E-Marketing Strategies for Changing Brand Perception – A Case Study of Nike
E-marketing manages to promote the product across the globe so that required market can be grabbed in a short interval of time. Academics suggest that e-Marketing strategies are found to be effective in this era as customers are more related to the technology this is why E-marketing supports in the quick expansion of product. The study is based on the case of Nike and its consumers, therefore the target respondents of the study included the consumers of the brand Nike.
In addition to this the marketing managers of Nike were also participants if the research since their views were important for evaluating the online marketing strategies used by a brand and its impact realized at the company’s end. A comparison of traditional approach and modern approach of marketing has also been presented to assess that which marketing communication channel is appropriate for an organization and what are the benefits an organization can acquire after the application of modern marketing approach. This study supports in understanding the involvement and impact of involving technology in the marketing procedures; the impact of such practices in the advancement of the sales of the firm is also stated as the scope of the study.
The assessment of the impact of E-marketing in shifting the customer’s perception is the significant fact that further supports in understanding the importance of advanced technologies in marketing. In this era, internet has become the basic tool that has been used by the customers for their daily routine affairs; internet is known as basic implement that has been expended for communication, business, shopping and other affairs. Moreover, in this study, the impact of different strategies such as emailing, text messaging and visual messaging on the consumers’ brand perception is realized through this study.
In order to conduct the research, it is important to create some objectives based on which the conclusions and analysis can be made. The objectives of the research are cited below:
To study the conceptual framework of e-Marketing tools used by organizations
To highlight the use of e-Marketing by organizations to boost brand image
To analyse the impact of e-Marketing on the brand image of Nike
To present a set of recommendations to Nike on how to improve their brand image and use e-Marketing tools
1 – Introduction
Background of the Study
Scope of the Study
Motivation of the study
Outline of the study
2 – Literature Review
Concept of E-Marketing
Traditional Marketing in contrast with E-Marketing
Framework of E-marketing Tools and Techniques
Strategies of E-Marketing
Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Marketing
Brand Perception of Customers
E-Marketing and Brand Image Integration
Benefits of E-Marketing and Brand Image Integration
3 – Methodology
Customers’ brand Perception
Visual illustration of text message
Means for social sharing
The Variables and Measurements
Sampling and Data
Description of Data
Data Collection Instruments
Techniques for Data Analysis
4 – Data Analysis
Descriptive Frequency Analysis
5 – Discussion
6 – Conclusion
Findings of the Study
Area of Future Studies
Limitations of the research
I hope you enjoyed reading this post on E-Marketing Strategies for Changing Brand Perception and how it affects Nike. There are many other titles available in the marketing dissertation collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.
Direct marketing is a combination of methods that facilitates marketing of goods and services by an organization directly to customers (business-to-customers or B2C). It is an active method of marketing that takes the item and services to probable customers instead of sitting tight for them to go to a store or other areas e of access. It is a type of ‘non-stop’ shopping and is once in a while alluded to as ‘exactness marketing’ or ‘one on one’ advertising. As opposed to the advertising firm conveying a general correspondence or sales message to a substantial gathering of potential customers, regardless of the fact that these constitute a very much characterized market area, direct marketing tends to target particular people or households (Dobkin, 2007). In a business-to-business (B2B) setting this would be an individual or a particular association or firm.
Direct marketing is a direct communication to a customer that is designed to create a feedback in the form of a direct request, a demand for more information or a visit the business places to buy a specific goods or services. It put emphasis on face to face marketing communication. It can also be said to be a process that is an interactive system of promotion that uses one or more promotion media to influence the response of the customer and transaction at any location. Its goal is the provision of information to customers about their taste and needs.
Direct marketing is not simply concerned with marketing correspondences. It is likewise concerned with the movement of goods and services. In utilizing direct marketing, the firm is settling on a decision to remove the utilization of marketing agents and offer the goods and services direct to consumers (Ellsworth, 2009). This has implications for both channels of circulation and logistical choices.
Direct has many forms. It is one of the quickest developing areas of advertising and is being accelerated by specialized advances, especially in the field of computer innovation (Ellsworth, 2009). Scholars and experts have brought up direct marketing with excitement and have driven the subject forward both mentally and for all intents and purposes.
