Science Marketing and Art Marketing

Science Marketing and Art Marketing: Marketing research and branding

Science Marketing and Art Marketing: Marketing research is the processes through which the marketing managers collect relevant information about their product and the customers. It also involves an evaluation of the necessary strategies required to develop the correct product that will capture the attention of the customer. It provides the basis for the development of the correct marketing mix and the correct style of marketing. Branding, on the other hand, is the process through which a business develops and creates a unique image and name for a product in the customer’s perspective.

Branding incorporates information marketing research to create a brand that is attractive and present in the customers’ mind. The information from marketing research is important as it presents the customer’s expectations. In other words, branding is the art through which the marketing management delivers the customer’s expectations. It is the means through which the marketing management showcases creativity and ability to meet the customers’ expectation. Combining the two strategies creates a mix of art and science that delivers the right product in the eyes of the customer.

Market research

Market research is the process through which managers gather important information about the product from the consumer. It is a science because it involves a combination of processes designed to gather information and knowledge. The science of market research is objective because it aims at gathering relevant information about the customers. Its main objective is to determine the viability of the product from the perspective of the customer. Market research is the process through which the company identifies the possible market and the customer base for the product. It involves understanding the needs of the customers and the means through which the company can modify the product to meet the customer’s expectation. Also, market research involves gathering the necessary information about the customers’ purchasing power and the ability to purchase the product. Through market research, the company can determine the best marketing mix that would help maximize revenue (Burns et al. 2014). Also, the company can use market research to gather information about preexisting segments in the market. Hence, market research is also useful in market segmentation and product differentiation.

Market research is an objective process that involves the identification of the desired market and the development of strategies for information gathering. The management must also analyze the data collected to extract useful information (Burns et al. 2014). It involves the collection of qualitative and quantitative data concerning the customers. The company can either correct the data directly or through existing research. Therefore, the company has to decide whether to use primary or secondary data sources. Primary data refers to the type of data that has not been used in prior research and that the company collects through primary data collection tools. Secondary data, on the other hand, refers to information gathered in a prior research.

The use of prior research implies that secondary data collection involves another entity. When a company chooses to use primary data collection methods, the management has to decide on the objective of the research. The management can decide to collect answers to previously identified issues. Therefore, the management identifies areas of concerns and seeks to collect answers to the questions through market research. The management may also choose to identify new issues in the market. Using this route, the management seeks to collect an array of questions that the customers would like answers to. Whether the company chooses secondary or primary data, the main purpose of market research remains the same, the company seeks to fulfill a certain set of objectives.

Science Marketing and Art Marketing
Science Marketing and Art Marketing

Market research is mostly applicable or put into use when an organization seeks to venture into a new market. It is also necessary when the company seeks to rejuvenate its market competitiveness or brand position. Organizations may also opt to identify the characteristics and needs of a special group in its marker. Researching the market may also be necessary when the company seeks to introduce a new product in its existing market (Burns et al. 2014).

Based on the reason behind market research, every form of research will have different objectives and strategies for obtaining the required set of information. For example, a company seeking to venture into a new market has to conduct an investigation of the current interest for the product in the new market. In other words, the organization must collect information to justify the viability of the new product in the target market. Based on the outcome of the research and information gathered, the management can then decide on whether to actualize the plan. If the company establishes that the customers have a viable interest in the product, the move to invest in the new market becomes feasible. However, interest alone is not enough to make a decision to venture into the new market. The organization also has to investigate the price viability and customers’ ability to purchase the product. Hence, the management must develop a strategy that answers all the necessary questions

Branding

Branding is the means through which the management answers to the expectations of the customer by providing the product in a manner that the customers are likely to accept. It involves positioning the product in the mind of the customer and presenting the product in a likable manner. It is an art because it involves the use of knowledge and skills to develop a product. The art of developing a brand is subjective to the information gathered and the need to present a final product that meets the customer’s needs and expectations. Branding involves the development of the product and means to position the product in the minds of the customers (Latif et al., 2014). Therefore, the art of branding involves the physical aspect of designing and developing the brand in form of the product appearance and composition. The physical aspect of branding involves the development of an attractive and memorable product. The physical aspect of branding involves creatively designing the aspects of the company that relates directly to the customer. One is the physical appearance of the product. A good example of vigorous branding is the Fanta brand of Coca-Cola that continuously changes shape and appearance to capture the customers’ attention.

Similarly, physical branding involves the development of the company’s logo in a unique and appealing manner. The logo is the main identifier for any given organization. Its uniqueness determines the company’s ability to position itself in the market (Latif et al., 2014). Therefore, the company must design the logo uniquely and outstandingly. It also involves the development of a company slogan. The slogan must reflect the values of the company and appear in a manner that keeps it viable in the eyes of the customers. Like the logo, the slogan will most likely be visible to the customers at all times. Hence, the slogan must stand out in the market. Most companies identify by the brand. A well-established brand often appears to be similar to the company. Most customers consider the brand to be the same as the company (Latif et al., 2014). Even for companies that have a brand name different from the company name, customers often confuse the company with the brand.

The art of branding involves several aspects that define the company’s position in the market. Brand positioning is particularly important in marketing (Latif et al., 2014). It involves the setting up the brand in a manner that is noticeable and memorable. The brand position is a marketing strategy that is directed at creating a unique appearance to the customers. Other than the design of the logo and the slogan, positioning the brand may also include printing the brand name, logo, and slogan on the company products. The art of positioning has evolved to include online presence and ease of accessibility of information in social media and on the internet. The company can also improve the position of the brand by carefully placing the logo or the slogan in the customers’ daily activities. The Coca-Cola Company is usually very active in brand positioning. For example, the share a coke market campaign positions the company logo and slogan at the heart of summer celebrations. The company also uses promotional campaigns to position the brand in sports and other activities to keep the brand in the customer’s minds.

