Electrical Power: How to Reduce Consumption during Peak Period with Low Carbon Footprint Energy Technology
The theme of this research paper is the following: Transforming the electricity retailing system to meet future demand, encourage the usage of low carbon footprint energy, thereby contributing to a more sustainable environment for our future. This research paper is composed of four goals: 1). Reduce the rate of electrical energy fluctuation and overall reduction of wholesale privacy by 10%, thereby increasing profit. 2). Reduce peak time demand for electrical power by 5% in 5 years. 3). Reduce electrical power generating operational costs. 4). Increase the ease and reduce the cost to operate PHEV.
Electricity is a secondary source of energy. Electricity is transformed from the combustion of coal and fossil fuels into a secondary source, which can be used and effectively and efficiently transmitted by means of power transmission lines to the consumer. Electricity can also be generated by means of the combustion of biomass. Other primary sources from which electricity is transformed are: natural gas, solar, hydro, geothermal, wind and nuclear sources. The electricity which is generated from the combustion of coal, natural gas, fossil fuels and nuclear sources is non renewable. Electricity is also generated from renewable sources such as: hydropower, wind, biomass, geothermal and solar (need.org 2013).
The cost of generating electricity varies between 2.2 pence per kilowatt hour to 3.2 pence per kilowatt hour. The least expensive means of deriving electrical power is from a combined cycle gas turbine. The most expensive means of deriving electrical energy through combustion is the coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle plant. Open cycle gas turbines which operate on the combustion of natural gas are the most well suited for new electrical generating facilities. The best candidates for fulfilling electrical power generation requisites at peak duty are the open cycle gas turbines. These open cycle gas turbines are adaptive, reliable and are capable of being efficiently ignited when the demand for electricity reaches its peak demand. An open cycle gas turbine can generate electricity at 3.2 pence per kilowatt hour when operate continuously. When operated solely at periods of peak duty, the open cycle gas turbine generates electrical energy at 6.2 pence per kilowatt hour (Royal Academy of Engineering 2012).
The operating cost of renewable energy sources is more expensive than the constant cycle gas turbine, the pulverized fuel steam facility, the circulated fluidized bed steam plant and the integrated gasification combined cycle. Fluctuation of electrical power generation in the renewable energy sources is a limiting factor in the output generation of electrical power. The cost of generation of electrical power varies from 3.2 pence per kilowatt hour to 7.2 pence per kilowatt hour. The cost of generating electrical power is diminished when there is no standby generation from non renewable sources. An onshore wind farm generates electrical energy at a cost of 3.2 pence per kilowatt hour, notwithstanding the standby generation of electrical power from non renewable sources. In the provision of a standby electrical generator operating from non renewable sources, the cost of generating electricity from an onshore wind farm is 5.4 pence per kilowatt hour. The kilowatt hour cost of generating electrical power from wave and marine technologies is consistent at 6.6 pence per kilowatt hour, with or without a standby electrical generation resource (Royal Academy of Engineering 2012).
The analysis of consumer demand for electrical energy requires constant demand data on a monthly, daily and hourly basis. This data may be evaluated by two means: daily and by the maximum or minimum electrical power consumption. The patterns of demand are relatively stable during the months of January through April and October through December. The instability in demand for electrical power occurs between the months of May through September, when consumer demand for electrical power reaches its peak. One method of reducing consumer demand for electrical power is to augment the price per kilowatt hour to the consumer. As the price increases, the demand for consumption of electrical power would be expected to diminish. However, in the short run, large augmentations in the price per kilowatt hour of electrical power only produces small changes in consumer usage. Over a long period of time, consumers have the possibility of adapting their consumption behaviors with regards to domestic appliances, in order to respond to the change in price per kilowatt hour of electrical power (Miller et al. 2002). Demand side management of electrical power consumption may include a variety of venues, inclusive of energy efficiency and conservation. In applying these venues, the impact has been proven to increase the utilization of electrical power efficiently. In California, the savings realized from electrical energy savings and efficiency programs has augmented from 750 MW in 1980 to 3,300MW in 2000. A few recommendations which may assist in the reduction of peak demand for electricity are the following:
- Residential motivations and expense reductions.
