HRM Gender Influence Career Success

Gender Influence on Career Success

Melamed (1996) defines a career as someone’s progress in his occupation through his life. Within the scope of this essay, career success will be mainly defined as the opportunity for management positions and promotions. This is necessarily a restricted definition, but is a starting point to examine the influence of gender. There is a growing body of opinion that the so-called ‘glass ceiling’, where women’s prospects for career advancement are limited due to their gender, is a thing of the past. On the contrary, this essay will argue that gender continues to influence career success to quite a significant extent, first by examining the current situation of gender difference in management positions, then considering career aspirations and opportunities, attitudes towards the genders in terms of abilities, and finally touching on theories of gender difference in career success.

Women and Gender

First, women continue to be in a significant minority when it comes to occupying management positions. It is certainly true that women have gradually become a more and more important part of the global workforce since the middle of the last century. The new term “career woman” is getting popular. However, a large number of studies indicate that in the pursuit of career success, women have to overcome more difficulties than men, before they can reach the top of the hierarchy. A study by Glenice and Margaret (2001: 3) has shown evidence of ‘attitudinal, behavioural and structural barriers that are deterring women on their way to achieve career success. Such barriers seem to be more obvious in the senior management level. In spite of more and more women join the ‘paid workforce’ and taking up management roles, no more than 5 per cent of top management position is taken by women in the USA (Glenice and Margaret, 2001:1).

In UK the number is estimated to be 4 per cent or lower, while in Australia it is around 3 per cent. Early studies all prove that the phenomenon of the “glass ceiling” does exist in the top ‘management level’. In the past decade, evidence shows that women are beginning to break through the “glass ceiling” and managing to acquire their position in the top management group (Ryan and Haslam, 2005). On the other hand, Ryan and Haslam raise a concern that women’s ability to perform well in these positions is being undermined by the type of roles they are offered. They identify female executives being given roles in departments which are known to be in structural difficulties or failing financially: “women are particularly likely to be placed in positions of leadership in circumstances of general financial downturn and downturn in company performance”. This is just one study, however, and should not be used as a generalisation for the experience and career success of all women in management positions, or to prove that gender affects career success in recent times.

Gender Careers
Gender Careers

Although evidence shows that women are in a disadvantaged position in the labour market, it is a position that may actually be reinforced by women’s own perceptions. The career aspiration and expectation between different genders has been studied. Glenice and Margaret (2001) indicate that women are not very interested in pursuing a career. They found that women are more easily satisfied and therefore less likely to maximize their career aspirations. Hede and Ralston’s research (1993) also shows that female managers are less likely to pursuit a position in senior management level compared with male managers.

Their expectations of an executive position are also lower than men. Regarding equal opportunities, an interesting fact is that most women managers believe that they have fewer opportunities when there is a chance for promotion, and they are not actively encouraged to participate in career development activities (Glenice, & Margaret, 2001). In contrast, male managers believe the opposite. However, the research by Ryan and Haslam (2005) suggests there is a narrowing difference between men and women’s perceptions of their opportunities for promotion and therefore their aspirations are becoming more similar. However they found that both men and women believe that gender plays an important role in decisions in personnel selection regarding the type or area of a job. It seems that the barriers to promotion may exist partially in women’s attitudes or expectations.

Another possible barrier to female career advancement is the perception that men and women have different skills, with the former being more suited to senior roles. The possible difference in the types of jobs offered to women and men mentioned above requires further exploration. Researchers argue that men and women’s career progress are based not just on different attitudes but also on different attributes.

Tharenou et al (in Glenice and Margaret, 2001:3) argue that ‘women’s achievements are built on experience and performance while male employees are judged on their level of education’. This seems to be rather a controversial generalisation, but a more commonly argued point is that the different genders have different skills or qualities. Eagly (in Glenice, & Margaret, 2001:2) proposed that the expectation that ‘women will exhibit communal qualities and men agentic qualities’ has an effect. Glenice and Margaret (2001:3) describe communal tendencies as ‘interdependence and co-operation and enjoyment at working closely with others’, and agentic tendencies as ‘a desire for self-expansion and independent behaviour’ (Glenice and Margaret, 2001:3). Their study proved that these gender differences were commonly given as reasons for promotions. However, this research only proves that the belief that men and women have different skills is widespread. It does not prove that men and women have different abilities.