Science Marketing and Art Marketing

Marketing requires a combination of science and art to achieve its objectives. The application of scientific strategies in marketing allows marketing managers to collect sufficient data. It allows managers to track marketing expenditure and effectiveness. According to Gross (2017), the ease of data collection and marketing research through digital marketing enables the success of marketing strategies. Such a scenario indicates the importance of data collection and market research. According to Gross (2017), the integration between science and art in marketing guarantees the success of any marketing campaign. The organization must find a balance between the art and science of marketing in order to achieve the objectives set. Strategic marketing management is the simply the development of strategies that combine the art and science in marketing. It involves developing the necessary skills and techniques that enable the company to achieve its marketing objectives.

Therefore, market research and branding are simple methods of defining a multifaceted and complex science and art marketing. The discipline involves developing a synergy between the science in market research and the art in branding. The data collected in market research is helping the company to design and develop a unique and lasting market brand. Other marketing strategies whether art or science come into play to make the processes successful. For example, marketing managers can employ strategic marketing to develop strategies for the implementation of research and branding. Similarly, the marketing managers can employ product design in branding as described above to position the brand on the products. By combining marketing science and art, marketing managers develop strategies to achieve marketing objectives. Therefore, the two forms of marketing must work together for the betterment of the marketing department.

References

Burns, A. C., Bush, R. F., & Sinha, N. (2014). Marketing research (Vol. 7). Harlow: Pearson.

Gross, J. (2017). Marketing: The Convergence of Art and Science. Forbes. December 1. 2017.

Latif, W., B. Islam, A. & Mdnoor, I. (2014). Building Brand Awareness in the Modern Marketing Environment: A Conceptual Model.

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Dissertation Topic Examples Marketing

I hope you enjoyed reading this post on Science Marketing and Art Marketing. There are many other titles available in the Marketing Dissertation Collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Audi Global Marketing Communication

Title: Audi Global Marketing and Communication Strategy. Audi is an automobile manufacturer based in Germany that distributes, markets, produces, engineers, and designs luxurious vehicles. The manufacturer was founded in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany and is part of the Volkswagen Group. Throughout the globe, vehicles that are Audi-branded are manufactured in nine production facilities. The organisation’s origin dates back to the early 20th-century when engineer August Horch teamed with two other manufacturers in 1932 to form Auto Union. The mid-20th century (the 1960s) saw the commencement of the modern day Audi when Volkswagen acquired Auto Union from Daimler-Benz (Audi, 2019). The Audi brand was relaunched in 1965 by introducing the Audi F103 series to the market. After the relaunch, Volkswagen decided to merge NSU Motorenwerke with Auto Union in 1969 to form the modern day structure of the organisation.

The organisation’s name is a German translation of founder’s surname – Horch. The Audi logo has four rings that signify each of the four automobile manufacturers who merged to establish the organisation’s predecessor, Auto Union. The company’s slogan “Advancement through Technology” implies that the organisation uses the latest technology to manufacture its car (Audi, 2019). In the United States, the organisation’s slogan was “Truth in Engineering” up to the year 2016 from the year 2007. Together with the Mercedes-Benz and the BMW, Audi is among the world’s most sold luxurious automobile brand. The key intent of this report is to look into the global, local and glocal strategies of Audi with regard to price and distribution; additionally, the report will select and discuss the primary target market of the organisation.

Audi marketing mix

Due to the element of globalisation, the concept of marketing has evolved immensely over time, and if companies are not able to keep up with the dynamism, they risk being overtaken by their competitors. One of the major dynamics in the marketing concept evolution is the Marketing Mix strategy that an organisation chooses to adopt (Svend, 2017). Audi being a major player in the automobile industry has managed to keep up with the dynamics in marketing by adopting different strategies in the local, international, and glocal market. It is vital to note that as Audi customers look for relevant and consistent experiences in the organisation’s products whenever and wherever they interact with them, the company is under pressure to find creative and innovative methods of marketing. Additionally, these marketing strategies are supposed to remain relevant locally while they maintain a sense of consistency in owning a global brand.

Glocal pricing and distribution at Audi

Audi recognises the fact that the digital marketing landscape is being taken over by glocalisation. As a result, the organisation has undertaken the initiative of strengthening the global brand of its products with a customised approach and flavour for the global market. However, the organisation faces a major challenge of ensuring that the global marketing campaigns of the organisation are in sync with the tastes and preferences of the local audience (Awan, 2014). In setting the prices for its products and choosing the distribution strategies as relates to glocalisation, the organisation acknowledges the fact that the major customer priorities with regards to these aspects differ from one market to another. Therefore, it is critical that these priorities are taken into consideration to establish an effective pricing and distribution strategy in the glocal market. To effectively penetrate the glocal market, Audi has incorporated hyperlocal and social geo-targeting in its overall marketing strategy.

