Carl Jung Theory Assignment

Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung is the full name for Carl Jung, Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and a psychologist who was the founder of analytic psychology. He was also a major contributor to the development of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis. Carl Jung was born in Kesswil, Switzerland on 26th July 1875. Jung was also a major contributor in other fields like religious studies, archaeology, literature, and physiology. Due to his innovation, he created the introvert and extrovert personalities, collective unconscious, and archetypes. Carl Jung was a talented and blessed individual as he was also a proficient writer, artist, and craftsman.

Carl Jung Background

Carl Jung was the youngest and first son of Paul Achilles Jung, his father was a pastor and a philologist. During his childhood days, he was an introvert and a lonely child. However, he was very observant as he observed the behaviors of his teachers, parents, and friends, he was a problem solver. When his father failed in his religious belief, Jung tried to help him as he told his father how he related to his God and how he felt about the issue. From the beginning, Jung tried to search for his purpose. Unfortunately, Jung’s father could not understand him because Jung was always on the front line to resolve problems. He was also very kind and humble.

During his childhood Jung had some of his father’s character, this made people think that he may also become a minister; some members of the family were ministers of the Word of God. Jung was a very observant boy majority thought he would copy the footsteps.

At first, Jung aspired to study archeology, however, this was not possible as his parents could not afford to send him to a better University. Jung went to Basel University where archeology was not offered. During his teens, Jung decided to study philosophy and read it in depth. During his childhood Jung suffered a condition which he could faint and pass out, however, this problem did not stay for long and was able to eventually get healed.

Due to this challenge, he faced in his childhood, Jung abandoned his passion to study archeology and went against the family traditions and decided to become a psychiatrist where he studied medicine. This is what he was searching for as the course was spiritual and biological. A year later after joining the University of Basel where he was studying medicine his father passed on. This was very unfortunate as he was the breadwinner of the family but Jung’s relatives were very supportive and contributed to his studies.

Jung moved to Zurich University after he completed his studies, he was very fortunate and was employed at the University’s Burgholzili psychiatric hospital, where he was under the supervision of Eugen Bleuler who was the inventor of what is today known as metal illness studies. While he was working there, he gained a lot of experience in this field and was able to conduct researches like association tests which were developed by other researchers. He specialized in the study of how humans respond to a stimulus where he discovered that it was caused by emotionally charged clusters (Dunne, C. (2015).

Jung got married to Emma Rauschenbach in 1903 and gave birth to two children. During their marriage, the couple was able to start a business, which was managed by his wife. 

Carl Jung Theory

Carl Jung developed the personality theory which formed the basis of universal types of human personality. The types of theories which are categorized by the theorist are all found in all human beings. However, some of the types are predominant when compared to the normal mode of organizing lives. Carl Jung also pioneered the theory of personality. His theory is one of the types of theories of personality. It mainly involved the introversion and extroversion typology.

He developed the theory referred to as analytical psychology. He viewed the libido not as sexual instinct which was outlined by Freud, but as generalized life energy. One of Jung’s biggest contributions was the ideology of collective consciousness, he deemed as the universal version of the “Freud’s unconscious, holding mental patterns, or memory traces, that are common to all of us” (Boundless, 2016).

The archetypes which Jung referred to them as ancestral memories are represented by the universal themes which are expressed through various art and literature work as well as the dreams of the people. Jung contrasted the idea of Freud’s ego, id, and superego by suggesting archetypes are the shadow reflects of the deeper elements of an individual psyche, whereby latent dispositions are common to us all. Archetypes are also reflecting something which was once spilled from people during the early management of the objects in our lives.

The route to communication has been linked to the “Amina (female) and the Animus (male) with the collective unconscious analogy. The true self is represented by the “Anima/animus” and is opposed to the masks the people wear each day and which is the source of our creativity. The part that connects and is part of the universe is the self. It is the universal thing that unifies both the unconsciousness and the consciousness The nirvana and the ecstatic harmony also represent the latter. Jung narrates that persona serves as the compromise between who we are (the true self) and what the community expects us to do and be. People usually hide the parts of themselves which are not in line with society or community expectations behind the mask.


