Marketing Strategies Dominos

Domino’s Pizza Global Market

Product and Service Description

Domino’s Pizza is a company that has been in existence since the 1960s and has used various marketing strategies in order to ensure it achieves its marketing goals. The organization’s logo was initially planned to include another dot with the expansion of each new store, yet this thought immediately blurred, as Domino’s accomplished quick development. Reflecting Domino’s development, the organization had extended to 200 saves by 1978. During 1975, Domino’s confronted a claim by Amstar Corporation, the creator of Domino Sugar, asserting a trademark encroachment and uncalled for rivalry. In May, the Court of Appeal in the New Orleans found for Domino’s Pizza. This strategy helped protect their market and customers from copyright infringement.

Evaluation of current competitive advantage

In evaluating the current competitive advantage for Dominos, it is quite imperative to understand the company’s current market and how it has survived through the market to gain its marketing niche. Evidently, the company has achieved great success in its current market due to various marketing strategies such as the use of SWOT analysis to help in ensuring it identifies its strengths and weaknesses in order to carry out its activities in an effective environment.

SWOT Analysis

Strengths (S)

  • The company has a competent leadership that will steer it towards success through effective marketing.
  • The provision of after sales services and other support services for the clients will give the company a competitive advantage such as Pizza deliveries
Weaknesses (W)

  • The company is venturing into new territory with no prior experience. This might work as a disadvantage to them as they might not know how to handle any arising issues due to lack of experience.
  • The company could face challenges in the lack of enough finances to propel the strategy and goals of the company.
Opportunity (O)

  • The company’s employees and management can engage in tactical marketing by promoting their services in the local newspapers.
Threats (T)

  • Dominos faces threats from the bargaining power of its suppliers. This makes it challenging for the company to grab a large market share.

 

In May 1983, Domino’s got to open its first worldwide store, in Winnipeg in Canada. Domino’s also opened a 1,000th store. In 1985, they opened the first store in the UK in Luton. In 1985, Domino’s had the first stores in Tokyo, Japan. By 1996, Domino’s had stretched to 1,200 global areas. In 1997, Domino’s launched its 1,400th universal area, opening seven saves in one day over five continents. Between 2007 and 2012, Domino’s bit by bit secured the vicinity in India with no less than 1,000 zones by 2012. By the start of 2014, the organization had developed to 6,000 worldwide areas and wanted to stretch to the pizza’s origination, Italy. President Patrick Doyle during May 2014 said the organization would focus on its conveyance demonstration there. This paper seeks to look at how Domino’s will use the various marketing strategies in their African outlet in South Africa.

Domino’s Mission Statement

Dominos has a simple and clear mission which states, Sell more Pizza, have more fun!

Reasons for choosing South Africa

South Africa is situated as an upper-focus wage economy by the World Bank and is viewed as of late industrialized country. Its economy is the second greatest in Africa and the 28th-greatest on the planet in the extent of buying. South Africa has the seventh most elevated for every capita for each wage in Africa, notwithstanding the way that poverty and predisposition stay in all cases, with around a quarter of the masses unemployed. In any case, South Africa has been perceived as a middle power in worldwide issues and kept up huge territorial effect (Blecker, 2006).

Market Analysis Summary

South Africa comprises a mixed economy, the second greatest in Africa after Nigeria. It similarly has a reasonably high GDP for each capita stood out from distinctive countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The food business in South Africa has united liberally starting late, and today a discriminating number of the greater pizza makers have budgetary associations or key plots with the critical South African retailers. The pizza industry, on the other hand, has greatly improved altogether. So have the five greatest retailers, and together this record for about a large portion of total retail bargains in South Africa.

The Pest Investigation

Political

It suggests the courses in which the government can intercede in an economy in regards to natural and work laws, obligations, exchange confinements and obligation methodologies. It moreover exhibits how the organization can impact preparing and prosperity and how it will impact the base the associations. As a South African government Plan follows, the structure of the economy will be changed over through industrialization, wide based dim budgetary fortifying and bracing and broadening the piece of the state in the economy. The company currently has a soft landing due to the implementation of various government strategies to the South African market. In order to achieve the best service delivery in the market, the firm has come up with the best strategies that can be used to ensure that the marketing environment favours them. Additionally, the government tariffs in South Africa are affordable for the company hence allowing it to carry out business activities effectively without having to face strict policies (Stevens, 2007).