In employing social geo-targeting in its pricing and distribution strategy, Audi can develop a deeper engagement with its customers, and it can get speedy feedback on its services, releases, and ideas. Through hyperlocal geo-targeting, the organisation can use the most recent mapping and communication technology to deliver the relevant content to their clients across the world. Therefore, this form of geo-targeting has opened up a new world for the organisation’s product pricing and distribution strategies. To ensure that the company’s brand identity is relevant while making certain of the effectiveness and relevance of the local campaigns, the organisation assesses its brand from the customer’s viewpoint, (Feurer, Schuhmacher & Kuester, 2018). This helps in ascertaining whether the company cars and other automobiles are in sync with the local demands. When the brand identity does not resonate with the local demands, the organisation takes the initiative to incorporate these demands in the local brand identity.

In ensuring that the glocal pricing distribution strategy of the organisation is successful, their staffs, working in both the local and the international sphere, has created a close association with the customers and the vision of the brand (Hinterhuber, 2017). The senior leadership of Audi is elevated within the automobile industry, and they are recognised as the face of the brand. Additionally, the staff of the organisation ensures that the local communities get the global concept of the demand, hence, making sure that they recognise with it. This way, Audi creates essential relationships with major local markets in the industry. The Audi brand has done a tremendous job in synching its global brand with local demands by using local ambassadors, sponsorships, and local partners.

Global pricing and distribution

In the global market, Audi cars are considered luxurious by all of its clients. Hence, in cashing its brand in the international market, the organisation uses the premium price strategy. Note that the automobile industry is quite competitive with Audi getting major competition from brands such as BMW and Mercedes-Benz (Sonderegger, 2011). Therefore, the pricing in the company’s marketing mix strategy is majorly founded on the competitive pricing of other manufacturers of premium cars. The company has high brand equity, and all its showrooms are filled with a variety of high-quality automobiles.

To enable customers to buy their products with ease, the organisation has a global and innovative financing option referred to as Audi Finance. Here, the clients pay for the cars using debt financing but at a cheaper rate. Additionally, the organisation has optional pricing strategies whereby its existing clients in the international market can purchase car accessories such as navigation and sound systems, and Audi Bang separately. Note that, the global prices of the organisation are also depended on the economic conditions of a particular country and geographic locations of certain markets.

In understanding the distribution and placement strategy of the organisation, it is vital to note that Audi is one of the largest automobile brands that provide luxurious cars in the world. Although the headquarters of the organisation are in Germany, its production facilities are situated in nine places across the globe. In distributing its products, the organisation explores other markets that have not been discovered by other major players to increase its customer base. As a result, the organisation has made major investments in countries such as India and its market presence in Asia has grown exponentially over time.

The brand’s presence has been established and maintained by putting up an exclusive dealership network and centres that provide after sale services (Steenkamp, 2017). The distribution channel used by Audi in the international market involves producers who supply to distributors who sell to wholesalers than to dealers and finally to the customer. Since the organisation is driven by the urge to satisfy the requirements of the customers, its production proves uses the latest forms of technology. The global vision of the organisation is to become the most successful premium brand.

Local pricing and distribution

In the UK a new Audi A1 costs roughly 14,000 GBP whereas the same car costs 19lac rupees in India; this indicates that the local pricing strategy employed by Audi is the skimming price strategy. Although the price is high, it is justified by the quality of the cars manufactured and the organisation’s brand image. This pricing strategy in local markets is particularly important for effective brand positioning of Audi (Svend, 2017). The reputation of the organisation is good in the international market, and it is reflected on by the number of cars that are produced annually. However, in recent years, the company has experienced poor performance in some local markets, and this is majorly attributed to the increase in rates of foreign exchange.

Audi Global Marketing Communication
Audi Global Marketing Communication

The local distribution strategy of the organisation is to establish dealerships in various locations. Taking the case of India, Audi has twenty-eight dealerships in eleven states, and this has increased its sales exponentially over the years (Talke, Müller, & Wieringa, 2017). For instance, there was an increase in sales by 81% in 2014 in comparison to 2013. By establishing connections with local dealers, the organisation can push its brand to local customers, and this has enabled it to achieve some of the set long-term objectives.

Audi Target Market

Of the four common bases of market segmentation, Audi utilises three of them, and they include psychographic, demographic, and geographic segmentation. In geographic segmentation, the organisation’s decisions are based on which cars to sell and in which location (Xia, Xiao & Zhang, 2012). For instance, the organisation’s market research shows that Canadians drive larger cars as compared to Europeans. Thus, the cars sold in Europe are smaller in size as compared to those sold in Canada. With regards to countries like India, the organisation geographically segments the market into urban and rural areas. People in rural areas are more likely to purchase the Audi A3 model more than the new Audi A8.

With regards to demographics, the organisation segments its market into age, gender and income. With regards to age, the younger generation is more likely to buy the Audi A8 because it is flashy while the older generation gives little concern to the make or level of technology used in manufacturing the car.

By gender, some Audi models are more preferred by either gender because of their make or design. Income is a major determinant of whether one can afford an Audi car or not due to its prices that are considered to be high; therefore, the organisation has taken the initiative to produce cars for various individuals of different income classes (Xia, Xiao & Zhang, 2012). Finally, psychographic segmentation groups buyers according to personality traits, lifestyle and social status. As an organisation, Audi acknowledges the impact of these aspects on the purchasing decisions that are made by individuals. Since the organisation is famed for making luxurious cars, the major target market based on psychographic segmentation is the upper middle class to high-class individuals.

