The Role of E-Commerce in Marketing of Coconut Oil in Thailand
E-commerce has been defined as the process in which buying and selling of goods and services is done on the Internet via online services. The number of e-commerce users in Thailand is currently 12.1 million and is expected to rise with an additional of 1.8 million users doing businesses online by 2021. The major contributor to the increased use of e-commerce marketing services according to the respondents is the increased use of Internet services where many can access it on their smart phones and personal computers. With the onset of smart phone penetration in Thailand many people have the ability to access Internet easily therefore increasing the numbers of online shoppers.
The dissertation focuses on uncovering the critical role of e-commerce in marketing of coconut oil in Thailand. According to the outcome of the research that involved 80 respondents out of 100, 92.5% strongly agreed that e-commerce has a vital role in increasing the sales of coconut oil products in Thailand. A mean of 1.1625 that was recorded signify a direct relationship between the increase in sales and the use of e-commerce marketing services.
Ecommerce marketing channels such as website and social media have been listed as the leading channels that have shaped the field of marketing coconut oil because many customers have now shifted to the use of such channels in carrying out all their business transactions. 96.2% of the respondents strongly agreed that Internet is the driving factor behind the increased use of e-commerce marketing channels because a larger number can access it through their smart phones and personal computers anytime and anywhere.
The research finds a direct influence of e-commerce marketing services on consumer behaviour towards the ability to make coconut oil purchases. 92.5% of the respondents indicated that e-commerce services mostly determines who to buy or not buy the products in most cases attracting many people to make purchases due to their ease and fast way of doing transactions.
Research objectives are very important in providing the expectations of the study. They have acted as guidelines towards developing a good research paper. The main objectives of the study include;
To investigate the role of ecommerce in the marketing of coconut oil in Thailand
To analyze the commonly used ecommerce marketing channels in Thailand
To examine consumer behaviour in relation to the use of ecommerce in marketing of coconut oil in Thailand
1 – Introduction
2 – Literature Review
History of ECommerce
Summary of the History of ECommerce
Theories explaining the rapid growth of e-commerce
Examples of E-commerce Businesses in Thailand
Types of Ecommerce in Thailand
Business to Consumer (B2C)
Business to Business (B2B)
Consumer to Business (C2B)
Consumer to Consumer (C2C)
Consumer to Administrator (C2A)
Business to Administrator (B2A)
The Role of ECommerce in Marketing
Planning a content or suitable marketing strategy
Automated email marketing campaigns
Diversification through social media
Enhances personalization strategy
Ensures original content
Advantages of using ecommerce in marketing
Sites of E-commerce in Thailand
Social media and Digital marketing
E-Commerce Marketing Channels in Thailand
Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
Consumer Behaviour and Values in Ecommerce
Factors Influencing Customer Behaviour in Ecommerce
3 – Research Methodology
4 – Data Presentation, Evidence, Analysis and Discussion
Role of E-commerce in Marketing
Promoters of E-commerce Marketing
E-commerce Marketing Channels
Leading E-commerce Channel in Marketing of Coconut Oil in Thailand
Online marketing services vs. the traditional marketing services
Findings of Quantitative Method
5 – Discussion and Limitations of the Study
6 – Conclusion and Recommendation of the Study
I hope you enjoyed reading this post on The Role of ECommerce in Marketing. There are many other titles available in the Marketing Dissertation Collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.
Different Brand Advertising Campaign: Case Study of P&G
P&G Brand Advertising Campaign: As prescribed by different researchers and organizations, the cost of doing business is in the recent years is increasing (Amyx 2005; Williams and Page 2009). This is as a result of increasing competition within the market environment, where different businesses are doing everything possible to woo as many customers as possible. As a result of this, consumers of different products are the beneficially since all the extensive researches conducted are geared toward improving the quality of different products; hence, enhance consumer satisfaction. To achieve such objective, while still remaining relevant and competitive, the organizations need to formulate resilient strategies that build on distinctive competencies and provide a lasting competitive advantage.
On the same right, the said strategies ought to be sensitive and dynamic so as to encompass any eminent changes that are inevitable in any competitive market. Among the market strategies that different organizations are engaging in is the different brand advertising campaign. Advertising, as different researchers have claimed plays a key role in determining the success of a given product in the market. In regard to a different brand advertising campaign, the emphasis is on product differentiation, where the company tries to convince their customers, and other potential ones that their products are superior to similar products offered by their competitors. This is specifically done, in a bid to increase sales, command the market share and win new customers for increased profitability. Nevertheless, adopting a different brand advertising campaign is not a smooth ride but there a variety of handles that the marketers need to contend with at different levels. This is even true when a firm is facing competing rivals who also keep strengthening their advertising and product strategies with an aim of dominating the market (Brewster and Palmer 2001).
The study work at hand intends to explore some of the potential problems that a marketer may experience in his/her bid of using a different brand advertising campaign as his/her ultimate marketing strategy. To achieve the intended objective, the study will use P&G as its case study and will explore some of the challenges, and benefits it has achieved by employing the said marketing strategy instead of using the conventional advertising strategy. In addition, the research will propose some of the methods that can be employed to override those problems.
Brief description of P&G
William Procter and James Gamble are credited as the founders of Procter and Gamble (P&G) business that has in the recent past expanded to the international market; both in developed and developing countries. It has been regarded as one of the Fortune 500 American multinational corporations that have established its roots far and beyond its boundaries of Cincinnati where it was first established. The industry is supposedly the American biggest producer of household products and pharmaceutical goods. In particular, company is credited for providing over 250 brands that are grouped into six distinct categories. These groups include laundry and detergents, paper products like toilet papers, beauty care, food and beverages, sanitary towels and health care products.
In addition, the company also makes other products like pet food and PUR water filters and chemicals that are used internally and also by other chemical processing companies. As a way of attracting and retaining new clients, especially female consumers, the P&G also engages in production and sponsoring of Soap Operas that serves to distinguish its brand advertising strategies (A Company History: 1837- Today 2006). In fact, P&G is among business that have been credit with successful business innovations especially on brand management such as Connect and Develop innovation. According to Nielsen Company, P&G business is also among those companies that spend a fortune in advertisements alone. It is said to have had the highest advertising budget of all companies listed in United States by 2007 (Johnson 2012).
Despite all these positive aspects, the company also faces some challenges that demand prompt actions. Among such challenges is the continuous demand for new innovative and brands differentiation. The pressure originates from stiff competition that is posed by other small and larger competing companies. In addition, advancement in technology and new demands for new brands, the company is in a dilemma in deciding which brands to retain and those to discard. For instance, though soap and candle were the main products that the company produced in its initiation stages, candles have become obsolete due to the invention of electric lights among other products that rendered it irrelevant. Attracting, retaining and satisfying the clients are the main challenge that the company contend with all the time.
To handle this challenge effectively, the company has come up with different strategies that are also sensitive to the increasing cost of production in the company. In regard to this fact, as was observed by Jeff Neff of Ad Age, the company had even lost its usual top post in shopper magazine ranking. The failure to retain the top slot went on for three years making shareholders wary. The challenge is thought to have been as a result of effective advertising by its competitors like Unilever (Neff 2013).
