The Impact of Social Media in Influencing Consumer Purchasing Behaviour: A Study of Clothing Retailers
Title: Consumer Purchasing Behaviour and Social Media Influence. The impact of social media on the purchasing behaviour is an area of interest that has gained much interest and study in the 21st century. This research focuses in the ways in which social media has had an effect on the purchasing behaviour and most of the interest in the clothing and retail industry. The first part of the research will take a look at the various ways in which the social media influence has impacted on the purchasing behaviour. The different stages of purchase will be analysed in the background study, both before purchase, during purchase and after purchase behaviour and the influence of the different forms of social media on the same.
The data collection method that has been used during this research is the analytical study design. The researcher distributed questionnaires to a study sampled population, which consisted of university students at London South Bank University since they are considered to be the most consumers of social media. The results that were obtained indicted that social media has a very big influence on both the three stages of the purchase process. The recommendation, review and consumer motivation among others are the motivating factors that make the use of social media have a big influence on the purchasing behaviour of consumers.
This research will therefore have a big influence on the marketing strategy that will be used by future clothe retailers. It also gives an insight on the influence of technology and social media to be specific on the purchase behaviour of the modernised internet users. Therefore, more research should be done by clothe retailers on the best way to promote their businesses through social media.
To determine the role of social media in influencing the pre-purchase phase of the consumer purchasing Behaviour lifecycle
To determine the role of social media in influencing the purchase phase of the consumer purchasing Behaviour lifecycle
To determine the role of social media in influencing the post-purchase phase of the consumer purchasing Behaviour lifecycle
1 – Introduction
Background of the study
Statement of research
Significance of the study
The scope of the study
The study limitations
2 – Literature Review
Social media marketing
Consumer purchasing behaviour
The role of social media in influencing the pre-purchase phase
The role of social media in influencing the purchase phase
The role of social media in influencing the post-purchase phase
3 – Research Methodology
Data Collection Methods
Data Analysis Methods
4 – Results and Findings
Description of the sample
Social Media Sites
Time Spent on Social Media Sites
The role of social media on making purchase judgements
Frequency of Influence of Social media on purchase decisions in clothing Retail Industry
Social Media Influences on the Pre- purchase Stage Analysis in Clothing Retail Industry
Evaluation of alternatives
Social Media Influence on the Purchase Stage Analysis in Clothing Retail Industry
Consumer Attitude in Purchase Stage
Consumer Motivation in Purchase Stage
Product Perception in Purchase Stage
Social Media Influence on the Post-Purchase Stage Analysis in Clothing Retail Industry
Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
5 – Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations
The role of social media in influencing consumer purchasing behaviour
Social media Influences on the Pre-purchase Stage
Social media Influences on the Purchase Stage
Social media Influences on the Post-Purchase Stage
The role of social media in influencing consumer purchasing behaviour in the clothing and retail industry
Social media Influences on the Pre-purchase Stage
Social media Influences on the purchase Stage
Social media Influences on the Post- Purchase Stage
Recommendations for further research
If you enjoyed reading this post on consumer purchasing behaviour, I would be very grateful if you could help spread this knowledge by emailing this post to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.
A Study on the Effectiveness of Social Media Marketing on Sales in Retail Industry: A case study of Tesco (2016)
Social Media Marketing is one of the major marketing tools for business firms in the current stream of technological advancement though the concept of social media marketing is not so much old in the comparison of other marketing approaches that are practiced by the business firms. Since the social marketing media is a comparatively newer approach for the marketers there are enough questions among the people who intend to use it.
One the major issues that the social media marketing raises is the effectiveness of this approach on the sales of a firm. This dissertation aimed to find out a reasonable answer to the issue and the objectives are set in the course of deducting a set of outcomes which can lead to achieving the aim of the dissertation . The dissertation is segmented in six different chapters each of which has its own benefits and merits. The first chapter is related with the background of choosing such an issue and the rationale that can make the issue so much of being in a discussion.
The second chapter is related with the prior research and findings which have a substantial amount of effect on from choosing the issue of research and conducting the research. The third chapter is on the research methodology discussion and the discussion on most applicable methods that can lead to the research to success. Afterwards, the chapter of results comes in where the results are discussed.
