Approaches for all research, whether qualitative or quantitative, requires interpretation and contextualization by the researcher. Narrative statements or a series of figures will not give the answer to the research question or statement (hypothesis) by themselves.
Therefore it is important to choose a research approach (or
approaches) that will give the correct ‘type’ of data to answer your research
A number of approaches are available when gathering data,
but these don’t have to be used in isolation. For instance a focus group can
elicit viewpoints which may need exploring further will a larger research
cohort using a closed question survey. For this reason, it is important to plan
your approach thoroughly before you start, to ensure your research question can
be answered and to let your respondees know what is expected of them.
Don’t forget that whichever research method is chosen, it
needs to have a robust ethics form that has been approved before contacting
participants and starting to gather data.
Approaches that can be used:
This is where a group of people discuss a particular
problem, facilitated by the researcher. The group interaction and the sharing
of ideas not only means that rich and meaningful data can be pulled out from
the focus group but also during the course of the focus groups, ideas can be
co-constructed between participants which can be used to further the depth of
When using structured interviews, the questions are written
beforehand and are strictly adhered to regardless of the answer.
Whilst pre written questions are also used in semi
structured interviews, this approach allows for the researcher to spontaneously
build on answers given, allowing the base question to be answered but also
elaborating on any areas which may impact on the research answer.
Surveys are an excellent way to reach a large number of
people. This approach works if there is a clear idea of the questions that will
elicit research to support the hypothesis. A mix of qualitative (open text
fields) or quantitative (set questions and answers) can be used.
This approach is valuable when more in depth research is
required and allows the researcher to investigate the issues in the place or
time that they occur. The researcher will observe the participant and often
will have follow up meetings to clarify or build on the information gained.
This method works on the ideology that it is less important what is said, then how it is said. The story a participant will tell may not be
entirely factual but it will be their perception of what happened which gives
greater in sight. This approach is linked to discourse analysis methodology.
Appreciative enquiry (AI)
AI shifts the traditional focus of looking for the negative
impacts of an issue and instead approaches the issue from a positive
Ethnographical methodology requires the researcher to embed
themselves in the participatory groups own setting, for a sustained time in
order to observe, talk and learn from participants.
There are a number of branches from the ethnographic
More than just an autobiographical account, an
auto-ethnographic researcher should reflect on events and use these to uncover
meanings and feelings that a purely narrative account may miss.
Using video, photos and artefacts as the main source of
research data rather than supplementing it.
Researchers using this methodology are involved and
participants or ‘lurkers’ in virtual groups and communities. Ethical issues
need to be carefully considered with this approach.
Soft Systems Methodology (SSM)
Instead of studying isolated issues, SSM is a holistic way
of looking at and solving problems. These are often presented in mind map
formats, making this a good research methodology for visual learners.
Questions to ask before choosing a research approach:
Will we learn more about this topic using
quantitative or qualitative approaches?
Which approach will produce more useful
Which will do more good?
Taken from: Cousin. Glynis, (2009) Researching Learning in Higher Education. Routledge. UK.
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Title: Research Methods – Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Mory define research as a systematized effort to new knowledge. Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown.
It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be named as research.
Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art”. Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement.
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research methods/techniques but also the methodology. Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests, how to calculate the mean, the mode, the median or the standard deviation or chi-square, how to apply particular research techniques, but they also need to know which of these methods or techniques, are relevant and which are not, and what would they mean and indicate and why. Researchers also need to understand the assumptions underlying various techniques and they need to know the criteria by which they can decide that certain techniques and procedures will be applicable to certain problems and others will not. All this means that it is necessary for the researcher to design his methodology for his problem as the same may differ from problem to problem. For example, an architect, who designs a building, has to consciously evaluate the basis of his decisions, i.e., he has to evaluate why and on what basis he selects particular size, number and location of doors, windows and ventilators, uses particular materials and not others and the like. Similarly, in research the scientist has to expose the research decisions to evaluation before they are implemented. He has to specify very clearly and precisely what decisions he selects and why he selects them so that they can be evaluated by others also.