In regard to its budget, as per its 2010 annual report indication, P&G is said to be spending cash amounting to over $10 billion in advertisements alone. According to the report, the percentage of Ads as a portion of sales for the said years was approximately 11.3%. This is an increase from the previous years’ where the same ratio was 10.9% and 9.8% in 2010 and 2009 respectively (Johnson 2012). Such increasing figures in advertising is said to have its toll on company’s inability to reward its faithful shareholders effectively (Edwards 2011).
Psychology of advertising
Advertising, since time in memorial, has been used in different circumstances by business to build powerful business force. In definition, as proposed by Brewster & Palmer, 2001, advertising may be referred to the purchased publicity conducted in a pre-planned way to seduce potential clients to act, think or behave as per the advertisers’ desires. According to Robert Hearth, advertisement is a tool that is most effective in persuading any potential and existing consumers to consumer certain products. According to him, companies that use advertising are amongst the most successful ones in the world (Heath 2012).
The same claim is echoed by Krugman’s idea who asserted that TV advertising has a direct influence on individuals even when processed inattentively. This is what is supposedly referred to by a number of individuals as subconscious seduction. Advertisers take advantage of this fact, first, to influence individuals’ mind and secondly, to influence their decision making in regard to certain products. Some psychologist believes that advertisements have both negative effects and positive effect on different individuals of a society. They also believe that the presence of advertisements on available media; whether television, newspapers, magazines, journals, radio and internet among others make all individuals target. They thus believe that advertisements have subliminally stimulated the way different individuals react in different situations (Amoto and Laudati 2001).
Richard Pollay, in his book, The Distorted Mirror: Reflection on the Unintended Consequences of Advertising claim that advertising seem to pop up in every part of the society, include the intimate space of customers’ homes. According to him, advertisements are created to attract attention, cause a change of attitude and influence consumer behavior toward certain ways (Pollay 1986). Nevertheless, some researchers still hold the idea that, though, advertisements has almost direct influence on individuals viewing them, businesses and individual marketers need to formulate their advertisement perfectly so as to inform customers of their products; hence, woo them toward buying (Hansotia and Wang 1997).
According to researchers, customers are highly responsive to advertisements, especially those that are aimed at informing them of new products in the market. Such advertisements are said to carry information persuading the customers to purchase a certain brand of products due to their superiority in quality and customer friendly prices. Depending on the response of the customers on product differentiation message contained in the adverts, firms are said to take appropriate actions; whether to increase or decrease their sizes. In cases where the customers’ responses are deemed positive, firms are said to increase their market size appropriately as they also adjust the prices of their products accordingly (Ferguson 20012).
Possible problems associated with advertising
As describe above, advertising is one of the strongest and most effective tool that businesses can adopt to reach their targeted customers. Nevertheless, in the process of designing, formulating, implementation and monitoring a myriad of potential problems may haunt the business. Such challenges are the center of interest in the succeeding discussion. The problems may include, but not limited to cost implication, consumer attitude, stiff competition from competing businesses, and product differentiation among others.
According to a discussion paper prepared by Kyle Bagwell of University of Columbia, Department of Economics on The Economic Analysis of Advertising, advertising is a sizeable business. According to him, in the year 2003, major companies like General Motors $3.43 billion, Procter and Gamble $3.32 billion and Pfizer $2.84 billion among other companies experienced such greater advertising expenses (Bagwell 2005). The high costs of advertising are to some extent influenced by the stiff competitions that exist in the market. In the case of P&G, though the company was the pioneer of so many products like cleaning detergents, health care products like shampoos and chemicals, a large number of potential competitors like Unilever have come up with similar products. In some instances, such competitors are said to outdo P&G Company in terms of quality of some products. They also do well in reaching out for consumers through their effective advertising and rebranding strategies.
In regard to adopting a different brand advertising campaign like it has been done by P&G, the cost of selling the idea would mean adjusting the advertisement budget upward. In a conventional advertising budget, the cost would be influenced by a number of factors such as the frequency of advertising, competition and clutter, market share of the brand being advertised and the product life cycle stage. In regard to frequency of advertisement, advocating for a different brand would mean that the cost would be relatively higher than that of already established products. The need for increasing the frequency of advertising is to try and ensure that the target consumers are convinced that the target product is superior to the ones being offered in the market (Brewster and Palmer 2001).
A company using a different brand advertising campaign is also expected to bear more financial burden in regard to competition and clutter. Clutter in this case refers to number advertisements that are run in a given media. P&G is expected to incur extra cost since it requires having more clutter than its competitors. In addition, the cost of designing such advertisement would cost them more than that of an already established product that have already been accepted widely and can still dominate the market even without the need for an advert.
Selling a different brand will also require the company to emphasis on the quality of the product it is selling. According to psychologists, consumers are always looking for a product that would not only satisfy them in terms of financial implication, but also one that meet their quality expectation. This will auger well with how well the product has gained ground in terms of market share. In addition, a new brand will demand that the advertisement be of high quality and eye catching and unique. To achieve all these, the company will require engaging experts in its production lines who will ensure that the quality of the product is not compromised. They should also ensure that their packaging line is managed by individuals who are experienced and understand how the markets work. The packaging material should also be appealing and unique so that it can stand-out amid competition. All the above objectives are only achieved if the company’s advertising budget is relative higher than that of the competitor.
In some instances, companies, including P&G are bound to rebrand their products in the form of product differentiation. This will mean that even an existing product, which has undergone such changes, would look as new product. To convince the existing consumers and also the potential consumers that the products are the same or relatively better will call for serious and extensive campaign. In order to reach all the clients, the company would not trust only one form of media, but would opt for a number of them that would be accessible by the target clients. For instance, in a bid to remain relevant and competitive in the sale of women product, P&G is said to be producing and supporting some soap operas both in TV and Radio. This means that its advertisement budget is higher than that of its competitors. With increased advertising budget together with other running expenses that companies incur in their bid remain competitive and attract to both customers and potential and existing investors, the company may fail to meet its long-term objectives.
For instance, it is said that P&G had in some years failed to provide substantial returns to its shareholders due to increasing cost of production and running costs. Here, with a quick glance at the 2012 P&G annual report, the company’s net earnings reduced from $ 15,495 to $13, 292 despite an increase in net sale to $83, 680 from $81,104 in the year 2011 and 2012 respectively. This led to a decrease of $ 0.73 in net earnings per common share from continuing operations (P&G 2012; Johnson 2012). The increase in sales may be attributed to the progressive and active advertisement, but this lead to increased operation costs that have lead to reduction in net earnings. With the company failing to satisfy its shareholders, some are bound to withdraw their support while others may invest in competing companies. Such a move would be detrimental to the company and its products.
