the largest retailer store in the world (Schneider 1998, p.295).

Over the years despite the worsening economic situations Wal-Mart has offered its customers low price products in line with its culture. Its low pricing strategy has contributed to the company recognition around the world. The low-price culture has also contributed to the organization effectiveness and efficiency as it aims to lower the cost of its operations so as to continue providing its customers with low price products.

Third, innovation- Wal-Mart has been at the center of innovation over the years (Schneider 1998, p.296). The company innovative strategies have enabled the company to continue providing high-quality, low-priced products. In line with its innovative culture, Wal-Mart continues to adopt the use of new technology in its business. Recently the company adopted the use of stock management system.

The company has also adopted technology in communication with the aim of reducing its cost. Fourth, entrepreneurship and risk taking- over the year’s Wal-Mart has ventured into business and markets that would be considered risky. The continued venture in different countries shows the entrepreneurial spirit of the company.

The entrepreneurship has been part of the Wal-Mart culture since the inception of the company as the company has since been expanding its areas of operations and market. In the current global market, organization entrepreneurship is an essential skill in ensuring the organization competitiveness and retention of its current market share.

Organization Culture Strategy and Leadership Project
Organization Culture, Strategy and Leadership Project

Failure of the business leaders to understand the value of corporate entrepreneurship and engage in it could lead to the organization loss of market share and competitiveness. As such where the entrepreneurship is part of the organization culture it is highly likely that the business will be a success, as a case for Wal-Mart. Fifth, customer relations- another important element of the Wal-Mart organization culture is its customer relations. Wal-Mart strives to ensure customers satisfaction in its operations.

The Wal-Mart customer relations have been an essential element in creating customer loyalty. Customer loyalty is essential as it ensures the company can retain its market share and attract new customers as well. Sixth, outcome orientation- as part of Wal-Mart culture, employees are encouraged to achieve the desired outcome. As a way of motivating the employees to achieve their targets, employees are often involved in setting the company goals.

This culture has enabled the company not only to meet the target but also supersede these targets. Employee participation creating a sense of belonging in the company thus increases their productivity (Schneider 1998, p.296). Wal-Mart could thus be argued to have a strong organization culture which has been instrumental in its success.

Formal Organization Structure

The formal organization structure of the organization defines the activities such as supervision, coordination and task allocation to different officers of the organization. The organization structure is important in allocating responsibilities and enhancing accountability in the organization. The organization structure as acts a control procedure in the organization and helps reduce possible conflicts. 

According to Rosen (2004), Wal-Mart has adopted a hierarchical functional organizational structure. The organization structure of Wal-Mart hence has two feature; hierarchy and function-based. As such Wal-Mart has adopted a hybrid organizational structure. The adoption of a hybrid organization structure has some of the following benefits to the company, shared vision and mission, improved interactions among departments, speed in decision implementation, minimizes complexity and flexibility.

The Wal-Mart organization structure defines the business operations of the company. The organization structure also does define the relationship of the different officers and departments within the company as well as defining the duties and responsibilities of the company officers. As such the Wal-Mart organization structure is instrumental in creating the formal company culture. The Wal-Mart organization structure also defines the limitations of how the organization would address a particular issue (Rosen 2004).

Formal organization culture is essential in the day-to-day operations of the business as it creates a way of addressing the daily operations and how people respond to daily challenges an interact. The formal organization culture of Wal-Mart has impacted on the success of the company by ensuring different departments work in harmony and with minimal conflicts. It has also been instrumental in ensuring that different employees at various levels of the organization are accountable for their actions. Where employees are made accountable for their actions, it is highly likely they will be more productive and efficient. 

A strong formal organization culture could contribute to the organization competitiveness in the industry. As such the organizational structure adopted by Wal-Mart has been influential in the success of the company by not only defining roles and responsibilities but also creating the formal culture of the organization (Rosen 2004).


The current global market is quite competitive and as such the success of the organization will largely depend on effective strategy formulation and effective leadership. The ability of the organization to choose an appropriate generic business strategy would prove to be the point of difference between different players in the market.