From what has been stated above, we can say that research methodology has many dimensions and research methods do constitute a part of the research methodology. The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods. Thus, when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. Why a research study has been undertaken, how the research problem has been defined, in what way and why the hypothesis has been formulated, what data have been collected and what particular method has been adopted, why particular technique of analyzing data has been used and a host of similar other questions are usually answered when we talk of research methodology concerning a research problem or study.
Decision-making may not be a part of research, but research certainly facilitates the decisions of the policy maker. Government has also to chalk out programmes for dealing with all facets of the country’s existence and most of these will be related directly or indirectly to economic conditions. The plight of cultivators, the problems of big and small business and industry, working conditions, trade union activities, the problems of distribution, even the size and nature of defense services are matters requiring research. Thus, research is considered necessary with regard to the allocation of nation’s resources. Another area in government, where research is necessary, is collecting information on the economic and social structure of the nation. Such information indicates what is happening in the economy and what changes are taking place.
The decision to be made in the current research work is whether or not the organizational culture affects the alignment of IT strategy with the business strategy of a firm. Decision making is not the part of research method and process in the subject research. Through the research we aim to gather relevant and pertinent data to enable us to make appropriate decisions based on the past data. Various parameters that constitute the organizational culture will be first established and validated and the research work shall start.
Types of Research
The basic types of research are as follows:
Descriptive versus Analytical
Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In social science and business research we quite often the term Ex post facto research for descriptive research studies. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. Most ex post facto research projects are used for descriptive studies in which the researcher seeks to measure such items as, for example, frequency of shopping, preferences of people, or similar data. Ex post facto studies also include attempts by researchers to discover causes even when they cannot control the variables. The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and correlational methods. In analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyse these to make a critical evaluation of the material.
Applied versus Fundamental
Research can either be applied (or action) research or fundamental (to basic or pure) research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization, whereas, fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. “Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research”. Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental research. Similarly, research studies, concerning human behavior carried on with a view to make generalizations about human behavior, are also examples of fundamental research, but research aimed at certain conclusions (say, a solution) facing a concrete social or business problem is an example of applied research. Research to identify social, economic or political trends that may affect a particular institution or the copy research (research to find out whether certain communications will be read and understood) or the marketing research or evaluation research are examples of applied research. Thus, the central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem, whereas basic research is directed towards finding information that has a broad base of applications and thus, adds to the already existing organized body of scientific knowledge.
Quantitative versus Qualitative
Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. For instance, when we are interested in-.investigating the reasons for human behavior (i.e., why people think or do certain things), we quite often talk of ‘Motivation Research’, an important type of qualitative research. This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires using in depth interviews for the purpose. Other techniques of such research are word association tests, sentence completion tests, story completion tests and similar other projective techniques. Attitude or opinion research i.e., research designed to find out how people feel or what they think about a particular subject or institution is also qualitative research. Qualitative research is especially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behavior.
Conceptual versus Empirical
Conceptual research methods are related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. On the other hand, empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. It is data-based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment. We can also call it as experimental type of research. In such a research it is necessary to get at facts first hand, at their source, and actively to go about doing certain things to stimulate the production of desired information. In such a research, the researcher must first provide himself with a working hypothesis or guess as to the probable results. He then works to get enough facts (data) to prove or disprove his hypothesis. He then sets up experimental designs which he thinks will manipulate the persons or the materials concerned so as to bring forth the desired information. Such research is thus characterised by the experimenter’s control over the variables under study and his deliberate manipulation of one of them to study its effects. Empirical research is appropriate when proof is sought that certain variables affect other variables in some way. Evidence gathered through experiments or empirical studies is today considered to be the most powerful support possible for a given hypothesis.
Kothari, C. R. (2004) Research methodology: Research Methods and techniques. New Age International.
