In the current business environment where competition and technological advancement is on the rise, it is imperative for the HR function to be on the forefront in enhancing the success of the business. One of the ways in which the HR function can help improve the work-ability of the business is by ensuring the workforce and the activities that relate to it bring the maximum returns to the company. As such it is pivotal to use the HR metrics and job analytics to track the return on investments channeled to the workforce. In the recent past, organizations have realized the importance of a balanced scorecard for the HR department (Smith, 2013). It is through this score card that the organizations have adopted the use of HR metrics and job analysis to measure the efficiency and the effectiveness of the workforce and use this information in decision-making.
One of the reasons that have led to an increased interest in HR metrics is the use of the data obtained from the metrics and job analytics towards improving the effectiveness of the company. The data obtained from the metrics acts as a basis in which the management can make major decisions for the improvement of the company and achieving the company’s goals. As such, the data acts as a thermostat that can measure the current situation and use the information in decision-making (Smith, 2013). Since the workforce comprises a major asset to the company, it is critical to ensure that decisions based on HR have facts that back them.
Additionally, organizations have realized that the use of technology in analyzing the HR function has the ability to save time and resources. Essentially the human resource department has the obligation of ensuring that the value of money and time spent in HR activities has major returns for the company. Therefore, it is their duty to provide the management with essential information that they can use to make decisions based on efficient use of the organization’s time and money (Sullivan, 2003). Using the HR metrics and job analytics, the HR department is able to track down the changes and trends in the workforce variables. Further, organizations can monitor the effectiveness of the activities based on people, process, and productivity. Thus it becomes easy to measure the value of time and money spent by the organization in the HR department.
The cost of HRIS is usually a debatable issue among organizations. However, it is important to realize the benefits that come with the use of HRIS in the HR department. For instance, when the HR uses the metrics and job analysis to analyze the cost per hire, the organization gets the facts on the amount it is using to hire. As such, it gives the organization the opportunity to find out whether the amount of money used in hiring is spent on the right people. In essence using the job analytics during the hiring process saves the company the situation where it could hire the wrong people for the job and consequently reducing the turnover rate in the organization (Sullivan, 2003). Primarily this justifies the cost of HRIS.
Additionally, the HR function spends the highest money in most organizations in terms of pay and allowances. Therefore, it is imperative for the organizations to ensure that they reap the most from the services offered by the workforce. Through the use of HRIS, the department can account for the training ROI in which the company spends money (Sullivan, 2003). The training returns on investment ensure that there are maximum financial gains from a training function to the employees. Without the use of this HRIS the company may make losses in training.
It is a significant loss to lose a valued employee by the organization. Therefore, it is important for the organization to have a functional HRIS that keeps track of the employees’ performance and improvements (Smith, 2013). For instance, using the manual employee tracking system may be compromised due to the human nature of being faulty. Such instances may lead to increased turnover and talent mismanagement. Thus a good HRIS saves the company all these losses.
Smith, T. (2013). HR analytics. Create-Space Independent Publishing Platform
Sullivan, J. (2003). HR metrics, the world-class way. Peterborough, NH: Kennedy Information.
Title: HRM Dissertation Barriers to Women in the UK Construction Industry. In the 21st Century the idea of women in the workplace has become a widely accepted notion not just by society but also being enshrined in law with the introduction of the Equal Pay Act (1970), the Sex Discrimination Act (1975), and the Equality Act (2010). As a result of this, many sectors within the UK economy have seen an increase in the equal representation of men and women in the workplace with occupations such as elementary education resulting in women forming 46% of workers, in the professional sector women make up 50% and within management and senior official roles women constitute only 33%. However, in stark contrast of these progressive figures, women form only 11% of the entire construction Industry with 80% of these roles that women occupy being in fact merely support roles carrying out things like secretarial work; only 15% of women are actually part of the professional body of employees- this constitutes just 1.5% of professionals in the entire industry.