Consumer attitude and perception
Psychologically, individuals are said to react with a lag of diverse period in terms of changing their decision due to changes in certain issues (Gujarati 2007). In regard to the question at hand, individuals would also be cautious to jumping into buying new or rebranded products due to the natural nature of human being of the fear of unknown. In addition, as expressed in the previous section, customers are subjective to seduction borne in different advertisements. In cheer realization that other competing companies are as well striving toward winning more consumers, such companies are bound to benefit more when a company decide to go beyond the usual products. In addition, some researchers have argued that, the relevance and importance of a certain ad would be determined highly with how the consumer has interacted with ads In cases where the consumer do not have access to the ad, it would mean that they would be blind to the product being targeted (Rubin 1981). On the same note, the different brand advertising campaign may not encompass enough information to change the decision of the clients as Fernandez and Rosen (2000) found out in his research on goal-oriented consumer’s response.
Effect of competition on advertisement
According to economists, companies come up with advertisements for various reasons that are all directed to customers. On the same note, economists believe that marketers and advertisers retain ultimate right to decide on the content of advertisements, and customers have no option but to take the information carried by the ads. For this reason, consumers do not all the time openly accept the information. Instead, they are said to interpret advertisements differently. Therefore, adopting a different brand advertising campaign is bound to experience more challenges than the conventional way. In addition, since advertisements are bound to affect pricing of different products before consumers are fully persuaded that the different products are superior and selling at fair prices, the company may experience low growth as consumers opt to buy from their competitors (Kirmani 1990). Similar assertion are echoed by Sutton (1991) who said that though advertising is bound to improve customer perception toward a certain brand; hence, creating some barrier to entry, it is bound to increase competition; thus, forcing some firms to reduce their expenditure to avoid the ultimate effects of fierce price competition.
Economists, to some extent, agree that advertising is majorly adopted by monopolistic firms, to gain product differentiation and achieve market control. With product differentiation objective achieved, the firm is as well said to have gained some ground in controlling the market. In the study’s case scenario, P&G Company is not a monopolistic but is surrounded by able rivals and even potential entrant. For this reason, convincing the customers that their products are superior would mean increasing its advertisement clutters; adopt alternative campaign strategies among other ways. Different brand advertising campaign may also, instead of increasing awareness of the product increase the demand for a rival company’s product at the expense of the marketer.
On the same right, such advertising strategy would reversely lead to a decline in consumer value especially in developed market due to increased commodity prices to counter the extra financial experiences trigger by the ads. For instance, P&G sponsored the US Olympic Team and had an advert dubbed ‘Thank you Mom’. Inasmuch as the ad had gained popularity in the US, P&G Company may have not scored properly due to the high cost of running the advert. According to a report released by the company in 2012, the ‘Thank you Mom’ advertisement required the company to think globally. This would involve formulating a communication objective that would cut across board; hence, requiring an expansive and expensive plan to articulate (P&G 2012).
One of the key pillars toward a successful advertisement campaign is price differentiation. Firms and companies that have successfully managed to persuade their customers that their products are overly different from others in terms of quality, outcomes and costs are said to have been rewarded with unequivocal market share and dominance. In regard to product differentiation, a firm opting to conduct a different brand advertisement campaign is bound to employ either the horizontal or vertical differentiation. In definition, horizontal differentiation consumers are said to differ in what they prefer in a product. That is; the characteristics like color, taste, and sources bestowed on a given product. On the other hand, in regard to vertical differentiation, the emphasis is on product characteristics that make consumer go for quality. Therefore, a problem of ensuring that the products under scrutiny in different brand advertising campaign are purely different from other may arise.
In regard to P&G, as documented in its 2012 annual report, its main objectives is to have brands with strong equities in the minds of consumers, those that retailers are demanding and those that are platforms for innovation. Achieving such objectives is not a significant challenge to P&G since it has financial, technological and manpower strength. Nevertheless, the same notion is sure in its rival competitors’ agenda. The only sure way to ensure that its product retain their reputation is to ensure total differentiation, which in part is supported by effective and extensive advertisement (Barroso and Llobet 2011).
In this right, Roberts and Lattin (1991) found out consumers reaction toward consuming a certain brand is more influenced by their choice sets later than their awareness sets. According to them, the consumers’ awareness is highly influenced by such things like advertisements while the choice set is determined by the consumers purchasing decisions. Therefore, a firm that is determined to employ a different brand advertisement strategy should emphasis on influencing both awareness and choice set factors, something that may be problematic to balance and achieve as (Goeree 2008) found out.
Shon Ferguson (2012), in his study on Endogenous product differentiation, market size and price stated that consumer love for diversified brands leads them to becoming more sensitive to product differentiation efforts by different firms; hence, uncontrollable increase of differentiated products in the larger market. In respect to this, he argued that expansion of market base by firms through product differentiation and advertisement may eventually lead to higher prices of such products. If this does happen, consumers are then said to divert their attentions to other similar commodities that are offered at lower prices. This is because, with polarized market, consumers have a wide variety of commodities that they can choose from; hence, the notion of consumer loyalty does not hold (Ferguson 20012).
This is true even to the case of P&G Company that, though having been among the market pioneer is competing with so many other late entrants. In addition, as some researchers have argued, so much concentration on the need for price differentiation would eventually lead to a compromise in terms of prices or quality (P&G 2012). Therefore, the most appropriate advice that researchers have offered is for firms to remain cognizant of the consumers’ need and marshal toward satisfying them by and large.
Grossman and Shapiro while investigating the effect of informative advertising realized that advertising help the elasticity of demand faced by each participating firm. According to them, the lower the cost of advertising, the more the advertisement clutter will increase and the better informed the consumer will become (Amoto and Laudati 2001). In such instances, where the customers are well informed, and more firms are engaged in advertisements, a firm that spend more money in advertisements is bound to suffer since advertising in a market where consumers have full knowledge of the market does not necessary mean increasing your customers.
To avoid the potential problems that are associated with different brand advertising campaign effectively, marketers would need to take a number strategic measure. First, as it has extensively been discussed in the previous section, the marketers should constrain their budgets in such a way that they adhere to the company’s objective. This can be done by ensuring that the advertisements are perfectly formulated to reach the target group effectively while at the same time, minimizing the cost of running those adverts in different media.
In regard to consumer perception and attitude, the adverts should carry exceptionally, convincing and persuasive messages that reflect, if possible, the actual reality of the brand being advertised. This would auger well since customers who have had the potential to purchase the product can pass the same information to them that are aware of the brand but have not made a positive choice of purchasing them. In addition, this would give the company a competing edge against its potential rivals and potential entrants.
The company should also formulate its advertisement with cheer realization that the advert can have an anti-competing outcome, where it promotes the products of the competing firms. The company should also have its shareholders and investors in mind; hence, it would continually receive financial and other forms of supports even in times of turmoil.
P&G Company, like many other large and small companies, engages in intensive advertisement in a bid to weather down any potential competition. In fact, Procter and Gamble is said to be the leading company in terms of advertisement. This is true even with the fact that it is always in the top three of the most profitable multinational company. The need for regular advertising, where it is reported to collaborate with other firms and sponsor is said to emanate from the need to inform its customers regularly of its superior brands that have dominated the market. In a bid to advertise, like any other companies, it faces challenges that drag down its objectives.
