HRM Employee Relations

Employee Relations

One of the most important factors in any workplace is the relationship between employees and employers. This relationship is sometimes termed as “Employee Relations”, referring to the relationship between employees and employers in an industrial setting. Employees have specified rights over their working conditions and over other matters regarding their pay, redundancy, overtime, promotion, and many other issues. These rights are specified by law and sometimes, also negotiated through trade unions or worker unions in order to influence the decision of employers.

Each country specifies the rights of its workforce differently and some countries give workers higher bounds of protection. In some countries, such as the United States and Great Britain, workers have fought for their own rights over different periods in history and have succeeded in gaining a considerable amount of influence. Great Britain has a minimum wage limit set for its workers and employers all over Great Britain are obligated to at least pay their workers this amount for work they have done. Other laws and statutes protect workers from being overworked, underpaid, or discriminated against for employment and promotional purposes. Laws also outline the type of working conditions and working environment that is essential for workers and the rules as to how/when and in which circumstances, workers can be laid off, fired, or made redundant (Rose, pg 94-111, 2004).

Other factors which also affect employee relations are factors such as pension plans, education plans, training, and disability and injury allowances. Hence, there are a number of factors that employers and employees must be conscious of in the setting of an employment contract (Lewis, pg 110, 2009). Moreover, with the growing influence of employees and with increasing bargaining power, employers must set strategies and approaches in order to effectively deal with the whims and concerns of their employees. No workplace can operate without the employees being properly motivated and satisfied with their work. Dissatisfied employees may mean large losses for the firm and in the case of Great Britain, some lawsuits as well (Rose, pg 98, 2004).

International and Regulatory System

The international system regarding employee welfare and employee relations lacks coercive power and is not able to effectively regulate the conditions offered to employees in various countries. International laws are difficult to implement as each country has their own policy and their own concerns regarding employee welfare. An example of an international law that is difficult to implement is the law against child labor, restricting the number of hours a child under a certain age can work. However, Third World countries are not able to implement this law effectively and child labor is heavily prevalent in such countries The United Kingdom has set a proper regulatory system for employer and employee relations and aims to ensure that both sides receive their fair share. It is alleged at times that employees receive a greater amount of leniency and have more say than the employer in the maintenance of this relationship. However, employees in the UK also have issues regarding the minimum wage, pension plans, and health benefits included in their pay (Lewis, pg. 114-184,2003).

Employee Relations
Employee Relations

Developed countries such as the UK, Australia, USA, and Canada have regulatory systems which aim to moderate the relationship between employees and employers (mature employee relations). Laws govern the contracts upheld by both parties and the clauses are testable by law. Hence, if one party fails to acknowledge or fulfill a clause mentioned in the contract, that party is liable to punishment by law. However, not all countries have a regulatory system. Most Third World Countries do not have a minimum wage nor an obligation to provide employees with any other benefits. Discrimination and unnecessary redundancy is strongly prevalent in such countries. No system exists to properly assist labor in standing up for their rights. Cheap labor is readily available in less developed countries and developed countries are often found exploiting this situation. Since their own countries have a strong system regulating employer and employee relationship, they avail cheaper labor without any hassles in less developed countries (Lewis, pg 189,2009).

However, the international system and regulatory power for employer and employee relations details issues such as age requirements for work, health benefit plans, job security,  minimum wage, and retirement plans. There are several agencies working to aim to secure such benefits for employees all over the world (Hollingshead, pg 24-32, 2010).

Trade unions and worker associations also do not have full acknowledgement and recognition under the laws of many countries. Hence, workers are unable to negotiate terms and conditions with their companies on a large scale or engage in “collective bargaining”. Mainly, in Third World countries it is the blue collared workers or labor class who lack education and awareness of their rights. These people also lack opportunities and hence are exploited by their employers by being offered low wages and practically no-benefits (Rose, pg 156-230, 2004) this will have an adverse effect on employee relations.

White collar workers or skilled labor is more informed regarding international law; hence usually such workers do engage in proper contracts and receive competitive salaries, according to their qualifications. They also receive benefits, health insurance, and retirement plans. Most Third World countries also implement international law upon their own government employees.

Government employees are given proper employee benefits and adequate pays with pay raises whenever adequate. They are treated according to international standards of employer and employee relations (Lewis, pg 89-105, 2003).

