Introduction Accounting

Introduction to branches of Accounting

Accounting is an important concept that its history can be traced back centuries ago. Many businesses, based on numerous transactions made in a day requires accountability and proper records keeping for such in information in order to enhance other activities within a business enterprise such as communication. With the absence of accounting for businesses, this would act as a stabling block for the attainment of organizational objectives such as profit maximization as management of resources requires proper innovative structures for accountability.

According to Dyson (2004) the accounting branches can be segregated into three key areas; financial, cost, tax and managerial accounting (Dyson, 2004, p.12). Accounting plays a significant role in different business enterprises especially on key areas such decision-making, giving information, protection of business from various transactions involved with other business environments and explaining the business position. Financial Accounting is the art of managing business financial recording that stipulates the business position and it progress in growth through the analysis of profits and losses. According to Babarinde (2003) financial accounting is a system that deals with explaining the situation and the state of affairs for businesses through preparation of financial statements such as the balance sheet and trade and profit loss account (Babarinde, 2003 p. 313). Financial accounting also plays a significant role in running a business enterprise as the system give the estimates of costs on products, functions, activities and the firm progress. Through financial management in a business entity can get quality information to plan through budgeting that gives estimates on expected expenditures.

Cost accounting is the system used in controlling activities of production that would regulate expenditures for the business in order to enhance profit maximization. According to Abeygunasekera and Fonseka (2013) every business has its control system that helps in cutting cost either through the production processes such as manufacturing, recruitment, training and development and delivery of services. Through such processes, cost accounting acts a system for the management to control such expenditures incurred through transactions with different business environments as well as in the processes of availing goods and services to consumers (Abeygunasekera and Fonseka, 2013).

Managerial accounting is the process that facilitates the management with information concerning the company’s progress that enhances the management in carrying out their day to day functions. The management in every business ought to have the facts in decision-making, planning, and in the development of policies and through managerial accounting such is facilitated. According to Mbroh (2013) he argued that in managerial accounting, frequent information is made obtainable to the management such as information on funds, profit and cost that gives a bulge of the business advancement and must be factual in support of truth and fairness (Mbroh, 2013).

Recommended accounting methodology for companies

It is necessary for the management of any business to how commitment in recording business transactions as this information can be retrieved for further use when such information is required. There are for instance methods of accounting that are commonly used across bossiness in the world of today. This includes the single entry and doubles entry methods that are used interchangeably in businesses. Use of double entry techniques has proved to have various advantages for many that use it. In the double entry, two columns are created for transaction entries in both what the company receives and also spends while running the business.

By following the right procedures in preparation of journals, trial balance, and final account, the use of the double entry techniques businesses benefits in different ways that is recommendable. Through such a system, the management is also to create the accounting book through a device known as the trial balance that give more accurate inform about the business transaction.

Introduction To Accounting
Introduction To Accounting

It is also easier to ascertain on the profits and losses incurred by a business if the transaction entries are properly entered in the trial balance device. According to Mbroh (2013) he also argued that a financial statement such as the balance sheet, the system gives accurate information concerning the position of the business enterprise (Mbroh, 2013). The management is also able to know if the firm has made any development such as profit maximization and growth. This as well regulates spaces for errors as the transaction entries in both the debit and the credit side should balance in the system. Through the double entry system, the management is also able to carry out a comparison study during a specific period such as between two consecutive years. It also becomes easier in making decisions for the business as the business position is made clear for instance in the trade and profit loss accounts.

References

Abeygunasekera, A.W.J.C and Fonseka, A. T (2013) Non-Compliance with Standard Practices by Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Sri Lanka.

Babarinde A. (2003) Financial Accounting, Volume 1, Lagos: JBA Associates Ltd.

Dyson J. R (2004) Accounting For Non-Accounting Students, 6th Ed. Financial Times/ Pitman Publishing Imprint, England.

