Sustainability Dissertation

Has The Economic Crisis Impacted The Levels Of Commitment Towards Sustainability Within The Property Industry?

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The recent economic crises within the UK, Europe and the world continues to worsen and along with it growing concerns continue to increase over the fragile state of our environment with rising fears over climate change and global warming. Energy security along with the need to secure energy supply has been prioritised as a short to medium term objective by governmental authorities as climate change protocols appear to be set as a medium to long term priority. This hypothesis aims to assess the effects the recent economic crisis is having upon the property industries commitment to sustainability. It will provide an overview of the concept of sustainability, detailing the current constraints and the means by which it needs to be addressed in the future. This research paper will examine the legislations that have been produced to meet future targets within the property industry highlighting key initiatives for future sustainable development. Furthermore, it will deliberate the concept of green development identifying its key strengths, benefits and the provisions required to be incorporated in green leases and developments within the industry. It is essential that sustainability takes more precedence in the future to help curb global warming and in doing so establish the current global recession and its effects on sustainability with the realisation that the property industry must comply to promoting sustainability in order for greater environmental conditions. It seeks to identify the key roles and relationships faced by practitioners within the property industry and the need for mandatory procedures to adhere to regulation and establish greater levels of sustainable development in new and existing buildings.

Sustainability Dissertation
Sustainability Dissertation

Dissertation Objectives

  • To provide an overview of the concept of sustainability and its effects on the property industry
  • Research the government’s laws and regulations towards promoting green development and betterment towards sustainability
  • To identify the problems of the economic crisis and its effect upon promoting sustainability
  • To understand and anticipate practitioner’s commitment towards sustainable development and how the lapse in the commercial market and limited bank lending has affected their decisions

The fundamental issue of sustainability within the built environment is becoming an increasingly topical subject; and yet the term sustainability defies specific definition among many of those working within the property sector, with many unsure as to what it actually means. Sustainability is now reaching the top of many political agendas with growing concerns at the realisation of the rate of climate change and so the progress in encouraging sustainability is becoming an essentiality.  The term sustainability in relation to property development can be loosely defined as the location, design and development of property which is economically viable, environmentally responsible and which has a positive, material effect on the quality of life. With the strain caused by the recent financial downturn in the economy this study examines how both this and the need for environmental sustainability will prevail and how those working within the property sector have taken to their commitment to sustainability with the rise of economic turmoil, said to be the worst recession since World War I. This literature review takes a closer look at the different concepts of sustainability, recent government measures to improve sustainability and how the recent economic downturn has impacted upon the sustainability agenda by the new government legislation in attempts to produce a Zero Carbon environment. With the lack of academic papers available it will acquire professional statements, government publications and reports to review any literature upon promoting sustainability, its definition and the global recession’s impact upon practitioners’ commitments to adhering to regulations for future betterment of the built environment.

Dissertation Structure

Chapter 1 – Introduction This chapter introduces the problematic issue surrounding global warming and how the concept of sustainability must be realised in order to reduce carbon emissions and the challenges it brings within the property industry. The current financial climate is addressed and the financial impact it has upon the property industry together with legislative regulations produced by the government to reduce carbon footprint of buildings and promote sustainability. The chapter outlines the aims and objectives of the research study, entailing the outline methodology and the research methodology that will be utilised to perform this study.

Chapter 2 – Review of Literature on sustainability Literature review assists in addressing the concept of sustainability, identifying its principles, the government’s actions to tackle this problematic issue within the built environment and the future strive for green development.

Chapter 3 – Review of literature on the economic crisis’ impact upon sustainability within the property industry Literature review on the current economic crisis and its effects upon both sustainability and the property industry and the relationship held between each of these three elements.

Chapter 4 – Research Methodology This chapter examines the research methodology to be applied to carrying out the research.

Chapter 5 – Research Findings and Analysis The results from the interviews will be used to provide an analysis to go along with the literature review in order to evaluate the hypothesis formulated in section 1.

Chapter 6 – Conclusion This chapter gives a conclusive result of the research conducted, and provides a summary and evaluation, identifying the constraints felt during the process of producing this report and an answer to the hypothesis.

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Carbon Footprint

Electrical Power: How to Reduce Consumption during Peak Period with Low Carbon Footprint Energy Technology

The theme of this research paper is the following: Transforming the electricity retailing system to meet future demand, encourage the usage of low carbon footprint energy, thereby contributing to a more sustainable environment for our future. This research paper is composed of four goals: 1). Reduce the rate of electrical energy fluctuation and overall reduction of wholesale privacy by 10%, thereby increasing profit. 2). Reduce peak time demand for electrical power by 5% in 5 years. 3). Reduce electrical power generating operational costs. 4). Increase the ease and reduce the cost to operate PHEV.