The generic business strategy adopted by the organization determines the direction of the organization as well as its ability to effectively compete in the market. The businesses executives have the responsibility to integrate the generic business strategy with the organization culture as well as the formal organization structure.

Integration of the generic business strategy with the organization culture and structure creates an enabling environment for the organization to achieve its goals. The business leaders should ensure the adoption of the appropriate culture within the organization that can support the business strategies as well as the organization structure.


Davies, D.J., 2007. Wal-Mao: The discipline of corporate culture and studying success at Wal-Mart China. China Journal, (58), p.1-27.

Goldman, G., & Nieuwenhuizen, C. (2006). Strategy: sustaining competitive advantage in a globalised context. Cape Town, Juta.

Jacques, P. et al., 2003. Wal-Mart or World-Mart? A Teaching Case Study. Review of Radical Political Economics, 35(4), p.513-533. 

John, R., & Allen, M. (1998). Global business strategy. London [u.a.], Thomson.

Klein, A., 2011. Corporate culture: its value as a resource for competitive advantage. Journal of Business Strategy, 32(2), p.21-28.

Pride, W. M., Hughes, R. J., & Kapoor, J. R. (2010).Business. Australia, South-Western/Cengage Learning.

Rosen, E.I., 2004. The Quality of Work at Wal-Mart.Conference on Wal-Mart: Template for 21st Century Capitalism.

Sadri, G. & Lees, B., 2001. Developing corporate culture as a competitive advantage. Journal of Management Development, 20(10), p.853-859.

Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Schneider, M.J., 1998. The Wal-Mart Annual Meeting : From Small-Town America to a Global Corporate Culture.Human Organization, 57(3), p.292-299.

Stankeviciute, E., Grunda, R. & Bartkus, E.V., 2012. Pursuing a Cost Leadership Strategy and Business Sustainability Objectives: Wal-Mart Case Study. Economics and Management, 17(3), p.1200-1206.

Tanwar, R., 2013. Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies.Journal of Business and Management, 15(1), p.11-17. 

Vosburgh, R., 2011. WAL-MART STORES. Supermarket News, p.10.

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Did you find any useful knowledge relating to organization culture, strategy and leadership in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.

Leadership Dissertation Topics

Leadership Dissertation Topics

Leadership Dissertation Topics – Leadership is one of the vital functions of management which aids to accomplish organizational aims and objectives by maximizing the efficiency. A leader plays a significant role in concern’s working and encourages employees with both non-economic and economic compensation.

A leader not just supervises but rather carries a considerable mentoring role for subordinates by instructing them the way they are meant to perform. A project manager plays a role of primary leader who is responsible to manage project goals related to scope, cost, time and other operations effectively.

Scholars have for many years tried to differentiate and give the similarities between leadership and management. Leadership and management are two words that are intertwined together. Leadership defines a possessive quality that has to do with influencing, motivating and working toward set goals. Management on the other hand, is the desire to follow set rules in order to achieve set goals. Our collection of Leadership Dissertation Topics will help you better understanding of leadership theory.

Management involves giving order in contrast to leadership. The relationship between leadership and management is a basic problem in the theory and practice of organization management. Leadership and management are two basic functions of organization management.

The nature of the relationship between the two is the relationship between the leadership function and the management function. In general, leadership has been defined as doing the right thing while management is seen as doing the things right. This paper assesses the relationship between leadership and management, identifying the similarities, difference and the problems associated with identifying the actual relationship between leadership and management.

Keywords: Leadership, Management, Organization Management, Organization Function, Leadership Dissertation Topics.


Abraham Zalezmek first described leadership and management as two separate terms in publication in 1977 [1]. In literature, leaders are seen to possess skills that are termed visionary and being right. Management on the other hand, is termed task-orienting and doing things right. While many authors try to find the difference between leadership and management, few are of the opinion that both leadership and management are the same [2]. Leadership is often described as the feature or quality that differentiates a great manager from a good one.