Mbroh, (2013) Control Systems Practiced By Small and Micro Enterprise Owners within the Cape Coast Metropolitan Area of Ghana in Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences Vol. 1 No. 9 [28-47]

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IFRS IASB Frameworks

Finance Assignment – Various normative theories, measurement issues under IFRS and Conceptual framework

This report basically provides an analysis of different financial accounting measurement techniques, their advantages and disadvantages and practical implications. Accounting measurement has become a controversial issue due to its assorted nature in financial reporting system. The conceptual framework developed by both systems is unable to provide accurate cost of assets and liabilities at the end of financial year. There is a misunderstanding behind the rationale that whether measurement is a set of calculation or numbers but it provides no as such vivid explanations and is totally cognitive based. A lot of research work and publications have been made about this topic but the matter is still under consideration. Financial reporting measurement is a debatable issue and still under consideration. Most of the literature has been published on the issue of historical cost and value accounting. It shows that it is never ending issue. Historical cost measurements narrates that total assets and total liabilities should be recorded and reported at the procured price while current cost accounting states that assets and liabilities should be recorded and reported at existing market value.

Role of IASB & FASB frameworks

International Accounting Standard Board Framework

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are based on the IASB framework developed for the sake of preparation and presentation of financial statement.

Financial Accounting Standard Board Framework

FASB is U.S primary body for the development of accounting standards. It issues new rules so called Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) based upon FASB which are basically derived from Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).

IASB and FASB frameworks present a facility of persistent and logical formulation of IFRSs and SFAS respectively. Both of these also aim to provide its users with a platform to resolve various complex accounting issues. Hence, framework has the benefit being the status of conceptual base for development of IFRSs.

The IASB issues IFRS to more than hundred countries which also include European Union but it excludes United States. There is a strong co-relation among both IASB and FASB standards. It is probable that U.S will also move to IFRS in 2016. Despite of all this, both IASB and FASB sat together to reach at a final conclusion about this matter but still there is a room for improvement. Mary E. Barth has concluded that Fair value measurement provides somewhat precise and specific value of both assets and liabilities. The core objective of this report is to determine why other frameworks lack behind. (Mary E. Barth, 2013, pp 2-3)

Comparison of various cost approaches

There are many cost measurement techniques which are used to record assets and liabilities in financial statements; some of these are as follows:

Unmodified historical cost

This type of cost includes those amounts which were paid at the time of procurement of assets no matter whatsoever the life of asset is. It is totally inadequate way of recording measurement.

Modified historical cost

This cost is modified due to various factors like impairments, amortization due to depreciation or appreciation of asset with the passage of time. It seems to be relatively more valid type of measurements.

Fair value measurement

It is a net price which can be received while selling an asset or paying any liability in a logical transaction among market participants at the measurement time frame.

These are frequently used in financial reporting and possess different characteristics. Only one of these techniques is used to record assets and liabilities in common practice so as to draw conclusion based upon performance. Financial statements are comprised of total assets (both current and fixed), total liabilities (both current and long term) and owner’s equity. The framework indicates that equity is the difference between the assets and liabilities after proper measurements. (Mary E. Barth, 2013)

Critical Analysis

The aggregation is a qualitative attribute which slightly affects the quantity. Hence, a minor change in assets and liabilities generally affects net income and expense. However, the Framework does not elucidate the factors behind balancing effects on Statement of Financial Position (SOFP) and Comprehensive Income.

Fair value provide more effective results as compared to un modified and modified costs in case of single assets and liabilities as it contains both qualitative and take into account assets and liabilities. Whereas unmodified cost is totally irrelevant and invalid. Modified cost if not supported with accounting standards cannot be explained in a scenario. Fair value determination is only more reliable and accurate if it is acquired faithfully with an ethical mentality. Still there is an ambiguity whether modified historical cost is more appropriate than fair value determination. Hence we may conclude that fair value and unmodified costs are set according to a specific economic objective while modified is an accounting calculative work.

Despite of all these measurement techniques, only one selected technique should be used for estimation so as to achieve significant accounting results. Anyhow, other technique can be used where direct measurement is impossible for estimation. This approach will be helpful to maintain consistency, comparability and significant aggregation of accounting data. . (Mary E. Barth, 2013, pp 19-20)

IASB recommended approach

IASB also endeavours to find a single measurement technique in its own projects. IASB also favours fair value measurement that it provides more effective results, though it sometimes fails to assess the cost of any asset. Practically, all the framework of accounting regulations except IFRS is not using single approach of measurement. For instance, measurement of cost to predict operating cash flows will provide major share of turnover in going concern business approach, while fair value would be more appropriate, relevant and reliable for the valuation of marketable securities and investments. However if you use different approaches in each financial year, the descriptive authority of such aggregation would be more poor and risky.