- Provision of adequate energy saving insulation in residential environments.
- Residential motivations which include high efficiency lighting (i.e., fluorescent energy saving light bulbs).
- Provision of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) for traffic signals and street lights.
- Provision of energy efficient cool roofs.
- Application of real time electrical meters in residential settings.
- Application of media usage in declaring anticipated electrical shortages (i.e., Stage 1 and Stage 2 emergencies), in order to increase public awareness and voluntary electrical power conservation (Miller et al. 2002).
The implementation of these recommendations has been demonstrated to be effective in the reduction of peak electrical demand. The supply of electrical power must be correctly assessed with respect to consumer electrical demand. This may be demonstrated in the following equation:
Electrical power generating resources + electrical power transfer capabilities > Peak electrical power demand + electrical power reserve (Miller et al. 2013).
Globally, there is an energy transportation paradox. The global transportation sector is wholly dependent upon the combustion of petroleum as a primary energy source. Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) demonstrate an excellent means by which to diminish global dependency of petroleum for the transportation sector. Plug in hybrid electric vehicles which include hydrogen and fuel cell technology offer a potential to offset a significant quantity of petroleum consumption. These plug in hybrid electric vehicles have the capacity of recharging their energy storage systems with electrical power received from the electrical energy retailers. When fully charged, these vehicles apply the power from the secondary source, being electricity, to mechanical utilization for locomotion. The primary benefit of the PHEV technology is that the vehicles cease to be wholly dependent upon one energy source. These vehicles may deploy a variety of energy mixes which include: coal, natural gas, wind, hydropower and solar energy. The PHEV is an evolution in automotive technology, it allows for the storage of energy and its application to the transmission and wheels of the automobile. The PHEV conceptually operates in two modes: the charge sustaining mode which enables the accumulation of electrical energy and the charge depleting mode which enables the dissemination of electrical energy to mechanical energy in order to provide locomotion for the vehicle. The PHEV are not without obstacles, the energy storage systems significantly increase the vehicles cost. The energy storage systems of the PHEV also present engineering obstacles in the energy storage system’s duty cycle. The PHEV is likely to require one deep recharge per day and is likely to require over 4000 deep recharges over a ten to fifteen year lifetime (Markel & Simpson 2013).
The electrical retailing system is presently undergoing an evolution. The types of electrical generation facilities which were considered in the twentieth century may no longer be feasible. Many electrical generation facilities will not be completed for a variety of reasons. In 2007, the State of Texas had nineteen power generation accords, of which seventeen pertained to wind powered electrical generation facilities. These electrical power accords accounted for 78.6% of the increased MW capacity dedicated to the regional ERCOT system. In order to comply with the ever increasing demand for electrical power generation, large capital investments will be required in electrical power generation and electrical power transmission. These large capital investments will most likely result in higher electrical power generating costs. The higher electricity prices may result in increased conservation and efficiency methods (Combs 2012). In order to effectively reduce consumer demand for electrical power during peak periods of consumption, the recommendations in this research paper should be implemented simultaneously with the large capital investments being made in electrical power generation and transmission.
Combs, S (2012) Window on State Government Chapter 27 Electricity. Window on State Government Chapter 27 Electricity
Electricity at a Glance, (2013) need.org
Markel, T & Simpson, A (2013) ‘Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Storage Design’ National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/ CP 540-39614.
Miller,R, Griffin, K, Alvarado, A, Weatherall, R, Rohrer, R, Vidaver, D, Belotsky, A et al. (2013)California Energy Commission 2002- 2012 Electricity Outlook. California Energy Commission
Royal Academy of Engineering (2012) The Cost of Generating Electricity: A Commentary on a Study Carried out by PB Power for the Royal Academy of Engineering. Royal Academy of Engineering