Slesinger, D., & Stephenson, M. (1930) The Encyclopedia of Social Sciences and Research Methods Vol. IX.
Woody, C. (1924) A survey of educational research in 1923. The Journal of Educational Research Methods, 9(5), 357-381.
The Adoption Rate of E-Mobile Banking is an Impact of Customers’ Acceptance of Information Technology in the Banking Sector
The information and telecommunications industry had been a key enabler of productivity across the societies and economies. The IT innovation is not only a significant contributor to the economies of a state, but also towards the growth of the industries. In the present days, banking industries have felt the influence of the telecommunications by a margin among other industries. The emerging information technology trends in across states had been a concern of the researchers. Precisely, m-banking services have had an uptake as the banking industry have enhanced access of service with convenience and ease to use cell phones. This thesis study is aimed to an extensive provide research on the most influencing factors affecting adoption of the technology in banking industry. In this case therefore, the research will place focus on the m-banking services in Australian banking sector (Drennan et al., 2009). The study incorporates Technology Acceptance Model to derive a conceptual framework in order to address its objective and research questions. In this study, data will be gathered from literature reviews and analysts, questionnaires, and interviews. The collected information from interviewing 40 respondents through a survey questionnaire will be used to compare and provide discussion on the factors influencing m-banking adoption rate. Data analysis methods will include weighted mean calculation, for analyzing the questionnaire data, and regression method to test the correlations and significance of factors influencing adoption rate of m-banking.
Chapter One: Background Of The Study
Banking industry in the contemporary world has been intensive users of technologies. Since its emergence, technologies have rendered essential roles to industries to deliver quality products and services. Particularly, their essence had risen from financial technologies such as information and telecommunications across nations. In comparison of the recent IT and telecommunications services with those provided in early 1970s, it is clear that, there had been a complete transformation of technology acceptance and adoption rate in banking industries. This way, there had been numerous researches as an area of interest to scholars, managers, and scientist to explore as the apparent world has taken a new face of technology (Drennan et al., 2009).
This research paper, therefore, places attempt to further past research basing on the past theoretical views of technology acceptance model.
The adoption rate of e-mobile banking is an impact of customers’ acceptance of information technology and telecommunications innovation in the banking sector.
Statement of the problem
The adoption rate of any advancement of technology is not guaranteed that it will translate into consumer adoption. However, consumers’ acceptance and their willingness to adopt new technology have been evidence to be a crucial aspect to the banking industry. This is especially in implementation of new product development and marketing. In which technology diffusion is partially determined whether potential users accept and adopt the technology employed.
Significance of the study
Not only scarce research on the technology acceptance and adoption had been a hindrance to the banking sector, but also a limit to managers to understand the priorities of the formation of intentions to accept and adopt mobile e-services. Precisely, this research study focus on the factors affecting technology acceptance model as proposed by Fred Davis. It seeks to expand research on the significance of the factors affecting TAM. This knowledge helps stakeholders in realizing the prevailing environment and its trends in the subject sector.
Objectives of the study
To determine the significance of the factors affecting adoption of m-banking industry.
To determine the significance of the factors influencing technology acceptance model.
To understand consumer behaviors influence on the product development and marketing.
To understand better on how adoption of m-banking has impacted financial services in the banking industry.
To offer recommendation towards designing of effective m-banking marketing strategies.
Do the potential customers perceive the relevance of the e-mobile banking?
Do the potential customers perceive mobile e-service easy to use?
Does the cell phone banking influence users attitude towards adoption.
Does the intention to adopt the e-mobile banking influence consumer behavior.
Chapter Two: Literature Review
Internet mobile banking
Internet banking and mobile banking are both essential subsets of e-banking services. According to Lassar (2005, p. 177), internet banking can be defined as an electronic system that allows potential customers to perform various banking services electronically through bank’s website. It is an internet features which in the present day; mobile phones have been provided web surfing capabilities. It is an apparent trend of adoption of new mobile phones technologies that can enable users to access internet through their hand-held devices. The mobiles phones capabilities are enhanced by the wireless application protocol (WAP) cell phone banking with a similar inter-face to internet banking. Only that, the hand-held device is supported by the GPRS, WAP, EDGE, or 3G.