However, only one side of the story should not be accounted for as employees also have an obligation to fulfill their duties during the period of employment. International law states that employees may be fired if they fail to perform all their duties. Hence, it is mandatory for employees to also not over emphasize their power. There is also a maximum limit to the pay raises and extra benefits that employees can negotiate and any violent or defaming behavior can lead to arrest and conviction. Unnecessary union formations and illicit use of power is strongly condemned (Jenard & Judge, pg 161, 2005).

International regulations mainly aim to ensure that all employees are given fair opportunities and are not exploited. They aim to prevent discrimination on the basis of age, gender, ethnicity, and background. They also aim to ensure that all employers are protected against illicit employee action and employee strikes. However, all of these regulations are made by separate international organizations. It is difficult for these organizations to implement their policies in all countries or convince governments to adopt their policies. They must convince governments to sign deals and contracts for the adoption of these policies, yet this is a very difficult task. These organizations lack coercive power. They cannot force other countries to adopt these policies if they do not find them beneficial. The act against child labor was upheld by the UN, but lacks serious implementation (Hollingshead, pg 121, 2005).

These countries still have children working long laborious hours in dangerous situations and being paid very little for their efforts. Hence, international regulations have very little influence and power in the global world. They are mostly ineffective and of no practical use. However, they do raise awareness and raise a voice for some potential concerns regarding the work place.

Mostly, these international laws affect workplaces in Great Britain, USA, and other developed countries, where employees are educated and well-informed. Employees raise a voice in sequence with these laws themselves and demand to be given equal rights and opportunities as people in other developed countries receive. This can be exemplified in the new Pension increase movement in Great Britain (Coats, pg 1, 2010).

However, people in less developed countries seldom have many opportunities and are happy with what they receive as payment for their work. They cannot afford to demand more as they will be in danger of losing their job, instead of being given what they deserve. Employers in these countries also lack resources to be able to give their employees such extravagant benefits. International regulations can only help in raising awareness among the educated class and then enabling the workers to fight for their rights themselves. Moreover, despite such strong efforts, discrepancies prevail in countries like the UK and the USA, where opportunities for men and women are still not identical. Women do receive less pay in many professions such as doctors, lawyers, actresses, and many others. Biases do exist and there is still a prevalence of unjust behavior in these places as well, tending to make it even more difficult to uphold a system in countries which lack resources for implementation (Jenard & Judge, pg 113, 2005).

Employee Relations Approaches

There are two main approaches to employee relations, which include the individualistic approach and the collective approach. Employers choose their management style according to what they find most suitable and what is preferred.

The individualistic approach outlines the way employers prefer to keep separate management styles and negotiations open with individual employees and collective negotiating means dealing with the full work force at large (Blyton, pg 94-102, 2004).

Coordinating and managing employer and employee relationships become more difficult and complicated year by year. It is essential to manage the concerns of employees regarding issues such relocation of industry, harassment, redundancy, compensation, and violent behavior. Hence, it is important for each employee to have a progressive attitude towards the relationship between employee and employer. If this relationship becomes weak, the company suffers at large (Blyton, pg 230-234, 2004) this will hinder employee relations on a large scale.

As mentioned before, there are two ways of managing this relationship, which are a collective approach or an individual approach. The individual approach involves contact of an individual employee with the employer. The employer negotiates the terms and conditions of the contract with the individual employee, pertaining to that employee only (Lewis, pg 208-215,2003).

There are advantages with using the individualistic approach which include that there are only one person’s interests involved and hence, there is no conflict between parties. Sometimes, when the opinion of multiple employees is taken, various employees have differing views and differing interests. Hence, it is difficult to serve the interests of all employees and a trade-off must be made in order to serve the interests of the majority, which might leave some employees unhappy. An example to illustrate this is, one employee may feel that the wage rate is too low, while another may feel that more fringe benefits should be provided to employees. Another employee’s concern may be the health insurance plan and another employee may be worried about the new downsizing operation that the company has begun. It would be extremely difficult for the employer to serve all needs simultaneously; hence some employees will be left unattended in this regard. With individual bargaining, individual needs are catered to in the employment contract, hence there is no conflict.