The final two chapters are about analysis and concluding the research. At this point, it is quite imperative to state that the research is based on the responses from a sample of 50 people residing in the UK. The sample is selected using a random sampling method. The results are calculated with the SPSS 16.0 version and Microsoft Excel. The approach used in the research is a deductive approach.
For achieving the aim different types of statistical tools are used which includes three measures of central tendency along with the standard deviation, correlation analysis, regression analysis and ANOVA. The central tendency measures give an image of somewhat agree category result and percentage analysis shows similar effects. The correlation analysis shows sometimes though a very little degree of relativity, a good amount of relativity remains among the variables. The regression analysis which is considered as the core of all analysis has shown results that helped to reject the null hypotheses except for the brand awareness variable. These results have led to some important insights that can be very helpful for both the company Tesco and for further research on the topic. This research contains some important discussion on one of the most talked issues of the current marketing world. The number of researches done on the issue seems to be meager in terms of the presence in the global village. Moreover, the insights and analysis that are done in the research dissertation can be helpful for firms that are newcomers in the market and desire to make a mark in the retail industry.
To critically evaluate if there is any relationship between the SMM process and sales of Tesco
To critically evaluate how SMM process helps to build up brand awareness of Tesco
To critically assess the relationship of SMM process and the brand loyalty of Tesco
To critically assess how SMM process helps Tesco to maintain a firm customer relationship
Marketing in the current era is believed to take a different dimension to hit its target. With the fast growing technology in the current word professional marketers are widely relying on technology to promote and advertise their goods and services. For this initiative to perform comfortably they need to ensure that engaging customer interrelation by electronic means will work effectively and deliver the best result. When using technology or online marketing sometimes it does not seem to be real to customers and internet users, and they get to prefer television marketing which might be effective to the surrounding environment. This act as a problem or difficulty in effective marketing and it will automatically lead to poor responsiveness on the organization. Some of the social network working well is face book marketing, they have handled there problems effectively when it gets to advertising measurements. For instance the click-through rate for face book marketing which has done very well over throwing placard advertisement which has dropped over time.
(R., U.M., & A., 2005) Supported that there is a study that published the part of customer overview of social network marketing; this networks grow quickly over a short time of period. In this case study, little is discovered on the behavior of online marketing to the internet users. Due to problems and difficulties capital ventures produce incorrect and insufficient facts which lend to a problem for the advertisers loose track and cannot even identify the targeted viewers.
The new research is carried out to accomplish the research on internet users approach to social networks marketing. The area of study will be Facebook. Facebook is a one of the popularly, most used and known social network used by both young and old. It is commonly used for business matters or personal matters. Facebook marketing is much different from other customary marketing. This is a service that is mostly used by start-up organization to involve the social network people. This means that Facebook marketing is still at its early age and it is a beginning dimension of marketing which is growing very fast.
However this research entailed aims and objectives, a purpose and also some of the encountered problems. The purpose of this study was to analyse Facebook marketing on how to approach it, measurements on how to appraise their efficiency and also Facebook marketing strategies. There are some challenges and problems of this study this include increasing a close view and analyse measurement of Facebook marketing strategies adapted by different organizations.
The main aim of this study is to find out what influences users on quantity of time they spend on Facebook. This was done at a view point of the kind of usage, brand and how much they are involved in advertisement. The managed result also showed that Facebook usage was on: post on timeline, fun, looking for friends and during free time. It also showed that gender and marital status contribute to the time spent on Facebook. Objectives of this study are:
To view Facebook marketing activities
To evaluate the intensity of Facebook marketing strategies
To examine the consequence of Facebook marketing activities
To charge the helpfulness of Facebook marketing measurements in terms of importance of social network sites
To find out how marketers are adapting to the advertisement changing world.
Reason for the study
Facebook was first discovered in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, it was confined to college students requiring users to use their email ids connected with their colleges. Facebook movement enlarged new has association and today Facebook gets 200000 memberships daily and 54 billion standard page view. Social networking sites they are no longer innovative but Facebook marketing has tried to improve and maintain its users. Facebook is a website equipped with different types of software that are needed in the internet to allow user to perform activities that can be performed on different website making it an outstanding social networking. Apart from the marketing function, Facebook marketing is also used for public communication and personal private communication like sending family pictures.