The terms leadership and management make up the skills and abilities necessary to describe an individual’s hunger for team success. This goes further to say that leadership and management can be interchanged especially when explaining their performance in organizations. According to [3], leading describes who you are as a person whereas managing is skill-based, a craft that can be learned and describes what you can do. This suggests that leadership is an identity that can be cultivated within a person and management, a set of characteristics that are demonstrated to show competency.

However, the description of leadership as the development of personal goals and management as the mastery of a craft is misleading and oversimplifies human and organizational development. In businesses, effective leadership is seen as the most essential part through which the business sustains itself in the face of challenges caused by rapid growth of the economy [4]. As a means to validate this, be sure to visit our leadership dissertation topics for material that will help you with your studies.

Leaders take charge and control the operations of an organization. Good leaders set achievable goals and objectives and guide the course towards the realization of the goals through effective strategies [5]. In addition, good leaders have the ability to influence their employees and encourage them through a positive organization culture and generous employee benefits such as leave allowances, healthcare insurances and others.

Leadership focuses on the general influences for inspiring people and gain their trust. On the other hand, management deals with planning, organizing, problem solving, influencing and controlling. In organizations, when performances appear to be bad, managers tend to understand the key reasons and what effective measures to take to mitigate the problems but would always wait for the leaders to come forward [6]. This reflects the division between leadership and management in organizational practice.

This division causes a misunderstanding between leadership and management. Leadership is process-oriented in the same way as management and both are similar in several ways. In one way, managers lead and leaders manage people and both of the work with people to achieve goals. This paper is one of many leadership dissertation topics available on our website that presents the relationship between leadership and management and the impact of this relationship in business.

Firstly, the leadership and management are discussed separately. Secondly, the functions and impacts of leadership and management further elaborated. Furthermore, the different aspects of leadership and management are discussed highlighting their roles in the growth of organizations and lastly, the relationship between leadership is discussed.


Leadership refers to the process of influencing other people to do their duties with confidence and out of their own will. Leadership is focused on achieving specific goals through people by motivating them to direct their energies toward attaining the set goals. A leader equips, trains and influences followers with diverse abilities and skills to focus their energies willingly and enthusiastically to achieve organizational mission and objectives [7].

The concept of leadership does not only talk about the willingness of the followers but also their zeal and confidence [8]. The term leadership has been widely discussed in many literatures and many scholars have defined it differently each explaining it in his own way. Currently, there are more than 400 definitions of leadership [9]. Leaders influence people positively and make them strive out of their own will to achieve the organizational goals.

Be sure to visit our leadership dissertation topics. The role of a leader in an organization is vital in terms of creating a vision, mission, objectives, policies and strategies that help to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently as well as directing and coordinating the organizational activities [10]. The lack of effective leadership may cause problems related to unethical practices, high labor turnover, and poor financial performance among others in an organization. The main aim of many businesses is to achieve their set goals thus, the need for effective coordinate and motivate employees [11].

Leadership Qualities and Roles

Leaders play very important roles in the growth of organizations. The qualities of leaders help them to identify realizable goals, devise strategies to reach those goals, and motivate and provide direction for the team to follow to achieve the set goals. It is vital for the leader to recognize the value system that operates in a variety of work group and situation.

  • Objective: A good leader always examines all situation before making decisions. Objectivity is ability to rationally assess problems and issues without being biased.
  • Perception: Perception entails the ability discover the realities in one’s surroundings. Organizational leaders are required to have knowledge of the organizational goals and objectives and work towards achieving them.
  • Establish and follow priorities: This is the ability to recognize what is important and what is not and arrange goals in the order of their importance. Leaders should know what is important and worthy of consideration
  • Interpersonal relationship: All leaders work with people. A leader should have good human relation attitude. This is very important for leaders who have their jobs done through subordinates. The human relations theory states that jobs should be designed and scheduled in such a way that workers have a sense of responsibility as well as opportunities to participate in decisions affecting their job [8].
  • Manages crisis: In all organizations, disputes always exists among the workers. Leader should be capable of settling disputes or differences among their subordinates.
  • Decision-making: Decision-making is one of the most important roles of leaders. Effective decision-making involves defensive avoidance, collecting more and more information about the cost and utility of each alternative and comparing them systematically in order to choose the most effective costs.