Investment Factors

South Africa has jumped over two spots to transform into the thirteenth most-appealing end of the line for outside quick financing, according to a late survey by overall guiding firm AT Kearney.
The outcome of the 2014 Foreign Direct Investment Confidence Index, which takes in the viewpoints of senior executives from 300 of the world’s heading associations in 26, separates countries. South Africa being one of the best performing nations in Africa, investment factors directly favour the company hence allowing it to have as much outlets as it can manage.

Economic Factors

Strong economies have more money being differentiated in a given gathering; there are various financing assumptions that impact retail arrangements, and these need to get explored with a determined eye. One of the best-budgetary parts that impact retail arrangements is occupation open entryways, which particularly prompts the included discretionary pay of people that imagine that it hard to contradict inspiration buying, and who have no issue gathering gigantic charge card commitment to keep up a certain lifestyle. South Africa’s economy is seen as “unobtrusively free,” being surveyed as the 74th autonomous economy of 177 countries. It is situated sixth, out of 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The economic factors in South Africa are quite useful since they have allowed the company to gain popularity and increased the earnings of the company over time (Stevens, 2007).

Target Segment and Marketing Strategies

The target of Domino’s pizza is to serve the locals with a grouping of types of foods that they encounter issues finding in one spot at any supportive time. We will serve every ethnic gathering with a blended pack of pieces of foods depending upon their feelings. These business segments get underserved in the noteworthy retail outlets. In South Africa, the potential for the clients to purchase will be higher. Since it has a marginally lower unemployment level as contrasted with other African nations consequently, they can buy our items

Market Needs

Domino’s Pizza needs to ensure that it carries out an effective research on the market needs of various prospective buyers by including its list of preferred products in the brochures that should be distributed to the customers within the shortest time possible. In addition, identifying the market needs will also help the firm in ensuring that it achieves the best competitive advantage strategies that will help in making sure its marketing strategies are effective.

Market Trends

Practicality is basic to the organization’s long haul achievement. It has risen up out of the need to certification it continues succeeding inside an unquestionably pressurized and eccentric nature, by making fitting abilities and breaking points. The manageability wander has helped the social event expand a deeper understanding of nature’s turf in which it meets expectations, clearing up the specific internal and outside issues most separating to long term viability. Moreover, the approaching examples and change in plans that will help Domino survive is its values and takes after styles and new examples among youngsters (Pliniussen, et al., 2002).

Market Growth

The GDP in South Africa annually was about 0.6 percent during the first three months of 2014 over the past quarter. GDP Growth Proportion in South Africa found the middle value of 3.16 Percent between 1993 and 2014. The growth proportion in South Africa is encouraging since it encourages investors in South Africa. As a result, it is quite imperative to help in ensuring that the market is fully occupied by their products in order to gain access to more customers. Marketing being one of the factors that guide the development of a firm’s products or services, there is need to help in ensuring that the products will lead increase in profitability.

Marketing Strategies
Marketing Strategies

Domino’s competitive position in 3 years’ time

In the next three years, the company aims at covering the best market share and giving the best services to their customers. As a result of intense marketing strategies that involve proper market research and consumer acceptability, the firms aims at being one of the largest in the South African market. Additionally, it is apparent that proper market analysis and use of Porter’s Five forces of competitive advantage will allow the firm to gain the best customer trust. It is also evident that firms need to ensure that they give the best services since there is need to have as many customers as possible.

Industry Analysis

In order to achieve the best competitive position in the next three years, the company needs to ensure that it works with the industry analysis to ensure that it identifies the gaps in the market. Our thorough appraisal of South Africa’s working surroundings and the viewpoint for its heading divisions are structured by bringing together an abundance of information on worldwide markets that influence South Africa, and in addition the most-recent industry advancements that could affect South Africa’s commercial enterprises. This interesting coordinated methodology has provided for us an impeccable record of accomplishment for foreseeing imperative movements in the business sectors, guaranteeing we are mindful of the most-recent business open doors and dangers in South Africa before our rivals (Kim, Fiore & Kim 2011).In the year under audit, South Africa was a solid entertainer regarding the matter of getting credit (first), securing financial specialists (tenth) and instalment of assessments (32nd). It got positioned at an impressive 39 for managing development allows, and beginning a business in South Africa is additionally simpler (53rd). Moreover, the best approach to powerful arranging is using a showed wanting to look at your product’s marketability (Stevens 2007).