In 2006, Greed went so far as to say that these secretarial roles are not contributing to, or not being part of the construction process. It appears that although the construction industry has innovated in terms of methods and practices the same old ideas of it being a male-dominated world still remains. In order for the industry to thrive and remain relevant in these modern times it must adapt itself, and let go of this man’s world culture by encouraging and recruiting more women. It is on this basis that more Investigation must be done as to why there is such a lack of female presence within the construction industry and how as an industry it can attract the young girls of today’s society so that the industry will have a more representative and diverse future.
Dissertation Aims and Objectives
The aim of this research is to look into and analyse why there is such a lack of females within the UK construction industry, what can be done to change the perception of the industry as being a man’s world and attract the future generation of women to consider the industry as a viable career choice.
To investigate and evaluate if there is an actual need for women within the professional sector of the UK construction industry.
To compare the lack of women in the construction industry with other industries in the UK, and then with other EU member countries as a whole.
To examine the reasons why there is a severe lack of women within the UK built environment profession in the modern era.
To assess how those in secondary schools view construction and ascertain if they see a future within the industry.
To evaluate how the industry is trying to tackle this issue and whether these are having a positive impact or if more needs to be done.
1 – Introduction
2 – Literature Review
The need for women in professional roles within construction
Benefits to more women in construction
Comparison within UK and EU
Comparison with the medical profession
Comparison of UK construction industry to the of Europe
Hurdles to women in construction
The choice between career or children
Flexibility and maternity leave
The construction Industry as sexist
Lack of female role models
The views of secondary pupils
Efforts of the construction industry
Female construction organisations
3 – Methodology
4 – Data Analysis
Social aspects of university
5 – Discussion of Results
Preconception about construction
Sexism in the industry
Efforts of the construction industry
Female construction organisations
Enthusiasm of female students
6 – Results and Conclusions
Analysis of Research Objectives
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To adapt to new demands and ensure business success, organizations have initiated profound processes of transformation, aiming to add value to its shareholders (stakeholders), customers, employees, suppliers, ultimately the entire value chain. The central point of this value chain lays with peoples especially employees of the organization. If technology demands change in core business processes, it also expects to change in the traditional methods of dealing organizational human resources (Dunn, 2010, pp. 02).
A contemporary vision of people management, assumes that the world is changing, people are changing and hence the organizations are in the process of change. Just as people today have more and better access to information, knowledge, new technologies, companies are also changing their old concepts or paradigms in constant learning process. The learning organizations understand the importance of their employees and for them it is often necessary to unlearn in order to learn.In the management of people, the need for change is constant and urgent. The old paradigms of the industrial era and the military model for management of people has completely transformed and the contemporary era of knowledge, cooperation, sustainability and the new information technologies has taken place in modern business organization (Pučėtaitė et al., 2008, pp. 325).
Traditional human resources practices revolve around employee motivation and satisfaction and his performance. But with the rapid changes in business environment and phenomenal growth of technological advancement, such methods become incapable to produce the results. Contemporary People Management (CPM) has provided the solution. CPM has gone ahead of merely satisfying employees to making them satisfied. An organization with contemporary vision of Personnel Management, has strategic clarity inmaking the mission, vision, values and objectives and is assimilated and practiced by all employees consciously and unconsciously creating an alignment and cooperation among the employees (Pinnington et al., 2007, pp. 267).
Employee Satisfaction Discussion
In postmodern business environment, moral values and ethical standards have become increasingly complicated. This has affected the practices of HR, where a decision by HR manager can significantly produce drastic impacts on people’s job and their future employment opportunities.