Introverts are majorly people who prefer their world of dreams, thoughts, feelings the fantasies and mostly they prefer their private space. “Interaction drains their energy whereas being alone energizes them”. They are the opposite of the extroverts.

Psychologist Carl Jung pioneered and was the first to describe the introvert personality. It was first coined in the 1960s. However, these personalities have to do interchange their characters and sometimes the extrovert will act more like the introverts and the introvert will be more of the extroverts.

Traits of an introvert person according to Carl Jung

He/she prefer personal time

The ideology of being alone is more compelling and never taxing. The health and happiness of an introvert person are depended on the periods of solitude (Jung, C. G, 2014). The times do not matter to them whether they are engaged to something or just spending time to rest. Their main thing is being in solitude. They mostly enjoy reading, gardening writing, and any other activities which don’t require people to attend.

They are drained by social interactions

The introverts will never want to engage in party-like concerts. Most of the time they know they have masked out of them and there is a need to refuel their batteries. That’s not to say all introverts will flake out of parties they can and do enjoy them as much as an extrovert but at the end of a long night, introverts need to escape to recharge and reset.


For quite some time, many psychologists have used the extrovert personality trait to try and have a better understanding of how people differ. Many people use this term to describe people who are more talkative and more comfortable with social situations. They are the outgoing type. 

Traits of an extrovert

Problem solvers

With their ability to talk and have the issues on the table with other people, the extrovert is in pole position to offer hand solutions.

Extroverts Love talking

Extroverts love to strike new conversations with new and total strangers. They don’t enjoy talking to friends, or the family members and mostly the co-workers. They love to meet new people and learn more about their lives. Unlike introverts who put their thoughts first before speaking, extroverts tend to speak while exploring and organizing their thoughts and ideas. Their circle of friends tends to be wider

One of the greatest criticisms of Jung was his work; this is because his work is termed as unscientific. These criticisms first occurred in 1913 when Jung did split with Freud. However, the way Jung interpreted dreams and believed in spirits also caused him to be highly criticized. Some of these interactions made him be isolated from the community (Jung, C. G, 2014). Due to this criticism, his book was termed as rubbish at some point. Even though Jung studied medicine the majority of his work gained a lot of criticism and was termed as unscientific.

Some of his works and concepts like synchronicity and archetypes cannot be scientifically proven. The collective unconsciousness that is based on an outdated understanding of evolution concerns of the archetypes. Jung interpreted archetypes as primordial images that appear rapidly in symbols, myths, and other personified forms. Some critics have also justified that Jung might have agreed with the notion that lamarckianism evolution might be existing through the various attempts to define archetypes.

Some critics also argue and criticize that the emotional theory in question has no definite answer. Through this writing it is evident that Jung had not contacted spirits which he claimed her mother used to experience during the night, it shows he was always in contact with ordinary reality. However, contemporary critics see mysticism and occultism as irrational and too much at work in the part of Jung’s theory. Critics point out that Jung seems to have protected his theory from scrutiny by never settling on any specific explanations for evil.

Critics also found out that Jung’s work has an impact on social science’s invaluable ways. It was highly criticized because it has very strict measurements of extroversion and introversion. The critics do not accept the notion an individual is extensively either an introvert or an extrovert they consider the test too simplistic.

Unlike Freud, Jung seemed aware of the possible dangers of the psychological imbalance presented within the ideology of culture centrality much as each individual in his thinking has a prominent mode whether thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuiting so a given group consciousness might present the same. Among Jung’s numerous hypotheses is the collective unconscious. As per Jung, the human aggregate oblivious is populated by impulses and by models.