Growth of Direct Marketing
Direct marketing is not new since many organizations have sold items direct to general society for a considerable length of time e.g. Kleeneze and Avon, who have sold items door to door for a long time. (Ellsworth, 2007) Regular postal mail through the post and mail request catalogs have been used for quite a while and all are types of direct marketing. Direct marketing started in the mid-1900s, and the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) was built up in the USA in the year 1917. Direct marketing turned into an imperative power in the UK in the 1950s, however at this phase of its advancement it was concerned with post office based mail, mail request and door to individual door offering. Today the extent of direct marketing has extended significantly to a great extent because of the utilization of the phone and specifically the utilization of the Internet (Ellsworth, 2009). Direct marketing incorporates all advertising interchanges components that permit an association to correspond directly with a prospect. This incorporates standard mail, phone advertising, direct feedback promotion, door to individual door offering and the Internet.
Party arrangement organizations have been offering items direct to consumers in individuals’ homes for a long time. The phone has been utilized for B2B deals for quite a while especially for the recovery of “scheduled” requests and for making deals arrangements. It is presently being utilized progressively as a part of local direct advertising programs regularly to ‘follow up’ a posted customized mail shot. Motoring associations, for example, the RAC and AA in the UK, have utilized direct individual offering for a considerable length of time to offer membership of their organization and today utilize post office based mail broadly to keep individuals educated about the item and the benefit of the service (Ellsworth, 2009). Nonetheless, as it has already been said, direct marketing has developed with the advances in computer innovation. The utilization of computers to store, recover and control client data has revolutionized the way direct marketing firms work. Direct advertising firms can make utilization of the Internet and systems databases which permits them to get to information “warehouses” and gives them the capacity to sort and total or “wire” information to build its worth as a marketing asset.
Objectives of Direct Marketing
Much of direct marketing actions are expected to subject to sales. However, in a few circumstances a Direct sale may be impossible or inappropriate. In such cases some other type of quantifiable responses may be utilized. For instance, a direct mail campaign and a phone marketing system may be utilized as a part of the engineering business to welcome and urge purchasers to go to a machine tool display. A flyer drop for double glazing may contain a free telephone number for the prospect to ask for a leaflet or evaluation. The outcome may not be a sale, but rather some particular, quantifiable activity that will ideally add to an extreme sale. In spite of the fact that a sale may not be the quick target of a direct marketing effort, some direct responses for the benefit of the beneficiary of the message will be (Ellsworth, 2009). Hence, this will add to the possible sale. Thus, direct marketing is not the same as direct sales. It may be utilized to keep customers educated of new item improvements or to send them particular discount offers.
Strategic Role of Direct Marketing
Direct Marketing ought not to be utilized as a simple strategic Marketing Communications device, yet should be incorporated with whatever remains of the communication blend. All promoting communication components interface to some degree. (Ellsworth, 2007) Direct Marketing is prone to frame a noteworthy piece of Communication Strategy of numerous organizations and not just shape a sort of strategic adjunct. Different types of communication are prone to be utilized as a part of conjunction with Direct Marketing Programs regardless of the fact that these are just broad corporate promoting programs. Numerous organizations utilize direct marketing overwhelmingly, however not to the rejection of other communication systems. Direct marketing is regularly utilized as a major aspect of incorporated customer relationship management (CRM) programs. CRM projects are by their tendency long haul and key in nature.
Phases of Direct Marketing
The following are the steps that need to be undertaken when performing a direct marketing to customers (Ellsworth, 2009):
The imaginative stage and design stage, where the plan to market is developed, and relevant channels of communication are selected.
Data collection, where both inner information, for example, customer records and outside information from a database of the organization or rundown broker is gathered in planning for the stage three in the project
Database organization, where data is ‘mined’, ‘melded’, collected or disaggregated, improved and institutionalized for use in the system
Database examination, or satisfactory tuning the database that further spotlights on an ideal target market
Implementation and completion where client request and orders are followed up on and data on response rates are gathered from definite post program examination
Response examination where the aftereffects of the campaign are inspected for viability before the cycle starts once more
Direct Marketing Media
While numerous individuals partner direct marketing with direct mail, direct mail is one of a few promoting media used by direct marketers. Other major direct advertising media incorporate the phone, magazines, daily papers, TV, and radio. New innovative improvements are giving direct advertisers an extended scope of decisions from video cassettes to home-shopping systems, interactive TV as well as the Internet.