Among the advertising strategies that a company adopts, different brand advertising campaign is one that can lead to greater success in reaching customers. Nevertheless, there are a myriad of challenges that are attached to the strategy as discussed in the previous section. In particular, the campaign would be more expensive than the conventional methods employed by many companies. It requires maximum time to convince the customers that truly, the brand the company is selling is superior and better than the similar ones in the market. Again, the customers may not be fully convinced; hence, though having the awareness of the product may opt to consume those offered by competitors. The strategy is also said, sometime, to work against the company where it indirectly promotes the products of its competitors. Therefore, as much as the company would love to use this strategy, it should be wary of the challenges; hence, plan appropriately. The advert should be formulated in such a way that all the unnecessary costs are avoided while at the same time, targeting to reach all the potential customers.
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I hope you enjoyed reading this post on the brand advertising campaign of P&G. There are many other titles available in the marketing dissertation collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.
E-Marketing Strategies for Changing Brand Perception – A Case Study of Nike
E-marketing manages to promote the product across the globe so that required market can be grabbed in a short interval of time. Academics suggest that e-Marketing strategies are found to be effective in this era as customers are more related to the technology this is why E-marketing supports in the quick expansion of product. The study is based on the case of Nike and its consumers, therefore the target respondents of the study included the consumers of the brand Nike.
In addition to this the marketing managers of Nike were also participants if the research since their views were important for evaluating the online marketing strategies used by a brand and its impact realized at the company’s end. A comparison of traditional approach and modern approach of marketing has also been presented to assess that which marketing communication channel is appropriate for an organization and what are the benefits an organization can acquire after the application of modern marketing approach. This study supports in understanding the involvement and impact of involving technology in the marketing procedures; the impact of such practices in the advancement of the sales of the firm is also stated as the scope of the study.
The assessment of the impact of E-marketing in shifting the customer’s perception is the significant fact that further supports in understanding the importance of advanced technologies in marketing. In this era, internet has become the basic tool that has been used by the customers for their daily routine affairs; internet is known as basic implement that has been expended for communication, business, shopping and other affairs. Moreover, in this study, the impact of different strategies such as emailing, text messaging and visual messaging on the consumers’ brand perception is realized through this study.
In order to conduct the research, it is important to create some objectives based on which the conclusions and analysis can be made. The objectives of the research are cited below:
To study the conceptual framework of e-Marketing tools used by organizations
To highlight the use of e-Marketing by organizations to boost brand image
To analyse the impact of e-Marketing on the brand image of Nike
To present a set of recommendations to Nike on how to improve their brand image and use e-Marketing tools
1 – Introduction
Background of the Study
Scope of the Study
Motivation of the study
Outline of the study
2 – Literature Review
Concept of E-Marketing
Traditional Marketing in contrast with E-Marketing
Framework of E-marketing Tools and Techniques
Strategies of E-Marketing
Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Marketing
Brand Perception of Customers
E-Marketing and Brand Image Integration
Benefits of E-Marketing and Brand Image Integration
3 – Methodology
Customers’ brand Perception
Visual illustration of text message
Means for social sharing
The Variables and Measurements
Sampling and Data
Description of Data
Data Collection Instruments
Techniques for Data Analysis
4 – Data Analysis
Descriptive Frequency Analysis
5 – Discussion
6 – Conclusion
Findings of the Study
Area of Future Studies
Limitations of the research
I hope you enjoyed reading this post on E-Marketing Strategies for Changing Brand Perception and how it affects Nike. There are many other titles available in the marketing dissertation collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.
Direct marketing is a combination of methods that facilitates marketing of goods and services by an organization directly to customers (business-to-customers or B2C). It is an active method of marketing that takes the item and services to probable customers instead of sitting tight for them to go to a store or other areas e of access. It is a type of ‘non-stop’ shopping and is once in a while alluded to as ‘exactness marketing’ or ‘one on one’ advertising. As opposed to the advertising firm conveying a general correspondence or sales message to a substantial gathering of potential customers, regardless of the fact that these constitute a very much characterized market area, direct marketing tends to target particular people or households (Dobkin, 2007). In a business-to-business (B2B) setting this would be an individual or a particular association or firm.
Direct marketing is a direct communication to a customer that is designed to create a feedback in the form of a direct request, a demand for more information or a visit the business places to buy a specific goods or services. It put emphasis on face to face marketing communication. It can also be said to be a process that is an interactive system of promotion that uses one or more promotion media to influence the response of the customer and transaction at any location. Its goal is the provision of information to customers about their taste and needs.
Direct marketing is not simply concerned with marketing correspondences. It is likewise concerned with the movement of goods and services. In utilizing direct marketing, the firm is settling on a decision to remove the utilization of marketing agents and offer the goods and services direct to consumers (Ellsworth, 2009). This has implications for both channels of circulation and logistical choices.
Direct has many forms. It is one of the quickest developing areas of advertising and is being accelerated by specialized advances, especially in the field of computer innovation (Ellsworth, 2009). Scholars and experts have brought up direct marketing with excitement and have driven the subject forward both mentally and for all intents and purposes.
Growth of Direct Marketing
Direct marketing is not new since many organizations have sold items direct to general society for a considerable length of time e.g. Kleeneze and Avon, who have sold items door to door for a long time. (Ellsworth, 2007) Regular postal mail through the post and mail request catalogs have been used for quite a while and all are types of direct marketing. Direct marketing started in the mid-1900s, and the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) was built up in the USA in the year 1917. Direct marketing turned into an imperative power in the UK in the 1950s, however at this phase of its advancement it was concerned with post office based mail, mail request and door to individual door offering. Today the extent of direct marketing has extended significantly to a great extent because of the utilization of the phone and specifically the utilization of the Internet (Ellsworth, 2009). Direct marketing incorporates all advertising interchanges components that permit an association to correspond directly with a prospect. This incorporates standard mail, phone advertising, direct feedback promotion, door to individual door offering and the Internet.
Party arrangement organizations have been offering items direct to consumers in individuals’ homes for a long time. The phone has been utilized for B2B deals for quite a while especially for the recovery of “scheduled” requests and for making deals arrangements. It is presently being utilized progressively as a part of local direct advertising programs regularly to ‘follow up’ a posted customized mail shot. Motoring associations, for example, the RAC and AA in the UK, have utilized direct individual offering for a considerable length of time to offer membership of their organization and today utilize post office based mail broadly to keep individuals educated about the item and the benefit of the service (Ellsworth, 2009). Nonetheless, as it has already been said, direct marketing has developed with the advances in computer innovation. The utilization of computers to store, recover and control client data has revolutionized the way direct marketing firms work. Direct advertising firms can make utilization of the Internet and systems databases which permits them to get to information “warehouses” and gives them the capacity to sort and total or “wire” information to build its worth as a marketing asset.