The practice and theoretical framework of Human resource management is facing several challenges and most important of them are globalization challenge, HR innovation challenge, the sustainability challenge and the challenge of attracting and retaining people. These four challenges can be transformed into a competitive strength of the organization through CPM (Bartram, 2010, pp. 26). The challenge of HR innovation itself is a course to achieve Contemporary people management. Now business organizations are moving towards knowledge management, which include the transformation of techniques, processes, structures and systems, which can lead to the creation and sharing of knowledge throughout the organization. Resultantly, Global knowledge economy starts to develop which helps to increase the knowledge about different cultures, globalization process and intensify the knowledge about production processes. Australian federal government has since 1970 supported and implemented several such schemes and proposals which help to internationalize Australian business.
Changing business practices and innovation in HR practices and policies has created different ethical dilemmas. HR does not take place in isolation. It affects the life of employees and the ethical consideration of organization as well as of HR manager hassignificant impact of the performance of the employees.As the process of internationalization has started to increase its pace, we can see the dominance of neo liberal moral and ethical standards, which are regulated by a balance between alternative ends and scarce resources. It is simply based on utilitarian approach in order to select best method for the maximum number of people. When interests of people are satisfied with the help of common good, it will produce environment of return of favour.State of common good that can be achieved through utilitarian approach, not only benefits employee but it also produce good results for organization (Klikauer, 2012, pp. 74).
Several ethical theories have elaborated the impact of ethical principles on business practices. Utilitarianism approach is rooted in consequentialism and according to it; the rightness or wrongness of our action is described best by the consequence of that action. An action is said to be morally right if it has produced satisfaction to the majority of the people. In consequentialism, there is no universal moral standard unlike virtue ethics. But it depends on the situational awareness and the will of the majority of the people. Some critics believe that it has some demerits and in extreme cases, the will of the people can be unjust and illegitimate.Despites its flaws business manager apply utilitarian approach in their organization because this propagates the goodness of the people at large (Greenwood, 2013, pp. 357).
The concept of utilitarianism has subjective matter and it is very difficult to determine accurately the level of maximum utility.It involves situational assessment and awareness and considers only available information. In this situation, it is difficult to evaluate the impact of decision based on utilitarian in long terms aspect. Similarly, it is very difficult to accurately determine the majority of people. So like other ethical and moral standards, utilitarianism has some weaknesses (Audi, 2007, pp. 596).
The objective of the management is to produce a satisfied employee so that he/she can perform better and an organization can produce profit. Well-being of the employee in this case is a mean to an end but it is not an end itself. However it does not simply mean that an organization is interested in the wellbeing of employee, but it is more interested in a productive employee. Utilitarianism approach does not simply mean that producing greatest good for the large number of people, but it motivates management to produce satisfaction among the employees. If 10 per cent annual increase in the salary fails to bring any kind of satisfaction within the organization, it simply would be rendered as increase in the cost of organization.In the context of utilitarianism, bringing satisfaction is not the total objective of the management, but satisfaction principle in ethical model is to prevent employees from any damage or problems. Power can only be exercised on employees in the situation so that harm to the majority of the people can be avoided.In this way, management creates a civilized community within the organization (Klikauer, 2010, pp. 51).
We have seen the paradigm shift in the practices and policies of traditional human resource management. In classical human resource management, employees were considered as a liability where as in contemporary people management, employees are regarded as an asset.As the organizations are moving towards learning organization and are based on knowledge, highly educated and independent employees demands cooperative attitude and no longer they are considered for granted. This trend demands in operational procedures of HR. classical HR practices cannot boost the performance of such employees and the sharp edges of traditional HR practices, in result are have been removed (Van Marrewijk et al., 2003, pp. 175).
Contemporary practices of HR has taken strategic position among the organization and is regarded the change agent and facilitator for transformation and restructuring processes. It has manifested itself as a strategic partner between the employee and organization. Modern practices of HR are based on knowledge and constant learning process. It pays individual attention on human asset management, human culture management and human potential management. Cultural diversity is no longer regarded as a problem. Contemporary human resource practice transformed cultural diversity into a strength through strong communication skill and motivating their employees to seek knowledge from different cultures (Worland &Manning, 2005, pp. 07). Traditionally, HRM works closely with the bosses and managers but contemporary people management works closely with employees. The role of HR practices has changed. Now making employee satisfied is not sufficient and efficient for business managers. Employees need to feel the real satisfaction and they all should be prevented from harm and injustice. Utilitarianism approach of satisfaction for all has become the central point of contemporary people management.