It could be argued that much of the evidence above for gender difference influencing career success is based on people’s (both men’s and women’s) perceptions and aspirations rather than a real difference between the genders in terms of ability. However, this does not negate the argument that gender is a major cause of difference in career success.

In fact, it seems clear that two factors are strong influences in career success: the relatively unproven issue of actual difference between the genders, and the more commonly agreed-upon issue of belief in this difference. This belief creates external barriers to promotion for women in the workplace, as well as internal barriers, which are that women do not aspire to greater success but may be satisfied with positions lower than their actual abilities.

In conclusion, gender has significant influence on employees’ career success. First of all, the disadvantaged position of women is clear, especially in the top management level. The “glass ceiling” does exist in most countries. Secondly, evidence shows that men and women employees have different experiences in their careers. It is generally believed that men have higher promotion opportunities and career expectations than women, although this is not true in all studies. Thirdly, the career success of men and women are influenced by different factors, because of the different social roles they are expected to play. Men are expected to be agentic in their beliefs and behaviors, while women are expected to be communal. In other words, the traditional view is that women’s internal attributes do not fit the requirement of top management. It will take some time to eliminate such bias before more women can have the chance to prove their ability and reduce the influence of gender on career success.

References

Hede, A., & Ralston, D. (1993) Managerial career progression and aspiration: evidence of a “glass ceiling”? International Journal of Employment Studies, 1: 2, 253-282.

Melamend, T. (1995) Career Success: the moderating effect of gender. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47, 35-60.

Melamend, T. (1996). Career Success: An assessment of a gender-specific model. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 69, 217-242.

Ryan, M. K., and Haslam, S. A. (2005) The Glass Cliff: Evidence that women are over-represented in precarious leadership positions. British Journal of Management, 16, 81-90.

Wood, G. F., and Lindorff, M. (2001) Gender differences in explanations for career progress. Women in Management Review, 16(4), 152-162.

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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on gender influence and how it affects career success. There are many other titles available in the HRM Dissertation Collection that should be of interest to human resource management students and CIPD professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of HRM such as employee engagement, HRM Theory, absenteeism, training and development to name a few. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Recruitment Plan Enterprise Rent-A-Car

Recruitment Plan Essay

This essay is based on a recruitment plan for a manager trainee position in an American based company known as Enterprise Rent-A- Car. It highlights the road map for staffing a manage trainee’s position. A good plan enables a company to hire qualified employees who are committed to attain successful personal careers as well help in attaining the company’s objectives through hard work. Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company is a top car rental company in the United States of America under the management of Enterprise Holdings, Inc (Rent-A-Car Par. 1). It is the best place for management trainees to start careers as per the Business Week’s listing in the year 2006.

The company’s business strategy mainly focuses on customer satisfaction. This has contributed to the company’s fast growth over the past decades. In the Company group, there is National Car Rental, WeCar, Alamo Rent-A-Car and RideShare among others. Its business model provides a variety of vehicle classes that are available for renting. Most of its vehicle models are bought from General Motors. The culture of Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company stands on the following core values: good brand name, honesty, fun, hard work, listening to customers, community development and inclusion of globally sustainable activities.

Introduction

The company was founded in 1957; it has been ranked the best in customer satisfaction particularly in airport rentals over the past eleven years. It is the provider of vehicle on rental basis to NHL and NCAA among other big transit companies. The company is prominent as the largest fresh college graduate employers in the United States of America, Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company’s management structure is majorly informal. It allows the employees from all levels to interact freely. Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company has branches worldwide including USA, Canada, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) with more than 70,000 employees all over the world (Rent-A-Car Par. 3).

Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company’s global presence helps the company to access larger market share thus high revenue for the company. During the recruitment plan exercise, attention should be given on how to staff such a sensitive position due to its key roles and responsibilities as pertains to a trainee manager. There are consequences and implications of having low performers in the position. For instance, a low performer can lead the company sales revenue reducing drastically, this can be as a result of market share loss. Implications of having high performers in the position include, rise in the percentage market share due to the innovative nature of the employee, this ensures high revenues for the company. The company should have a strategic context for future proposal for recruiting and selecting for this job. This is due to the dynamic nature of the rental car business as there is more use of information technology as seen it the case where the customers book for a car through the company’s website. Such services recommend employees with substantial knowledge on the use of such eCommerce platforms.

Description of the staffing system used by the company for the job

Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company uses both external and internal recruiting systems. External recruitment planning involves news paper advertisements, recruiting on campus, referrals among others. The advantage of using this system is that it gives the Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company new and varied approaches from its employees despite such a process being so expensive to undertake. On the other hand, internal recruitment is where the current employees can be promoted or demoted to fill the positions. This has an added advantage since it is a cheaper way of recruiting employees to fill positions within a company.

Perform the job/ competency analysis on the job in present and in the near future

Job analysis is the procedure followed when analysing a job for its specification and description. This comprises a list of qualifications required to be attained by the recruits and elements of that given job respectively. Job analysis is also used to evaluate employees to determine the level of incentives to be awarded. During job analysis the recruitment teams are able to come up with recommended qualifications for the job. Here are the possible qualifications essential and desirable in new hires in the position of a manager trainee for Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company;

  • Bachelor’s degree with a minimum of six months sales experience, customer service, excellent supervisory skills as most of the roles involve supervising others within the company.
  • Good leadership experience probably as a student leader in college.
  • A valid driver’s license is a MUST.
  • No drug related conviction for the last three years while driving.
  • Must be above 18 years.
  • Must be authorized to work in the country where he/she wants to work.
  • Must be flexible to work anywhere when posted.

Sourcing of Potential Employees

Advertisements for job vacancies are made through mass media. College recruiting is commonly used by Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company as a source of labour, this is either done through face-to-face interviews or applications through Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company’s website. Other sources of labour are current employees, referrals from employees, former employees, former military, customers, print and radio advertisements, internet advertising and social media, employment agencies and temporary employees. The above named sources are also the future labour supplies for the position.

Recruitment Plan
Recruitment Plan

Appropriate recruiters are chosen to perform the task of selecting the right candidate for the job. The reward system is essential for this group of people in order to ensure that the recruiting process is successful. Human resource planning is essential during the selection process, in order to achieve this objective the past staffing levels, change in technology, the activities involved during staffing and other similar information are essential for the planning process.

The gaps between employees’ current supply and future labour demands of an organization helps in forecasting employee competencies and behaviour needed in the organization’s future. Present sales revenue are also used in strategic human resource planning future numbers of employees and the skills needed and the source of such people. Cultural diversity affects the labour cost, ease in human resource acquisition, flexibility, innovation, and problem solving techniques in the company as it adapts multi-cultural awareness and effective interpersonal skills into the workplaces. This is essential for multinational companies like Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company.

Internal Employee Assessment Plan

Employees’ job analysis is performed to provide employees with their performance results, these results can be used to distribute compensation as well as during training activities but more importantly to find potential candidates for any vacant positions. Any feedback should be delivered to the employees through the three approaches: telling and selling, telling and listening and problem solving (Pride, Hughes and Kapoor 62). Employee assessment results are important when downsizing an organization, the reason for the layoff should be clearly defined to the worker. This should be communicated to the new employees to avoid any legal issues. Legal precautions should be considered to avoid law suits for instance there should be a termination agreement. Right sizing of the company employees should be done to improve the employees’ efficiency this will as well reflect on the future labour demands of the company.