Objectives of Direct Marketing
Much of direct marketing actions are expected to subject to sales. However, in a few circumstances a Direct sale may be impossible or inappropriate. In such cases some other type of quantifiable responses may be utilized. For instance, a direct mail campaign and a phone marketing system may be utilized as a part of the engineering business to welcome and urge purchasers to go to a machine tool display. A flyer drop for double glazing may contain a free telephone number for the prospect to ask for a leaflet or evaluation. The outcome may not be a sale, but rather some particular, quantifiable activity that will ideally add to an extreme sale. In spite of the fact that a sale may not be the quick target of a direct marketing effort, some direct responses for the benefit of the beneficiary of the message will be (Ellsworth, 2009). Hence, this will add to the possible sale. Thus, direct marketing is not the same as direct sales. It may be utilized to keep customers educated of new item improvements or to send them particular discount offers.
Strategic Role of Direct Marketing
Direct Marketing ought not to be utilized as a simple strategic Marketing Communications device, yet should be incorporated with whatever remains of the communication blend. All promoting communication components interface to some degree. (Ellsworth, 2007) Direct Marketing is prone to frame a noteworthy piece of Communication Strategy of numerous organizations and not just shape a sort of strategic adjunct. Different types of communication are prone to be utilized as a part of conjunction with Direct Marketing Programs regardless of the fact that these are just broad corporate promoting programs. Numerous organizations utilize direct marketing overwhelmingly, however not to the rejection of other communication systems. Direct marketing is regularly utilized as a major aspect of incorporated customer relationship management (CRM) programs. CRM projects are by their tendency long haul and key in nature.
Phases of Direct Marketing
The following are the steps that need to be undertaken when performing a direct marketing to customers (Ellsworth, 2009):
The imaginative stage and design stage, where the plan to market is developed, and relevant channels of communication are selected.
Data collection, where both inner information, for example, customer records and outside information from a database of the organization or rundown broker is gathered in planning for the stage three in the project
Database organization, where data is ‘mined’, ‘melded’, collected or disaggregated, improved and institutionalized for use in the system
Database examination, or satisfactory tuning the database that further spotlights on an ideal target market
Implementation and completion where client request and orders are followed up on and data on response rates are gathered from definite post program examination
Response examination where the aftereffects of the campaign are inspected for viability before the cycle starts once more
Direct Marketing Media
While numerous individuals partner direct marketing with direct mail, direct mail is one of a few promoting media used by direct marketers. Other major direct advertising media incorporate the phone, magazines, daily papers, TV, and radio. New innovative improvements are giving direct advertisers an extended scope of decisions from video cassettes to home-shopping systems, interactive TV as well as the Internet.
Direct mail is the most vigorously utilized direct advertising medium and the one most direct advertisers learn first. Direct mail has been utilized to offer a wide assortment of products and administrations to buyers and additional organizations, and it keeps on developing in spite of postage increments. Direct mail offers a few points of interest over other media, including selectivity, personalization, adaptability, and test-ability. It permits organizations to target people with known buy histories or specific psychographic or demographic attributes that match the advertiser’s customer profile. Direct mail can be focused on a particular geographic territory given postal districts or other geographic variables. (Ellsworth, 2009) Personalization in the Direct mail means not just addressing the envelope to a man or family by name, additionally maybe including the beneficiary’s name inside the envelope.
Direct mail bundles come in all shapes and sizes, making it a standout among the most adaptable of the direct advertising media. A standard regular postal mail bundle incorporates an envelope, a letter, a handout, and a response gadget. The envelope’s occupation is to inspire the beneficiary to open the package. Despite the volume of mail, a man gets, the envelope must separate itself from other mail by its size, appearance, and any duplicate that may be composed on it (Ellsworth, 2007). The letter is a direct mail advertisement and gives the chance to address the intrigues and worries of the beneficiary straightforwardly. The letter normally spells out the advantages of the offer in the subtle element. While the letter informs the beneficiary concerning the advantages of the offer, the pamphlet shows them. Delineated pamphlets are utilized to offer administrations and, also, items. At last, the bundle must incorporate a response gadget, for example, an answer business card, that the beneficiary can send back. Response rates are for the most part higher when the response gadget is partitioned from, (Ellsworth, 2009) instead of a portion of, the pamphlet or letter. Without toll numbers are regularly conspicuously shown to permit the beneficiary to respond using the phone.
Direct mail is the most effectively tried publicizing medium. Each variable in fruitful direct advertising—the right offer, the correct individual, the right configuration, and the right timing—can be tried in standard mail. Computer advancements have made it simpler to choose a randomized name test from any rundown, with the goal that mailers can run a test mailing to decide the response from a rundown before “taking off,” or mailing, the whole rundown. Distinctive bundles containing diverse offers can likewise be tried. (Ellsworth, 2009) Other media permit some level of testing; however regular postal mail is the most advanced. In connection with the next direct advertising media, Direct mail is considered to offer the most financially savvy method for accomplishing the most noteworthy conceivable response. Telemarketing ordinarily creates a higher response rate, however at a much higher expense for each respond
Telephone-Based Direct Marketing
The utilization of the phone in direct marketing has developed drastically in the course of recent two decades. Users now may be equivalent, or even surpass, those of direct mail. Telemarketing may be outbound and inbound. Inbound telemarketing is called the servicing and more often includes taking requests and responding to request. Outbound telemarketing for purchasers may be utilized for one-stage offering, lead capability, and offering and overhauling bigger and more dynamic clients. In business, telemarketing can be utilized to reach littler records that don’t warrant an individual deals call and additionally to create, qualify, and catch up leads.
Telemarketing has the benefits of being close to home and intelligent. (Ellsworth, 2009)It is a successful two-way correspondences medium that empowers organization delegates to listen to clients. Phone sales representatives normally work from a script, yet the medium permits the adaptability of updating the script as required. It likewise considers up-and cross-offering. While clients are on the telephone, it is conceivable to build the measure of their requests by offering them extra decisions—something that tends to prompt perplexity in other direct marketing media.
Telemarketing likewise has its impediments. For instance, it is costlier than regular postal mail. It additionally does not have a changeless response gadget that the prospect can set aside or utilize later. It is not a visual medium—however, the innovation to make it one may soon be accessible. At long last, it is seen as meddling, producing buyer grumblings that have prompted authoritative activities to direct the telemarketing business.
Direct responses print promotions in magazines must make a positive offer or demand that requests that the reader accomplishes something. Normally, such promotions require a reader to send in a coupon or answer card or call a without toll number. With well more than 2,000 purchase magazines now being distributed, magazine promotions permit direct advertisers to achieve groups of onlookers with identifiable hobbies. (Ellsworth, 2009)Notwithstanding publicizing vigorously in extraordinary premium magazines, direct advertisers use mass buyer magazines and exploit provincial promoting space to target particular gatherings of people.