Preliminary and Subsequent measurements

However, measurement approaches can be distinguished according to preliminary and subsequently with respect to nature of the measurement subject matter. For example, in case of going concern business, long term assets meets the pre-requisites while current liquid assets (inventories) and marketable securities are measured differently. However, it all depends upon standard setters that which measurement technique should be selected.

All the regulations of Accounting including IASB, FASB, UK Accounting Standards Board and Australian Standard Boards possess a common thing that financial statements are primarily developed to help its stake holders (external and internal users) so that they may analyze the organization. Investors can depict growth rate, market value and share value (Jiri Strouhal, 2014).

IFRS IASB Frameworks
IFRS IASB Frameworks

Effects of choosing wrong measurement approach

Determining right choice of measurement is very important for organizations. There are five different approaches like as fair value treatment of costs, historical cost accounting, modified historical cost accounting, current purchasing power accounting, current cost accounting and continuously contemporary accounting. All these techniques have various pros and cons. But fair value treatment of costs is mostly used and reliable approach to recognize costs. Accountant should be prudent while choosing cost approach.

Wrong choice of cost approach may adversely affects the financial statements, shareholders image towards firm’s assets and liabilities. Historical cost accounting deals with recording assets on purchased price which is wrong measurement. If any asset is to be sold, then we need to consider again choose either fair value approach or modified historical cost accounting as a measurement rather than historical cost accounting value. This type of costing is only helpful for long term basis if re-procurement of machine or asset is to be needed.

Current purchasing power accounting measurement shows the impact of inflation on the net value of money. To achieve CPP, firstly historical costs are changed into current prices with the help of consumer price index (CPI). But Price indexes quality includes simply averages and perhaps not matches with expenses incurred by even a single shareholder. It sometimes becomes ridiculous that if re-stated asset values considered everything while the changed amount is neither paid nor is asset value increased. Current cost accounting despite of its importance is not reliable for long term basis. Then we move to historical cost accounting for decision making.

International Accounting Standards

Some of the most important International Accounting Standards have been explained below to elucidate the effect of measurement and reporting accounting on current assets and liabilities.

Fair value measurement (IFRS-13)

Fair value measurements are mostly used and reporting standard. IASB, FASB, AASB lays stress to use this standard but each one provide their own standard guidelines for the determination of fair value. IFRS-13 also tells how preliminary fair value is to be measured and how successive fair value is found.

Fair value: It is an amount which can be gained when an asset is sold or a liability is transferred among market participants in normal transactions at measurement date. Market participant are usually those buyers which have economic and ethical rationale.

Fair values should be gained from principal market as it is pure competitive market and possess large volume of desired nature. If it is unavailable, then accountant should concern from advantageous market. Final fair value must contain location of asset and its condition

Assumptions

  • Transaction cost should be ignored
  • Transportation cost should be incorporated
  • In case of most advantageous market, both transaction and transportation costs should be incorporated

Inventories (IAS-2)

This standard has been developed to assist and provide a valuable accounting treatment for physical inventory which is a current asset. This treats cost of the inventory like an asset which can be easily carry forward unless it is sold. The standard also aimed to provide assistance to recognize and determine the costs along with net realizable value.

Scope

This standard is valid for all inventories excluding:

  1. It is not valid for construction contracts specially treatment of work in progress
  2. Financial instruments including marketable securities
  3. Natural assets or biological assets

Measurement of inventories

Inventories must be recorded at the lesser cost and net realizable value (NRV).

Cost of Inventory

Inventory cost includes cost of purchase, conversion cost (Labour and Production overhead) and the cost freight charges incurred to bring an asset from vendor place to factory.

Cost of purchase

This cost is comprised of purchase price, transportation charges, import duties, taxation other costs incurred to attain asset and trade discount and other discounts are deducted from original cost of purchase.

Cost formulas

Inventory once purchased can be calculated by using first in first method (FIFO) and weighted average cost method while last in first out (LIFO) is not allowed.

Cost of the inventory can be calculated through FIFO and Weighted Average Cost Method. However, LIFO method is not permitted.

Record of reversing (Expense)

Reversal of note down of equivalent inventory might be prepared up to the cost.

Events after reporting period (IAS-10)

IAS-10 tells the treatment for those events which occurs after the financial period. So, adjustments are to be made in financial statements. Management will provide final approval of accounts on 31st Mar, 2014 while final accounts will be forwarded to annual general meeting (AGM) to get approval for shareholders on 30th Apr, 2014. After this, reports will be authorized for issuance.