Electricity is a secondary source of energy. Electricity is transformed from the combustion of coal and fossil fuels into a secondary source, which can be used and effectively and efficiently transmitted by means of power transmission lines to the consumer. Electricity can also be generated by means of the combustion of biomass. Other primary sources from which electricity is transformed are: natural gas, solar, hydro, geothermal, wind and nuclear sources. The electricity which is generated from the combustion of coal, natural gas, fossil fuels and nuclear sources is non renewable. Electricity is also generated from renewable sources such as: hydropower, wind, biomass, geothermal and solar (need.org 2013).

The cost of generating electricity varies between 2.2 pence per kilowatt hour to 3.2 pence per kilowatt hour. The least expensive means of deriving electrical power is from a combined cycle gas turbine. The most expensive means of deriving electrical energy through combustion is the coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle plant. Open cycle gas turbines which operate on the combustion of natural gas are the most well suited for new electrical generating facilities. The best candidates for fulfilling electrical power generation requisites at peak duty are the open cycle gas turbines. These open cycle gas turbines are adaptive, reliable and are capable of being efficiently ignited when the demand for electricity reaches its peak demand. An open cycle gas turbine can generate electricity at 3.2 pence per kilowatt hour when operate continuously. When operated solely at periods of peak duty, the open cycle gas turbine generates electrical energy at 6.2 pence per kilowatt hour (Royal Academy of Engineering 2012).

The operating cost of renewable energy sources is more expensive than the constant cycle gas turbine, the pulverized fuel steam facility, the circulated fluidized bed steam plant and the integrated gasification combined cycle. Fluctuation of electrical power generation in the renewable energy sources is a limiting factor in the output generation of electrical power. The cost of generation of electrical power varies from 3.2 pence per kilowatt hour to 7.2 pence per kilowatt hour. The cost of generating electrical power is diminished when there is no standby generation from non renewable sources. An onshore wind farm generates electrical energy at a cost of 3.2 pence per kilowatt hour, notwithstanding the standby generation of electrical power from non renewable sources. In the provision of a standby electrical generator operating from non renewable sources, the cost of generating electricity from an onshore wind farm is 5.4 pence per kilowatt hour. The kilowatt hour cost of generating electrical power from wave and marine technologies is consistent at 6.6 pence per kilowatt hour, with or without a standby electrical generation resource (Royal Academy of Engineering 2012).

Carbon Footprint
Carbon Footprint

The analysis of consumer demand for electrical energy requires constant demand data on a monthly, daily and hourly basis. This data may be evaluated by two means: daily and by the maximum or minimum electrical power consumption. The patterns of demand are relatively stable during the months of January through April and October through December. The instability in demand for electrical power occurs between the months of May through September, when consumer demand for electrical power reaches its peak. One method of reducing consumer demand for electrical power is to augment the price per kilowatt hour to the consumer. As the price increases, the demand for consumption of electrical power would be expected to diminish. However, in the short run, large augmentations in the price per kilowatt hour of electrical power only produces small changes in consumer usage. Over a long period of time, consumers have the possibility of adapting their consumption behaviors with regards to domestic appliances, in order to respond to the change in price per kilowatt hour of electrical power (Miller et al. 2002). Demand side management of electrical power consumption may include a variety of venues, inclusive of energy efficiency and conservation. In applying these venues, the impact has been proven to increase the utilization of electrical power efficiently. In California, the savings realized from electrical energy savings and efficiency programs has augmented from 750 MW in 1980 to 3,300MW in 2000. A few recommendations which may assist in the reduction of peak demand for electricity are the following:

  • Residential motivations and expense reductions.
  • Provision of adequate energy saving insulation in residential environments.
  • Residential motivations which include high efficiency lighting (i.e., fluorescent energy saving light bulbs).
  • Provision of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) for traffic signals and street lights.
  • Provision of energy efficient cool roofs.
  • Application of real time electrical meters in residential settings.
  • Application of media usage in declaring anticipated electrical shortages (i.e., Stage 1 and Stage 2 emergencies), in order to increase public awareness and voluntary electrical power conservation (Miller et al. 2002).

The implementation of these recommendations has been demonstrated to be effective in the reduction of peak electrical demand. The supply of electrical power must be correctly assessed with respect to consumer electrical demand. This may be demonstrated in the following equation:

Electrical power generating resources + electrical power transfer capabilities > Peak electrical power demand + electrical power reserve (Miller et al. 2013).