Carl Jung Theory
Carl Jung Theory

In conclusion, Jung devoted the rest of his life to developing his ideas especially those on the relation between psychology and religion. In his view obscure and often neglected texts of writers in the past shed unexpected light not only on Jung’s dreams and fantasies. According to this research curl, Jung was a good theorist due to his good writing skills. During Jung’s corroboration with Freud, the two worked hard in hard to try and solve and answer some questions through their theories (Dunne, C, 2015). Despite, their separation and criticism among themselves they will still be termed as one of the best psychologists of all time.

Thought Jung’s career he was able to win various prizes for his good work in research and writing. Although Jung faced a lot of challenges when perusing the career, he never gave until he achieved and became one of the greatest theorists of all time. In 1943, Jung became a full medical professor of medical psychology at the University of Basel but later resigned due to health problems. Jung continued writing and publishing books the rest of his life, in 1961, Jung wrote his last book, Jung died on 6 June 1961 after a short illness. Most of Jung’s work was published at his death. 


Jung, C. G. (2014). Nietzsche’s Zarathustra: Notes of the Seminar given in 1934-1939 by CG Jung. Routledge.

Jung, C. G., & Pauli, W. (2014). Atom and Archetype: The Pauli/Jung Letters, 1932-1958-Updated Edition. Princeton University Press.

Dunne, C. (2015). Carl Jung : Wounded healer of the soul. Watkins Media Limited.

Jung, C. G. (2019). History of Modern Psychology: 1933-1934. Princeton University Press.

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Conquering Dyslexia Dissertation

Beneficial Methods for Conquering Dyslexia

This paper considers the treatments that work most effectively for teaching people with dyslexia how to read confidently. I will begin by reviewing the background of dyslexia. Relying heavily on sources I surveyed, I will briefly explore the benefits of early intervention while providing hope of treatment for those the system already failed. Finally, I will examine treatments that successfully aid young dyslexics in conquering their disease and suggest implementing these in all kindergarten classes.

Introduction and Diagnosis

Dyslexia is a major problem for many children who desire to read but cannot break the reading code. Peer pressure that results from the inability to decipher words into speech can even lead third graders to contemplate suicide (Berninger, 2000, p 183). Yet, Shaywitz estimates twenty percent of all school age children have the disorder. Sadly, in the same experiment she discovered only one-third of these children were in special education programs (Shaywitz, 2004, p 30). Every child who desires to read has the right to learn; however, many children on the edge of reading disabilities never receive remedial treatment until they fail multiple times. While the older dyslexic has the ability to conquer the disease, intervention at earlier ages is more effective and saves the child from stigmatization.

Although early diagnosis is a key factor in recovery, many disagree on how to identify children with the disability (Scruggs, T., Mastropieri, M., 2002; Stanovich, K., 2005). This delays treatment, reducing the chances of remediating the child to fluent reading. Intelligence tests and multiple years of academic failure are the most widely used methods of diagnosing dyslexia, but lead to widespread over- and under- diagnosis (Scruggs, T., Mastropieri, M., 2002). Genetic research is more accurate, but it is an expensive method of identification. However, researchers have not identified all the genes responsible for dyslexia. Additionally, while genetic influence exists (Taipale, M., Kaminen, N., Nopola-Hemmi, J., Haltia, T., Hannula-Jouppi, K., Kere, J., 2003), twin studies show it is not a determining factor as to whether or not a child will develop dyslexia (Shaywitz, 2004, p 99), and children without any genetic markers develop the disease from poor instruction.

MRI imaging is one of the most accurate diagnostic tools, but it also is costly and only available to researchers. It allows one to see which areas of the brain are active during language processing. The pictures clearly show the difference between those who have broken the code, dyslexics and dyslexics that have compensated for the disease. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis does not outweigh the cost in time and money of performing the test.

When children are unruly in class or difficult to teach, teachers often refer them for testing. Shaywitz points out the large percentage of boys diagnosed with dyslexia while very few girls receive this identification. Her reassessment of children in several schools found the number of boys was actually equal to the number of girls (Shaywitz, 2004, p 32). This creates more of a problem by placing children in classes where they will bore easily or by leaving children in classes that do not meet their needs.