IAS-10 is appropriate for those events which are took place after the balance sheet date but to the date of authorization by the management i.e. 31st Dec, 2012 to 31st Mar, 2013. Event can be adjusting or non-adjusting.

Adjusting Events

Those events which present supplementary proof of their existence at the financial statement i.e. balance sheet are called adjusting events. Adjusting events are needed to be documented in the financial statements.

Example:

  • Errors and inaccuracies in financial statements if discovered after reporting period, their adjustments will be covered in adjusting events.
  • If a court case was settled validating the compulsions at the end of financial period.
  • If an asset was purchased earlier but cost of purchase confirmed after reporting period. 

Non Adjusting Events

Those events which doesn’t support supplementary proof of their existence at the financial statement i.e. balance sheet are called non-adjusting events. Non adjusting events are needed to be disclosed in the notes of financial statements.

Example:

  • Declaration of dividends is a non-adjusting event as these are recorded once these are proposed after reporting date.
  • Anomalous loss, natural disasters, amalgamation, renovation and acquisitions do not provide supplementary events so these are adjusting events.

Historical Cost Accounting

Historical cost is a sum of price which is paid by firm to acquire an asset for use. It includes all costs incurred to bring the asset for smooth operation. It is an ancient accounting standard which was developed with a rationale that prices are smooth and normal changes occur with a passage of time. Such conservative style of accounting doesn’t make and stipulation for change in purchasing power. There is less manipulation of mangers as it is only recorded at acquisition price every year. Accountants have to meet the expected return of its shareholders and investor despite of the net wealth of the firm. This shows that primarily focus is upon income statement which will be a vivid glance whether firm is working efficiently or not. (Jiri Strouhal, 2014).

Advantages

  • Historical cost has a substantive effect on appraisal evaluation and assortment of decision rules.
  • If management has to determine which decision would be more useful, it may get help from past performance.
  • Historical cost is directly associated with past decision. Past data is helpful to forecast for better decision making. There prime object is to determine what profit did they earn in past not what they can increase.

Disadvantages

Historical cost is inappropriate for decision making as it doesn’t follow stewardship function. Investors have more concern with up and down in their investments return rather stable return.

Modified historical cost

This historical cost is modified by inculcating various factors like impairments, amortization due to depreciation or appreciation of asset with the passage of time. It seems to be relatively more valid type of measurement. Modified cost basically provide better picture of firms assets and liabilities. In Australia, modified historical cost system is used instead of historical cost accounting. It states that assets should be recorded in balance sheet after fair value determination.

Current purchasing power accounting

It is an accounting measurement which shows the impact of inflation on the net vale of money. To achieve CPP, firstly historical costs are changed into current prices with the help of consumer price index (CPI).

This theory is basically derived from macroeconomic “inflation” perspective that persistent rise in general price level of commodities also called inflation adversely affects currency value. If pound value is decreased then it becomes difficult to compare financial statements by using this approach.

Strengths

  • CPP recognized the worth of money which should be generated and maintained in business to sustain overall shareholder’s purchasing power.
  • It is comparatively easy, cheaper and improves overall shareholders worth by eliminating inflationary elements which arise from change in currency from monetary profit.

Weaknesses

  • Price indexes quality includes simply averages and perhaps not matches with expenses incurred by even a single shareholder.
  • It sometimes becomes ridiculous that if re-stated asset values considered everything while the changed amount is never paid nor is asset value increased.

Current Cost Accounting

Assets are usually values at specific amount of cash or its equivalents if same asset is to be acquired for use in firm. Similarly, liabilities are also settled with the discounted amount of cash or its equivalents needed to reconcile the obligation presently.

Advantages

Current cost accounting use present clearer picture of an asset as compared with historical cost accounting which is helpful for decision making. Due to high degree of precariousness in business environment, financial statements should also demonstrate reality instead of past transactions. A study on New Zeland company directors by Duncan & Moorers (1988) signified that current cost accounting presents more valid and reliable information than historical cost accounting.

Disadvantages

Peasnell et. al. (1987) stated that cost accounting information is used by investors in short term assortment decision making. It also doesn’t work as a driving force for long term returns. Shareholders are more concerned with historical cost accounting to get information about investment returns.

