Real Estate Dissertation Housing Bubble in China

Causes and Determinants of Real Estate Bubbles in China – A Study into Beijing

The real estate market of Beijing is under investigation in order to find whether there is a potential housing bubble in China. Housing bubble as a phenomenon will be analyzed. Furthermore, the residential market of China and whether various programs for the housing policy affect housing market are presented, especially during the period 1998-2014. The Ηukou registration system gives interesting information about the housing market, the central government’s policy, and its reaction and ability to cope with a housing bubble. Ηukou registration number defines whether an individual comes from a rural or an urban area, as well as the locality.

The urban and rural residents with agricultural or non agricultural Ηukou have different rights, and thus different chances for housing, especially in large metropolitan areas like Beijing. The connection of the four state owned banks with the housing market and their reaction to the house price changes during our period of interest is analyzed. The banks reacted without taking into account the risk, because they think that they are too big to fail. Volatility is also analyzed because it is important to find the reasons behind the changes in house prices. House price volatility forces households to buy a house to live in so that they could avoid the fluctuations in house prices, and a potential price increase. Regions in Beijing do not have the same property characteristics and potentials for a real estate bubble.

Housing Bubble China Dissertation
Housing Bubble China Dissertation

The results from the research of the secondary data are presented, with some final discussion. The answer for a housing bubble in Beijing is not crystal clear. Various findings support the existence of a bubble and some others do not. Although Beijing and regions in Beijing show a house price trend above the equilibrium price, the political status quo is special. In addition, it depends on the way data are collected, the availability of data, as well as their validity. It also depends on whether we have unclear property rights, housing inequality, and not a wide freedom of choice for the households.

While there are many factors that contribute to the formation of housing bubbles, as it is a very complex phenomenon, the present dissertation is focused on some important issues revealed from the literature review. Specifically, the above hypothesis is tested considering the following issues:

  • The correlation between potential real estate bubble and changes in housing prices in Beijing
  • The correlation between potential real estate bubble and housing prices volatility in Beijing
  • The role that the banking sector plays to the potential real estate bubble in Beijing
  • The readiness of Chinese authorities to deal with a Real Estate bubble
    The so far reaction of Chinese authorities to imbalances and housing price volatility
  • The correlation between the residential market in China and Beijing and a potential real estate bubble
  • The correlation between the Hukou system in China and a potential real estate bubble

Housing Bubble Dissertation Contents

1: Introduction
Rationale
Aim and Objectives
Hypothesis
Dissertation Structure

2: Literature Review – Housing Bubbles
Definition of Bubbles

3: Literature Review – The Role of House Prices and Volatility
Changes in Housing Prices
Volatility

4: Literature Review – The Role of the Banking Sector
The Banking Sector in China

5: Literature Review – The Role of Chinese Authorities
Government Involvement in Urban Housing
Government’s Reaction

6: Literature Review – Residential Market in China and Beijing
Residential Market in China and Beijing – A Historical Perspective
Housing Provident Fund (HPF)
Economical and Comfortable Housing Program (ECH)
Cheap Rental Housing Program (CRH)

7: Literature Review – Hukou Registration System
Description of Hukou Registration System
Housing Finance System
Inequality in Beijing

8: Research Methods

9: Data Analysis
Is There A Potential Real Estate Bubble In Beijing?

10: Conclusion

References

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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on Causes and Determinants of Real Estate Bubbles in China. There are many other titles available in the real estate dissertation collection that should be of interest to construction management students and building professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of construction such as project management techniques, environmental management, building and construction methods to name a few. It took a lot of time to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Real Estate Dissertation Dubai Property Values

Real Estate Dissertation – Impact of Services and Facilities on Dubai Property Values

Title: Real Estate Dissertation Dubai Property Values – Dubai’s real estate market has in the last decade experiential significant changes that substantially affect market prices. During the global financial crisis, this emirate saw one of the worst housing crashes across the world. While real estate prices have gradually rebound especially in the residential sector there is still significant interest among investors to enhance the value of their properties. Accordingly, this study set out to critically investigate the impact that services and facilities have on residential property prices in Dubai. Both community level and building specific services and facilities such as transit systems, recreational parks/spaces, and retail centers, swimming pools car parks and security were taken into account.