Dyslexia Dissertation
Dyslexia Dissertation

In addition to under- and over- diagnosis, one also finds the problems of late diagnosis and not seeing the need for diagnosis. Some believe students must be over the age of eight before a proper identification of dyslexia is possible. Shaywitz argues that between four and five are the ideal ages for intervention. Conflicts arise over whether the learning disabled label will brand the child for life with a negative image, or whether the child will be allowed to fall through the cracks once labeled as dyslexic.

The school told the mother of a girl I once tutored that she should not have her child tested to eliminate the possibility of the child being stuck with the label. Additionally, because dyslexics and average readers learn on the same curve, some in education still assert children outgrow the disease or that there is no reason to change the child’s current reading program. While it is true that the curve is similar and dyslexics even make a slight gain on their peers, dyslexics always score far below good readers (Shaywitz, 2004, p 34).

Important Terms

Before addressing the question of how to solve the problems of diagnosis and treatment, we must first explore some terms common in dyslexia. The term as defined by the International Dyslexia Association is:

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge (August, 2002).

The phoneme is “the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word forms another” (Shaywitz, 2004, p 41). The phonological module is “the functional part of the brain where sounds of language are put together to form words and where words are broken down into their elemental sounds” (Shaywitz, 2004, p 40). Because the major problem with dyslexia is a breakdown in the ability to recognize phonemes contained in words, these terms are all important to any discussion of the disease.

If dyslexia is a breakdown in the ability to distinguish phonemes, it logically follows that increasing the amount and quality of phonemic instruction will aid the child in overcoming the disease. Parents and educators must realize the need for intervention and actively pursue it. Important to consider are the dyslexic’s developmental age at the time they begin supplemental instruction. Equally as important is to develop a program that focuses on the child’s strengths and interests.

To begin to aid a child in understanding the relationship between sounds and words, one must introduce the child to the sounds of language. Books filled with rhyme and alliteration such as Chicka Chicka Boom Boom or One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish are excellent choices (Shaywitz, 2004, p177 – 182). After spending time reading these books for pleasure, it is important for the teacher or parent to draw attention to which words rhyme and what rhyme is. They should have the child think of other words that begin or end in the same way. Children need to realize that words are related through sound before identifying that those sounds are represented alphabetically. All elementary teachers should spend time each day reading to their students just as parents should spend time each day reading to their children. Connecting words we speak to the phonemes that create them is essential to all readers.

Once the child can rhyme, the program must begin to help the child break words into all their sounds. Beginning with two sound words like key, bee, or it, the educator can teach the child to break the words into their respective phonemic units. Introductory work on syllables can begin. After the child realizes that words separate into smaller parts, the adult may teach three sound words like cat, seat, or call. At the same time, it will be useful to reinforce what the child already learned by asking questions like “What do you get if you put the /s/ sound in front of the word key?” or “What does /m/… /o/ …/m/ make?” All these things build phonemic awareness and are useful to all children learning to read.

Once the child has a basic understanding of phonemes, the instructor should introduce decodable texts that use relatively few phonemes to create stories. These books, such as the “Bob Book” series, slowly build confidence in the child’s reading ability. As the child begins to enjoy their ability to read, new books and sight words should be introduced. Sight words must be memorized. Children can make their own flashcards with words like is, are, was, one, and two. This allows them to read and write the word.

The child must practice writing to build legible handwriting and further establish phonemic awareness. Practice is the only way to learn. The more a child practices making letters correctly and sounding out words on paper, the better the child will become at it. All children should be given many chances even at the beginning of kindergarten to practice writing. Word cards with tracing paper clipped to them will aid in early instruction. In writing, having the child practice forming the letters correctly should be stressed. Allowing children to write four pages of a’s (for example) backward is not as useful as having the child trace one page of the letters correctly.