We can safely conclude that HR has occupied the strategic position in the organizational structure and conventional methods of HR are no longer effective to accommodate the needs of employees as well as organizational objectives.It should not be implied that the classical HR framework and practices have completely become useless and obsolete, but it has provided a basic structure for contemporary people management. Because organization itself is nothing without employees and he/she is an active agent of transferring raw material into a finished good, he/she must be satisfied and happy, so that his performance bring satisfaction to organization and its customers.
Postmodern economy is based on knowledge and learning. Organization that understand the importance of knowledge, keep on changing their HR policies.The classical concept of employee’s high performance with lowest cost of employees has failed to fulfil the business objectives. Employees are no longer regarded as liabilities. They are considered the asset and the value of the asset increase with the time. satisfaction of employees has preceded employee satisfaction. This demands changes in the ethical values of organization. It is through Utilitarianism approach that the goodness of majority of the people can be achieved.It becomes the duty of the manager to increase the total volume of satisfaction of employees. Similarly, utilitarianism approach encourages all those actions which can produce wellbeing for the majority of the people.
Bartram, T., Kramar, R., & De Cieri, H. (2010). Human resource management: strategy, people, performance. North Ryde, N.S.W., McGraw-Hill Education.
Klikauer, T. (2010). Critical management ethics.Houndmills, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
Klikauer, T. (2012). Seven management moralities.Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan.
Pinnington, A. H., Macklin, R., & Campbell, T. (2007). Human resource management: Ethics and employment. Human Resource Management: Ethics and Employment, xii.
Redman, T., & Wilkinson, A. (Eds.). (2009). Contemporary human resource management: text and cases. Pearson Education.
Audi, R. (2007). Can utilitarianism be distributive? Maximization and distribution as criteria in managerial decisions. Business Ethics Quarterly, 17(4), 593-611.
Dunn, B. H. (2010). Human Resource Management: The Importance of Getting It Right Employee Satisfaction. Rangelands, 32(4), 2-3.
Greenwood, M. (2013). Ethical analyses of HRM: A review and research agenda. Journal of business ethics, 114(2), 355-366.
Greenwood, M., & Freeman, R. E. (2011).Ethics and HRM. Business and Professional Ethics Journal, 30(3/4), 269-292.
Pučėtaitė, R., &Lämsä, A. M. (2008).Developing organizational trust through advancement of employees’ work ethic in a post-socialist context Employee Satisfaction. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(2), 325-337.
Simmons, J. (2008). Ethics and morality in human resource management. Employee Satisfaction Social responsibility journal, 4(1/2), 8-23.
Van Marrewijk, M., &Timmers, J. (2003). Human capital management: New possibilities in people management. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2-3), 171-184.
Worland, D., & Manning, K. (2005). Employee Satisfaction, Strategic human resource management and performance.
A Comprehensive Definition of Organization Development
The theory of Organization Development relates to an organization’s process and efforts to change the organization for the better. The process includes several steps that must be performed as a continuous cycle to keep the organization at its most efficient in order to achieve the goal of ongoing success.
Organization Development is an organization’s ongoing exercise in planning processes that span the organization, in order to execute effective change in the organization. This process includes a diagnosis of how the organization and its employees function harmoniously or not. This is followed by identification of the specifics of successes and failures within the organization through data analysis. Armed with this information, planning for necessary changes within the organization may begin. Once a plan is in place, it must be executed. Finally, after this implementation, the organization must again make assessments to determine if the desired change was realized. Organization Development is not a one-size fits all solution for an organization, nor is it a singular process; but one that is ongoing and continually adapting to achieve organizational success.