I Love
I Love

Moreover, since the whims and needs of one person are included in individual bargaining, the employee relations does not have to compromise significantly as to the attendance of his/ her needs. The employee and employer can easily come upon a one-on-one settlement (.Edwards, pg 110, 2003) However, this approach also holds disadvantages which include that one person’s concerns may not be enough to restructure company policies or change procedures. One person may not have enough influence or coercive power to negotiate a great deal and hence the manager may not uphold the concerns of that individual employee. Hence, usually individual bargaining tends to have a much lesser impact upon company procedures and policies at large. There is a very low tendency of compliance by the employer hindering effective employee relations.

The second approach to employee relations is collective bargaining. This entails negotiating issues with representatives from trade unions and other employee representatives in order to solve the issues of employees collectively, on a large scale. This method aims to eliminate or reduce conflict as employees decide upon their demands on a collective scale and choose representatives to convey their demands to the employer. This enables all issues to be addressed quickly instead of individual employees coming to the employer with individual demands. Hence, it is a quicker and more effective process (Blyton, pg 12-36, 2004) and essential for good employee relations.

Through collective bargaining, the employees exert a lot of influence upon the employer and are able to get what they desire quickly and more effectively. As it is said that there is power in numbers, hence the more employees that are involved in the trade union, the better the result. The method of collective bargaining also has some down sides and some disadvantages. It causes the individual worker to be overshadowed by the interests of the whole group. An individual may have some private concerns which may not be the majority opinion. However, these concerns are not catered to when things are being dealt with on a collective scale. Hence, some employees may be left feeling deprived and unhappy (Edwards, pg 76-89, 2003) again, hindering effective employee relations.

There are other methods of employer and employee relations which depend upon the nature of work of the employee and whether the employee is a part-time or a full-time employee. Full time employees benefit the employer in many ways which include a sense of loyalty and belonging in the company which enables the employee to focus their best efforts upon the business. The employers also have a greater amount of control on the employee and his/her activities. The employer senses a feeling of security and trust which leaves him satisfied that there is other permanent staff available to assist him in hard times, this needs to be overcome in order to promote effective employee relations.

However, employers are also faced with a greater burden of full-time employees. They may be required to pay for vacations and must also pay payroll taxes. It is quite difficult to hire and maintain such a dedicated workforce, and employers will constantly need to provide benefits and other sources of motivation to their employees (Taylor, pg 245-246, 2008) this will promote healthy effective employee relations.

According to UK’s internal revenue code, part time employees are defined as those who work for a period less than 1,000 hours in a year. Part-time employees have some advantages for employers which include flexibility in working hours and a potentially economical option which is extremely viable for smaller and newly developed ventures. Moreover, part time employees can be availed when needed; hence full time costs can be saved to a large extent. Moreover, part time employees need not be given extra benefits such as paid vacations and health insurance. Just as full-time employees, part time employees also have their disadvantages. It is difficult to compete on the basis of loyalty and time with the other employers of part-time employees. When part time employees are offered other options and full time work, they may resign and this may result in a shortage in staff. These are the basic approaches that are used by employees and employers for employee relations. The approaches are used according to the suitability, custom, and preference of the employee and employer, this is essential to build good employee relations.

UK Employee Relations System

Although UK’s employment system is one the most highly protected and established system in the world, it is currently facing a lot of controversy and issues. Workers in the UK are most informed about their rights and have the highest amount of power now as opposed to the power they had in the post war period. However, they still find the system to be a complete turmoil. Employers are currently facing problems with high levels of employee regulations and low productivity and motivation in employees. The rate of motivation has decreased substantially over the years and even though 2005-2008 marked a period of Workers’ Rights Awareness and this rapidly increased the awareness workers have of their rights, workers were far less motivated than employers wanted. Workers tend to feel that there is an unlimited amount of unfairness in the system and it needs substantial improvement (Coats, pg 1, 2010)

The UK’s employment relation system is fairly simple and does not over emphasize certain issues. It gives employers fair liberty to hire and fire employees at their own will and it also prevents the formation of unions. Employees today find this quite unfair and are striving to find a collective voice and to be heard by the government and employers of the UK (Coats, pg 1, 2010).

Employees are not quite aware of the fact that unions are very much prevalent in the UK and they do have a right to a collective voice. However, that voice is subdued in the United Kingdom and employees are not made aware of the opportunities and rights that exist for them. Therefore, increasing employee relations is a must.