Dissimilar to general publicists, who measure the viability of their print advertisements regarding span and recurrence, direct advertisers measure the adequacy of their print promotions as far as expense viability—either cost-per-request or cost-per-request. Magazine advertisements offer the upsides of good shading proliferation, a moderately long notice life (particularly contrasted with every day daily papers), and a lower expense. Imaginative expenses for magazine advertisements are additionally generally lower than for regular postal mail. (Dobkin,2007) Be that as it may, coordinate advertisers locate magazines’ long lead times, slower response, and scarcer space than standard mail to be a drawback.
While Direct Marketers publicize in magazines more than daily papers, daily papers have some distinctive focal points. These incorporate the assortment of areas offered inside of a daily paper, shorter shutting dates, a prompt response, and expansive scope of a substantial and different crowd. (Dobkin,2007) Weaknesses incorporate poor advertisement multiplication and the constrained accessibility of shading. Article substance can likewise have a greater amount of an antagonistic impact on promotion response than in magazines. Notwithstanding promoting in the general pages of a daily paper, direct advertisers additionally publicize in unattached supplements (FSIs) that are normally dispersed with the Sunday releases of daily papers.
Direct Marketing on TV is expanding. Early cases of direct responses promotions on TV that ought to be well known to viewers incorporate those for blades, garden equipment’s, exercise gear, records, and books, which request that viewers bring in and request a particular item. Later advancements in direct response TV publicizing incorporate an arrival to a lengthier arrangement, regularly known as the infomercial, where an item or another offer is clarified in some point of interest over a period stretching out to 30 minutes or more. (Dobkin, 2007). Advocates of this arrangement point out that the most noteworthy length gives the promoter the chance to construct an association with the viewer and overcome introductory viewer suspicion, and in the meantime exhibit a persuading story spelling out item components and advantages in the subtle element.
Direct Marketing Lists and Databases
Lists are regularly utilized as a part of direct mail and telemarketing. The two essential sorts of records are response records and assembled records. Response records contain the names of the considerable number of prospects who have responded to the same offer. These people ordinarily share a typical hobby. (Dobkin, 2007) Names on a response rundown may incorporate purchasers, inquirers, supporters, progression club individuals, or sweepstakes participants. They may have responded to an offer from one of a few media, including post office based mail, TV, or a print notice. Response records are not as a rule leased; rather, they are an in-house rundown accumulated by a specific business. Gathered records are regularly leased by direct advertisers. Aggregated mass buyer, a specific customer, and business records are accessible for an extensive variety of hobbies.
Direct promoting databases are like mailing records in that they contain names and addresses, yet they go much further. They are the storehouse of an extensive variety of client data and may likewise contain psychographic, demographic, and registration information accumulated from outside sources. They frame the premise of direct promoting projects whereby organizations set up closer ties with their clients.
Database marketing got to be one of the popular expressions of the direct promoting industry in the 1980s, and it has kept on advancing in the twenty-first century (Dobkin, 2007). Whether it is called relationship marketing, significance promoting, or holding, the normal topic of database advertising is reinforcing associations with existing clients and building associations with new ones. Databases permit direct advertisers to reveal an abundance of pertinent data about individual buyers and apply that information to build the likelihood of a fancied response or buy.
Similarly, as with mailing records, there are two fundamental sorts of advertising databases, client databases, and outside databases. Client databases are ordered inside and contain data around an organization’s clients taken from the relationship-building procedure. Outer databases are accumulations of particular people and their qualities. These outside databases may be mass-ordered from open information sources; they may contain monetary information given private credit records; they may be aggregated from surveys; or they may be a blend of every one of the three sources.
Database Marketing, and particularly the possibility of utilizing private data for advertising purposes, has made security a vital issue in the Direct marketing industry. (Ellsworth, 2007) A few states have passed enactment constraining access to already open information or restricting the utilization of such information as car enrollments, records as a consumer, and medicinal data. The Direct advertising industry has endeavored to act naturally policing as to the utilization of touchy information. On the other hand, the battle between industry self-regulation and government regulation will most likely proceed for quite a while.
Advantages of Direct Marketing
Traceability and Quantifiable of marketing Viability
Direct Marketers offer the reached clients (potential or genuine) the chance to respond to the promoting communication, more often in a given period. (Nash, 2000) This helps advertisers to track the response rate and response classification (positive or negative) and get a ready examination, given which they can adjust or streamline their marketing endeavors and correspondence for better results in future.
Well organized approaches
Direct Marketing includes getting ready and keeping up a client database. (Nash, 2000) A database characterizes the objective portion into a limited gathering and every person in this limited gathering is spoken with through individual and direct correspondence stations, for example, phone, content, voice message, door-to-door correspondence, and so on. (Ellsworth, 2007)As it were, direct advertisers get a closer brush with their clients and in keeping their databases upgraded and staying in contact with their clients, such advertisers have a superior shot at altering their correspondence and conveying significant offers to just those clients who are well on the way to profit by it.
Less demanding Campaigns
Most direct marketing effort and correspondence are simpler and modest to plan and make. (Nash, 2000) Direct marketing channels, for example, messages and content additionally make making the correspondence snappier and less expensive contrasted with setting up gigantic hoardings and paying truckloads of money for notices that could conceivably be seen or heard by the intended interest group. This additionally makes it simpler for direct advertisers to dispatch test battles in new markets or sections as the expense and hazard are significantly lower.
Disadvantages of Direct Marketing
Hard to gain information vital to getting client database ready
While a client database is the spine of direct advertising and its vicinity is one of its greatest points of interest, obtaining such information may be a mammoth undertaking. (Nash, 2000) Not everybody may to take an interest in the business sector and client reviews and give out their own and expert points of interest. Additionally, information merchants and administrations that offer caught client information to advertisers likewise charge a high cost to part with such information. Along these lines, the introductory production of a database may be a significant tough assignment for an advertiser. Clients dislike nosy correspondence.
This is an undeniable disadvantage of direct promoting. Many people don’t like their inboxes, phone message boxes and cell phones to be overwhelmed with advertising and limited time content. (Nash, 2000) To cure this, individuals frequently utilize email and phone message channels and the advertiser’s correspondence either land straight in the SPAM envelope or gets erased without being opened by the focused on the client.
While having a limited characterized gathering of target clients acts as a preference from multiple points of view by centering marketing efforts, this can likewise be a prohibitive component insomuch as the advertisers achieve stays constrained. (Nash, 2000) In spite of database overhauls and expansion of new clients, the scope of direct advertising can never touch the range of mass marketing routines.
Environment and Law
Different nations have laws against spamming and littering. (Nash, 2000) Direct advertising correspondence as flyers and flyers are inefficient practices as they advance lingering and utilization of paper.
Direct Marketing costs a great deal more than general purchaser media to achieve one thousand gathering of people individuals. Be that as it may, it is imperative not to judge direct advertising on the premise of a rough CPT correlation with other media. Keep in mind that direct ways to deal with individual buyers empower messages to be focused with noteworthy exactness, guaranteeing that the advancement goes just to those individuals well on the way to be keen on the substance of the message. (Ellsworth, 2007)This alone ought to be sufficient to raise doubt about the value of CPT correlations in assessing direct marketing.