Direct mail is the most vigorously utilized direct advertising medium and the one most direct advertisers learn first. Direct mail has been utilized to offer a wide assortment of products and administrations to buyers and additional organizations, and it keeps on developing in spite of postage increments. Direct mail offers a few points of interest over other media, including selectivity, personalization, adaptability, and test-ability. It permits organizations to target people with known buy histories or specific psychographic or demographic attributes that match the advertiser’s customer profile. Direct mail can be focused on a particular geographic territory given postal districts or other geographic variables. (Ellsworth, 2009) Personalization in the Direct mail means not just addressing the envelope to a man or family by name, additionally maybe including the beneficiary’s name inside the envelope.
Direct mail bundles come in all shapes and sizes, making it a standout among the most adaptable of the direct advertising media. A standard regular postal mail bundle incorporates an envelope, a letter, a handout, and a response gadget. The envelope’s occupation is to inspire the beneficiary to open the package. Despite the volume of mail, a man gets, the envelope must separate itself from other mail by its size, appearance, and any duplicate that may be composed on it (Ellsworth, 2007). The letter is a direct mail advertisement and gives the chance to address the intrigues and worries of the beneficiary straightforwardly. The letter normally spells out the advantages of the offer in the subtle element. While the letter informs the beneficiary concerning the advantages of the offer, the pamphlet shows them. Delineated pamphlets are utilized to offer administrations and, also, items. At last, the bundle must incorporate a response gadget, for example, an answer business card, that the beneficiary can send back. Response rates are for the most part higher when the response gadget is partitioned from, (Ellsworth, 2009) instead of a portion of, the pamphlet or letter. Without toll numbers are regularly conspicuously shown to permit the beneficiary to respond using the phone.
Direct mail is the most effectively tried publicizing medium. Each variable in fruitful direct advertising—the right offer, the correct individual, the right configuration, and the right timing—can be tried in standard mail. Computer advancements have made it simpler to choose a randomized name test from any rundown, with the goal that mailers can run a test mailing to decide the response from a rundown before “taking off,” or mailing, the whole rundown. Distinctive bundles containing diverse offers can likewise be tried. (Ellsworth, 2009) Other media permit some level of testing; however regular postal mail is the most advanced. In connection with the next direct advertising media, Direct mail is considered to offer the most financially savvy method for accomplishing the most noteworthy conceivable response. Telemarketing ordinarily creates a higher response rate, however at a much higher expense for each respond
Telephone-Based Direct Marketing
The utilization of the phone in direct marketing has developed drastically in the course of recent two decades. Users now may be equivalent, or even surpass, those of direct mail. Telemarketing may be outbound and inbound. Inbound telemarketing is called the servicing and more often includes taking requests and responding to request. Outbound telemarketing for purchasers may be utilized for one-stage offering, lead capability, and offering and overhauling bigger and more dynamic clients. In business, telemarketing can be utilized to reach littler records that don’t warrant an individual deals call and additionally to create, qualify, and catch up leads.
Telemarketing has the benefits of being close to home and intelligent. (Ellsworth, 2009)It is a successful two-way correspondences medium that empowers organization delegates to listen to clients. Phone sales representatives normally work from a script, yet the medium permits the adaptability of updating the script as required. It likewise considers up-and cross-offering. While clients are on the telephone, it is conceivable to build the measure of their requests by offering them extra decisions—something that tends to prompt perplexity in other direct marketing media.
Telemarketing likewise has its impediments. For instance, it is costlier than regular postal mail. It additionally does not have a changeless response gadget that the prospect can set aside or utilize later. It is not a visual medium—however, the innovation to make it one may soon be accessible. At long last, it is seen as meddling, producing buyer grumblings that have prompted authoritative activities to direct the telemarketing business.
Direct responses print promotions in magazines must make a positive offer or demand that requests that the reader accomplishes something. Normally, such promotions require a reader to send in a coupon or answer card or call a without toll number. With well more than 2,000 purchase magazines now being distributed, magazine promotions permit direct advertisers to achieve groups of onlookers with identifiable hobbies. (Ellsworth, 2009)Notwithstanding publicizing vigorously in extraordinary premium magazines, direct advertisers use mass buyer magazines and exploit provincial promoting space to target particular gatherings of people.
Dissimilar to general publicists, who measure the viability of their print advertisements regarding span and recurrence, direct advertisers measure the adequacy of their print promotions as far as expense viability—either cost-per-request or cost-per-request. Magazine advertisements offer the upsides of good shading proliferation, a moderately long notice life (particularly contrasted with every day daily papers), and a lower expense. Imaginative expenses for magazine advertisements are additionally generally lower than for regular postal mail. (Dobkin,2007) Be that as it may, coordinate advertisers locate magazines’ long lead times, slower response, and scarcer space than standard mail to be a drawback.