Union strikes and action is prohibited in the UK, which makes employees feel that they are at a loss for voicing their opinion. Miss Margaret Thatcher imposed this law upon the kingdom as a way to protect employers from unjust violence and threats from employees looking to impose unfair demands upon employers. However, this system has caused the employees to feel that they are at a loss and is causing more frequent and larger amounts of litigation made against employers. Hence, employee tribunals are active at full speed, dealing with a large number of lawsuits. It is found that employees who are not a part of a union tend to look towards employee tribunals for proper acknowledgement of their demands and to convey their whims, concerns, and other matters. This has currently put UK in an uproar and is affecting the economy at large (Coats, pg 1, 2010).

UK, in the post war period, was more or less the same as it is today. However, the predecessors of this government, in the post-war period understood that there was a need for a platform to voice the opinions of other parties and reasonably argue over alternatives. However, the current system of capitalism does not seem to be working well for the UK presently. This may call for a new system or model of capitalism to be designed and implemented (Rose, pg 220, 2004).

The government may be looking for full dialogue on the issue of improving the employee relations system and must make several reforms to the current prevailing system. These reforms may consist of adequate arrangements to deal with employee concerns on a collective scale and find alternate methods to dispute resolution. Implementation and more focused awareness of employee rights would be an advancing step, especially in areas where employees are least informed and most exploited. Companies who are listed on the Stock Exchange should be asked to also publish information regarding their personnel relations policies and other matters such as accident occurrence, labor turnover, and other human resource related issues.

Hence, opposed to the post war period, some regulations were imposed upon UK”s employee relations system which included the setting of anti-union laws. Some allowances were also made such as extra rights for working parents, minimum wage, and other worker friendly policies. However, these movements were disregarded as in the postwar period, little regulation controlled employee relations. It was left up to the employee and employer and the State only controlled major and serious issues regarding safety and other important concerns. Collective bargaining was majorly encouraged and trade unions were recognized as a means of reducing conflict (Coats, pg 1, 2010). Workers today feel deprived of the rights of collective bargaining and the post-war period system began crumbling with the on set on Miss Thatcher’s governance. The system is currently a wreck and needs new reforms or a new model to follow. It is alleged that other developed countries have developed and implemented their employee relations systems better than the UK and workers in the UK claim that the quality of jobs in the UK is below satisfactory and needs major improvement.


Blyton,P. & Turnbull,P.2004.The Dynamics of Employee Relations. Basingstoke,Palgrave

Coats, David. 2010. Time for a Re-think: A New Employment Relations System for the UK.

Cook, M. 2009. Personnel Selection. Chichester Wiley

Edwards, P. 2003. Industrial Relations and Employee Relations; Theory and Practice in Britain.Oxford Blackwell

Jenard, J. & Judge, G.2005.Employee Relations. London CIPD

Hollingshead, G.2010. International and Comparative Human Resource Management Employee Relations. London; McGraw Hill Higher Education.

Lewis,D. & Sergeant, M.2009. Essentials of Employment Law – Employee Relations. London, CIPD

Lewis,P et al. 2003.Employee Relations: Understanding the Employee Relationship. Prentice Hall

Rose,E. 2004. Employment Relations. Pearson Education

Taylor,S.2008. People Resourcing and Employee Relations. CIPD

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Human Resource Management Workplace

The Role of Human Resource Management in the Workplace

Human Resource Management is a term used to describe how organizations acquire, manage and motivate employees. It also involves the processes and activities put in place to help establish good relations and avoid conflict between coworkers, as well as employee and management staff. A multi-faceted discipline, it is consists of several elements that need to be coordinated in order to create a productive workplace.

Statement of the Problem

This paper aims to examine two important aspects of human resource management in the workplace, namely Employee Motivation, and Employee Development and Training. These aspects will be analyzed within the context of JCB UK, a construction equipment manufacturer. Employee motivation and staff development and training have been selected as the two under performing areas in this company. Using Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, John Stacy Adams’ Equity Theory and other need-based theories, the paper will discuss how the under performing elements influence motivation, conflict and overall job performance. Recommendations of possible solutions will also be provided.


Motivation: According to Moorhead and Griffin, motivation refers to the factors that lead people to engage in a certain behavior rather than the alternative. In an organizational setting, it describes forces that encourage employees to work harder, set goals to increase profit, etc.

Conflict: The business dictionary defines conflict as “friction or opposition resulting from actual or perceived differences and incompatibilities”.

Conflict Resolution: Processes established within an organization that help to resolve conflict between employee and employee, and employee and management staff.

Needs: Something needed for individuals to survive and to be comfortable in life.