Main Competitors

Understanding the major competitors is important in helping the company chat its way towards the achievement of its marketing goals. Knowing our competitors’ sales technique and the apparent nature of their stock will help us know how to come in, as a new Pizza business. Dominos is the largest pizza manufacturer in the country. It supplies major retailers such as Woolworths, Truworths and Econ. Domino’s has been experiencing financial difficulties since 2008, this provides us with a good opportunity Armani is financially stable (Okonkwo 2007).

Pricing Strategy

Pricing is a part of the advertising blend that decides your organization’s profit potential. In a focused business sector, the objective is to offer what clients need and to set costs that the market is ready to endure (Engle 2008). We will utilize different estimating routines as part of the request to draw in our clients. By using the most favourable prices, the company aims at becoming the customers’ most preferred outlet in South Africa and the African continent.

Competitive Pricing

A pricing strategy involves setting your apparel prices below or above the competition. As a firm that needs to build the best marketing strategies, competitive pricing is one of the most preferred strategies that the firm seeks to use in order to gain the highest market share in three years. In addition, the firm seeks to provide special services that are not offered by other firms in order to gain more customer loyalty. In three years, the firm seeks to include delivery services to customers who might need the products of the company but are not able to reach the firms premises (Mills, 2002).

Markup Based on Cost

A mark-up-based-on-expense procedure considers the assembling expense of a thing and the most-elevated value the business sector can stand to return adequate net revenue. In three years, the firm seeks to come up with the most effective way of attaining customer trust by selling its products such the high quality pizza. Regularly evaluating involves multiplying the assembling expense of a particular thing to yield a real or proposed retail cost. In order to become the best firm in South Africa, Domino needs to utilize this strategy in order to gain the highest number of customer.

Discount Pricing

There are a few approaches to Discount Pricing to expand client loyalty and helps guarantee overall revenues, for example, by offering coupons, gift certificates, occasional deals and in-store cross-promotions (Harrison St. John, 2008).

Clear recommendations on what the company needs to do to achieve the three strategies

In order to achieve the above strategies, the company needs to use Porter’s five forces of competitive advantage. Ideally, the strategies will help in ensuring the company attains the best in the market in order to beat its competitors and gain the highest market share.

The first force I would look into is Supplier Power: Here I would assess the ease of driving up prices by suppliers. Under this force, I would asses various suppliers and their prices. In addition, I would evaluate their effect and control on the business the management is intending to buy. The lesser the supplier choices the business has, and the more the business need the help of suppliers, the more powerful our suppliers would be (Blecker, 2006).

The second force is Buyer Power: under this, the company should ask the ease at which buyers can drive prices down. Moreover, this force would be driven by the number of buyers, as well as each buyer’s effect on the business that the management intends to buy. If the company deals with few buyers, who are powerful, then the buyers can often dictate terms to the business.

The third force that I would use is Competitive Rivalry: here, it is essential to look at the capabilities of the firm’s competitors. If the firm’s competitors have high quality products that are of more friendly prices, then I would advise the management not buy the business. On the contrary, if the firm has weaker competitors with low quality goods and services, then I would advise the management to carry out the purchase.

The forth force that I would consider Threat of Substitution: This factor is mainly affected by the customers’ ability to find an alternative source of what the company supplies. If substitution of the firm’s goods or services is easier for the consumers and substitution is viable, then I would advise the management not to buy the business since this would weaken the power of the firm. The last force, according to Porter, is the Threat of New Entry: this is looked in the perspective of other firms entering the market. If the business would cost little time, legal requirements or money to enter our market and compete efficiently, then I would advise the management to buy the new firm. In addition, if the economies of scale are few, then I would advise the company not to purchase the business since that would weaken the company power. In case the business has strong and durable entry barriers, then I would advise the management to take advantage and purchase it. This would eventually have a great impact in helping the company gain the best market share.

Another major factor that needs to be used in order to access the largest market share is technology. Specifically, the firm can use technology in advertising and making good use of its available computers to reach customers via the social media channels and other technological adverts. As a result, the company will have better access to the best clients who will help in improving its profits and marketing strategies (Kalb, 2007).

Recommendation

Domino’s Pizza needs to ensure that it implements all the strategies mentioned in the paper in order to achieve its marketing objectives and in order to get a larger market share for its products. In addition, the company needs to ensure that it works towards achieving the best sales from the products due to better pricing and marketing techniques. Besides, Domino’s has to come up with the most achievable objectives that will help it work towards maintaining the current marketing position. This can be done by opening a number of international branches. The South African branch should, therefore, work with other branches to help Dominos become successful in its marketing strategies.