View of the study
Communication occurs where there is a sender and a receiver of a message being transmitted. Computer application is one of the ways that that is used to communicate; IT modification has developed the mode of communication making it acceptable for social work communication to be accepted. This has allowed users to acquire widespread awareness. Availability of different software that make up Facebook it is possible to use Facebook marketing instead of using other different websites to promote and advertise you product. This are things like uploading an image or a video so as customers can view all the features of the product. It has also been discovered that most of the users do not pay attention to the advertisement in there profile and this can lead to companies developing a communication direction with their clients and this is much better than social marketing (Bakker, 2003).
Social networking has affected individuals differently. The networks link connect individually online all around the word. IT development has put together the daily lives activities of individuals. Out of curiosity people have widely accepted social networking and they engage more on social networking. They send links to their friends and also write more on their profiles. Some websites have restrictions on who is to join in terms age, gender or religious and others group there members into different categories like mutual racial or gender but there are some other groups that do not carry any restrictions and anybody can join.
Competitive market structure
Social networking is based on a competitive market where they work hard for each website to increase its competitiveness advantage for each site to emerge the best then they should be creative and come up with something unique. This is done by working and coming up with new and more resolution to get hold of their clients. Marketers work on this by making simple online brand communities, this are social sites that depend on structure position of their relationship among their brand followers and they are focused; non- geological limit communities. This communities influence their customer intentions and behavior due to their good relationship. They also create an easy working environment for their customers like providing contact information. Facebook being one of the social network sites with billions of users they take advantage the relationship to market products. They are different methods used to market in Facebook like rumor marketing, dispersal of modernization, buzz marketing and viral marketing. Rumor marketing is one that is mostly used.
Social network analysis
Social network examination is quite important to search for the best technique to determine “who talks to whom” in a group of people. It is also very important to analyse a social network to understand which group suits you and also to understand the type of information that is required.
Importance of Facebook marketing
Facebook marketing has become one of the best marketing channels in the word of businesses. One of the major importance of Facebook marketing is has varied areas and also makes things appear to be more real. It can also advise and help organizations on how to get new clients. The development of Facebook marketing has helped user to rely on online communication whereby you don’t have to appear face to face. Facebook has turned out to be one of the social networks which have grown drastically in rumor marketing. In most cases rumor Facebook marketing requires a face to face appearance so as it can be more effective for buyers to buy the product. Companies that want to introduce a new product in the market mostly go for internet marketing. This is because there are several users and also rumor marketing is more effective if used on social sites. This is also cheaper than employing other classical advertising channels and also Facebook is managed by individuals and their relationship among each other helps them to communicate effectively. You should also consider the most effective and persuasive to use for good promotion. Nielsen researched and found out that 78% of 26000 Facebook users are invited by the Facebook old members. Deloitte consumer products group found out that 62% percent of clients are influenced by user appraisal to read more about products. Empirical researches inspected that new ideas are passed through interpersonal statement. In the current generation every business has have an online Facebook account this helps in targeting the young generation are also it gives everybody an opportunity to give out there views. (Bakker, 2003) defined the Facebook marketing method as that includes electric media of channel where a buyer and seller interact. These suggest that e-marketing is concerned with promoting products through technology.
Facebook marketing and business
According to researcher It was discovered that Facebook marketing has altered marketing communication in business and company. Most of the vendors use Facebook marketing to look compare and contrast products and services offered by different companies. This also helps to analyse the strength and weaknesses of the rival company. Clients also consider the security of each website. (Kozinets, 2009, pp. 252-264) Confirms that business that engage in Facebook and e-marketing grow by 46% quicker than those that use classical advertising. Online usage of marketing by companies has believed to be of an advantage over their rival companies. Facebook is the most essential social media platform in e-commerce business has large companies. For instance Ebay and Amazon are the largest e-commerce to reach its vast extensive users.
(C.M., Anthony, & E.A., 2004, pp. 90-204) investigated on possible measure that Facebook marketing can advice the development of the young and growing business to increase their sales and their profits. On the other hand (Henkin, 2006, pp. 109-483) insists that Facebook marketing can be used as an outstanding media off communication and can also assist clients to come up with what they want. (DiClemente & Hantula, 2003, p. 785) emphasized that there was truth in (Henkin, 2006) suggests that Facebook can be used by small companies to gain big numbers of people and increase their sales. Facebook creates a good customer relationship; this is by a close supervision to assess the customers’ feedback and also to monitor your rivals at a close watch. Del and Fedex Company are some are some of the companies that employ Facebook marketing to promote their products. For instance Del uses Facebook to get rid of the supply chain offer this will offer a reader a design of how straight selling has contributed to the company to be the word class firm while Fedex company concentrate on creating a simple order which directs them to the achievement of the courier organization not only in America but everywhere in the word. (C.M., Anthony, & E.A., 2004).