Continuously contemporary accounting

This famous accounting theory commonly known as CocoA was given by an Australian Raymond Chambers. The purchasing primacy of money is highly volatile or current and is subject to change with the passage of time. This model basically tells that the current worth of the business is equal to the total cash equivalents of its assets. It just like current cost accounting system measure both assets and liabilities at the existing cash price.

Strengths

The model is designed in this way that accountants can easily deploy it in developing balance sheets and financial statements. The true picture of assets and liabilities in cash price provide an assistance to firm in rapidly changing environment. CoCoA balance sheets only estimates what will be received if its assets are sold to meet short term liquidity challenge.

Weaknesses

CoCoA system requires from the management to shift from cost based system to way out price which is highly opposed by top management in many firms. The CoCoA balance sheets are mostly failing in calculating internal worth of the assets as they only focus on market prices.

Finance Accounting Dissertation Topics
Finance Accounting Dissertation Topics

Case Study (valuation of roads and highways)

Renewal accounting method basically determines the impairment of highway infrastructure and roads. Highway infrastructure is considered a single asset and many performance indicators are applied to evaluate impairment on asset. Asset valuation involves measures to calculate firm’s assets and their current value in monetary terms. Current monetary value is also evaluated by depreciated replacement cost method for highway infrastructure assets specially.

DRC = Gross Replacement Cost – Accumulated Consumption

Impairment should be calculated by a consistent approach. Once an approach is set, valuation should be prescribed. Finite life assets and components by using conventional method is valid valuation impairment approach for highway infrastructure and roads.

All the assets and components can be categorized into two types:

  • Conditions based maintenance

This identifies physical condition and performance data is also used for estimation of consumption of the asset whereas maintenance cost is also paid to make it look new.

  • Time based maintenance

This approach identifies the asset consumption by its age and condition

Modified historical cost would be more applicable for smooth reporting and recording of costs in this case. As roads and highways are long term projects and their value also changes with the passage of time.

References

  1. Mary E. Barth (2013). Measurement in Financial Reporting: The Need for Concepts. Forthcoming, Accounting Horizons 2014, 40(1) 2-20
  2. Jiri Strouhal (2014) Historical Costs or Fair Value in Accounting: Impact on Selected Financial Ratios, Journal of Economics, Business and Management 2015, 3(5)1-5
  3. IASCF Staff (2005). Measurement Bases for Financial Accounting-Measurement on Initial Recognition 70(1) 101-180
  4. International Accounting Standards Board, 2011, International Financial Reporting Standard 2 IASB, London.
  5. International Accounting Standards Board, 2011, International Financial Reporting Standard 13 Fair value measurement. IASB, London.
  6. International Accounting Standards Board, 2011, International Financial Reporting Standard 10 Events after reporting period. IASB, London.
  7. Current-purchasing-power (CPP)
  8. Continuously contemporary accounting (CCA), retrieved Dec, 2014
  9. Guidance Document for Highway Infrastructure Asset Valuation taken

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Financial Statements CEMEX

Financial Statements CEMEX

CEMEX is one of the largest building materials suppliers and cement producers in the world. The company produces, distributes and sells cement, mix-concrete, aggregates, and related building materials in more than 50 countries in all over the world. CEMEX has a rich history of improving the well-being of those it serves through its efforts to pursue innovative industry solutions and efficiency advances and to promote a sustainable future. CEMEX is recovering from the global economic recession and the loss that the company had in the last couple of years. The year 2011 compared with the year 2010, the company had a good impact.

Introduction

CEMEX is one of the largest building materials suppliers and cement producers in the world. The company produces, distributes and sells cement, mix-concrete, aggregates, and related building materials in more than 50 countries in all over the world. CEMEX has a rich history of improving the wellbeing of those it serves through its efforts to pursue innovative industry solutions and efficiency advances and to promote a sustainable future.

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of CEMEX through a critical analysis of the financial statements of the last two years, the analysis of five aspects of performance evaluation which are profitability, efficiency, short and long term Solvency and market based ratios. In this analysis will include the information of the company CEMEX, and the analysis of the financial information.

CEMEX background

CEMEX is one of the largest cement companies in the world, was founded in Mexico in 1906, the company is based in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico and has operations throughout the world with production facilities in 50 countries in North America, Caribbean, South America, Europe, Asia and Africa (Cemex, 2012).