Conclusion

This report aimed to look into the global, local and glocal strategies of Audi with regard to price and distribution. Also, the report intended to select and discuss the primary target market of the organisation. From the essay, it has been established that Audi was founded in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany and is part of the Volkswagen Group and its slogan is “Advancement through Technology.” Being a major player in the automobile industry, Audi has managed to keep up with the dynamics in marketing by adopting different strategies in the local, international, and glocal market. To effectively penetrate the glocal market, Audi has incorporated hyperlocal and social geo-targeting in its overall marketing strategy.

In the global market, the organisation uses the premium price strategy to keep up to speed with the competitive pricing set by its key competitors. The distribution strategy of the organisation in the global market involves producers who supply to distributors who sell to wholesalers than to dealers and finally to the customer. In the local markets, the organisation uses the price skimming strategy. This strategy helps the organisation in growing and establishing its brand in the market. Locally, the organisation distributes its cars by establishing dealerships in various locations. Finally, with regards to target marketing, the organisation segments its market into psychographic, demographic, and geographic groups.

References

Audi. (2019). About Us.

Awan, M. (2014). International Market Segmentation: Exploring automobile Market of Young Adults. International Journal Of Trade, Economics And Finance, 5(2), 151-154.

Feurer, S., Schuhmacher, M., & Kuester, S. (2018). How Pricing Teams Develop Effective Pricing Strategies for New Products. Journal Of Product Innovation Management. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpim.12444

Hinterhuber, A. (2017). Implementing pricing strategies. Journal Of Revenue And Pricing Management, 17(1), 1-2.

Sonderegger, S. (2011). Market Segmentation with Nonlinear Pricing*. The Journal Of Industrial Economics, 59(1), 38-62.

Steenkamp, J. B. (2017). Global Brand Equity. In Global Brand Strategy (pp. 243-273). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Svend, H. (2017). Global Marketing. England: Pearson Education M.U.A..

Talke, K., Müller, S., & Wieringa, J. E. (2017). A matter of perspective: Design newness and its performance effects. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 34(2), 399-413.

Xia, Y., Xiao, T., & Zhang, G. (2012). Distribution Channel Strategies for a Manufacturer with Complementary Products. Decision Sciences, 44(1), 39-56.

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Experiential Marketing Dissertation

Experiential marketing (EM) is known to increase overall and spontaneous brand awareness, purchases and recommendations by huge values in the market. This mode of marketing is fast gaining relevance in the market and becoming the necessary tool for marketers in general and specific for brand managers. With this importance, there has been a growing need for the use of experiential marketing in organizations thus indicating their relevance and effectiveness especially in the perishable market and the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. In determining the relevance and appropriateness of experiential marketing a relationship between the marketing strategy and other variables will be explored, the positive consequences of these variables on experiential marketing is to indicate the relevance and appropriateness of the marketing mode.

In regards to the effectiveness, relevance and appropriateness of experiential marketing, the study sought to establish the relationship between experiential marketing, the consumer behavior or the behavior of purchaser, experiential value and customer loyalty in the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. In executing the study, a population of 1090 respondents was evaluated with the survey design being cross-sectional. In this population a sample of 381 was drawn.

Questionnaires were administered to assist collect the responses. In establishing the relationship of the study, there was a rigorous data analysis that was carried out. The relationship would help determine the relevance, appropriateness and effectiveness of EM. From the study, the relationships between the experiential marketing, consumer behavior, experiential value and the loyalty of the customer were found to be positive and quite significant in determining the appropriateness of the marketing mode. Upon carrying out regression analysis, the results showed that EM, value and consumer behavior were significant predictors of customer loyalty. Given that the model used could only explain the customer loyalty of FMCG products by 45.8% in variance, the study recommends that further research should be done with other factors in place or put in consideration especially those that were not part of the model. In carrying out a further research, a longitudinal study is recommended.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To carry out a detailed literature review of previous literature concerning the effectiveness, appropriateness and relevance of integration experiential marketing in organizations.
  • To examine the appropriateness of EM
  • To establish the relevance of experiential marketing
  • To determine the potential effectiveness of
    EM and experiential value.
  • To determine the relationship between
    EM, experiential value and customer loyalty

Experiential Marketing Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Objectives
Research Questions
Scope of the Study
Subject scope
Geographical scope
Time Scope
Significance of the Study
Conceptual Framework

2 – Literature Review
Customer Loyalty
Experiential Value and Purchase Behavior
Experiential Value and Customer Loyalty
Purchase Behaviour and Customer Loyalty
Consumer Relationships and Emotions with Brands
Experiential Marketing Trend
Schmitt’s 5-Stages Experiential Marketing Strategy

3 – Methodology
Research Design
Study Population and Area
Sample Size and Sampling Technique
Data Sources and Data Collection Instruments
Measurement of variables
Validity and Reliability Instrument
Data Processing and Analysis
Limitations to the Study

4 – Analysis and Discussion
Survey results
The Relationship between the Study Variables
Customer Loyalty
EM and Purchase Behavior
EM and Experiential Value
EM, Experiential Value and Customer Loyalty
Regression Analysis

5 – Discussion
Customer Loyalty
EM and Purchase Behavior
EM and Experiential Value
EM and Experiential Value and Customer Loyalty

6 – Conclusions and Recommendations
Recommendations
Areas for further study

References

Appendix
Questionnaire

Download This Dissertation Here

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Dissertation Topic Examples Marketing

It is vitally important that you gain access to dissertation topic examples marketing during your degree course notably in the final year.  To provide an overview of why and how dissertations are written: these need to be both professionally and academically presented.