The development of technology has helped Facebook marketing to play other important role other than just helping in business representation or supervising in the supply chain then they can help the company to understand how they can produce their products. (Briggs & Burke, 2002). To achieve an efficient firm then Facebook can advice on it is important for firm to have self belief and also put more effort in Facebook marketing. In a number of cases Facebook marketing is believed to have achieved the best like. Big companies like Amazon, Fedex and Dell they have grown rapidly and this is made possible the individual examination of each company to ensure that face book marketing is working effectively in the companies.
To come up with effective marketing plans the organization should involve the community to get opinions on what their products should have and what is the best time to release their products this will help the organizations to have the best market plan. Advertising is one of the ways that you can involve the viewers and get their opinions. This can be done through television advertisement. In the current years Facebook advertisement is considered to be the best since the viewers can easily live there comment. (Steinfield Ellison Lampe 2008 434–445). This is essential to Facebook marketing plans.
Perceptions of advertising relevance and value
In another research it discovered that clients have a different reaction of online marketing. These reactions can be identified on the use of Facebook marketing. One of the client behaviors is seen on Facebook marketing offered as a two level arrangement showing widespread insight of Facebook marketing and the personal insight with marketing. The other effect is seen at an individual level where one is able to converse with each other regardless the distance (Alwitt & Prabhaker, 2004). Facebook has gain popularity and it is highly praised for its power to influence more and more people to use. It contains unique measures like image sending, text sending and also sending video links. It is possible and very easy for Facebook marketing affiliates to access information regarding a company when they view the multilingual profile of the business. It also helps business organization to describe more about their products in there profiles (B. & Ellison, 2007).
This may appear mostly when viewers don’t pay attention to the advertisement this can occur when people don’t pay attention to the pop ups in the internet or when people revolve to other programs on the television when there is a ads break. Others don’t even pay attention to the ads place on the newspaper. Advertising confusion may appear when there is over advertising in a well known advertising media (Palmer and Koenig Lewis 2009 pp 162-176).
Credibility can be defined as the belief or a personal thinking of something. Media and marketing credibility could be described as the perspective of the customer thinking and customer believe about media advertising. It has been discovered that online media credibility can be measured. Another research carried out discovered that internet information is not restricted. This makes online information not to be trusted since it is not restricted. Peoples mostly don’t pay attention to online pop up advertisement because they don’t trust in it.
Privacy matters in social internet sites have become one on of the problems. People don’t trust internet with their information. Some people end up exposing extremely personal information on their website which can be accessed by everybody.
Social media use different methods to converse which are innovative shift. Some of the social media are blogs, wikis which are similar to Facebook as well as LinkedIn. With the developing technology more and more social sites are coming up but customers’ use this websites after lawyers have inspected them and they are found fit to use.
New FTC Guidelines Implicate Social Media
The Federal trade Commission issues testimonials or improvement guidelines that are relevant to social media whether it is a sponsor or not. In Inadvertent liability may affect not present wary monitor. In fabric association a company as well as a blogger or tweeter, it has got to be released by the blogger or tweeter as well as accountability for deteriorating.
Company Sponsored Social Media
Companies using Facebook marketing, YouTube and all the other social media they need there pages to be well regulate in matters of law or trademark and copyright infringement. Facebook is one of the sites that are much easier to regulate and still deliver all your messages.
Both the employers and employee play a role in the development of the company. The two parties use social media for business and personal matters. This requires one to be more careful about the laws governing the company. All business is based under laws that that should be well followed by both the employs and the employer.
Employee Use of Social Media
If a company is not allowed to use social media the employees should be fully educated on the consequences of social media participation and they should also know how to differentiate their private and professional life. If a company uses social media then they should know how to handle the business matters to portray a good picture of the company.
Employer Use of Social Media
Companies are more application amusing media to
Awning abeyant job applicants.
Investigate doubtable counterfeit claims for workers’ advantage or unemployment benefits.
Adviser agent conduct, which may reflect ailing on the company.