How decision-making plan enables the company to comply with Equal Employment Opportunity and other legal requirements

Good decision making procedures enable the company to avoid lawsuits as there is a well defined selection technique that avoids discrimination in any form say in terms of sex, race, religion or nationality. Age discrimination Act of 1967 which was amended in 1986 to eliminate discrimination against older people above the age of forty can be avoided through good decision making plans. Organizations with good decision makings plan help in selecting even the candidates with disabilities thus avoiding law suits from such people under the Americans with disabilities Act of 1990. Affirmative action by the company to encourage members from the minority groups to apply for jobs and hiring of qualified candidates from such groups can be achieved through effective decision making processes.  The occupation safety and health Act of 1970 to protect the employee’s working environment to prevent ill health and loss of lives can be included in the terms and conditions of a company contract during decision making (Pride, Hughes and Kapoor 102).

Socialization Plan

For effective and comfort of the new worker in Enterprise Rent-A- Car Company he/she will need information on how business is conducted in the organization. Furthermore the new employee will need information on; how daily routines are conducted within Enterprise Rent-A- Car, its history, objectives, activities and products. Lastly the new employees are given the company policies, rules and regulations not forgetting their rights and benefits (Harold and Heinz 48).

Evaluation

It helps to cross check the costs of the selection process, the costs include; time spent during the process, salaries for recruiters, advertisement costs and recruitment expenses. Evaluation of  the recruitment plan process can be based on the rate of application sent out, number of shortlisted candidates, performance of the shortlisted candidates, the total cost of the process, time lapsed data and reviews on the projected on the entire process. There are a number of recruitment evaluation methods; number of successful inquiries, the number of candidates at every stage of the recruitment plan process, the final number of candidates recruited and the number of the new employees retained in the organization for more than a half a year (Aswathappa, 2007).

Barriers of effective implementation of a recruitment plan

Perception; due to the difference in the way people perceive ideas, implementation of a plan can be a problem if the involved parties have different frames of reference. This may result in disagreements hence delays in its implementation. For example the members of a recruiting committee may not rate the recruit equally. This can result in a conflict when choosing the final list of the successful candidates. What is fair to one person may seem to be unfair to the other resulting to an unfair process, when people are recruited on an added advantage of their age, religion, region, race or gender among others.

Immobility and location; the locality of labour affects the recruitment plan process, marred women hesitate taking jobs in places far away from their families. This might result to inadequate number of female recruits thus affecting implementation of a gender equity recruitment plan. (Aswathappa, 2007)

Reliability; if a method cannot provide consistent outcomes whenever it is used to recruit employees, however, this might not be the case for some plans hence inappropriate to implement them. The performance and judgments of people varies from time to time as in the case of recruits and recruiters respectively. This means that if such a plan is used repeatedly with the same people involved the results are likely to vary from time to time.

Validity; A valid recruitment plan is easily predictable, but when the predicted results do not match the real situation then implementation of the stated plan may not be recommendable. This is as a result of internal and external factors such as location, trade unions regulations and paucity of desired expertise in the available labour force.

Pressure; if compulsions are used to select candidates, then such a plan may not be used due to the pressures from friends, family and politicians to select the stated candidate (Aswathappa, 2007).  This means that even if the procedures where to be followed the results are always predetermined by such factors.

References

Aswathappa, K. Human Resource and Personnel Management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2007.

Harold, Koontz and Weihrich Heinz. Essentials Of Management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2008.

Pride, William M., Robert J. Hughes and Jack R. Kapoor. Foundations of Business. Boston: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011.Print

Rent-A-Car, Enterprise. Enterprise Rent-A- Car. 2012. 22 November 2012

Recruitment Plan, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, Staff Motivation, Recruitment, Selection, HRM Essays, HRM Dissertations, Human Resource Management, Human Resource Planning, Employee Assessment, Management.

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Barriers Women UK Construction

Barriers to Women in the UK Construction Industry

Title: HRM Dissertation Barriers to Women in the UK Construction Industry. In the 21st Century the idea of women in the workplace has become a widely accepted notion not just by society but also being enshrined in law with the introduction of the Equal Pay Act (1970), the Sex Discrimination Act (1975), and the Equality Act (2010). As a result of this, many sectors within the UK economy have seen an increase in the equal representation of men and women in the workplace with occupations such as elementary education resulting in women forming 46% of workers, in the professional sector women make up 50% and within management and senior official roles women constitute only 33%. However, in stark contrast of these progressive figures, women form only 11% of the entire construction Industry with 80% of these roles that women occupy being in fact merely support roles carrying out things like secretarial work; only 15% of women are actually part of the professional body of employees- this constitutes just 1.5% of professionals in the entire industry.