CEMEX had an annual cement production of production capability of 82 million tons. One third of the sales come from Mexico operations, one quarter comes from the plants in USA, 15% from Spain operations and other small percentages from the other plants in the world (Cemex, 2012). The main competitors of CEMEX are Holcim, Lafarge and Heidelberg Cement. CEMEX is constantly evolving to become more flexible in their operations, more creative in the commercial offerings, more sustainable in the use of the resources, more innovative in their global business and more efficient in their capital allocation.

Interpretation of accounts: ratio analysis

In this analysis we review the financial statements (Balance Sheet, Cash flow and income statement) of the company CEMEX. These to evaluate the performance of the company in the different aspects.

  1. Profitability ratios. An expectation on making more income from sales of the good or service than they spend performing the services or making the goods.
  2. Efficiency ratios. A level of performance that describes a process that uses the lowest amount of inputs to create the greatest amount of outputs.
  3. Short-term solvency ratios. Measure a company’s ability to pay its current bills and operating costs – obligations coming due in the next fiscal year.
  4. Long-term solvency ratios. Measure a company’s ability to meet it’s long term obligations, such as it long term debts (bank loans) and to survive over a long period of time.
  5. Market indicators. These ratios relate the current market price of the company’s stock to earnings or dividends (Reimers, JL, 2008).
Financial Statements CEMEX
Financial Statements CEMEX

Analysis of financial statements

The year 2011 was an important year for CEMEX, after the global economic recession the company is facing a difficult situation with some of the markets, nevertheless CEMEX launched an accurate transformation designed to make the company more efficient, more agile and more customer focused. The changes made in the company, designed to position the company for a future of beneficial growth, are already showing results. The results of the ratios of the 2011 financial statements are the next ones:

2011 2010
Gross profit margin 28.5% 28%
Net profit margin -10.24% -9%
Operating margin 6.3% 2.5%
Return on assets -3.5% -3.1%
Return on equity -10% -8.2%

Table 4.1 Profitability ratios

2011 2010
Current ratio 1.04:1 0.98:1
Quick ratio 0.73:1 0.71:1

Table 4.2 Liquidity ratios

2011 2010
Inventory turnover 10.77 11.80
Assets turnover 34% 34%

Table 4.3 Efficiency ratios

2011 2010
Debt to equity 65% 62%
Total debt/total equity 1.25 1.04
Total debt / total capital 55.59% 51%

Table 4.4 Solvency ratios

After the global economic recession CEMEX is facing difficult situations, in table 4.1 the gross profit shows that the company has 28.5% in 2011, compared with 2010 is almost the same; in the table 4.1 shows the gross margin in 2010 was 28%, there was an increase of 0.5%. In the table 4.1 shows that the company had a loss in the net profit, the ROA and the ROE in the last two years but an increase on the operating margin compared with the year 2010, in year 2010 was 2.5% and the year 2011 increase to 6.3%. That means that the company is profitable, there were some difficult situations the last couple of years nevertheless the company is making a profit.

With the information of the financial statements we can determine that the company is facing some problems with the ability of paying current bills and operating costs, in the table 4.2 the current ratio of the year 2011 is 1.04 on the year 2010 was 0.98, there was an increase this year, although the ideal ratio is 2:1, this year the current and quick ratio were below the ideal ratio. In the table 4.2 the quick ratio in 2011 was 0.73 and in the year 2010 was 0.71, the ideal for the quick ratio is 1:1. Table 4.5 shows that the company has a debt to total capital of 55.59%.

The table 4.3 shows that the company is turning over the inventory 11 times in the year 2011, the year 2010 the turning over of the inventory was 12 times in a year. The average is 12 times. The assets turnover in the year 2011 is of 34%, this value is the same than the year 2010, and this means that the company is efficient.

The market indicators for CEMEX for the year 2011 are book value per share is 17.54 and the tangible book value per share is 2.94. The earning per share in 2011 is -11.13, that means that there were losses; the earnings per share excluding extraordinary items dropped 13.71% (Financial Times, 2012).

Comparing CEMEX in the last 4 years there was a significant deterioration on the operating margin and the EBITDA margin, from the year 2008 to the year 2011 year. Now the company is increasing the operating margin, this year have an improvement compared to year 2010, this deterioration was in the time of the global economic recession.