Difference between reports and dissertation topic examples marketing

You may have developed your report writing skills in previous years; if not, please refer to our Report Writing resources. The good news is that the format and presentation is almost identical, but you will have additional sections.

A report is usually an end of module assignment with very clear guidelines from your Tutor. Features of dissertations, final year projects and extended reports:

  • Undertaken in your final year of undergraduate study, or in postgraduate education
  • Is linked to both current theory and practice
  • You will have more choice as to the topic and methodology, and will decide on the aims and objectives of your study
  • You will be required to undertake more independent research into subjects which may not have been taught or may have been covered in a range of modules throughout your programme of study
  • The word count is usually much higher than for a standard report
  • Often requires a Project Proposal in order to gain approval for your key concepts before you start.

Why find dissertation topic examples marketing?

dissertation topic examples marketing usually contain sections of writing to record the methodology, results and conclusions of an investigation. They are used to enable your lecturer to assess the way you have approached your investigation, collected your data and evaluated your results.

Dissertations demonstrate skills in: planning, organising, researching, problem solving and time management as well as oral and written communication skills. They also demonstrate in-depth subject knowledge.

Format of dissertations

  • Are written using formal academic language
  • Headings and sub-headings should be used
  • Bullet points or numbers can be used to list points
  • Are written to be discussed by more than one person
  • Show vigour in research
  • Drawings, graphs, statistics and other additional material can be added as appendices

Sections of a dissertation topic examples marketing

dissertation topic examples marketing can be written in a variety of ways depending on your subject area, and whether you have undertaken primary or secondary research. However the sections below are a general indication of what sections need to be included.

1. Title page

2. Abstract

3. Contents

4. Introduction

5. Aims and Objectives

6. Literature Review

7. Research Methodology

8. Ethical Issues

9. Results/Findings

10. Discussion/Analysis

11. Recommendations (if requested)

12. References

13. Appendices

1. The Title Page

The title should provide a clear indication of what the dissertation is about: it should be accurate and concise. The title page should also include the date the report was written, who wrote the report and who the report was for. Make clear the dissertation topic examples marketing.

2. Abstract (also known as Summary)

This is a summary of the whole report’s contents. Readers will decide whether to read the whole report based on the abstract and therefore it should be sufficient for them to understand what the report is about, including the results of the investigation.

The abstract is written after the rest of the report even though it is presented at the beginning. It should describe the work that has been carried out, not the work that will be carried out.

3 Contents

A list of contents is required and should be correctly formatted. See Student IT support on Managing Longer Pieces of Work.

4. Introduction

This gives the background to the investigation. It puts your investigation into context and gives the reader some idea of the value and importance of your work. It tells the reader why this is an important subject to investigate.

5. Aims and Objectives

You should have a clear statement about the purpose of your study (aim) and how you are going to achieve those aims (objectives). State what you are trying to achieve and how you will achieve it. This is a crucial part of the report as it will be judged on whether your aims and objectives have been achieved: ensure you are clear about the difference between these.

6. Literature Review

This informs the reader of the current thinking in your particular topic. It will place your research in context and show how you are building upon previous knowledge. This should also highlight any areas of contention. Ensure you cite your sources of information and reference your work.

7. Research Methodologies

This section is important because if you undertake inappropriate methodology your results and findings will be disputed. The reader needs to know what you did to find out information so they can make a judgement about the suitability of your methodology.

In this section, you state what you have done to achieve your aims, what you did to find information you need and why you did it.

The methodology section can be sub-divided into the following sub-sections:

A short section (one or two sentences) in which you make a clear and accurate statement outlining what sort of investigation you used. Justify your statements by referencing to best practice.

You should provide a brief description of who you used in your sample and why. The information should include the essential features of any respondents used.

• Who were the subjects of the study?

• How were they selected?

• How many were there?

Justify your decisions by referencing back to best practice.

Materials/Apparatus (if necessary)

What sorts of dissertation topic examples marketing material were used? For example, experimental stimuli, tests, questionnaires. If using established tests or materials, these should be fully referenced. Any apparatus used should be described accurately (you could use diagrams or photographs).

This should be a description of exactly how you carried out the investigation: what exactly happened during the investigation, from start to finish in enough detail to allow replication. Remember to use the passive voice (third person), past tense; for example: “The questionnaire was given to all 1st year students.” “The responses to each question were recorded using simple tally charts”.

The procedure does not have to take the form of an experiment; some reports document the findings of desk based research and extended literature reviews.

Method of Analysis

As your analysis is part of what you did, you should include a statement of what methods of analysis were used and why they were chosen (do not panic if the methodology section becomes long – it is quite normal for this section to sometimes be the longest section of the report).

8. Ethical Issues

All dissertations and investigations should consider ethical issues. You are expected to complete a Staffordshire University Ethical Approval form and have this signed off by your tutor. This should be included as an appendix. In your report you should make the reader aware of the possible ethical issues of your research and how you overcame these issues, for example: confidentiality, storage of data and so on.

9. Results/Findings (sometimes this section can be merged with Discussion and Analysis)

It tells the reader what you have found out and is objective. It states the findings of your research. You may include tables and graphs, but also explain the results in words. Any raw data should be included as an appendix.

10. Discussion/Analysis

This covers the interpretation of the results, evaluation of the theoretical significance of the findings and a general discussion of the investigation. It should answer questions such as:

• What has your investigation shown?

• Did it achieve its objectives?

• What theory/literature does it support or contradict?

• What are the most plausible explanations of your findings?

• Are there any possible criticisms of the investigation?