Internet mobile banking had been a fundamental change in the banking sector in the recent years. It is evidenced by the consumer movement from the conventional branch banking into more stand-alone banking services via electronic delivery channels than office branch. However, following the acceptance and intention to adopt new technology Chan (2001, p.10); modified the initial definition of mobile banking. His argument posits that mobile internet banking is an electronic transaction service via bank’s website by using a computer a computer and a modem to access internet. It is a field of study that researchers have considered the influence and the adoption of e-mobile banking. according to Suoranta & Mattila (2004, p. 364).typical e-mobile banking users will continue to use the wired channel while the current users of the automated bill payment and the branch offices will be shifted to mobile phone banking.
This way, cell phone banking users, cannot be drawn from the heavy internet banking users probably, because, they will continue using internet banking. Besides, he posit rationality for banks not to invest convincing its regular internet users to adopt a new electronic, but they should or rather attempt to enable potential customers outside this segment to be interested with the advantages of mobile phone banking. Precisely, the relevant performance of the new technology should be inessential issue of concern to the banking industry influence a change in accordance to customers on taste and preference.
Technology acceptance model
The initials steps required for adoption of the emerging information technology had been a hindrance of banking performance. It involves establishing which purpose the intended new system will address and what functionality the bank requires. This way, for any e-portfolio system the bank need to establish which one size fits all; corresponding to a series of standard functionalities (Zhang, et al., 2007).
Technology acceptance and its usage had been a focal point in a wide range of research studies. In this case, TAM application enabled understanding of conceptual issues related to the e-portfolio use. In which several theoretical models have been applied to provide sufficient study on user acceptance and usage behavior of emerging information technology trends. Several studies, including Roger’s diffusion theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Theory of Reason Action (TRA) gave inception of the Technology Acceptance Model. TAM has emerged to be preferable model that represents the preceding theories of technology usage through the profound beliefs related to the perceived usefulness and its ease of a technology. The previous researches have shown the powerfulness of TAM over other theories of the as a basis to explain the variance in systems use (Davis, 1989).
(Pearlson& Saunders, 2006) argues that, the use of TAM is predicted on the decision on or rather attention of individuals having control whether or not they accept the use of the system. The factors in the model are perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and the attitude towards the usage of the system and adoption. The behavioral intention to use by the potential customers is the essentials factor that draws whether the users will actually utilize the information technology introduced. This way, the firm may draw critical decisions-making to enhance its performance especially in the banking sector (Ajzen& Fishbein, 2000).This theoretical view, therefore, derives the of propositions below;
Technology Acceptance Model and study of e-mobile banking
The mobile services convenience and promptness to customers had been growing concerns to academic researchers. Accordingly, a past growing body of academic research has examined the determinants of the cell phone banking acceptance and its utilization (Arora et al., 2011),.
Dillon and Morris (1998, p.5) portrays the technology acceptance as the demonstrable willingness of individuals within a group to employ IT for the designed task as intended to support. Basically, the research investigated the instrumental influences involving beliefs on how to utilize technology. This way, it results in the objectives hence improvements in the performance. (Thompson, et al., 2006) argue that non-instrumental factors may be limiting factors on the acceptance of the technology. However, the TAM posits that, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of utility are the fundamental detriment that influences an individual behavioral intention (Hu et al. 1999).