Conclusion and recommendations

CEMEX is recovering from the global economic recession and the loss that the company had in the last couple of years. The year 2011 compared with the year 2010, the company had a good impact on the operating margin and the gross profit margin it increases a 6.3% on operating margin. That means that the company is profitable but has some losses in the return on Assets and the return on equity, on the solvency part the current ratio and quick ratio are below the ideal, the company needs to keep an eye on the solvency of the company, the company has a little improvement on the efficiency on the inventory turnover, nevertheless the company has a debt of 55.59%. The company is doing better than last year and has some projects to increase the sales, improve operation, be more creative in the commercial offerings, more sustainable in the use of the resources, more innovative in their global business and more efficient in their capital allocation, the recommendations are to keep those projects and further expand them.

References

CEMEX, “CEMEX annual report” 2011 3. Financial Times “Strong sales boost CEMEX recovery”

Financial Times “CEMEX to meet all debt covenants”

Financial Times “Losses put CEMEX under pressure”

Financial Times “CEMEX to cut debt in stake sales”

Merrill lynch, “How to read a financial report” 2000

Pratt, J, “Financial accounting in an economic context” 2000, 4th edition, southwestern Thomson learning.

Reimers, JL, “Financial accounting a business approach” 2008, 2nd edition, Pearson education.

Appendixes

Profitability

GPM (2010) = GP/sales = 49953/178260 = 0.280 = 28%

GPM (2011) = 53871/188938= 0.285 = 28.5%

NPM (2010) = NIAT/sales = -16099/178260 = 0.090 = -9%

NPM (2011) = -19163/188938 = -.1014 = -10.14%

OM (2010) = OI/net sales = 4561/178260 = 0.025 = 2.5%

OM (2011) = 11984/188938 = 0.063 = 6.3%

ROA (2010) = net income/ total assets = -16126/515097 = -0.031 = –3.1%

ROA (2011) = -19127/548299 = -0.035 = -3.5%

ROE (2010) = IAT/SE = -16099/19176 = -0.082 = -8.2%

ROE (2011) = -19163/191016 = -0.10 = -10%

Solvency

CR (2010) = CA/CL = 54567/85119 = 0.98 = 0.98:1 ideal 2:1

CR (2011) = 58947/56670 = 1.04 = 1.04:1 ideal 2:1

QR (2010) = (CA-I)/CL = 39469/55119 = 0.71 = 0.71:1 ideal 1:1

QR (2011) = 41408/56670 = 0.73 = 0.73:1 ideal 1:1

TD/TE (2010) = 202819/194176 = 1.04

TD/TE (2011) = 239116/191016 = 1.25

Efficiency

Inventory Turnover (2010) = Sales/stock = 178260/15098 = 11.80 = 12 times/year

Inventory Turnover (2011) = 188938/17539 = 10.77 = 11 times/year

Assets Turnover (2010) = sales/total assets = 178260/515097 = 0.34 = 34%

Assets Turnover (2011) = 188938/548299 = 0.34 = 34%

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Stewardship Financial Reporting

To What Extent And How The Stewardship Aspect Helps The Decision Usefulness Aspect In Financial Reporting

Financial reporting is a formal process by which a company communicates with its stakeholders through disclosing its financial figures. According to the recent conceptual framework of IASB about financial reporting, there are two aspects of objectives of financial reporting. One is stewardship, which deals with management responsibility towards the company, and another one is decision-usefulness, which mainly deals with the decision-making users of the financial statement.

Stewardship is an ethical term in accounting that imposes a responsibility to the management of an organization to take care of business carefully and provide reliable information the stakeholders about the resources of business by financial reporting (Williamson, 2002). On the other hand, decision usefulness is a concept related to the preparation of financial statement in which a company try to provide better information by considering the relevant decision makers.

There was a debate among the experts whether the stewardship should consider as an objective of financial reporting or not and whether the decision usefulness provide same concept like stewardship. However, later the IASB and FASB resolve this debate by introducing an exposure draft. In the exposure draft, it told that stewardship should consider as a separate objective of financial reporting (Kothari, 2008).

Stewardship Financial Reporting
Stewardship Financial Reporting

Some experts believe that the stewardship has relationship decision usefulness. They also believe that the stewardship aspect of objective helps the decision usefulness to an extent. On the other hand, some experts believe that there is no relationship between these two. Let us see how and to what extent stewardship helps the decision usefulness.