The discussion should also:

• Build on the material in the introduction and literature review

• Evaluate the adequacy of your methodology

• Suggest design features that may have affected the results

• Include whether the results would be different under different conditions

11. Recommendations

Use your findings and analysis to make recommendations in dissertation topic examples marketing. You may make the recommendation that further investigation is undertaken if you realise that there were gaps in your methodology or anomalies in your findings. Alternatively, you may advise that some actions be considered.

12. References

Make sure references are given correctly. All dissertation topic examples marketing must be reference in accordance to your university’s guidelines.

13. Appendices (content usually not included in the word count)

Do not put results here: only the raw data should be presented in an Appendix. Some other materials may be usefully included in an Appendix (for example, blank questionnaires, copy of written tests used). Remember not to include anything in an appendix that has not been referred to in the text.

References and further reading

Levin, P. (2011) Excellent Dissertations. Open University Press.

McMillan, K. & Weyers, J. (2011) How to Write Dissertations and Project Reports. (Smarter Student Series) Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

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Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal

Consumer behavior is an important management field, the study and application of which can provide a lot of insight and value to the marketers. This research paper is based mostly on the existing theories and models of consumer behavior. The first part looks for external factors influencing consuming behavior at various stages and the second applies theories to a well known business organization, L’Oreal.

Consumer Behavior

Hawkins (2008) says that the consumer decision making process is often the result of a single problem however, at other times consumption decision is based on a number of factors. The example provided by Hawkins (2008) to explain the difference actually helps the reader in better analyzing the types of consumption requirement. Running low on gasoline while driving leads to a single factor consumption decision whereas the realization of an aging automobile, growing feeling of inadequacy or low self esteem lead to a multi factor consumption decision regarding a commodity or a service.

For the marketers of an organization, it is important to take into consideration both the types of consumption such that the overall sales of that organization are increased. Consumers are the end point of the supply chain processes. They actually are the magnetic force for all kinds of manufacturing, production and retailing processes that are taking place in a market or in an industry. The stronger the magnetic force in fact, the better will be the overall processes of production, manufacturing and retailing. It is therefore important for the organizations to capture as much of that attraction of the customers as possible. One simple reason for that is that customers are the ones that provide revenue to the business. An interesting quote by Jeff Bezoz, the CEO of Amazon.com says that it is actually the customers of the organization that give the business the money to operate and not the competitors of the organization and thus, all the strategies that the organization makes to improve the business performance (or market capitalization) should be oriented towards the customers (Stockport, 2009).

This idea then forms the core of the field of consumer behavior. Consumer behavior, initially stemming out of the study of micro economics has actually gotten extensive and intensive enough to be termed as a completely independent study of management sciences and one that can have serious policy implications for a business entity.

Consumer behavior holds that the purchasing decision of the consumer can actually be analyzed through various models and theories and using those findings, a business can orient its market plan to gain competitive advantage in the market. A number of external and internal factors become a part of understanding how and why consumers making purchasing decision, using decisions and disposing off decisions and how preferences and tastes as well as norms, cultures, peer pressures and traditions become a part of this decision making process (Lamb, Hair, McDaniel, 2011).

Since it has now been established that a number of internal and external factors play a role in influencing the consumers in their consuming decision, the breakdown of each factor is possible. As far as a business organization and more precisely the strategic managers or the marketers of the organization are concerned, external factors are the ones which they have the power over and thus they can influence the attraction felt by consumers for the product being marketed. However, before the marketing managers can actually pin point the external factors and manipulate them, each stage of the decision making process of the consumers needs to be analyzed.

Analysis of how external variables are used by marketers to influence consumer decision making at the various stages of the consumer decision making model. Illustrations through examples

Nominal Decision Making Process

Hawkins (2008, p. 561) identifies the nominal decision making process and defines it in the following words,

“Nominal decision making, sometimes referred to as habitual decision making, in effect involves no decision per se….A completely nominal decision does not even include consideration of the “do not purchase” alternative. For example you might notice that you are nearly out of Aim toothpaste and resolve to purchase some the next time you are at the store. You don’t even consider not replacing the toothpaste or purchasing another brand.”

According to Hawkins (2008) then a nominal decision making process can be broken down further into brand loyal decisions and repeat decisions.

For the marketers, development of brand loyalty is another arena that is receiving significant attention mostly because of its importance that has been highlighted through the theories of consumer behavior. The more the consumer feels loyal to the brands, the lesser he or she will actually consider buying another brand and thus the number of secure sales for the organization will increase and in the longer run, the provision of stability of revenue for the organization will also be enhanced.

The example for the nominal decision making process has already been highlighted by reviewing Hawkins (2008) however to provide another example is the purchase of soaps, bottled milk, tea brand, coffee brand or sanitary pads. Mostly, for all of these products, the consumer mechanically throw these products into the shopping cart without even considering that just right to the brand that they picked lies another, probably better brand. Development of this behaviour in the consumers requires effort and strategy from the marketing manager of the business organization.

Five Step Decision Making Model

Next is the five step decision making process as studied by Lamb, Hair and McDaniel (2011). In this model, the first step is the recognition of need of a product or service by the consumers. The second is the information search, third the evaluation of alternatives and fourth the purchase of the commodity or service. Finally, the fifth step is the post purchase behaviour. In regards to the model however, the following has been said (Lamb, Hair and McDaniel, 2011, p. 189),

“The five steps represent a general process that can be used as a guide for studying how consumers make decision. It is important to note though that consumers’ decisions do not always proceed in order through all of these steps. In fact, the consumer may end that process at any time or may not even make a purchase.”