As defined by Katz in 1955, management is exercising direction of an organization through executive, administrative and supervisory positions [12]. In the above definition, management is seen as a task-oriented responsibility and involving the development of staff, mentoring high potential personnel and resolving conflicts at the same time reserving ethics and discipline [12].

Management was defined by Kotter as the job of taking care of planning, organizing, budgeting, coordinating and monitoring activities for a group or organization [13]. In general, management is the process or means of achieving organizational goals. In Northouse definition, management is the means through which objectives and goals are realized through the efficient use of resources [14].

The most important resource managed by managers is the human resource. The aim of managers is to reach short-term goals, avoid risks and establish standards to improve standards [15]. While carrying out their activities, managers focus on directing and controlling their assistants, resources, structures and the entire system.

Functions of Management

The functions of management include planning, organizing, influencing and controlling. Managers must perform these functions to enable them perform their duties effectively.


Planning is the first aspect of management. Planning helps to choose the most appropriate method for performing important task to help achieve organizational goals. The sole focus of planning is achieving objectives. The activities of the organizational team, managers or employers toward achieving desired objectives and achieve success are defined through planning. In general, planning increases the efficiency of organizations because it leads to short-term success and in the long-run shapes the organization’s long-term future [16].


Organizing involves assigning task to people that was done during planning. Organizing helps creating a process that converts plans into incidents or products [17]. In general, the organizational employees are assigned some tasks, which meet or contribute towards achieving important organizational goals.

Tasks need to be organized, in such a way that every employee’s performance should add to the departmental and organizational success. Divided labor reduces workload and optimizes the utilization of resources; therefore organizations need to manage their people and processes [16].


Influencing is also seen as motivating, directing or leading. It means guiding the organization members to accomplish tasks in a way that helps an organization achieve its goals [16]. Influencing has a major purpose, which is enhancing productivity.

Generally, the accomplishment of tasks, which are labor-intensive and require teamwork and result in generating high production levels in the long-run rather than the situations, in which people have to accomplish individual tasks because most of the people find task-based working conditions as uncomfortable or tedious[17].


According to [16], controlling is the fourth managerial function, and it plays the following roles:

  • Information collection for performance evaluation.
    • Deciding the performance norms and compare the current performance with the previous performances.
    • Make a new action plan, and modify the existing plans to achieve the desired objectives.

Controlling is a continuous function of managers [16]. Controlling assures that the targets are achieved, and the desired changes have been made. The functions given above are major management functions; however, they need to be performed simultaneously in order to run the organization in a profitable way.

Relationship between Leadership and Management

In Jarad’s view, leadership exists as a subset of management and both leadership and management are important to facilitate organizational performance [20]. Management deals with planning, budgeting, controlling, and structuring while leadership refers to a process of directing, visioning, and motivating including coordinating and the development of individuals.

Additionally, management and leadership roles are distinctive in terms of internal and external roles [21]. According to [22] the goals of managers come from necessities whereas the goals of leaders come from a place of active attitudes. This means that leaders inspire people to be creative and innovative about problem solving under less supervision. On the other hand, managers give instructions to ensure that the organization’s day-to-day business is completed.

The creativity of leaders can sometimes be suppressed by managers’ desire for order, and while managers avoid risks, leaders take calculated risk [22]. In addition, a leader has soul, the passion and the creativity while a manager has the mind, the rational and the persistence [23]. A leader is flexible, innovative, inspiring, courageous and independent whereas, a manager is consulting, analytical, deliberate, and authoritative and stabilizing [24].

Furthermore, management works to establish security and order, as leadership promotes change and fluidity within organizations. In as much as individual can be a great leader, a great manager, or both, he still needs the mastery of slightly different skills and competencies. The mastery these skills helps the individual to successfully navigate the fields of both management and leadership. There is no doubt our collection of leadership dissertation topics will help you in this field.