Organization Development Opportunity
Often Organization Development begins in an organization when an opportunity for improvement is acknowledged by management and a positive change is sought. The function of Organization Development is to focus attention on improving the abilities of the organization and its employees to allow the organization to make positive changes from within to achieve its ultimate goal of success. Whether an organization utilizes the contracted services of an OD practitioner from outside or an OD practitioner that is already on its team, the functions and processes along the way will be similar. The first step taken is known in the Organization Development world as entering and contracting.
Entering and contracting is very much as it sounds. It starts with making clear the organization’s issue that needs improvement, deciding who will represent the organization in the process, and choosing an OD professional that is equipped with the appropriate experience and know-how to guide the process within the organization. Following these decisions, comes the contracting phase, in which, the parties involved establish how the Organization Development process will move forward. Roles are determined, expectations are stated, timetables are determined, and rules are outlined. This phase can be as formal or informal, depending on the desires of the organization, but most organization find that the more detailed the contracting phase the more likely the process is to stay on track and be successful.
After the entering and contracting phase is formulated, the second action to be performed is known in OD as diagnosing. This process is the examination and determination of how the organization is functioning in the present – right now. The OD practitioner and the organization’s team collect the relevant data via interviews, surveys, observations, and reports. Once the data is collected, it is analyzed through the lens of the appropriate diagnostic models which help to recognize and identify trustworthy data. There are several diagnostic models that are commonly used; diagnostic models including the Open System, organizational-level, group-level, and individual level. The OD professional must make the selection of diagnostic model that is most significant and will yield the most advantageous information for the organization. Ideally the model will be selected prior to the data collection so that the data can be collected more accurately, but the data collection can be done and then paired with the most effective diagnostic model. With this fresh data and subsequent analysis the OD practitioner and the organization team can determine what is working well and where improvements are needed. From this diagnosis, the necessary intervention can be developed.
Organization Development Planning
The Organization Development intervention is the development of the plan to be used to generate change that will allow the organization to improve both the organization and its employees and develop more positive interaction between the two in order to drive success. In order for the Organization Development to be successful, the intervention must suit the needs of the organization, founded on fundamental knowledge of the desired results, and be assured that the change-agent can convey the vision to all of the members of the organization. Intervention, execution, and change management must go hand in hand. The fitting intervention must be found for the unique organization from among the four major types of Organization Development intervention: Human Process, Techno-structural, Human Resource Management, and Strategic. After the suitable intervention is chosen, the OD profession must be alert to the organizations readiness and ability to make the changes, the cultural environment’s potential influence, and the expertise of the change agent. Once the execution of the intervention has begun, the process of transition requires close attention and must be carefully managed so that the change momentum can be maintained and resistance to the process can be overcome. As these guidelines are followed, Organization Development can be the coordinated transition by which an organization accomplishes effective and lasting change.
The final stage of Organization Development is the evaluation of the implemented changes and their potential incorporation (known as institutionalizing) into the organization. At this point feedback is gathered and evaluated to determine if the desired outcome for the organization’s improvement has been successfully achieved. If the desired outcome has not been achieved, the OD practitioner and the organization team must return to the previous steps and go through the process again until anticipated result is accomplished. If on the other hand, it is found that the change is effective, the changes will then be made a permanent function of the organization. These changes must become a part of the shared culture of the organization bringing the organization and its employees together. As employees are included in these positive changes, they become more dedicated, more loyal, and ultimately more flexible as change is implemented. With the leadership of the organization and the organization’s employees on board with the institutionalization of the changes; the ultimate goal of organizational success is achieved more efficiently and more rapidly.