While Direct Marketers publicize in magazines more than daily papers, daily papers have some distinctive focal points. These incorporate the assortment of areas offered inside of a daily paper, shorter shutting dates, a prompt response, and expansive scope of a substantial and different crowd. (Dobkin,2007) Weaknesses incorporate poor advertisement multiplication and the constrained accessibility of shading. Article substance can likewise have a greater amount of an antagonistic impact on promotion response than in magazines. Notwithstanding promoting in the general pages of a daily paper, direct advertisers additionally publicize in unattached supplements (FSIs) that are normally dispersed with the Sunday releases of daily papers.
Direct Marketing on TV is expanding. Early cases of direct responses promotions on TV that ought to be well known to viewers incorporate those for blades, garden equipment’s, exercise gear, records, and books, which request that viewers bring in and request a particular item. Later advancements in direct response TV publicizing incorporate an arrival to a lengthier arrangement, regularly known as the infomercial, where an item or another offer is clarified in some point of interest over a period stretching out to 30 minutes or more. (Dobkin, 2007). Advocates of this arrangement point out that the most noteworthy length gives the promoter the chance to construct an association with the viewer and overcome introductory viewer suspicion, and in the meantime exhibit a persuading story spelling out item components and advantages in the subtle element.
Direct Marketing Lists and Databases
Lists are regularly utilized as a part of direct mail and telemarketing. The two essential sorts of records are response records and assembled records. Response records contain the names of the considerable number of prospects who have responded to the same offer. These people ordinarily share a typical hobby. (Dobkin, 2007) Names on a response rundown may incorporate purchasers, inquirers, supporters, progression club individuals, or sweepstakes participants. They may have responded to an offer from one of a few media, including post office based mail, TV, or a print notice. Response records are not as a rule leased; rather, they are an in-house rundown accumulated by a specific business. Gathered records are regularly leased by direct advertisers. Aggregated mass buyer, a specific customer, and business records are accessible for an extensive variety of hobbies.
Direct promoting databases are like mailing records in that they contain names and addresses, yet they go much further. They are the storehouse of an extensive variety of client data and may likewise contain psychographic, demographic, and registration information accumulated from outside sources. They frame the premise of direct promoting projects whereby organizations set up closer ties with their clients.
Database marketing got to be one of the popular expressions of the direct promoting industry in the 1980s, and it has kept on advancing in the twenty-first century (Dobkin, 2007). Whether it is called relationship marketing, significance promoting, or holding, the normal topic of database advertising is reinforcing associations with existing clients and building associations with new ones. Databases permit direct advertisers to reveal an abundance of pertinent data about individual buyers and apply that information to build the likelihood of a fancied response or buy.
Similarly, as with mailing records, there are two fundamental sorts of advertising databases, client databases, and outside databases. Client databases are ordered inside and contain data around an organization’s clients taken from the relationship-building procedure. Outer databases are accumulations of particular people and their qualities. These outside databases may be mass-ordered from open information sources; they may contain monetary information given private credit records; they may be aggregated from surveys; or they may be a blend of every one of the three sources.
Database Marketing, and particularly the possibility of utilizing private data for advertising purposes, has made security a vital issue in the Direct marketing industry. (Ellsworth, 2007) A few states have passed enactment constraining access to already open information or restricting the utilization of such information as car enrollments, records as a consumer, and medicinal data. The Direct advertising industry has endeavored to act naturally policing as to the utilization of touchy information. On the other hand, the battle between industry self-regulation and government regulation will most likely proceed for quite a while.
Advantages of Direct Marketing
Traceability and Quantifiable of marketing Viability
Direct Marketers offer the reached clients (potential or genuine) the chance to respond to the promoting communication, more often in a given period. (Nash, 2000) This helps advertisers to track the response rate and response classification (positive or negative) and get a ready examination, given which they can adjust or streamline their marketing endeavors and correspondence for better results in future.
Well organized approaches
Direct Marketing includes getting ready and keeping up a client database. (Nash, 2000) A database characterizes the objective portion into a limited gathering and every person in this limited gathering is spoken with through individual and direct correspondence stations, for example, phone, content, voice message, door-to-door correspondence, and so on. (Ellsworth, 2007)As it were, direct advertisers get a closer brush with their clients and in keeping their databases upgraded and staying in contact with their clients, such advertisers have a superior shot at altering their correspondence and conveying significant offers to just those clients who are well on the way to profit by it.