Direct Media additionally convey publicizing messages and offering chances to potential buyers in the solace of their homes’. Responses are simple; generally, the buyer makes a phone call. At the point when direct channels are utilized, the messages have negligible competition for the shopper’s consideration from other promotions, the timing can be exactly controlled, and contenders will be less mindful of the crusade. However, most basic examination of media performance is the measure of response it creates.
In general consumer advertising, it is regularly hard to attribute battle results with total sureness to the publicizing, because different components may have been grinding away in any deliberate change, whether that is enhanced deals or expanded attention to an item on the objective business sector.
With Direct Marketing, contending media can be all the more surveyed for their adequacy by measuring the accurate level of response that they fortify. Here the measure is not the expense of coming to one thousand individuals from the gathering of people, yet the expense of getting only one of them to respond in the fancied way
Direct Marketing is a branch of advertising that has experienced fast development and mechanical change in the course of recent years. It is a vital marketing procedure, and a few associations construct their whole advertising methodology in light of direct promoting routines. (Ellsworth, 2007) Around the world, the Direct Marketing industry is enormous. As firms look to methods for getting more esteem from advertising spending plans, direct promoting is liable to wind up considerably more grounded later on. Direct promoting alludes to a gathering of techniques that permits organizations to correspond with, and get a Direct response, from prospects. It permits firms to target clients more decisively than traditional non-direct marketing procedures and is alluded to as exactness promoting.
Direct advertising procedures are continually being enhanced, and created, and new imaginative media are prone to be produced later on (Ellsworth, 2007). At present, the fundamental strategies utilized inside of the direct marketing industry are the utilization of the phone, regular postal mail, the web, direct ‘eye to eye’ individual offering and direct response publicizing utilizing TV, radio and daily papers, exchange diaries and magazines. The business is being driven by a craving for more noteworthy precision and economy in promoting operations and by advancements in IT that can be connected to direct marketing. Database promoting specifically has reformed the way associations utilize direct marketing and has expanded effectiveness in ranges like post office based mail and phone advertising. Direct advertising is not exclusively determined by IT. (Ellsworth, 2007) Some conventional strategies that were utilized as a part of 1917 when the Direct Marketing Association was established in the USA are as yet being utilized effectively, especially eye to eye direct individual offering. (Ellsworth, 2007) On the other hand, these strategies have profited from the data upheaval regarding recovery of client data and enhanced focusing on. Direct marketing is a noteworthy power inside of promoting and is prone to increment in future.
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Tesco is a multinational grocery and general merchandize retailer which is based and has its origin in the United Kingdom. The organization is the third largest retailer in the world with a global presence in more than 12 countries. The United Kingdom is the main market for the organization which has been successful because of its brand reputation and image. The organization offers products and services which are according to the customers’ preferences. Tesco has been able to create a dynamic business strategy which is based upon meeting the needs of customer segments. It conducts extensive market analysis as a means of ensuring the highest levels of efficiency and effectiveness (Blythe, 2006). It has a product diversification strategy as it has transformed itself from a food retailer to offer non-food products and services like beauty products, consumer electronics, DVDs, financial and insurance services. Tesco has also been successful because it employs technology for its robust business activities. Tesco.com is one of the highest successful online shopping portals in the United Kingdom. Technology is being used to integrate and streamline business operations and achieve operational excellence. The success of Tesco has been its ability to make accurate forecasts. Tesco needs to pursue an aggressive internationalization strategy by targeting new markets. China is a potential market which can help to achieve its business goals. This proposal will seek to elucidate the importance of penetrating the Chinese market.
Globalization has been a powerful social and economic force which has a profound influence on the business environment of the twenty first century. The creation of a single market has led to the development of numerous opportunities for organizations as they strive to focus on emerging economies (Beamish & Ashford, 2008: p. 76).Moreover, the nature of globalization is such that there is an emphasis on remaining profitable by taking advantage of the opportunities that specific markets offer. Globalization creates intense competition which can lead companies to reduce their costs and improve their products. Organizations under competition have to perform at optimum levels by offering superior products and services. Technological adaptation is another byproduct of this phenomenon as it can help to streamline and automate the key processes. This has further increased competition among international corporations and has allowed them to expand their businesses across the globe. In the supermarket industry, international companies such as Tesco and Walmart are some of the prominent names that have successfully expanded their businesses internationally. These expansions allow organizations to increase their presence in the market, sustain competitive advantage, generate revenues and win loyalties of customers(Blythe, 2006, Beamish & Ashford, 2008, Darwar& Chattopadhay, 2012). Their marketing strategy is based on meeting consumer demands and ensuring that they adapt within the market they operate.
The production and manufacturing capabilities of organizations are enhanced when they take advantage of low labor rates in developing countries. The results are that production costs are reduced while selling products at competitive rates which in turn can increase the market share of the organizations (Darwar& Chattopadhay, 2012, Doyle & Stern, 2006). Organizations seeking to penetrate international markets strive to increase the value of their products and services while striving to reduce the cost base (Cravens & Piercy, 2006: p. 34).The external and internal variables can play a key role in the performance of organizations as they move into international markets. Organizations must be able to have access to technology, labor, capital, logistics, and infrastructure in order to succeed. The goal of conducting business in international markets is essential since any organization that fails to penetrate markets will witness a reduction in its competitive advantages.
The huge size of the international markets means that potential customers are living abroad. Moreover, the failure to penetrate international markets means that organizations will be unable to enhance their customer loyalty and brand recognition. Serving multiple markets in a seamless fashion is important part of success. Empirical studies have sought to identify the critical success factors which enable organizations to penetrate international markets (Haji-Basri, 2012, Levy, 2012). Firstly, organizations are able to select the best market entry mode which is according to their expertise and experience. The market entry mode should be based upon conducting research of the market in an efficient and effective manner. This is important because competitors’ analysis and customers’ behaviors can help the organization in understanding the needs of the market environment.
Secondly, organizations must be willing to leverage their core competencies in such a manner that they are able to reduce costs and improve profits. A global business strategy should be customized in accordance with the conditions of the market. Adaptation to the local market means that the organization is able to create a customized marketing strategy (Doole & Lowe, 2005: p. 76).Thirdly, the organization must be able to implement innovation at multiple levels. This approach is beneficial since it will help the organization to attain strategic competitive success. Finally, it is important for organizations to develop the robust frameworks that can enable them to create flexible, agile, and scalable business structures (Doyle & Stern, 2006: p. 93).The use of multiple strategies is important for success as it will lead to long term innovation that will benefit the entire organization.
Research is defined as the process of investigating new phenomenon and validating existing theories and frameworks. It seeks to understand the theoretical assumptions behind specific studies by challenging them or modifying them. Selecting the appropriate research methodology is important part of the process. Primary research for this report will be carried out through a questionnaire which will be emailed to the business unit managers of Tesco. The benefits of primary research are that it enables the researcher to directly participate in the process. Moreover, the results can be quickly obtained through the questionnaire method. This method can save significant time. Secondary research for this report will be carried out through the systematic analysis of existing studies related to marketing and global business. Specifically, the studies will be selected based upon their relevance, reliability, and authenticity.