References

Harrison, J. & St. John, H (2008) Foundations in Marketing Strategies. Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.

Kalb, I. S (2007) Fundamentals of High-Technology Marketing Strategies: What Marketers Need to Know. Los Angeles: K & A Press.

Mills, G (2002) Retail Pricing Marketing Strategies and Market Power. Melbourne: University Press.

Stevens, R. E (2007) Marketing Strategies Opportunity Analysis: Text and Cases. New York, Best Business Books.

Schindler, R (2012) Pricing Strategies: A Marketing Strategies Approach. Thousand Oaks, California Sage Publications, Inc.

Blecker, T (2006) Marketing Strategies, Customer Interaction and Customer Integration. Berlin, Gito

Pliniussen, J. Jones, T & Cram, W. A (2002). Business Case Analysis Process: Workbook With Software: Broadening the Perspective. Concord, Ont., Canada, Captus Press.

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Marketing Plan Essay

Marketing Plan

In this essay the discussion focuses mainly on the importance of a marketing plan and the role it plays for the development of businesses. In due course the nature of a marketing plan and the key elements of it are also discussed. Whether the elements of a marketing plan are linked or independent? This key issue is discussed elaborately explaining the links between different elements of the marketing plan. A marketing plan is different from a business plan and these differences are also highlighted in this essay. The essay would not be considered complete if the misconceptions about a marketing plan are not discussed. There are some misconceptions prevailing about marketing plan and they are discussed briefly in the essay. The essay has been concluded with a brief summary of the discussion made here.

Role and nature of marketing plan

Before discussing role and nature of a marketing plan it is important to understand what is marketing. Marketing is a function of an organization which involves several processes of creation, communication and delivery of value to customers and management of customer relationship in such a order that the organization as well as its stakeholders are benefitted. In other words, it is a process to identify, anticipate and satisfy customer with profit. It is science and art to create change in the market for the benefit of the organization. Understanding the need and want of the market and to earn profit is called marketing. Marketing is done with a strategic plan (Hatch & Schulz, 2003).

A marketing plan is a written document describing the external and internal business environment, aims and objectives of the organization, its strategy, plan of action and control. Marketing plans for different companies vary according to the requirements and the strategy of the company. Occasionally some companies have only one plan and they call it a business plan but a business plan includes plans of all the functions performed by a company like Research & Development, Production, Financial Management, Human Resource Management, IT as well as Marketing. Hence, a marketing plan is only a part of a business plan (Einwiller & Will, 2002).

 A marketing plan is built on the strengths of an organization to exploit it for the maximum benefit of the organization. An integrated and well coordinated marketing plan makes an organization proactive and not reactive. It successfully communicates the purposes and the intent of the senior management. It sets the objectives for actions and it is target oriented. A written plan provides the scope for adjustments (if needed) and monitoring of marketing activities. Besides these reasons marketing plans are used for understanding the needs and wants of the customers for their satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is the prime objective of any marketing plan and that can be measured by meeting their needs and wants efficiently. Needs and wants change with time. Hence, a satisfied customer may be dissatisfied tomorrow with the change in need and want. This makes marketing a rigorous and continuous process. (Ferrel and Hartline, 2005). A marketing plan is based on the information and data from various sources and lack of reliable data is one of the biggest difficulty in making a marketing plan. Complete firm’s picture, product line, present and future of the situation, internal and external environment and customer satisfaction are the key features of a marketing plan. Structure of a marketing plan vary from company to company. (Mathewson, 2009).  Generally a marketing plan is structured in the following manner:

Executive Summary

Challenges

Situation Analysis

  • Customer Analysis
    • Concentration of customer base for particular products
    • Decision Process
    • Value Drivers
    • Type
    • Numbers
    • Company Analysis
      • Focus
      • Strengths
      • Weaknesses
      • Market Share
      • Goal
      • Culture
      • Climate
        • Economic Environment
        • Technological Environment
        • Political and Legal Environment
        • Social and Cultural Environment
        • Collaborators
        • SWOT Analysis

Following environmental factors are needed to be organized for the SWOT analysis of a business environment

  • Strengths and weaknesses of the organization should be considered as internal attributes or internal environment
  • Opportunities and Threats are to be considered as external attribute or external environment
  • Competitor Analysis
    • Market Share
    • Market Position
    • Strengths
    • Weaknesses

Market Segmentation

  • Segment 1
    • Description
    • Sales percentage
    • Wants of the customer
    • Way of using the product
    • Support
    • Way of reaching them
    • Price
    • Segment 2
      • Abc
      • Abc
      • Abc

Alternative marketing strategies

Selected marketing strategy

Product

  • Brand
  • Quality
  • Scope
  • Warranty
  • Packaging

Price

  • Price list
  • Discounts
  • Terms of payments
  • Financial options
  • Options for lease

Distribution (Place)

  • Channels for distribution as intermediaries, distributors, retail and direct
  • Motivation of channels
  • Evaluation of channels
  • Locations
  • Logistics as supply, transportation, warehousing, etc.