The Organization Development process typically begins when someone, management or employee, uncover a need for improvement within the organization. The anticipated results of the OD process are to accomplish positive change for the organization and the employees; as well as any stakeholders related to the organization. For the process to accomplish a best case scenario outcome, everyone within the organization needs to back the process. The OD process begins with the entry of an OD professional, either internal or external, and outlining of the contract between the organization and the OD practitioner. The diagnosis phase follows with information gathering and analysis in order to formulate an intervention. With a plan in hand, the OD professional and the organization team implement the recommended changes within the organization. After the changes have been implemented, they are analyzed again for effectiveness and the determination of their success or failure. If successful, the OD intervention changes become a component of the function of the organization. It is evident that the Organization Development process is unique to each organization, customized just for it, and a process that must be ongoing and adapting constantly to keep the organization moving forward successfully.
Bohlander (2006) when analyzing the development of the manufacturing system at Toyota, interprets it through the formation of peculiar organizational capabilities at three levels: manufacturing routines, learning routines and evolutionary learning. In them, the decisions also appear implicitly; especially in learning routines, considered as a specific organizational ability of Toyota to perform troubleshooting cycles more competitively than its competitors consider. Bohlander (2006), a former Toyota executive in Canada, has approached more of the operative question with the publication of his experience and reading of how Toyota plans and deploys its values to the rest of the organization (Bohlander, 2006).
Discussion – Strategic HR Roadmap
The HRM is the administrative process applied to increase and preservation of effort, practice, health, knowledge, skills, etc., of the members of the structure, the benefit of a subject, of the organization and the country in general. Similarly, we can say that through the process of helping employees achieve a level of performance and quality of personal and social behavior that meets your personal needs and expectations (Boudreau et al, 2003).
The HRM is to plan, organize, and develop everything related to promoting the efficient performance of staff making up a structure. The Human Resource Management in an organization representing the medium that allows people to collaborate on it and reach directly or indirectly with work related individual objectives. Managing Human Resources means conquer and keep people and members of an organization, in an atmosphere of harmonious, positive, and supportive work. Represents all those things that make staff to remain in the organization. The objectives of the Human Resource Management derived from the objectives of the organization (Jackson et al, 2011).
Strategic HR Roadmap
The prime HR functions are:
Create, maintain, and develop a set of people with skills, motivation, and satisfaction sufficient to achieve the objectives of the organization.
Establish, maintain, and cherish organizational conditions that allow the implementation, development and the satisfaction of the people and the achievement of individual goals.
Achieve efficiency and effectiveness of human resources (Strategic HR Roadmap)
The Human Resources Management performs the integral management in different functions from the beginning to the end of an employment relationship as:
Recruit and select staff with the selected profile
Training and coaching
Evaluating job performance
Describe the responsibilities that define each position in the organization
Develop programs, workshops, courses, etc., and any other programs that vallan commensurate with the growth and improvement of the insights of staff.
Promote leadership development
Provide counseling to employees based on maintaining a harmonious environment together.
Resolve conflicts and problems that cause the staff
Inform employees either through newsletters, meetings, memos or via mails, policies, and procedures of human resources.
Oversee the management of test programs
Develop a personal framework based on competencies
Evaluate the Strategic HR Roadmap
Endorse the variety of jobs as a form or via a company’s success in different markets.
Toyota Strategic Planning
In recent years, the search for efficiency and cost savings has led many organizations to implement processes of implementation of methodologies and tools like Lean, Kaizen, 5 S`s, Six Sigma. Furthermore they are effective, often have not yielded the expected results, not going linked to a process of transformation of people. This model, applied to leadership, will enable the deployment of Lean in the company sustainability and with guaranteed success.
The Strategic HR Roadmap. Toyota continues to re-validate, year after year, his position as one of the first global companies investing in R & D. Toyota Motor Manufacturing France SAS (TMMF) was established in 1998 in Valenciennes (France), near the border with Belgium, as the second Toyota manufacturing base in Europe. Production began in January 2001 and since then has applied TMMF slogan ‘Green, clean and adjusted’ to reduce the environmental impact, based on the Toyota Production System, which seeks to eliminate muda, mura and muri (disposal practices generating waste, irregularities and unreasonable requirements). These are key features of the Strategic HR Roadmap at Toyota.