Secondary research is beneficial in many ways. Firstly, it helps to reduce time as existing studies can be employed for success. Secondly, it uses the vast literature in order to create a theoretical framework which can be beneficial in answering the research aims and questions of the report. Thirdly, secondary research helps the researcher to have access to resources in an efficient manner which will be used to solve the research problems (Levy, 2012).
Organizational Strategy and Market Characteristics
Empirical studies have found evidence that grocery sales in China are estimated to be around £600 billion in the year 2013 (Zhao, 2014: p. 184). There are 221 cities in the country which will witness an increase in population by the year 2025 (Zhao, 2014: p. 184). Moreover, urban dwellers are the largest customer segments which offer significant market potential for organizations like Tesco. Shopping malls are now popular places for supermarkets. The impressive standards of living among the middle class have enabled Chinese customers to focus on higher quality of life. This creates superior business opportunities for organizations like Tesco that are working in the retail market. Household spending on healthcare, transportation, and telecom services have doubled as compared with the last decade. The indicators prove that the customer segments have disposable incomes that allow discretionary spending. Tesco’s strategy in China can be based upon its key competitive advantages (Tesco PLC, 2014).
Branding and reputation are the key attributes of the organization which helps it to achieve core strategic advantage. Careful branded packaging and promotion can generate excellence value for Chinese customers (Zhao, 2014: p. 184).Supply chain management and logistics in China should be able to respond to the dynamic and complex environment by enabling Tesco’s management to make accurate forecasts. Technology can be used to maintain inventory and assess business transactions. This will help the management to make forecasts about the entire environment through the use of innovation and creativity (Levy, 2012). ICT technologies can help the organization to play a critical role in business strategy formulation. Creating value for customers and offering products that are difficult to emulate can be the core strategies in China provided Tesco is able to understand the dynamics of the market.
Tesco has transformed itself into an international retailer that sells food, clothing, household products, banking services, and others. The traditional market of the company has been the United Kingdom but in the past ten years, it has sought to expand into different international markets. International expansion is considered to be vital for the growth of the company as it helps to diversify income streams and enables it to take the advantages of globalization by using an efficient and effective marketing strategy (Zhao, 2014: p. 184).The competitive strength of Tesco is that it is the third largest international retailer in the world. The growth rate annually has been projected to be around 12% since the past decade. Strong partnerships with suppliers and other partners help the company to offer products and services in different markets. An effective supply chain management system helps the organization to manage its operations in a lean and flexible manner.
The international expansion strategy of the company remains weak as compared with that of its competitors. Product diversification is a weakness because the profitability can be impacted because of bad debt from credit cards. Tesco has inexperience in certain growing markets like smart phones and tablet PCs. New web technologies and IT require investments which can streamline and automate the core processes (Imrie & Dolton, 2014: p. 84).
There are different opportunities for Tesco which can move into various product categories like digital entertainment, smart phones, and tablet PCs. Foreign markets like China, Malaysia, South Korea, and others offer significant business potential for the entire organization. Online shopping can be enhanced as a means of ensuring robust success within a short period of time. Increasing value proposition for existing and new customer segments can be a beneficial strategy by the organization as it can lead to the highest levels of efficiency and effectiveness (Tesco PLC, 2014).
Tesco can face significant threats from local and international competitors. Furthermore, the economic recession has reduced the spending power of customers which means that there can be a reduced profitability for non-food products and services. International expansion is a good option for Tesco but each country has different levels of regulation and laws which must be complied by international organizations in order to achieve critical success within a short period of time (Imrie & Dolton, 2014: p. 84).
The political factors inside any country can be related to taxes, legislation, and country stability. China is a rapidly emerging economy which has pursued investor friendly business policies. There is an increased demand for retailers which can help to create jobs for the local population and improve the local economy. The Chinese government is authoritarian in nature but it has been pragmatic enough to pursue policies which can help it to remain integrated with the overall global markets (Dowling, 2006: p. 91). Political stability in China is relatively high which offers a congenial environment for foreign investment. This is important because it helps to ensure the highest levels of efficiency and effectiveness.
The economic factors are concerned with the costs, profits, and prices that a company must take into consideration while operating in a foreign market. The goal of the company should be to conduct an internal and external analysis which can be used to understand the dynamics of the market. China’s rising middle class enjoys highly disposable incomes which makes them one of the largest customer segments in the world (Ferrell & Hartline, 2007: p. 98).Furthermore, the middle class has awareness and perception regarding foreign brands which is considered to be part of their affluent lifestyle.
Social factors exert a profound influence on the purchasing behaviors of customers. Tesco needs to take into account the social and demographic changes which have taken place in China in order to formulate a robust and dynamic strategy for change (Hooley & Piercy, 2008: p. 123). The goal should be to create efficient and effective approaches which can be used to penetrate the market. Food and non-food items can be introduced in the Chinese market in accordance with the dynamics of the market. Customers in China have high levels of awareness and perception regarding foreign products.
Operating in any market means that companies should be able to focus on operational excellence and competitive advantage. Technology helps to achieve this critical goal with the focus on achieving long term market share. The goals of companies like Tesco should be to make investments in technology which result in efficient business processes and help to provide real time data to the management which can be used in the decision making processes. Outlets should employ technology to reduce waiting time for customers. RFID can be employed for inventory management. Communication systems can be used to link main office with various outlets for making decisions and obtaining real time information (Hooley & Piercy, 2008: p. 123).The use of an integrated strategy can help to accomplish the critical goals within a short period of time.
Tesco is the third largest retailer in the world which has been achieved because of its core competencies. The core competencies of the organization have included the ability to successfully develop a core business model that is flexible and adaptable in accordance with the competitive nature of global markets. Strategy formulation in Tesco is based upon the use of market research which helps to achieve efficiency and effectiveness. A complete internal and external analysis is conducted by the organization in order to achieve its critical targets within a short period of time. Tesco’s strategic growth model seeks to focus on cost and product differentiation as mixed strategies that enable future growth and development. China is an attractive market for internationalization because it will help Tesco to take advantage of the business opportunities. China’s middle class segments have increased with highly disposable incomes. Moreover, Chinese customers are spending on clothes, luxury products, healthcare, and others as part of the drive to improve their quality of life. This helps to ensure the success of the retail market. Tesco can take advantage of the Chinese market by using a systematic and calculated approach. It needs to use its core competencies which can be adapted in accordance with the local market conditions. Moreover, it needs to focus on using its core competencies as a means of ensuring the highest levels of success within a short period of time. Technology can be used to maintain inventory and assess business transactions. This will help the management to make forecasts about the entire environment through the use of innovation and creativity. ICT technologies can help the organization to play a critical role in business strategy formulation. Creating value for customers and offering products that are difficult to emulate can be the core strategies in China provided Tesco is able to understand the dynamics of the market.
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