By the end of kindergarten, children should be practicing spelling skills. While children at this level should not be expected to spell well, invented spelling is an important step on the road to recognizing the phonemic roots of words. The more chances children are given to attempt to sound words out for themselves, the more they will master breaking words apart into their letters, and in return, the better ability they will have to decode written words.

As with all kindergarten children, teachers need to read enjoyable books and surround children with literacy. When children recognize the joy of reading, they desire to read. When teachers and parents read to children, they encourage larger vocabularies. Children who know the meaning of words like “ink” will have a better time decoding it when they come across it in texts they are reading (Shaywitz, 2004, p192).

Finally, it is important for children to develop self-confidence. Children should make progress as they go through an intensive phonics program. Tests can be performed to make sure they understand what was taught, but tests are teaching tools that evaluate teachers not students. When a student does not understand something, it should cue the teacher to reintroduce it in a new way. Additionally, children should not repeat a grade if they have failed to decode reading by the end of kindergarten (Shaywitz, 2004, p196).


Many teachers will look at the plan for educating dyslexic kindergarteners and think, “That is what I do for my class already.” This is because what Shaywitz proposes is an intensive phonics program. Others like Beringer (2000) utilize the same style of reading program to teach dyslexics. The two major differences between intervention reading and a standard kindergarten program are that many kindergarten programs try rushing phonics training and that intervention work is created around a theme of interest among the students.

Implementing this program for all kindergarten students would not lower the education they receive. However, if all schools focused on intensive phonics training for their kindergarten students, dyslexia could be conquered without extensive testing to discover which children have the disorder. When schools use tests to evaluate what they need to teach instead of how well students are learning, they can resolve many learning issues. Some may argue that children without learning disabilities will become bored with intensive learning, but often the children that learn to read too quickly develop other learning problems later on that could be corrected by skills learned from intensive phoneme training (Shaywitz, 2004, p196).

While dyslexia is a major problem that needs to be addressed, it can easily be eliminated from the classroom. Shaywitz and others have show through MRI’s that even dyslexics can conquer the disease and rewire their brains if they are instructed in intensive phonemic awareness. Because of the difficulty in recognizing the disease early and intervening, it is imperative schools adapt an aggressive stance on this learning disorder.


Berninger, V.W. (2000). Dyslexia the Invisible, Treatable Disorder: The Story of Einstein’s Ninja Turtles. Learning Disability Quarterly, 23(3), 175-195

Glenn, H.W. (1975). The Myth of the Label Learning Disabled Child. The Elementary School Journal, 75(6), 357-361

Lyon, G.R. (August 2002). International Dyslexic Association. Washington, D.C.

Scruggs, T.E., Mastropieri, M.A. (2002). On Babies and Bathwater: Addressing the Problems of Identification of Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(3), 155-168.

Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia. New York: Knopf. Qtd. Lyon

Stanovich, K.E. (2005). The Future of a Mistake: Will Discrepancy Measurement Continue to Make the Learning Disabilities Field a Pseudoscience?  Learning Disability Quarterly, 28(2), 103-106.

Taipale, M., Kaminen, N., Nopola-Hemmi, J., Haltia, T., Mylltluoma, B., Lyytinen,

H., Muller, K., Kaaranen, M., Lindsberg, P.J., Hannula-Jouppi, K., Kere, J. (2003). A Candidate Gene for Developmental Dyslexia Encodes a Nuclear Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain Protein Dynamically Regulated in Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(20), 11553-11558.

Temple, E., Deutsch, G.K., Poldrack, R.A., Miller, S.L., Taillal, P., Merzenich, M.M., Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2003). Neural Deficits in Children with Dyslexia Ameliorated by Behavior Remediation: Evidence from Functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(5), 2860-2865

Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K., Simmons, K., Laughon, P. (1990). Identifying Phonological Coding Problems in Disabled Readers: Namin, Counting, or Span Measures? Learning Disability Quarterly, 13(4), 236-243

Dyslexia Dissertation

Did you find any useful knowledge relating to Dyslexia and Learning Disabilities in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.