According to Laurin and Lin (2005, p. 878) research; it extended the technology acceptance model. Their perspective towards understanding of the behavioral intention to the utility of the mobile banking survey was conducted in Taiwan included the perceived credibility, perceived self-efficacy and the perceived financial costs in m-banking context (see figure 1).In their research, they revealed that, all stated factors have effects on the behavioral, and the perceived credibility is evidenced to be the most contributing factor to intention. However, on later study to generalize their earlier m-banking acceptance model, Wang, Lin and Laurn (2006) adopted an extended constructs. That is perceived usefulness had a significant contribution followed by the perceived ease of usage contributed behavior attention.
Another study by Cheong and Park (2008) carried out research on reluctance factors of the Korean’s to adopt m-banking services. In addition to the conventional TAM factors included additional constructs; facilitating conditions and the switching barriers. The findings in the research show that facilitating conditions affluence the positively the intention to use m-payment, whilst switching barriers negatively affected the behavioral intentions. Besides, Gu et al., (2009) research in Korea examined the determinants of the mobile banking. The authors introduced another factor; it considered trust as an additional key construct of the behavioral intention to utilize an introduced technology. In addition to self-efficacy, social influence, facilitating conditions, system quality, structural assurance, familiarity with the bank, and calculated-based on trusts were indicated as the key constructs of behavioral intentions. However, perceived usefulness and ease to use were the most contributing factors on behavioral intentions.
Another stream of research in developing countries was carried out to understand the socio-economic and technological impacts of m-banking adoption. Research placed study that m-banking in developing countries is considered as a complimentary service offered by the banking industry. It is considered an alternative of ATMs and internet banking. However, important criteria such as convenience and ease to use seemed to be important when they consider adopting m-banking. The appeal for the cell phone banking in developing countries revealed that influence on the convenience may be less than accessibility and affordability due to the network quality connection, coverage, and costs (Donner and Tellez, 2008). However, Laforet and Li (2005) investigation in developed countries; examined consumer behavior, motivation, attitude, and cultural influence on the m-banking in China. In the findings, customers in China do not attach much importance on m-banking convenience but perceived risks and technological skills are the most influential factors.
Lastly, Sripalawat et al. (2011) carried out to examine positive and negative factors influencing m-banking acceptance in Thailand. The research considered subjective norms, self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease to use as the positive factors. Contrary, the study considered device barrier, lack of information, perceived risk, and financial costs as the negative factors. Their findings not only revealed that positive factors are the most influential than negative factors, but also subjective norms to be the most influential amongst positive factors.
The conceptual framework deduces its constructs from the past literature reviews as from chapter two. The study basis is from the extended Technology Acceptance Model by of Luarn and Lin (2005). Its shows the factors which influence the adoption of cell phone banking. The constructs suggests that the technology user adoption of a new information system fundamentally determined by two factors; perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of the system. In addition, perceived credibility, efficacy and financial cost also affects the behavioral intentions of users to adopt m-banking. The model in this case, therefore, states the gaps between the past literatures reviews and the current study.
The successful marketing of the new technology remains one of the crucial aspects of banking industry that employs technology to satisfy customers across border. However, it places challenges when addressing the factors that influence potential customer’s decision to adopt the newly introduced technology. It requires better understanding on behavioral intentions to accept new technology. Specifically, the influence of beliefs of the existing technology moderates its adoption necessary another technology. This way, the study will gain better understanding through the past tentative literature reviews and followed by empirical research amongst customers. Besides, the study will provide extensive information to the field of marketing with possible strategies to m-banking.
Chapter Three: Methodology
This chapter provides discussion on the methodologies and various data collection techniques. These techniques will be employed as demanded by objectives of the study. The research methods were designed owing to the objectives of the study. For this reason, therefore, the strategies which the paper will use are to determine the major significance of the factors affecting adoption rate of mobile banking (Bryman, 2012).