One of the basic concepts of Toyota is that the quality must be part of the process of production. This concept, known under the name of Jidoka, guarantee that problems have no impact on the chain from one job to another. Its principle is to stop work when a problem arises, in order to avoid the production of defective items (MacDuffie et al, 2011).
The Jidoka is also used when a team member encounters a problem in your workplace. The rest of the team has a responsibility to correct the problem. Failure to do so could indicate a problem pulling a Andon cord, which makes the number of jobs in the panel optical control lights, so that the team leader deal with the problem while the chain keeps moving.
If the team leader fails to fix the problem, the chain stops at the fixed position following the end of a process. After solving the problem, the chain restarts. Jidoka can also refer to the use of integrated security to prevent human or mechanical error. In this empirical study, Strategic Human Resource Management stands as precedent Balanced Scorecard model. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between Strategic Human Resource Management implemented in organizations with the three perspectives (customers, finances and processes) of the Balanced Scorecard.
Another perspective of the BSC is the customer. Modern organizations have to identify market segments, existing and potential customers, and then select the niches you want to compete. In this sense, should have a set of core indicators both client (increase, acquisition, satisfaction and profitability) and market share, and product / service must also be assessed the intrinsic attributes and their expectations, and prestigious image thereof.
The final perspective of BSC is critical to getting the previous three. It is the prospect of learning and personal growth. The BSC makes explicit reference to the importance of human resources in achieving business goals. This perspective touches on three key aspects. On one hand, it seeks to enhance the capabilities of employees, improvement ideas should come from employees who are close to the processes and customers. Otherwise, organizations must acquire information systems towards employees regarding their satisfaction, retention, and performance. Members of an organization must be motivated, should be free to make decisions and act (empowerment), and should have a consistency in its objectives. To evaluate the parameters of the BSC we built a scale called BSC-14 (Boada and Gil, 2007a).
Toyota Decision Making Policy
The decision-making process in the lean production model appears as a factor scarcely studied. The elements that make up the decision-making process appear marginally when discussing factors such as just in time, partnerships with suppliers, product development and the built-in quality in the process. Regarding the way, authors who, within each content are concerned with structure it analytically, with greater or lesser wealth of details, setting the process in phases and describing it now in order to explanatory goals, sometimes taking in view prescriptive actions (MacDuffie et al, 2011). On the other hand, there are those that shape the content focusing more on the context of the aspects involved in the process, exposing the structure or system that supports it, and wait for results (Strategic HR Roadmap). If we understand that everyone living in society participate in each moment a certain level of organization, Simon’s contribution was fundamental to inaugurate the decision studies with broader perspectives and next of social life and its complexity.
The decision-making appears as an unexplored factor in the work of diffusion of lean production model in which Toyota is the recognized worldwide as a pioneer in creating a production system focused on continuous improvement of productivity and quality indicators. Thus, even in works that are more recent that recognize the model of lean production as a broader model, organizational or business, clear link elements with the decision structure arise identified over the design elements aimed at troubleshooting.
Bohlander, G., & Snell, S. (2006). Managing human resources – Strategic HR Roadmap. Cengage Learning.
Boudreau, J., Hopp, W., McClain, J. O., & Thomas, L. J. (2003). On the interface between operations and human resources management – Strategic HR Roadmap. Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 5(3), 179-202.
Jackson, S., Schuler, R., & Werner, S. (2011). Managing human resources – Strategic HR Roadmap. Cengage Learning.
MacDuffie, J. P., & Krafcik, J. (1992). Integrating technology and human resources for high-performance manufacturing: Evidence from the international auto industry. Strategic HR Roadmap and Transforming organizations, 209-226.
Yeung, A. K., & Berman, B. (1997). Strategic HR Roadmap – Adding value through human resources: Reorienting human resource measurement to drive business performance.