Less demanding Campaigns
Most direct marketing effort and correspondence are simpler and modest to plan and make. (Nash, 2000) Direct marketing channels, for example, messages and content additionally make making the correspondence snappier and less expensive contrasted with setting up gigantic hoardings and paying truckloads of money for notices that could conceivably be seen or heard by the intended interest group. This additionally makes it simpler for direct advertisers to dispatch test battles in new markets or sections as the expense and hazard are significantly lower.
Disadvantages of Direct Marketing
Hard to gain information vital to getting client database ready
While a client database is the spine of direct advertising and its vicinity is one of its greatest points of interest, obtaining such information may be a mammoth undertaking. (Nash, 2000) Not everybody may to take an interest in the business sector and client reviews and give out their own and expert points of interest. Additionally, information merchants and administrations that offer caught client information to advertisers likewise charge a high cost to part with such information. Along these lines, the introductory production of a database may be a significant tough assignment for an advertiser. Clients dislike nosy correspondence.
This is an undeniable disadvantage of direct promoting. Many people don’t like their inboxes, phone message boxes and cell phones to be overwhelmed with advertising and limited time content. (Nash, 2000) To cure this, individuals frequently utilize email and phone message channels and the advertiser’s correspondence either land straight in the SPAM envelope or gets erased without being opened by the focused on the client.
While having a limited characterized gathering of target clients acts as a preference from multiple points of view by centering marketing efforts, this can likewise be a prohibitive component insomuch as the advertisers achieve stays constrained. (Nash, 2000) In spite of database overhauls and expansion of new clients, the scope of direct advertising can never touch the range of mass marketing routines.
Environment and Law
Different nations have laws against spamming and littering. (Nash, 2000) Direct advertising correspondence as flyers and flyers are inefficient practices as they advance lingering and utilization of paper.
Direct Marketing costs a great deal more than general purchaser media to achieve one thousand gathering of people individuals. Be that as it may, it is imperative not to judge direct advertising on the premise of a rough CPT correlation with other media. Keep in mind that direct ways to deal with individual buyers empower messages to be focused with noteworthy exactness, guaranteeing that the advancement goes just to those individuals well on the way to be keen on the substance of the message. (Ellsworth, 2007)This alone ought to be sufficient to raise doubt about the value of CPT correlations in assessing direct marketing.
Direct Media additionally convey publicizing messages and offering chances to potential buyers in the solace of their homes’. Responses are simple; generally, the buyer makes a phone call. At the point when direct channels are utilized, the messages have negligible competition for the shopper’s consideration from other promotions, the timing can be exactly controlled, and contenders will be less mindful of the crusade. However, most basic examination of media performance is the measure of response it creates.
In general consumer advertising, it is regularly hard to attribute battle results with total sureness to the publicizing, because different components may have been grinding away in any deliberate change, whether that is enhanced deals or expanded attention to an item on the objective business sector.
With Direct Marketing, contending media can be all the more surveyed for their adequacy by measuring the accurate level of response that they fortify. Here the measure is not the expense of coming to one thousand individuals from the gathering of people, yet the expense of getting only one of them to respond in the fancied way
Direct Marketing is a branch of advertising that has experienced fast development and mechanical change in the course of recent years. It is a vital marketing procedure, and a few associations construct their whole advertising methodology in light of direct promoting routines. (Ellsworth, 2007) Around the world, the Direct Marketing industry is enormous. As firms look to methods for getting more esteem from advertising spending plans, direct promoting is liable to wind up considerably more grounded later on. Direct promoting alludes to a gathering of techniques that permits organizations to correspond with, and get a Direct response, from prospects. It permits firms to target clients more decisively than traditional non-direct marketing procedures and is alluded to as exactness promoting.
Direct advertising procedures are continually being enhanced, and created, and new imaginative media are prone to be produced later on (Ellsworth, 2007). At present, the fundamental strategies utilized inside of the direct marketing industry are the utilization of the phone, regular postal mail, the web, direct ‘eye to eye’ individual offering and direct response publicizing utilizing TV, radio and daily papers, exchange diaries and magazines. The business is being driven by a craving for more noteworthy precision and economy in promoting operations and by advancements in IT that can be connected to direct marketing. Database promoting specifically has reformed the way associations utilize direct marketing and has expanded effectiveness in ranges like post office based mail and phone advertising. Direct advertising is not exclusively determined by IT. (Ellsworth, 2007) Some conventional strategies that were utilized as a part of 1917 when the Direct Marketing Association was established in the USA are as yet being utilized effectively, especially eye to eye direct individual offering. (Ellsworth, 2007) On the other hand, these strategies have profited from the data upheaval regarding recovery of client data and enhanced focusing on. Direct marketing is a noteworthy power inside of promoting and is prone to increment in future.