This amusing media is still evolving in the favor of accepting an accounting policy. As an employer you should acknowledge any risk that can be encountered by the company if the product is posted online.
Intellectual Acreage Issues
For a company to be full recognized it should have a trademark or a copyright to help it protect the company brand. This trademark should appear on the ambit of the product or article for it to be recognized easily.
Policing One’s Bookish Acreage is Essential
This is analyzing amusing media sites for crooked use of a company’s batter name, logo or more bookish property. By quickly policing a company’s bookish acreage on amusing media sites, an aggregation can more acceptable bulwark off an affirmation. Although this can be time arresting there are abundant accouterments a business may use to advise the web.
Trademark Aegis in Basic Worlds
The use of barter names and logos are so essentials and it has become a rising concern. The law is much concerned on these items. Brand support argument has become one of the issues that are a concern online.
Misappropriation of Corporate Bookish Acreage for Amusing Media User Names
Misuse of logo and name is growing rapidly and it has become of allot of concern. People have been using logo and names that resemble. An example is where there are hundred Starbucks sucks pages and groups as well as fake and totally disapproved hundred Starbucks suck pages and groups. Facebook is one social site that has adopted an action to accord with incidents of brand imposters and fake brands.
Agenda Millennium Absorb act was established to the accepted amusing media sites has created a specific action to approve dispute. Most of the sites have begun these procedures that are the agreement of service and a quicker action and also a sure way to accomplish copyrights than litigation.
The development of technology is governed by lawsuits that are not supposed to be violated by the company or the users. The use of the amusing media is all about having fun and a lot of excitement. In most cases amusing media acutely expands the cosmos of potentially accountability abstract and impact destruction. In all cases of social media legal matters should be kept into consideration despite the category of the social media.
Contemplating the Close Consumption Experience
A lot of research and investigation have been carried out about the amusing networking website. This website frequently pop up questions like “What is on your mind?” to the members this question helps people to give their real life emotions and experience. These make a lot of users to spend a lot of their time examining their own thoughts. In a business with a customer research may encounter problems during their research. If a business uses Facebook marketing then it will help the owners to get the real expression of the customers. According to Mathews inculcated a thoroughly civil appearance of empiric absoluteness beyond all bookish disciplines, such that the article of our observations is accepted to disentangle in a law like way, uninterrupted by chat with its assemblage or eruptions of anapestic self-disclosure or promptings of close will.
For Virginia Woolf, it was a moment of being; for James Joyce, an epiphany; Ezra Pound, a magic moment; Walter Benjamin, shock; and for T. S. Eliot, the still point of the axis world. Introspection then, bedridden with what a lot of accurate scholars, and absolutely customer ability theorists, would accede a too baby sample, never had a chance, (Wasserman Faust 2004 46-90) which is an abashment accustomed its inherent abeyant to abduction the abstruse moment. Companies like Google and Facebook they have a secret writing system which cause the rising of salaries. Some of the well paid technology professionals are from Silicon Valley rose. In 2011 it was 5.2% to breach $100000 barrier, while pay rose just 2% nationally, according to a contemporary bacon survey. One admission academy senior, announcement anonymously on the Web, claimed that Facebook marketing office offered a $100,000 salary, a $50,000 signing bonus, and $120,000 in banal options. According to the announcement filed in affiliation with Facebook’s planned antecedent accessible alms of stock, the company’s headcount jumped from 2,127 to 3,200 full-time advisers in 2011. Unlike some ample companies, Facebook marketing does not leave recruiting programmers to its animal assets department. One thing is that most companies don’t hire for specific jobs Facebook puts new hires through a six-week Cossack affected area they circle through projects, allotment one that apparel them best. “Facebook marketing and added companies accomplishing this are saying, (Simonite 2012) ‘You can plan for us and still be ambitious and actualize your own thing.
Although the coder antagonism looks like a fun and able meritocracy, it as well reflects problems in the U.S. apprenticeship system. Very few women participate, and a lot of the winners are from overseas. “Facebook [is] aggressively traveling to added countries because there aren not abundant accomplished humans in the U.S. Facebook marketing has a able ability of ‘hacking’ and already a month, advisers are accustomed 24 hours to absorb developing a new app. Successful ideas, which were prototype at a drudge day, cover the Like button and Timeline. The affair of the day was ‘distribution’ via the Open Graph API. By positing user ‘actions’ (such as read, share, like, ate etc) to the Open Graph (OG), this advice can be aggregate beyond the After three added circuit of academician teasers, Facebook marketing will fly the top 25 coders to its arch appointment in Menlo Park, for an adrenaline-soaked after piece this March that will accolade the best $5,000. In return, Facebook marketing gets an attempt at hiring the stars apparent forth the way.