Promotion

  • Promotional programs
  • Public relation
  • Advertisement
  • Budgeting
  • Estimating results of promotions
Marketing Plan Dissertations
Marketing Plan Dissertations

Long term and short term projections

Conclusion

Appendix

Exhibits

Recommended reading

In some cases the structure of the marketing plan of a company is not as detailed and extensively elaborated as above and it is short and simple but focused. It depends on the size and the need of a company. Even a simple marketing plan should be structured as follows:

Summary of Strategic Situation

Objectives and Targets

Positioning      

Budget

Sales projections

Strategy for product

Strategy for price

Strategy for distribution

Strategy for communications

Market research

Conclusion

A marketing plan is used to serve the end result of building a customer base and creating an environment which could lead a company to success. It serves other functions as well such as a marketing plan is used for introduction of a new product into market, for exploring new markets for a product, for setting up gals and targets and achieving it and for establishing, directing and coordinating between sales and marketing efforts of a company. The potential differences between different structures of marketing plans depend on the nature of the business of the company and their requirements. The end results are same for all the marketing plans.

Elements of marketing plan and links between them

The key elements of a marketing plan are Executive Summary, Challenges, Situation Analysis, Market Segmentation, Alternative marketing strategies, Selected marketing strategy, Product, Price, Distribution (Place), Promotion and Long term and short term projections. These elements are interdependent and complementary to each other.

Executive summary is the brief overview of the content of a marketing plan. It describes the objectives of the plan. It has the description of the strategies of the company for marketing, Before discussing the plan and the strategies for marketing in detail the marketing managers prefer to discuss the challenges which may come across in marketing or the challenges of the market for the company. The business world is changing very fast and the growing competition in the business world is reducing the margins of the businesses and extensive marketing is required to meet this challenge which is again very expensive. Challenges can only be tackled in favorable situation which further requires situation analysis (Hatch & Schulz, 2003).

Situation analysis is done to understand various situations or it can be said that situation analysis is of several types like customer analysis, company analysis and climate analysis. Customer analysis involves factors like number of existing customers and expected number of new customers, types of customers, decision process of customers, value drivers for customers and finally the concentration of customer base for particular products (Einwiller & Will, 2002). The end result of a marketing plan is satisfaction of customer and customer analysis is a very important. Analysis of company means study of strengths and weaknesses of the company, the market share of a company for a particular product, the culture of the company because the output of a company also depends on its culture, the goal of the company and the focus the company has to achieve that goal. Then comes climate which means environment of different types like economic environment, political and legal environment, social and cultural environment and technological environment. In some marketing plans they are also analyzed as external and internal environment (Ferrel and Hartline, 2005).

Collaborators are also called as stakeholders by marketing managers. Stakeholders may have stakes in the company in different ways that is why there are different types of stakeholders. Stakeholders range from customer to the top management of the company which includes workers, employees, suppliers and many others and a good marketing plan must not overlook their stakes. The company keeps the required data about its stakeholders for various purposes including making a marketing plan (Mathewson, 2009).

SWOT analysis means study of strengths and weaknesses as well as study of opportunities and threats. A good marketing plan must analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the company, product as well as customers. Similarly it should analyze the opportunities for the company, product and the opportunity of the market. Opportunities never come without threats and it will be mistake if the threats are not analyzed in a marketing plan. For SWOT analysis information are needed to be collected from both the internal sources of the company and from the market (Freeman, 1984).

There is hardly any business without competitor and the success of a marketing plan substantially depends on the proper analysis of the competitors. Marketing managers must know the position of the competitor in the market, the market share of competitor for a particular product or different products and strengths and weaknesses of the competitor.