Real Estate Dissertations
Real Estate Dissertations

A mixed method approach involving the use of both quantitative and qualitative data was adopted in the study. Qualitative data was collected from randomly selected tenants and landlords/investors in four key residential areas of Dubai. The study also finds that despite the positive impact of services and facilities property returns may be eroded by the significantly high service charges and hence the need for competitive outsourcing of property/facility management services. Some discrepancies between tenant and investor preference for services and facilities is also noted and hence the possibility of mismatched demand and supply of these amenities.

Dissertation Objectives

In consistence with the above background information, this study seeks to critically investigate the impact that services and facilities have on property values in the Dubai’s real estate market. The findings of the study will inform developers and investors on strategies that they can employ in order to ensure that their properties are optimally valued in the housing marketing and therefore profitable. In order to meet the above general aim the following specific objectives will be pursued:

  • To investigate the extent to which investors and tenants in Dubai are willing to pay higher prices for properties with enhanced services and facilities
  • To establish the influence that availability of services and facilities has on demand for residential properties in Dubai
  • To establish the extent to which services and facilities are major determinants of property values in Dubai
  • To identify and analyse the most valued services and facilities in Dubai’s real estate market

1: Introduction
Research background
Research rationale and problem statement
Research aim and objectives
Main research question
Significance and justification of the study
Overview of research methodology
Structure of the study

2: Literature Review
Relationship between services, facilities and property values
The modern urban theory
Quality of the building infrastructure and facilities
The importance of property management services
Influence of services and facilities on housing demand
Demand for services and facilities
Internal facilities and neighborhood qualities
Impact of incomes on services and facilities preference
Determinants of property values
Demand and supply
Structural and service attributes
Tenant preference for various services and facilities

3: Research Methodology
Research design
Philosophical position
Research approach
Research strategy
Choice of research instrument
Sampling method
Data analysis technique
Research ethics

4: Findings and analysis
Demographic analysis
Relationship between services and facilities and property values
The influence that availability of services and facilities has on demand for residential properties in Dubai
The extent to which services and facilities are major determinants of property values in Dubai
The most valued services and facilities in Dubai’s real estate market

5: Conclusions and Recommendations
Willingness to pay premium prices for services and facilities
Influences of services and facilities on demand for property
Most valued services and facilities in Dubai’s real estate market
Recommendations
Suggestions for future research

References

Appendices
Survey Questionnaire

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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on the Impact of Services and Facilities on Dubai Property Values. There are many other titles available in the construction dissertation collection that should be of interest to construction management students and building professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of construction such as project management techniques, environmental management, building and construction methods to name a few. It took a lot of time to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Business Dissertation Low Oil Prices

The Effects of Low Oil Prices: A Comparative Analysis of Saudi Arabia and the UAE

Business Dissertation Low Oil Prices: This dissertation attempts to explore the effects of low oil prices on both Saudi Arabia and the UAE, in light of the recent 2014 decline in oil prices that continue to decline today. Most significantly, low prices seem to deteriorate fiscal positions, put pressures on fixed exchange rates, hinder growth and cause worry as to the sustainability of oil-exporting countries.

This dissertation uses a mixture of literature and secondary data to present its findings, drawing upon the fact that Saudi Arabia should be of a higher focus due to the lack of economic diversification and foreign exchange reserves that exist in the region. Finally, this dissertation serves as an overall insight into low oil prices, briefly looking at historical instances with a clearer focus on the recent crisis. This dissertation will primarily use a historical comparative method in evaluating and analysing the effects of low oil prices on Saudi Arabia and the UAE.