Women-Construction-Industry
Women-Construction-Industry

In 2006, Greed went so far as to say that these secretarial roles are not contributing to, or not being part of the construction process. It appears that although the construction industry has innovated in terms of methods and practices the same old ideas of it being a male-dominated world still remains. In order for the industry to thrive and remain relevant in these modern times it must adapt itself, and let go of this man’s world culture by encouraging and recruiting more women. It is on this basis that more Investigation must be done as to why there is such a lack of female presence within the construction industry and how as an industry it can attract the young girls of today’s society so that the industry will have a more representative and diverse future.

Dissertation Aims and Objectives

The aim of this research is to look into and analyse why there is such a lack of females within the UK construction industry, what can be done to change the perception of the industry as being a man’s world and attract the future generation of women to consider the industry as a viable career choice.

  • To investigate and evaluate if there is an actual need for women within the professional sector of the UK construction industry.
  • To compare the lack of women in the construction industry with other industries in the UK, and then with other EU member countries as a whole.
  • To examine the reasons why there is a severe lack of women within the UK built environment profession in the modern era.
  • To assess how those in secondary schools view construction and ascertain if they see a future within the industry.
  • To evaluate how the industry is trying to tackle this issue and whether these are having a positive impact or if more needs to be done.

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Aim
Objectives
Proposed Methods

2 – Literature Review
The need for women in professional roles within construction
Benefits to more women in construction
Comparison within UK and EU
Profession comparison
Comparison with the medical profession
Comparison of UK construction industry to the of Europe
Hurdles to women in construction
The choice between career or children
Flexibility and maternity leave
The construction Industry as sexist
Lack of female role models
The views of secondary pupils
Efforts of the construction industry
Employers role
Female construction organisations

3 – Methodology
Primary research
Quantitative research
Qualitative research
Selected Methodology
The Questionnaire
Selection criteria
Structure
Structured interview
Selection criteria
Structure
Desk Research

4 – Data Analysis
Questionnaire results
Interview results
Background information
University Life
Social aspects of university
Post university

5 – Discussion of Results
Preconception about construction
Role models
Sexism in the industry
Efforts of the construction industry
Employers role
Female construction organisations
Enthusiasm of female students

6 – Results and Conclusions
Limitations
Analysis of Research Objectives
Final conclusion

References

Appendices
Questionnaire

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Dissertation Employee Retention Kuwait

Employee Retention and Motivation Strategies in Multinational Corporations in Kuwait: A Quantitative Study Based On Motivation Theory

Title: Employee Retention MNC Kuwait – It’s key to try to learn more about the reasons why employees resign. The reasons might simply be more attractive jobs elsewhere or chances for lifestyle reshapes, in which case it might be out of your hands to retain these employees. However, many people leave their jobs because they are dissatisfied with their current working situation and environment Hence, it has become very important for the organization to focus on HR strategies so that they can retain their talented employees within the business for a longer period of time. From the study it has been identified that for the management of Kuwait MNC to provide their employee with flexible working environment for retaining them within the business.

Even there is a need for providing employees with appropriate performance appraisal from time to time for making them stay within the organization for a longer period of time. Research even showed that retaining staff for a longer period of time within MNC of Kuwait there is a need for carrying out promotion of employees from time to time as per individual grades. It has also been identified that it will be very important for the Kuwait MNC to lay down proper planning concerning retirement planning of their employees for keeping them satisfied and retained within the organization.

Employee Retention Dissertation
Employee Retention Dissertation

The main aim of the dissertation is to understand the aspects that are important for multinational companies in Kuwait for having a verity in its employee’s structure while operating under a different culture and maintaining a certain level of employee retention and motivation. In order to undertake this thesis following are the objectives that have been formulated by the author.