However, this model does provide important steps that can be used by the marketers to create external influence on the consuming behaviours of the customers. Baker (2003) says that these five stages together are affected by a number of external and internal factors. These factors include the cultural, social, individual and psychological factors and are actually applicable to all the stages of the consumer decision making process. Therefore, if the customers are to use factors to influence the consumer decision making process, these factors are to be manipulated. For the purpose of this section of the research report, only external factors will be analyzed for each stage of consumption of the goods and services.

The first step is the recognition of needs. This is actually the first and the most important step that the marketers can use to attract the customers and thus gain competitive advantage and even first movers advantage in the market. This is possible by making the customers realize the need for the product that the firm is offering. Hawkins (2008, p. 565) says that,

“Marketers often attempt to cause consumers to recognize a potential problem for which the marketer has a solution…this sometimes involves making consumers aware of problems well before they arise.”

The important word here is “potential”. The usual way through which the problem solving approach goes is to at first recognize the problem and then solve it. Providing external stimulus on the need recognition stage of the decision making process, marketers are actually making the customers create a problem in their head that they did not realize existed before. Obviously this can be both real and imaginary but there is no necessity that the consumer knew of the solution to the problem before. For example, the invention of diapers stimulated the need recognition stage of the decision making process. Before that for centuries, mothers and maids were using cloth and plastic panties for their babies and everything seemed to go fine. With the advent of diapers however, it became almost a necessity. Something without which bearing a child seemed like a serious problem.

Similarly, the marketers can influence the information search stage of the consumer decision making process by providing to the consumers the necessary information through various media. Nowadays, television advertisement, billboards and internet are the favorite sources of providing the consumers with the information about the product and how that product is the one that the consumers require in solving the problem. For example when proctor and gamble came up with the diapers, pampers, they needed to provide the useful information to the consumers about the product. So that the customers who have already realized this problem and were looking for a solution find it in the shape of pampers. This then can require free samples and other promotion techniques as well. As of today however, the techniques that remain dominant have been mentioned.

The marketers can influence the third step that is of alternative evaluation by allowing the customer, through efficient marketing strategies to realize that the product the firm is offering is the best one for the consumer.  The external factor used here can be the help of celebrities to promote a product. Knowing that a specific product works better than anything else for something well known and looked up to can actually lead the consumers to be inclined more towards the purchase of that product.

On the fourth stage of the consumer decision making model, prices are the factors that need to be considered and used by the marketers. The consumers should know that the price they are paying for the product is actually worth it. Here, the factor and consciousness of social class can play an important role. The effect of social class on consumer behavior, apart from the direct relationship of income levels and value of consumption, there is also a direct relationship till the upper class between the realization of social class and the desire to mobilize in the social class hierarchy and the value of consumption (Loudon, 2007). It has been noted that the upper, upper middle and the middle class seriously dreams of being recognized as the elite (how o not really care about the prices but about the quality) make more expensive purchases of the products or services to reinforce their social class image in the society.

Select a company or not-for-profit organisation that you are familiar with and critically evaluate how a specific consumer behavioral theory or model can aid in understanding consumers’ actions. Demonstrate how this then guides the practical implementation of marketing strategy in your chosen organisation.

The Organization

The business entity selected for the purpose this section of the report is L’Oreal Paris. This is the largest beauty and cosmetics brand in the world. In 2009 L’Oreal completed its hundred years and recognizes its moves in the business world as that of being adventurous. L’Oreal (2011) notes that above and beyond that financial success that the organization has achieved, the journey of L’Oreal has been marked by a quest for innovation, a quest for excellence, a question for the purpose of actually existing in the market and finally a quest for diversity in regards to the range of cultures, preferences and tastes of women around the globe.

Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal
Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal

This organization has actually celebrated beauty around the globe. L’Oreal has a huge international presence and operates in five continents of the worlds excluding Antarctica and Australia from the list. By the global 100, this beauty brand was actually ranked amongst the world’s 100 most sustainable business organizations. Moreover, this organization in 2011 has been presented with the best financial performance by the Boursoscan (L’Oreal, 2011).

The overview of the organization notes that for a century the organization has been pushing back the boundaries of science to invest and meet the aspirations of millions of women and men (L’Oreal, 2011). L’Oreal seeks to provide the best cosmetics to the world in terms of quality, safety and efficacy. In 2010, the business had consolidated sales figure of 195 billion Euros. Currently, the organization is managing 23 global brands in 130 countries of the world and registered 612 patents in the year 2010 (L’Oreal, 2011).

Theory of Consumer Behavior

Behavioral School of Thought: Classical Conditioning

In regards to the core behavioral theories, Schiffman (2008) notes that there are a number of routes through which the conditioning of consumers to buy a particular product can be done. The first route is the classical conditioning in which the consumer links a certain response to a product. For example, in regards to L’Oreal, classical condition will be that using the Voluminous Mascara introduced by the organization, the eyelashes will actually look darker and prettier and the result will be similar to what Ashwariya Rai puts on her eyes. The conditioning stimulus here will be the darker, more volume eyelashes like the ones that Ashwariya Rai appears with. Through the advertisement then the unconditioned response of the consumer who needs to buy mascara turns into a conditioned one.