Oil Prices
Oil Prices

This comparative analysis will consist of a considerable amount of examination of secondary data, due to the proliferation of data that exists on oil prices with specific reference to both the macroeconomic and microeconomics structures of Saudi Arabia and the UAE. It is noteworthy at this point is the “dismal state of economic statistics in the GCC in general, a situation that has been repeatedly lamented by the International Monetary Fund,” meaning that there has been a lot of theory on this subject area as opposed to concrete data that would portray the reality of the situation.

1 – Introduction

2 – Methodology

3 – Literature Review
The Rentier State and the Politics of Oil
The Resource Curse Theory

4 – Analysis
Oil Prices
2014 Oil Price Decline
Fiscal Policies
Exchange Rates
Economic Diversification
Politics
Entrepreneurialism

5 – Final Comments and Conclusions

Bibliography

I hope you enjoyed reading this post on Effects of Low Oil Prices and how it affects the economies of Saudi Arabia and the UAE. There are many other titles available in the business management dissertations section economics dissertations section and  that should be of interest to MBA students and academic professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of business such as strategy, leadership, international business, mergers and acquisitions to name a few. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

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International Law Dissertation Statehood

Statehood: Regulation or Process

International Law Dissertation Statehood and Diplomatic Relations: One of the most deep rooted problems of international law is identity. Domestic law is obviously an amalgamation of rules regulating one’s behaviour in a local or national society. The complexity of international law is depicted directly by looking at whose behaviour it seeks to regulate. Who are subject to it? When do these perceived subjects become part of the international system of laws? While the answer to the first question is clear, and that is states, the second is difficult, complex and certainly not straightforward.

The reason being is that there is no academic conclusion as to when a territorial entity becomes formally a state, and therefore a subject of international law. Even more so, there is no conclusion between scholars and international lawyers alike as to whether statehood is a mere formality or an evidence of facts. The above, create further questions as to the very existence and practice of international law. It is of no coincidence that scholars studying international law have expressed concerns regarding the problems this debate entices. Others have rightfully stated that ‘very few branches of international law which are of greater, or more persistent, interest and significance for the law of nations than the question of Recognition of States’.

International Law Dissertation Statehood
International Law Dissertation Statehood

This dissertation project will attempt to analyse and explore as much as possible the various cases of entities bidding for recognition and acquisition of the status of statehood. It will also attempt to examine the implications of recognition as well as those of non-recognition and look into those cases of entities which have cast themselves as unique. Through this examination, one of the conclusions that can be extracted is that the birth of each state separately is a unique circumstance on its own.

Furthermore, the purpose of this dissertation is to compare the two main theories revolving around state creation drawing conclusions both from international legal documents as well as through pre-existing research held by distinguished scholars. In order to achieve the above, the paper has been constructed in such a way so as to offer an insight to as many issues that arise from the debate as allowed by the word limit, and achieve a conclusion as empirical as possible. The research will first overcome the most obvious of the obstacles it faces: the question of what comprises a state. Beyond the obvious description of a state, one needs to look into a number of its functions, such as the need to promote the welfare of its constituents.

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction

2 – What is a State?
The Declaratory Theory
Population
Territory and Self-Determination
Government and Sovereignty
Capacity to Enter into Diplomatic Relations

3 – State Creation
Self-Determination, Partition and the Use of Force
The Constitutive Theory

4 – Comparing the Constitutive and Declaratory Theories
The Reality of the ‘Politics of Recognition’
The Capacity to Enter into Diplomatic Relations
Taiwan
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Kosovo

5 – Conclusion

6 – Table of Authorities

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The Economic Environment Project

The Economic Environment

The circular flow model of the economy

Title: The Economic Environment. The firms in this model are the businesses while the households are the consumers. The firm is responsible for the production function while the households are responsible for consumption. In his book Waste to wealth: The Circular Economy, Lacy Peter states that households in the circular flow model provide labor in exchange for payment and offer this payment in exchange for the goods and services produced. The circular flow model entails the government, consumer and business elements. The firm produces goods and services to meet the consumer demand. Households purchase these products and pay to the firms. Additionally, households also provide the labor necessary to produce the goods and services. Therefore, one cannot exist without the other. This is key to any economic environment.