Globally, there is an energy transportation paradox. The global transportation sector is wholly dependent upon the combustion of petroleum as a primary energy source. Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) demonstrate an excellent means by which to diminish global dependency of petroleum for the transportation sector. Plug in hybrid electric vehicles which include hydrogen and fuel cell technology offer a potential to offset a significant quantity of petroleum consumption. These plug in hybrid electric vehicles have the capacity of recharging their energy storage systems with electrical power received from the electrical energy retailers. When fully charged, these vehicles apply the power from the secondary source, being electricity, to mechanical utilization for locomotion. The primary benefit of the PHEV technology is that the vehicles cease to be wholly dependent upon one energy source. These vehicles may deploy a variety of energy mixes which include: coal, natural gas, wind, hydropower and solar energy. The PHEV is an evolution in automotive technology, it allows for the storage of energy and its application to the transmission and wheels of the automobile. The PHEV conceptually operates in two modes: the charge sustaining mode which enables the accumulation of electrical energy and the charge depleting mode which enables the dissemination of electrical energy to mechanical energy in order to provide locomotion for the vehicle. The PHEV are not without obstacles, the energy storage systems significantly increase the vehicles cost. The energy storage systems of the PHEV also present engineering obstacles in the energy storage system’s duty cycle. The PHEV is likely to require one deep recharge per day and is likely to require over 4000 deep recharges over a ten to fifteen year lifetime (Markel & Simpson 2013).

Conclusion

The electrical retailing system is presently undergoing an evolution. The types of electrical generation facilities which were considered in the twentieth century may no longer be feasible. Many electrical generation facilities will not be completed for a variety of reasons. In 2007, the State of Texas had nineteen power generation accords, of which seventeen pertained to wind powered electrical generation facilities. These electrical power accords accounted for 78.6% of the increased  MW capacity dedicated to the regional ERCOT system. In order to comply with the ever increasing demand for electrical power generation, large capital investments will be required in electrical power generation and electrical power transmission. These large capital investments will most likely result in higher electrical power generating costs. The higher electricity prices may result in increased conservation and efficiency methods (Combs 2012). In order to effectively reduce consumer demand for electrical power during peak periods of consumption, the recommendations in this research paper should be implemented simultaneously with the large capital investments being made in electrical power generation and transmission.

Works Cited

Combs, S (2012) Window on State Government Chapter 27 Electricity. Window on State Government Chapter 27 Electricity

Electricity at a Glance, (2013) need.org

Markel, T & Simpson, A (2013) ‘Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Storage Design’ National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/ CP 540-39614.

Miller,R, Griffin, K, Alvarado, A, Weatherall, R, Rohrer, R, Vidaver, D, Belotsky, A et al. (2013)California Energy Commission 2002- 2012 Electricity Outlook. California Energy Commission

Royal Academy of Engineering (2012) The Cost of Generating Electricity: A Commentary on a Study Carried out by PB Power for the Royal Academy of Engineering. Royal Academy of Engineering

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Knowledge Management UK Construction

Knowledge Management UK Construction

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One of the main challenges facing the construction industry is to continually find new ways of delivering construction projects effectively. Reports such as the Egan and Latham Report, Rethinking Construction in the UK etc., are all written as guidelines to help construction organizations and project teams focus more on the client and carry-out projects in line or parallel to the client’s business strategy to ultimately improve their services and project delivery. This continuous search for improvement and changes to facilitate bench-marking against best practices has called for more effective and dynamic approaches to the way things are done in the construction industry. These approaches include developing alternative procurement routes to ultimately improve communications between participants in the construction process and the adoption of an extensive variety of concepts, tools and techniques to develop collaboration and to enhance efficiency and quality. Other approaches include using IT (Information Technology) solutions to integrate the construction process with technology by electronic sharing of data and information in the design phase and the improvement of better components, materials and construction methods, including standardization and pre-assembly.

Knowledge Management UK Construction
Knowledge Management UK Construction

However, new markets demand a change in the way organisations operate and demand new concepts, tools and technology to improve the efficiency and quality of processes and products of construction firms, and researchers and practitioners in the KM field believe and continuously underline that KM is one of the concepts needed to meet these demands. They argue that it has become apparent that organisations need to manage their knowledge assets effectively and to continuously identify where knowledge resides in their organization, so that they can then organize it for employee use in their work processes. The aim of the dissertation is to explore, investigate and analyse whether the knowledge management (KM) concept enables construction organisations to deliver more efficient services and products, improved performance and enables them achieve their organisational objectives.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To appraise the academic and practice rudiments of knowledge management
  • To outline the implications of the KM concept on people, processes and products in construction organisations
  • To identify the main benefits of knowledge management, and assess whether the current perception and practice of KM in construction organisations allow them to have full access to these benefits and subsequent organisational benefits
  • To analyse through data collection in sample construction companies, the influence of KM in construction organisations and investigate its impact in delivering more efficient services and products, continuous improvements in processes and in gaining organisational benefits
  • To evaluate whether KM adds value to the construction industry as a whole

Dissertation Structure

The dissertation is divided in seven parts which are follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction to the research work describing the background of the study, its aims and objectives, and the scope of the study.