  • Stewardship helps to increase the decision usefulness to the relevant decision maker by imposing responsibility to the management to take care of business professionally. When the management take cares the business resources in an efficient way, the output of financial report will automatically be reliable (Young, 1998).
  • Stewardship influences the organization to conduct audit of their financial statements by an independent auditor. The decision usefulness will rise when an independent auditor review the financial statement (Latham, 2005).
  • Stewardship helps in accurate valuation of a company by recording and providing accurate information to the decision makers. This accurate valuation information increases the reliability as well as decision usefulness among the stakeholders.
  • It protects the interest of all related parties to the business by disclosing right information to the right parties. When the flow of information is in a perfect condition, the related parties of business will not lose their interest to the business and can make their decision in an efficient way.
  • Stewardship helps to satisfy the regulator body’s of an organization by managing the organization carefully, ethical financial disclosure and giving proper payment such as tax to the tax authorities. When the users of financial statement see that the regulator body’s are satisfied with this origination, they will also satisfied and the decision usefulness of financial statement will ultimately rise (Latham, 2005) .
  • It highlights the responsibility not only the management but also the regulators, investors and credit providers etc. This helps to increase the financial accuracy of the company. For an example, stewardship imposes the government to seek accurate documentation of financial statement of a company to project future growth in the stock exchange. When the company provide actual documents, the relevant decision makers of financial statement can take proper decision by using accurate information.
  • Stewardship helps to reduce agency problem in an This attracts more potential investors to the organization. When the agency problem reduces, the decision maker can make better financial decision about business and the concept decision usefulness will increase (Gjesdal, 1981).

Advantages of Stewardship

The extent to which the stewardship helps the decision usefulness is a relative concept rather than absolute. This means the decision usefulness may vary upon the degree of stewardship of the management or agent of a company. According to the Joachim Gassen (2007), the usefulness of financial statement in decision-making is much depends on the information available to the market participant. The information availability directly related to stewardship of the management. If the management discloses fair information to the users, the decision usefulness of financial reporting will increase. Let us see a table about the extent to which stewardship helps decision usefulness.

Stewardship

Influence

Degree Decision usefulness Decision output

Management integrity to business

Good

High

Positive

Bad

Low

Negative

Recording financial information accurately

Yes

High Positive
No Low

Negative

Conduct audit by independent auditor

Yes

High Positive
No Low

Negative

Accurate financial disclosure

Yes

High

Positive

No High

Negative

However, there are some arguments against the relationship between stewardship and decision usefulness according to some expert’s opinion. This means the stewardship and decision usefulness are two separate objectives without any influence to each other.

  • Stewardship and decision usefulness should define as completely separate objectives because of their parallel relation (Ernst and Young, 2008).
  • Stewardship mainly deals with past performance of organization to asses’ future performance. On the other hand, decision usefulness provides better information by considering present situation of the company. Therefore, the relations between these two are different (Hand, Isaaks and Sanderson, 2005).

Though there are some negative views about the relationship between stewardship and decision usefulness, there are some strong positive points also. Stewardship directly or indirectly influences the decision usefulness of a financial statement. It helps to increase management integrity, accurate financial recording, increase the reliability of information to the decision makers by conducting regular audit and disclosing accurate information. These points ultimately increase the decision usefulness of financial reporting to the related decision makers. The extent to which stewardship helps decision usefulness may vary according to the degree of stewardship of management to the information in financial reporting.

References

Duncanwil.co.uk (2002) Duncan Williamson: Concepts and Conventions of Accounting

Ernst & Young (2008) International GAAP 2008: Generally Accepted Accounting Practice under International Financial Reporting Standards. International: Wiley (April 14, 2008), p.146 page, stewardship.

Gassen, J. (2007) Are stewardship and decision usefulness complementary of conflicting objectives of financial accounting?

Gjesdal, F. (1981) Accounting for Stewardship. Journal of Accounting Research, 19 (1), p.208-231.

Hand, L., Isaaks, C., & Sanderson, P. (2005). Introduction to accounting for non-specialists. London, Thomson Learning.

Kothari, S. (2008) conceptual framework of financial reporting. International: Pearson, p.38-40.

Latham, A. (2005) The Stewardship Function in Accounting

Ventureline, D. (n.d.) Accounting Theory Definition

What is Financial Reporting? (n.d.) What is Financial Reporting?

Young, R. (1998) The stewardship role in accounting

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