  • To identify the factors that influences the employee retention among multinational companies in Kuwait
  • To understand about different motivational strategies that multinational companies of Kuwait must adopt for successfully undertaking their operations
  • To study association between demographic profile of respondent affecting various factors of retention within multinational companies of Kuwait
  • To recommend the strategies to those multinational companies of Kuwait who are not able to incorporate proper solution for motivating and retaining their employees

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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on Employee Retention and Motivation Strategies in Multinational Corporations in Kuwait. There are many other titles available in the HRM Dissertation Collection that should be of interest to human resource management students and CIPD professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of HRM such as employee engagement, HRM Theory, absenteeism, training and development to name a few. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

View This Dissertation Here

Employee Benefits

Relationship between Employee Benefits and Employee Satisfaction at Google

This dissertation contains the findings of a research project that investigated the relationship between employee benefits and employee satisfaction at Google. The performance of an organization highly depends on how motivated the employees are as this directly impacts on the efforts of the employees. Satisfied and motivated employees would put in the right efforts that will help an organization achieve the set objectives and goals. Therefore, this dissertation explores the types of employee benefits at Google, employee satisfaction and the impact of employee satisfaction on the operations of Google. This study has centred on exploratory research process rather than analytical research as the topic under research is itself exploratory. The findings presented are based on exhaustive questionnaires and interviews with 70 respondents being employees and remaining 30 respondents being managers respectively.
Employee Benefits-Dissertation
Employee Benefits-Dissertation
The interviews were recorded, decoded and analysed using descriptive statistics mainly the SPSS. On the other hand, the questionnaires were issued to the employees and after being filled, they were analysed using the descriptive statistics. The findings in both cases were presented graphically for better and easier understanding. In terms of the sex and age of workers, the study showed that most workers are male with a higher percentage of 55 as compared to the female percentage of 45 although most of these workers are young with an age bracket of 31-40 years. However, 78.3% of employees believe that the various benefits offered by Google have helped motivate them in their duties. Nevertheless, most employees prefer the retirement plan benefits (38.3%) and workers  compensation plan (31.7%).

The aim of this dissertation is to conduct an investigation on the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google Inc. The business environment is quickly changing with increased emphasis being put on corporate growth and productivity. As such, job loyalty and satisfaction by employees have received outstanding attention from organizations. To achieve this, employee benefits motivate workers to be retained pending the investigation of the inquiry.

Research Objectives

  • To identify the various form of employee benefits offered by Google
  • To critically analyse the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google
  • To investigate the relationship between employee satisfaction and improved organizational performance at Google

1 – Introduction
Background of the Study
Problem Statement
Research Aim
Research Objectives
Research Hypothesis
Dissertation Structure

2 – Literature Review
Conceptual Framework
Forms of Employee Benefits
Workers Compensation
Unemployment Insurance
Social Security Taxes
Family and Medicare Leave
Health Insurance
Retirement Plans
Life Insurance
Dental Insurance
Employee Training
On-the-Job Training
Off-the-Job Training
Mini-Summary
Role of Employee Benefits
Employee Benefits and Satisfaction
Employee Satisfaction and Organizational Performance
Commitment
Motivation
Job Involvement

3 – Methodology
Research Process
Research Paradigm
Positivist Ontology
Positivist Epistemology
Research Approach
Research Strategy
Research Type
Methods of Data Collection
Primary Method of Data Collection
Secondary Method of Data Collection
Sample Size and Sampling Technique
Data Analysis Plan
Ethical Issues in Research

4 – Results
Part A: Descriptive Statistics
Part B: Inferential Statistics

5 – Discussion
To identify the various forms Employee benefits at Google
To critically analyse the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee benefits at Google
To investigate the relationship between employee satisfaction and improved organizational performance at Google

6 – Conclusion

7 – Critical Evaluation

8 – Self-Evaluation

References

Appendix
Questionnaire

View This Dissertation Here