Philosophical approaches enable planning of the research design and the choice of methodology. It provides guide in choosing appropriate research methods regarding to the research objectives and research questions. In accordance, they follow research design choice, performance, assessment of design and the research quality. Besides, they are approaches which provides guide of the choices available from epistemology and ethnology as well (Johnson, 2000). Regarding ethnology, the paper will use realism paradigm to address the hypothesis of the study. This way the paper will adopt realism of factors affecting significantly the behavioral intentions to adopt mobile banking in Australia. On the other hand, the paper will use objectivity as its epistemology approach to base on the assumptions to deduce results without biasness. The researcher, therefore, will carry out the study in a neutral state to address the objectives successfully (Bryman, 2012).
The overview of the research methodology which the study will employ involves three-layer approach (see figure 2). It provides aims of developing an experimental framework to study the empirical findings. It incorporates a combination of both the primary and secondary data necessary to validate the study accordingly. This way, the paper will be able to test null hypothesis about a specific factor influence on the m-banking adoption (Saunders et al., 2012). The hypotheses derive form from the TAM literature review and interview data collected are as below.
H 1: perceived usefulness has a significant influence on the m-banking adoption rate
H 2: Perceived ease of use has a significant influence on the m-banking adoption rate
H 3: Perceived credibility has a significant influence on the m-banking adoption rate
H 4: Perceived self-efficacy has a significant influence on the m-banking adoption rate
H 5: Perceived financial cost has a significant influence on the m-banking adoption rate
Justification of the research methods
Basing the research actual need, qualitative and quantitative analysis will be used. The study sought to choose both techniques because it will employ to determine the significance of the specific factor on m-banking. It will therefore include the weighted mean average and regression analysis of the primary data. Amongst the techniques which will be used, the study will prefer interviews to be most appropriate to facilitate survey questionnaires effectively.
Technology Acceptance Model accommodated the banking industry analysis. Accordingly, it make it best-suited theoretical framework to study the factors affecting cell phone banking. The model will refer to the significance of the factors to determine behavioral intentions of the potential customer to adopt it. This way in provided a conceptual framework to address the hypothesis as it involves lots of internet participant of varied dimensions such as the customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. To improve on the validity and credibility, the study will paper will use both closed and open-ended questionnaires: in which questionnaire form will contain demographic questions, ratings for the constructs influencing m-banking adoptions, and throws open questions to try cover in summary any factor beyond the listed ones (Oppenheim, 2000).
Primary data collection
In order to identify the significance of the key factors affecting the adoption of m-banking in Australia banking industry, respondents from top three bank’s respondents will be selected. This will be the primary source to form the null hypothesis to be tested in the study. The selection is based on the assumption that these respondents understand the nature of the industry banking services especially m-banking. This way, will ensure the result will fit into the context of the study. Besides, the data collection method will follow the questionnaire design mentioned above (see section 3.3).
Secondary data collection
Apart from the past literature reviews, the study will also use secondary method to source information from the bank managers. It will obtain answers regarding significances of factors affecting m-banking by processing questionnaires avenues such as the number subscribers, m-banking frequencies and customers’ satisfaction feedback messages. Similarly, it will access data from the bank’s customer care desks data concerning the subject matter of the study covering the limited range of two years; the past year of 2013 and to the current records of 2014 (Matthews et al., 2010).
Face-to-face interviews Justifications
Face-to-face interview technique had been most preferable over the past years to date. Researchers, analysts and journals had found it effective for empirical studies. Since it develops life participation in which the informant feels he or she is involved. Hence, attains a sense of ownership of the study too. Put simpler, it is an in-depth direct and a repeated face-to-face interaction between the researcher and the informant. This way, it enables the respondent to share freely and openly their opinion about the subject of the study regarding their experience, attitudes and lifestyles. Therefore the research will be in a position to uncover the respondent’s situations, attitudes and experience effectively (Oppenheim, 2000).
Besides, interviews will be used to draw opinions of the respondents. The interview methods will include Face-to-face interviews which is the preferable over email, and in-world interviews.