Equity: The Oxford dictionary refers to equity as “the quality of being fair and impartial”.

The Purpose of Human Resource Management in the Workplace

Human resource management focuses on the methods, processes and techniques that can be used by an organization to make the best of its workforce. HRM sees people as the company’s most valuable resource and aims to develop employee skills in order to achieve business goals. Human resource management requires management staff to coordinate several elements, some of which include communication, employee motivation, employee training and development, employee relations, remunerations and incentives, change management and other functional areas.

Human resource management is not a standalone activity, but an ongoing process that is part and parcel of the general management of an organization. In other words, it is a small part of what managers need to do to run a successful enterprise. Improper or ineffective management of human resources ultimately leads to unmotivated staff members, lower job performance, misuse of physical resources and a decrease in profit.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Abraham Maslow’s theory has been one of the most popular human resource management theories since the 1940s. Maslow claims that individuals are motivated by the pursuit and/or fulfillment of certain needs. Needs follow a hierarchical structure, and when one level of needs is met, the individual then progresses to the next. According to the hypothesis, there are 5 levels or types of needs. These ranges from what human beings need for survival to achieving one’s full potential. For an organization to keep staff motivated, it has to fulfill these needs to a certain extent.

Types of Needs

Please note that “needs” refer to individual or personal needs and not organizational goals. These two, however, are closely related. In other words, the fulfillment of an individual’s need will ultimately result in the person being motivated to meet organizational goals.

Physiological Needs

Physiological needs are the basic necessities of human life. These include the need for food, shelter, air and other survival requirements. The lack of these necessities makes it impossible to live.

Safety Needs

The need for security and protection against threats are a bit more complex than physiological needs. To fulfill these needs, employees require remuneration, access to health care and other life benefits.

Need to Belong

The next level of needs is centered on a person’s need to belong. Generally, this need manifests as a desire to be part of a family, group, organization or community. It is social in its orientation and a crucial motivating factor in the work place.

Esteem Needs

Individuals strive to be recognized, respected and valued in their place of work. Employees that are perceived to be important to the function of the organization tend to be more motivated and driven to achieve company goals.

Self-Actualization Needs

Self-actualization refers to the process where one realizes his or her potential and capabilities. To Maslow, it is the highest need and one that can cause employees to be increasingly productive when fulfilled.

The Equity Theory

In the early 1960s, John Stacy Adams pioneered a theory that focuses on the fair treatment of staff members. Dubbed The Equity Theory, it is a justice-oriented hypothesis and one that has been adopted in the legal framework of Human Resource Management systems and unions around the world. The basic premise of this theory is that management needs to be consistent in the reward or punishment of employee input and behavior.

Employees are likely to perform better in an organization that aims to treat same-level staff members equally and reward input appropriately. Same-level employees, for instance, are expected to earn the same salary. However, if one invests in working overtime, he or she should be entitled to more pay for performing additional work. Fairness should also be applied in conflict resolution. Employees want to be assured that conflict will be resolved fairly without the arbitrator extending favor to one party.

Human Resource Management Workplace
Human Resource Management Workplace

Employee Motivation: JCB UK Case Study

At the most basic level, motivation is the willingness of employees to do what is required and to invest extra effort into achieving organizational goals. In an article titled ‘Need-based Perspectives on Motivation’, Moorhead and Griffin maintain that there are three major factors that influence overall job performance: motivation, skills and having access to resources needed to get the job done.

As mentioned earlier, motivation is affected by the fulfillment or non-fulfillment of needs. In the case study of JCB UK, although employees’ physiological needs are met, the need for safety and security still persists. Because of the high rate of immediate dismissals and a company structure that does not support union laws, staff members cannot secure an ongoing, contractual income that guarantees financial safety. Without this proverbial safety net, most employees are not motivated to invest time and effort into work as employment might end abruptly and lay all their efforts to waste.

Because dismissals are mainly based on the employees’ inability to execute tasks related to the job positions, this indicates a vital flaw in the planning, recruitment and selection processes used to acquire staff. Hiring employees who are not adequately skilled to fulfill job requirements is cost effective to the company because specialized skills generally demand higher pay. As a result, JCB UK has resorted to a business model and strategy that involves hiring fewer specialists and more staff members with general skills in order to cut labor costs and increase the bottom line.