The financial sector such as banks and micro finances are important to the Circular Flow Model of the economy in many aspects despite being greatly ignored. This sector is responsible for ensuring that money flows across the firms, households and the government. The financial sector allows households to save money gained from working in the firms.

This money is also used for investment purposes in factors such as the fixed assets used by the firms to produce goods and services. When the government and the households save, the money is directed towards the financial market. In order to ensure the continuance of the economy, financial sectors invest this money by lending it to the households, firms and the government hence making the flow continuous (Chand, 2016). This is critical to the economic environment. Furthermore, the financial sector determines the amount of money in the market hence the inflation rate at any one moment. The circular flow model of the economy would be incomplete without the financial sector.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

The GDP of a nation is the total market value of goods and services produced in the nation. GDP is effectively measured through market prices. During different times, prices tend to change especially because of inflation. Therefore, comparing the nominal GDP over different times may not be helpful as comparing the real GDP of New Zealand’s economy. Instead, real GDP, also known as the GDP in constant prices may be used to compare the market value of goods and services. Real GDP helps compare the GDP during different periods at the same set of prices. While the nominal GDP is equal on both the production and expenditure sides, the real GDP differs on the production and the expenditure mainly due to changes in relative prices between imports and exports.

Economic Environment Dissertation
Economic Environment Dissertation

One statistic that should be considered when making an international investment or expansion is the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) rate. By understanding the level of FDI in a foreign country, it is possible to establish how competitive the market in the foreign country is. One may also use the inflation rate of the country as well as the unemployment rate to determine how suitable the new market is for the expansion. The inflation rate determines how strong or weak the local currency is hence affecting the amount of money required for the initial investment. Additionally, constant changes in the rate of inflation may be an indication of an unstable economy. On the other hand, the rate of unemployment can help predict the potential demand and supply for the goods or services. The inflation rate may also help project the cost of labor for the new branch internationally.

The Business Cycles and Business The Environment

New Zealand’s recent annual GDP was 173.75 billion US dollars while the value stood at 0.28% of the global GDP. The GDP growth rate is at 2.50%. The inflation rate has been at a steady of 4.75% since 1918 to 2016. On the other hand, the unemployment has been at an average of 6.13% since 1985 to 2016. However, the rate of unemployment fell to 5.1% during the second quarter of 2016. Although the New Zealand economy has past the peak phase, it is expected to continue growing at a healthy rate while creating new jobs.

A housing bubble occurs when an increase in demand leads to a significant increase in the house prices (Roberts, 2008). Unlike most goods and services, replenishing the supply of houses takes time hence creating a bubble with soaring house prices. Eventually, the bubble bursts due to the increase in supply and a decrease in demand. Such an event would cause the New Zealand economy to slow down significantly.

When an economic recession occurs, the number or frequency of economic environment activities decline significantly (Roubini, 2011). Some businesses are able to continue operating as long as they are able to cover their fixed cost. However, other businesses not able to cover the variable cost including labor have to shut down rather than operate at zero profit. Scarcity of supply due to high production cost leads to high prices, meaning that consumers are unable to purchase goods and services. Firms selling second hand goods, companies dealing with bankruptcies or debt problem benefit during recession. The market is also more efficient and consumers get the best value in the market.

References

Chand, S. (2016). The Economic Environment and Circular Flow of Income in a Four Sector Economy.

Lacey, P. (2015). Waste to wealth: The Circular Economy and Economic Environment. Palgrave MacMillan.

Roberts, L. (2008). The Great Housing Bubble: Why did House Prices Fall? Monterey Cypress, LLC.

Roubini, N. (2011). Crisis Economics: A Crash Course in the Future of Finance. Penguin Books.

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