Leadership and management may overlap, but they are not the same [26]. Leadership is a multi-directional influence relation, while management is a unidirectional authority relationship [25]. Zaleznik argues that organizations need both effective managers and effective leaders in order to reach its goals, even though managers and leaders have different contributions [1].

He further stated that leaders promote change, new approaches, and work to understand people’s beliefs to gain their commitment, but managers promote stability, exercise authority, and work to get things accomplished. Consequentially, leadership and management need different types of people [1]. Watson in 1983 stated that management means taking care of structure and system, but leadership focuses on the communication, motivation, and shared goals [27].

To further state the difference between leaders and managers, Watson mentioned in his book “Leadership, Management and the Seven Keys” that strategy, structure, systems, shared values, skills, and style (the 7S) are more effective for leaders than for managers.

Leaders have vision, goals, strong values and work to ensure that his followers are on the same page [28]. Hull and Ozeroff described leaders as good communicators because they spend more time with their followers [28]. In addition, leaders are aware of their team members’ professional strengths, weaknesses, emotional standings, their place in the organization, which allow them to know how to motivate them [26].

Understanding the nature of leadership requires you to consider the broader notions of leadership and management. Leaders have followers, and must influence their followers in the right ways [25]. Managers on the other hand, follow the laid down process, and seek stability and control and in a way, instinctively try to resolve problems quickly. Organizations need both managers and leaders to achieve the goals and objectives. Table 1 gives the summary and comparison between leadership and management.

Table 1: Summary and comparison of the relationship between leadership and management

Leadership Dissertation Topics - MBA Projects

Leadership Dissertations

Problems associated with Understanding the Relationship between Leadership and Management. Leadership Dissertation Topics

  • Understanding correctly the notion of leadership and management: Many scholars have defined leadership and managements in more than 350 different ways [18]. These definitions bring about inconsistency in understanding the concept of leadership and management.
  • The inequivalent relationship between leadership and management, and leaders and managers: According Warren Bennis, a manager is someone who does things correctly and a leader is a person who does the correct thing [19]. The evaluation of the definition by Bennis, the leadership and management behaviors cannot exist in the same person. It goes further to say that leaders mainly perform the leadership function of a certain level in the organization, but the management function of this level cannot be ignored, otherwise leadership function will be ineffective.Conversely, managers can mainly perform the management function of a certain level in the organization, but the leadership function of this level cannot be ignored, otherwise it will lead to inefficient or ineffective management functions [20].
  • Understanding the nature of the relationship between leadership and management: The function of leadership mainly concerns the right direction and the value of organizational activities, whereas the function of management deals with stability of order and efficiency of organizational activities [20]. Leadership and management functions in different levels in an organization and together constitute management system and management system of the whole organization management. Consequently, the nature of the relationship between leadership and management is the relationship between leadership function and management function. Therefore, the description of leadership and management by Warren Bennis should be the mission of the leadership function is to ensure doing something correct, and the mission of the management function is to ensure doing something correctly [20].
  • Understanding the relationship between leadership and management to be different from the relationship between their disciplines: The relationship between leadership and management disciplines is based on the need of discipline construction, and they both have different emphasis. Nonetheless, this emphasis should not deny the unity of the organization management. The means that the discipline itself is independent, but its independence is relatively independent in the theoretical system of the organization management [20]. The two disciplines have strong complementary both in theory and in practice.
  • Understanding that the need of theoretical research cannot cover the need of the practice of organization management: Several scholars see leadership as one functions of management. This is from the viewpoint that management functions include planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Other scholars are of the viewpoint that management belongs to the leadership, because leaders’ function is more prominent in the organization management. These viewpoints distort the relationship between leadership. However, the relationship between leadership and management should be analyzed according to the natural state of the organization management practice.

Conclusion and Leadership Dissertation Topics Toughts

Logically, the concepts of leadership and management are different but have some similarities. An attempt to break the relationship between leadership and management by considering only the differences that exists between them cancels the meaning of organization management. This project can be found in our leadership dissertation topics section and we have highlighted that both leadership and management are important for every business or organization to achieve success.