Untimely dismissals and minimal union acceptance also calls the fairness of the organization’s system into question. The rejection of union laws and support by the company further de-motivates employees because the terms of employment include forfeiting certain legal rights. By not being given the opportunity to contest unfair dismissals, staff members perceive a lack of protection from national laws and a higher threat to job security.

Uncontested dismissals also foster feelings of being disposable instead of valued. As seen earlier, individuals have a need to be valued members of the organization. When this need is encroached, it can cause a negative impact on motivation. Inequity in the workplace has many undesirable effects, some of which include unmotivated workers, conflict and a decline in job performance.

Employee Development and Training

The second underperforming area of the analysis is the company’s willingness and ability to train and develop employees. Training and development refers to the opportunities provided by an organization that staff members can take advantage of, with the aim of acquiring new or improving existing skills. It also involves giving staff members resources and opportunities for career advancement.

The absence of advancement opportunities, resources and infrastructure is closely tied to the low level of employee motivation experienced by JCB staff. One of the purposes of Human Resource Management systems is develop employee potential and improve educational levels. As a result, employees learn to use non-human resources more efficiently to achieve the organization’s goals. Without the necessary infrastructure, employees are not only limited in the skills needed to perform tasks well, but they are also unable to progress in their careers to the stage of self-actualization.

Maslow’s theory can be applied effectively here. If a company’s structure does not permit employee needs of esteem and self-actualization to be fulfilled, much less pursued, it can have significant impact on staff motivation and consequently performance. Victor H. Vroom proposed The Expectancy Theory, which argues that employees are less likely to be motivated when they cannot perceive the rewards they can obtain through excellent performance. In other words, if staff members are required to improve their performance without much possibility of promotion, incentives and rewards, the desire to excel diminishes.

Recommendations to Director

Job security is a high-level priority for employees. If staff members feel they can lose their jobs at any point, motivation to accomplish organizational goals decreases. To remedy this situation, the director should consider rendering immediate dismissals illegal and opt to adopt union laws that can provide better safety and security for employees.

The director should also consider amending screening and recruiting methods to avoid hiring employees that do not possess the appropriate skills for the job. Although cheaper labor might be appealing to the company’s bottom line, it will hurt the profit margin in the long run. Human resources can take up most of the organization’s budget and hiring unskilled employees can result in a waste of valuable resources that can be invested in candidates with specialized skills instead.

It is the responsibility of the employer to device fair processes and methods of dismissal. The danger of uncontested dismissals is that they can induce fear and uncertainty in not just the employees dismissed, but the remaining staff. Fearful and uncertain employees tend to perform poorer than those who know that errors can be corrected without resulting in job loss.

There is much truth in Maslow and Adams’ theories about the type of needs and expectations that employees have about the company they work for. When employees fulfill basic needs, such as earning an income, they progress to the more complex needs of esteem and self-actualization. It is recommended, therefore, that the company invest in infrastructure, resources and opportunities that offer career advancement. Rewarding hard workers with incentives and decision-making positions is an effective way to motivate those who have strong needs for power, influence and affiliation.

The director should strive to increase employee educational levels and invest in skill training. Developing human resources is important because they are responsible for allocating and using non-human resources as efficiently as possible. Also, advancements in technology require modern employees to be tech-savvy in order to keep up with a constantly changing world. Without appropriate education and training, employees will be unable to adapt to new ways of doing business and lack the creativity to give the organization an innovative edge.


Human resource management in the workplace highlights the value of motivated employees to organizations. There are several factors that keep staff motivated and driven to accomplish organizational goals, such as skill training, job security and opportunities for career advancement. Without these factors, employees’ extrinsic and intrinsic needs cannot be met. When needs are not met, it results in lack of motivation and poor job performance. This vicious cycle is best broken by an effective human resource management system. Organizations need to come to a realization that, by developing, educating and striving to fulfill employee needs, employers can create a productive, efficient and willing workforce in return.


Kreitner R. (1986), ‘Motivating Job Performance’. In Kreitner R. , ‘Management’, (3rd edn), Houghton Mifflin Company: USA

Moorhead G. & Griffin R. (1998), ‘Need-Based Perspectives on Motivation’. Houghton Mifflin

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Oxford English Dictionary. (2005), ‘Equity’, 7th Edition.

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 Mabey C, Salaman G, 1995, Strategic Human Resource Management, Blackwell

Buchanan, D, Huczynski, A, 1997, Organizational behaviour, Third Edition.

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