Marketing mangers divide the market into different segments and the process is called market segmentation. Needs and wants of all the markets are not same and the market managers have to analyze which segment of the market is useful for a particular product. The factors needed to be kept in mind for market segmentation are the percentage of sales in that segment, description of the segment, what do the customer need or want, how do they use the product, how to reach them, whether the price is suitable for them, etc. They need to collect the information from the external sources. (Mullins, Walker, Boyd and Larreche, 2005)

Every plan should have an alternative plan which can be used if needed. Efficient and experienced marketing managers always ready with an alternative marketing plan. The plan which they execute is called selected plan. Marketing plans have detailed description of the factors like product, price, promotion, distribution, etc (Mullins, Walker, Boyd and Larreche, 2005).

Product is the key factor of the marketing plan and it revolves around it. Ultimately product is the tool through which the company reaches to customers and wishes to satisfy them meeting their needs and wants. It is the responsibility of the marketing manager to ensure branding f the product and to analyze the quality of the product and the scope for it in the market, Proper packaging of the product with genuine warranty adds value to it. After all it is the product only which decides the success and failure of a company.

Price is another key factor and it should be relevant to the market, customer and the competitor. Customers always prefer quality product at affordable price. The marketing managers offer some options for the market to make the offers attractive. They offer discounts, different payment options, financial support and sometimes options for lease. All these information should be provided clearly in the pricelist (Jones, 2005).

Distribution ensures the success of a product and alternatively of a company. All these efforts of marketing will go waste if an adequate system of distribution is not set up. Distribution of products is done by various methods like making channels for distribution such as distributing through intermediaries, distributors, retail or direct. These network need to be evaluated regularly for its proper functioning and the stakeholders associated with the distribution network must be kept motivated. The selection of location for the network should be done carefully and proper care of regular supply, transportation and warehousing must be taken (Dickson, 1996).

Last but not the least another key factor of marketing is promotion and promotion is done by following promotional programs, making public relation, advertisement, budgeting and finally estimating the results of promotion.

Some elements of a marketing plan are interlinked while others are independent. For example, challenges can be estimated by understanding the situation and pricing can be done by valuing the product and the promotion of the product is done (Freeman, 1984).

Assumptions

There are many misconceptions about marketing plan. The most common misconception of customers is that they generally think that the companies make marketing plans to manipulate things and the aim is to deceive. In fact, a marketing plan is made to ensure satisfaction to customers. The aim of a marketing plan is to reach to the customer to satisfy his needs at the affordable price. The advertisement sometimes becomes illusionary and creates confusion (Jones, 2005).

The most common misconception of companies is that a marketing plan and its implementation is an expensive and difficult to measure process to evaluate the return on investment on it. Actually a perfect marketing plan ensures tangible return on it. A marketing plan is made by marketing manager after extensive research and it is aimed to ensure success and earn profitability for the organization. Companies think that investment in marketing plan can be made only if the cash flow allows for it. In fact, marketing plan is the factor which ensures the cash flow and projects in advance the rate of cash flow if planned and implemented efficiently (Dickson, 1996).

Conclusion

A marketing plan is a key to success for any business but unfortunately many businesses confuse marketing plans with investment on advertisements with no assured returns. A marketing plan is a simple act of bringing products and services to market and providing right message to right person at right time. Actually marketing plan can only assure the success of a business by guiding businesses to follow the processes required for its success. Those processes include how to analyze marketing environment, how to decide marketing segment, how to choose the marketing mix. Marketing mix includes five important Ps of a marketing plan. They are Product, Price, Promotion, Place and Process.

References

Hatch  M. J. & Schulz, M. 2003. Bringing the corporation into corporate branding. European Journal of Marketing, Vol 37(7/8), pp; 1041-64.

Einwiller, S. & Will, M. 2002. Towards an integrated approach to corporate branding – an empirical study. Corporate Communications, Vol 7(2), pp; 100-9.

Ferrel, O. and Hartline, M. 2005. Marketing Strategy, 3rd Edt.Thomson

Mathewson R. 2009. Misconceptions about Marketing, Maple Marketing

Dickson, P.R. 1996. The static and dynamic mechanics of competition: a comment on Hunt and Morgan’s comparative advantage theory. Journal of Marketing | October 1, pp; 102  –

Freeman, R. 1984.  Strategic Management: a stakeholder approach, Boston

Jones, R. 2005. Finding sources of brand value: Developing a stakeholder model of brand equity. Journal of Brand Management, Vol 13(1), pp; 43-63.

Mullins,J., Walker Jr, O., Boyd Jr, H. and Larreche, J. 2005. Marketing Management: A Decision-Making Approach, 5th Edt, McGraw-Hill / Irwuin, Sydney

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