Online marketing has become one of the most leading systems of marketing that is applied by both large and smalls business, both old and new they all engage in online marketing. Some of the social website that rare widely used is Facebook marketing. Therefore, Facebook marketing is believed to be one of the modern ways that people can use to promote and advertise their products. In the current year email marketing and mobile marketing are used. What makes Facebook the best among is that it contains both Emails marketing and online marketing to. Companies that use Facebook marketing capture more clients thus making more sales. The coming up of Facebook marketing and all other social networking websites in businesses and observation of laws ensuring that they don’t violate any laws has created a remarkable marketing environment for business and its client. Facebook having its positive side it still have some negativity that might cause damage to the business. Some of the problems faced by Facebook marketers are: some of the people may end up revealing their personal information on the website which will be accessible by anybody; this shows that Facebook does not provide privacy. Social website also does not restrict information this can lead to people sending counterfeit information which is not reliable to the users. This leads to many viewers not relying on internet advertisement and they prefer to use TV advertisement. This causes decline of sale in internet marketing. For a business to be successful on e-marketing they should educate there both the users and the employees on how they should use the internet without violating the laws. According to the objectives of the research it has been proved that most of the marketers and business owners have adapted technological method of promoting their products. All the problems that were encountered by the marketers were noticed and it became easy for them to come up with the effective solutions. All the measure of how to appraise Facebook marketing strategies were analysed and they can now be practiced.
A., A. S., & M., P. (2007). Online Social Networks and Insights into Facebook Marketing Communications. Journal of Internet Commerce.
Adamic, L. A., & Huberman., B. A. (2010). The Nature of Markets in the World Wide Web.Quarterly Journal of Electronic Commerce.
Alwitt, L. F., & Prabhaker, P. R. (2004). Identifying Who Dislikes Television Advertising: Not By Demographics Alone. Journal of Advertising Research.
B., B., & Ellison, B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 13.
Bakker, G. (2003). Building Knowledge about the Consumer: The Emergency of Market Research in the Motion Picture Industry. London: Frank Cass and Company Ltd.
Briggs, A., & Burke, P. (2002). A Social History of the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press.
C.M., C., Anthony, S., & E.A., R. (2004). Seeing What’s Next Facebook Marketing. Boston: Harvard School Publishing Corporation.
Cowan, R. S. (2007). Communication Technologies and Social Control Facebook Marketing. New York:: Oxford University Press.
D, B. (2006). Friends, Friendsters, and MySpace Top 8. Friends, Friendsters, and MySpace Top 8.
DiClemente, D. F., & Hantula, D. A. (2003). Optimal Foraging Online: Increasing Sensitivity to Delay. Psychology & Marketing.
Geyskens, I., Gielens, K., & Dekimpe, M. G. (2002). The Market Valuation of Internet Channel Additions. Journal of Marketing, 66.
Hardin, G. (2008). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science – Facebook Marketing.
Hart, K. (2007). Online Networking Goes Small, and Sponsors Follow,. The Washington Post.
Henkin, D. (2006). The Postal Age: The Emergence of Modern Communications in Nineteenth-Century America. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
J.H, M., J., S., & H, K. (2002, january). Building Brand Community. Journal of Marketing.
Kozinets, R. V. (2009). E-Tribalized Marketing? The Strategic Implications of Virtual Communities of Consumption,”. European Management Journal, 17.
Kreshel, P. J. (2003). Advertising Research in the Pre-Depression Years: A Cultural History.Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 15(1).
R., A., U.M., D., & A., H. (2005). The Social Influence of Brand Community: Evidence from European Car Clubs. Journal of Marketing, 69, 19–34.
R., G. M. (2008). Facebook Marketing Stranger Danger and the Online Social Network. Berkeley Technology Law Journal Annual Review, 23.
T., H. M. (2008). An Ethnography of Social Network in Cyberspace: The Facebook Phenomenon. The Hong Kong Anthropologist.