In-world interview justifications
In-word environment is a recent times innovations which enables internet users to engage in a virtual environment through avatars. It is more like face-to-face social interaction but it is computer mediated communications feature which participant may as well interact through live chats. This is a marketing platform which banking industry places their products advertisement in an immersive environment such as online gaming, videos and so forth. Perhaps it is adopted for some reasons to embraces the Second Life way of doing things in 21st century. In this case, therefore, the study will engage respondents online through in-world interviews at ease. It is a technique which is essential especially respondents are unavailable to participate in face-to-face interviews.
Email interviews justifications
These are research interviews essentially conducted in rare occasions. Mostly, it is applied in case where the respondent is unavailable at the time of or uncomfortable in having face-to-face interviews. It is a rare instance that considers time constrains in which respondents will participate via email. The researcher will forward mail with semi-structured questions expected to be replied within a period of one week. All the respondents will be assumed that they are computer literate and had access of internet. This is because they on the expectations of the study that if they are using m-baking therefore are computer literate. However, email-based might raise confidentiality, deception and consent, otherwise, resolved to provide confidentially and identity protection (Bryman, 2012).
Sample and sampling size
In order to achieve the desired objectives, sampling strategy is important to be used especially, where qualitative approach is intended to be used. According to this study, the target population will be Australian top three bank’s customers. It will consider thirty respondents between the age of eighteen and seventy five. The study target pre-assumes that the population is the actual customers of the bank with access to the internet, computer literate, bank account and the uses m-banking services (Davies, 2007).
Random sampling method will be employed for the sample selection from the identified banks. This will be a necessary method for the study in order to avoid selection bias. It will create an opportunity in conducting the survey at neutral state for the sample population. The pilot-testing of the model will be conducted prior the study in order to ascertain the strategy performance, reliability and validity.
Methods of data analysis
Data analysis is a logic way of understanding and interpretation of the collected data. It includes two processes; analytical process where the data will be collected, categorized, compared, and integrated. Whilst interpretation process of analyzed employed circularly while making out sense out of the analyzed data (Hassan, et al. 2013). Since the study seeks determine the significances of the factors affecting adoption of m-banking in Australia, it triggers the need to employ statistical method of analysis. Therefore, it will incorporate two methods of data collection;
Weighted mean for the questionnaires
The results of the closed-ended questions will be assessed using TAM constructs significance. They will be scale from 1 to 5; strongly disagreed scores 1, disagree scores 2, neutral scores 3, agree scores 4 and strongly agree will equate 5 scores. To analyze the results obtained from the informants, the weighted mean score will be calculated accordingly. Similarly, open-ended questions will be analyzed at a personal interpretation, but at a neutral state rating the significance of the defined factors of adoption in ranks.
Least square method regression analysis
A least square multiple linear regression will be used to assess the correlation between the predators among the five independent variables and the m-banking adoption intention. This way, their variance will be used to in behavioral intentions to adopt m-banking will be therefore used to analyze the factor’s significance will be ranked accordingly (Smith, 2011).
Validity, Reliability and Ethics
Qualitative research is considered to execute reliability and the credibility of the study. Ethnology choice of realism will enable the stability of the study in conjunction with epistemology positivism approach. Positivism will be essential to deliver a neutral interpretation or measures without bias of the open-ended questionnaires. Use of repeatedly random sampling method and in-depth interview reviews also contributes the reliability of the research study.
While the reliability concerns the consistency of the scores results validity concerns, how the results will be interpreted. Validity will concern how well the study results place support of the theory or the constructs of the research paper. Accordingly, the collection data and analysis techniques will be pilot-tested prior the actual research. Besides, the constructs validity will be assessed by means of convergent and discriminant validity as well. That is, comparison of the similarity of results from different instrument of data analysis methods used.
Considering ethics, the paper will ensure the study will not cause any harm to the respondents by ensuring; their consensus to be part of the study contributors via interviews prior commencement of the study. Secondly, explaining the benefits of the study and guaranteed confidentiality in the procedures. This way, the research will provide their protection rights to respondents accordingly (Walliman, 2010).
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