Behavioral School of Thought: Cognitive Associative Learning

Next, Schiffman (2008) studies the cognitive associative learning behavior. According to this view, the relationship or (congruity) between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus influences the expectations which in turn influences the behavior of the being. This theory believes that the actions that occur after certain stimuli have been provided are in fact learned and occur because of the increase in knowledge. For example in the example above, the purchase of mascara would occur because knowledge about the qualities of the product has been gained. Unlike the cognitive associative behavior however, the classical conditioning believes that the reaction that occurs is actually reflex.

Economic Theory of Consumer Behavior

Apart from these theories, one consumer behavior theory that actually stems out economics more than psychology is the theory of consumer behavior. Irwin (2005) says that the consumers according to the model provided in this theory consumes at a point where there occurs an intersection between the consumer indifference curve (the choice curve of the customer where combinations of consuming two alternative goods achieve the same level of utility or satisfaction to the customer) and the budget constraint of the individual (as understood mostly by the current income levels of the person or the saved up income from a previous period).

This model assumes that the consumers are rational individuals who are responsive to a price change of products and who also have complete information about the product and the alternatives. Also it is assumed that the individual under question is subject to a budget constraint and that he or she has to manage more than one thing in a given period of time speaking financially.

Attitudes in Consumer Behavior

Perner (2011) however studies the theory of consumer behavior which says that the problem solving approaches of the consumers are actually internal (made up of the memory and thinking process of the individuals) and external (made up of the word of mouth, the media, the store visits and the trials amongst others). In this theory then, the evaluating behavior of the individuals are made up either compensatory, non compensatory, hybrid or abandoned strategy. The first one is the decision based on overall value of alternatives. The non compensatory evaluation requires that the consuming decision meets at least one important criterion and the hybrid is a combination of compensatory and non compensatory evaluation types. Finally, the abandoned strategy is when the consumer finds the initial criteria unrealistic and proceeds to a less desirable solution to the problem. Next, Perner (2011) notes that the consuming behavior of an individual is seriously affected by the attitudes of that individual; and that in turn attitudes are affected by the intentions, the beliefs and the feelings about a particular brand.

 As far as L’Oreal is concerned, consumer behavior can be understood critically through these four theories and the findings can be further used to design a strategy to expand the consumer market and the competitive advantage of the market.

Recommended Marketing Strategies

Starting with the attitudes of the consumers, L’Oreal can be added by understanding what beliefs individuals have about the products and services that the brand itself and that the competitors of the brand provide. This can be measured and analyzed through the attitude measure developed by Perner (2011). Next, the feelings of the consumers can be understood through this attitude model. For example, a fan of Ashwariya Rai, or Penelope Cruz (the brand ambassadors of L’Oreal) will feel a push for consuming the product after aggressively understanding how they feel for the product. Also, being there for a century, this brand is also a name through the generations. Understanding those feelings of the consumers will help steer the marketing plan of the organization towards a greater organizational performance overall.

Next, the theory of consumer behavior includes the importance of prices of the product. This is actually one of the core consumer behavior theories and is the most detail about the behaviors of the individuals. In this regard the organization can use the theory to understand what effect a price change of the products and services has on the sales of the organization and the demand of the consumers. Make up, after a certain limit is usually a luxury for individuals and L’Oreal is an expensive brand.

To keep up its market share and to not lose to organizations which are charging a lower price for similar products through the substitution and the income effect it is important for the management of the organization to carefully consider the underpinnings of the theory of consumer behavior. For this purpose, if the price of the good is actually not that far away from the actual investment put into the product in terms of research and development and manufacturing, the organization can actually use the coin of high quality. The perception of consumer about the quality of the product is a vital asset when an organization is designing its price and marketing policies. The better the consumer perceive the quality of a product to be, the more he or she will be willing to spare for that product because they will know that the money is being well spent and that there will be no hazardous consequences of using a particular product.

Conclusion

Nelson (1970) studies that the consumers are continuously busy in the choice making between different products however, the consequences of these choices are dimly known by them. One of the reasons is that they lack full knowledge about the price and quality of the product. The marketers of a business organization then can utilize the consuming behavior and the attitudes of the consumers for the purpose of attracting the maximum share of revenue for the organization.

This research paper studied how the marketers can actually use external factors including the social class, peer pressure, celebrity following and fashion trends to influence the consuming behavior of the consumers.

The second part of the research report analyzed the various theories of consumer behavior. Those theories then were in critically used to apply for the case of L’Oreal Paris, one of the largest multinationals in the world. Dholakia et al (2010) says that in the case of multimedia and multi channel organization like L’Oreal, the analysis of consumer behavior is different than the usual analysis. Finally, for the applied consumer behavior theories, a number of marketing strategies were recommended for L’Oreal.

References

Baker, D. (2003) Consumer Decision Making. 4th Ed. USA: South Western.

Dholakia, H. et al. (2010) Consumer Behavior in a Multichannel, Multimedia Retailing Environment. Journal of Interactive Marketing, Volume 24 (2), Pages 86-95.  

Hawkins (2008) Consumer Behavior. 6th Ed. India: Tata McGraw Hill

Irwin (2005) Theory of Consumer Behavior. USA: McGraw Hill.

Lamb, C., Hair, J. and McDaniel C. (2011) Essential of Marketing. 7th Ed. USA: South Western.

L’Oreal. (2018). L’Oreal Website

Nelson, P. (1970) Information and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 78 (2), pp. 311-329

Prener, L. (2011) The consumer Behavior: The psychology of marketing.

Schiffman, L and Kanuk, L. (2007) Consumer Behavior. 9th Ed. India: Pearson Education Inc

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