Practically, once leadership or management breaks away from the organization management, its mission, the whole organization management becomes meaningless, and the whole organization management system will operate in a low level. If this happens, it will eventually lead to inefficient integration of the organization resources and poor organization performance.

Having discussed the relationship between leadership and management under the concept of organization management. It is believed that the nature of the relationship between leadership and management is the relationship between leadership and management functions. This research can help to address the problem that leadership and management face especially in their combined contribution to organization goals and business growth. In practice, leadership and management are interrelated and therefore go hand in hand in organization management.


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Leadership Strategies for Improving Performance

Dissertation Title: Leadership Strategies for Improving Performance of SMEs in Saudi Arabia

Despite governmental support, healthy international trade and application of varied leadership styles, small and medium businesses in Saudi Arabia continue to struggle and are unable to sustain their operations. One of the factors that contribute to the decline of such firms is poor management. The study adopted the use of both quantitative as well as qualitative approaches in exploring the leadership strategies for improving the performance of small and medium enterprises in Saudi Arabia.

It uses surveys as well as secondary sources from various literatures to determine the leadership strategies that successful businesses in the Saudi Arabia have used to survive, especially during the tough financial times. The conceptual framework that is used in investigating the particular leadership strategies is the transformational leadership theory.

The theory has four tenets, which comprise of idealized influenced, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, and inspirational motivation. This research makes use of all these to determine particular ways of enhancing the profitability hence sustenance of the small and medium enterprise in the country. The intention of the study is to recommend the best leadership practices for small and medium enterprises.

The general objective of the study is to do a comprehensive study on Leadership Strategies for Improving the Performance of Small Businesses in Saudi Arabia. There exist various leadership strategies that when implemented have the potential of shifting fundamentally the organizational dynamics as well as the various strategic approaches to managing critical functions of small and medium businesses. The research will be guided by the following research questions:

  • How can leadership strategies be a tactical tool for enhancing success in the organization?
  • What are the leadership strategies that enhance the achievement of strategic business objectives?
  • What is the impact of strategic leadership on strategic development of SMEs in Saudi Arabia?
  • How do leaders drive organizational innovativeness as a strategy to implement change in the small businesses in Saudi Arabia?
  • How does ethical leadership influence the success of small businesses in Saudi Arabia?
Leadership Strategies Dissertation
Leadership Strategies Dissertation

Leadership Strategies Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Context of SMEs
Background of the Study
Key SME Enablers in Saudi Arabia
Definition of SME
Strategic Management
Problem Statement
Objectives of Study
Research Questions
Importance of the Study
Limitations of the Study

2 – Literature Review
Organizational Innovativeness as a component of Leadership
Leadership versus Management
Strategic Leadership
Effective Strategy Implementation
Ethical Leadership
Theoretical Framework
Great Man Theory
Trait Theory
Contingency Theory (Situational)
Style and Behavior Theory
Skills and Characteristics of Strategic Leaders
Strategic Management Paradigm in Small Businesses in Saudi Arabia
Proposed Research Framework

3 – Research Methodology
Leadership Perceptions of small businesses in Saudi Arabia
Research Design
Case Study Research
Data Collection Method and Period of Study
Sample Population
Data Analysis

4 – Presentation of Findings
Measure of Age Central Tendency
Education Level
Years of Experience in Business
Area of Work
Strategic Leadership Skills key to SMEs
Commitment of Entrepreneurs
The effectiveness of Monshaat Support Center
Tactical Significance of Business Strategies
Significance on Monshaat to Strategy Development
Technology as an Essential Component of Growth
Influence of Ethical Leadership
Inferential Analysis
ANOVA Model Summary
Testing the Relationship between Response and the Explanatory Variables

5 – Analysis of Findings and Discussions

6 – Research Discussions
Strategic Leadership Framework in SMEs
Monshaat Support Center
Organizational Innovativeness
Information Technology Capability
Presence of Monshaat Support Center
Effective Strategy Implementation
Ethical Leadership as a Strategic Tool for Growth

7 – Recommendations and Conclusion


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