Chapter 2: Literature review appraising the academics and practice rudiments of knowledge management. It essentially reviews the general meaning, history, aims, objectives and benefits, and the implementation of KM in organisations.

Chapter 3: Literature review discussing the introduction and benefits of KM in construction industry. It essentially reviews academic discussions on the introduction, relevance and the current practice of KM in construction industry alongside the current tools and techniques used.

Chapter 4: Research methodology discussing the technique for executing the research work. It essentially discusses the method of research chosen, selection of samples and the justification for conducting the research work using that distinctive method.

Chapter 5: Data analysis discussing the research carried out within the sample organisations. It essentially describes KM practices in each particular sample organisation, its awareness, objectives, benefits, barriers and its general impact so far in each organisation. An analysis of each sample organisations is also carried out in this chapter.

Chapter 6: Cross-data analysis tries to explore parallel and unparalleled factors (similarities, common issues and differences) which help to identify the impact of KM in different organizations or firms in the construction industry. These organisations are analysed and compared under these topics: KM awareness and motivation; KM strategy and implementation and KM impact.

Chapter 7: Discussions, conclusions and recommendations drawn from the research findings, interviews, data collection and data analysis. The limitations of the study are also discussed in this chapter.

For more tips on how to write your own construction management dissertation check out our Construction Management Dissertation Topics today. It contains many dissertation topics and dissertation titles, it will also show you what is needed to write your own project. I would be very grateful if you can share this post on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.

Construction Management Dissertation Topics

Construction Management Dissertation Topics and Building Studies Dissertations

At study-aids.co.uk we have many questions fielded to us relating to building studies dissertation topics. This takes into quantity surveying and built environment students, we like to think that we can take a student from the stage of choosing a topic to writing a well-structured dissertation themselves. We feel that our dissertation collection contain the best case practice illustrated with numerous examples, case studies and references, all of which are a great source of inspiration.

Our collection of construction management dissertation topics cover key aspects such as research planning, data collection and methodology, as well as structuring and writing the dissertation, in fact, everything needed for a successful write-up. We urge you to take some time out and read through the vast construction dissertation titles we have to offer.

Our construction dissertations provide guidance on research formulation, methodologies, and methods specifically for construction students, the research we offer extends to cover many areas of concern in quantitative and qualitative research, including research ethics.

The dissertations we hold discuss the methods adopted for scientific and engineering research, model building and simulations, as well as methods employed for research into management, social and economic issues relating to the construction environment. We examine the requirements for data and analysis, including the important statistical factors and an array of qualitative techniques that enable construction students to appreciate what needs to be evaluated in devising how a dissertation should be structured. These factors should not be overlooked.

Construction Management Dissertation Topics
Construction Management Dissertation Topics

The construction dissertations we offer will help you in the problem solving stage, the dissertations will be of value to construction, quantity surveying, architecture and civil engineering students undertaking research, whether for undergraduate and postgraduate degrees. As previously mentioned the dissertation collection covers many areas of concern in quantitative and qualitative research, including research ethics at all levels of study.

Below is a list of construction and building studies dissertations which reflects the key areas of academic interest and expertise found among construction students. You may already have a clear idea about what you want to research, but in order to help you through this process of topic selection, we have developed the list below;

Construction Dissertation – Difficulties in Implementing Lean Construction in The UK

Construction Dissertation – Implementation and Adoption of Photovoltaics (PV) in the UK

Construction Dissertation – Uutilization of Solar Thermal Energy in the UK

Construction Dissertation – Labour Shortages In The UK Construction Industry And Its Implications

Construction Dissertation – Timber Frame Housing, A Time Effective Solution

Choosing a Sample Dissertation

Choosing to assess our dissertations will provide practical guidance and will help to steer you into a position where you can develop a good dissertation by integrating your practical skills with academic theoretical tools delivered at your university. We always start by discussing the dissertation structure, it starts with material that should be in the introduction and finishes with material that should be in the conclusion. The dissertation projects provide commentary on the kind of information that you should put in each chapter of your dissertation, supported by a variety of examples using a range of methodological designs.

Our dissertations focus on data collection, data analysis, reliability and validity, these are areas you need to pay close attention to. The qualitative and quantitative analysis contained within our dissertations will show you how to carry out a meticulous analysis while avoiding some of the complexity in statistical work, this is something that should not be afraid of. You will see at first hand that our construction dissertations will help you to write a more innovative and thorough dissertation. For your own benefit you are strongly advised to choose from this list, but if you wish to research a different field, approach the member of staff you think most appropriate for your needs and discuss it.

About Our Construction Management Dissertation Topics

Our collection of Construction Management Dissertation Topics are ideal resources for students involved in research in building and quantity surveying and construction management. It is vitally important to remember that the content and presentation of your dissertation should be in accordance with your university guidelines. Feel free to add your additional comments to this post.

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