B.V, Elsevier. “Direct Marketing.” Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing (2009): Voulme 3: 58 – 59. Print.
Dobkin, Jeffrey. Direct Marketing Strategies: Forget Theory – Here’s What Really Works! Merion Station, PA : The Danielle Adams Publishing Company, 2007. print.
Ellsworth, Belinda. Direct Selling For Dummies. River Street: For Dummies, 2015. Print.
Nash, Edward. Direct Marketing: Strategy, Planning, Execution. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2000. Print.
John Wiley &. Sons, The New Direct Marketing: How to Implement A Profit-Driven Database Marketing Strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999. Print.
Tesco is a multinational grocery and general merchandize retailer which is based and has its origin in the United Kingdom. The organization is the third largest retailer in the world with a global presence in more than 12 countries. The United Kingdom is the main market for the organization which has been successful because of its brand reputation and image. The organization offers products and services which are according to the customers’ preferences. Tesco has been able to create a dynamic business strategy which is based upon meeting the needs of customer segments. It conducts extensive market analysis as a means of ensuring the highest levels of efficiency and effectiveness (Blythe, 2006). It has a product diversification strategy as it has transformed itself from a food retailer to offer non-food products and services like beauty products, consumer electronics, DVDs, financial and insurance services. Tesco has also been successful because it employs technology for its robust business activities. Tesco.com is one of the highest successful online shopping portals in the United Kingdom. Technology is being used to integrate and streamline business operations and achieve operational excellence. The success of Tesco has been its ability to make accurate forecasts. Tesco needs to pursue an aggressive internationalization strategy by targeting new markets. China is a potential market which can help to achieve its business goals. This proposal will seek to elucidate the importance of penetrating the Chinese market.
Globalization has been a powerful social and economic force which has a profound influence on the business environment of the twenty first century. The creation of a single market has led to the development of numerous opportunities for organizations as they strive to focus on emerging economies (Beamish & Ashford, 2008: p. 76).Moreover, the nature of globalization is such that there is an emphasis on remaining profitable by taking advantage of the opportunities that specific markets offer. Globalization creates intense competition which can lead companies to reduce their costs and improve their products. Organizations under competition have to perform at optimum levels by offering superior products and services. Technological adaptation is another byproduct of this phenomenon as it can help to streamline and automate the key processes. This has further increased competition among international corporations and has allowed them to expand their businesses across the globe. In the supermarket industry, international companies such as Tesco and Walmart are some of the prominent names that have successfully expanded their businesses internationally. These expansions allow organizations to increase their presence in the market, sustain competitive advantage, generate revenues and win loyalties of customers(Blythe, 2006, Beamish & Ashford, 2008, Darwar& Chattopadhay, 2012). Their marketing strategy is based on meeting consumer demands and ensuring that they adapt within the market they operate.
The production and manufacturing capabilities of organizations are enhanced when they take advantage of low labor rates in developing countries. The results are that production costs are reduced while selling products at competitive rates which in turn can increase the market share of the organizations (Darwar& Chattopadhay, 2012, Doyle & Stern, 2006). Organizations seeking to penetrate international markets strive to increase the value of their products and services while striving to reduce the cost base (Cravens & Piercy, 2006: p. 34).The external and internal variables can play a key role in the performance of organizations as they move into international markets. Organizations must be able to have access to technology, labor, capital, logistics, and infrastructure in order to succeed. The goal of conducting business in international markets is essential since any organization that fails to penetrate markets will witness a reduction in its competitive advantages.
The huge size of the international markets means that potential customers are living abroad. Moreover, the failure to penetrate international markets means that organizations will be unable to enhance their customer loyalty and brand recognition. Serving multiple markets in a seamless fashion is important part of success. Empirical studies have sought to identify the critical success factors which enable organizations to penetrate international markets (Haji-Basri, 2012, Levy, 2012). Firstly, organizations are able to select the best market entry mode which is according to their expertise and experience. The market entry mode should be based upon conducting research of the market in an efficient and effective manner. This is important because competitors’ analysis and customers’ behaviors can help the organization in understanding the needs of the market environment.
Secondly, organizations must be willing to leverage their core competencies in such a manner that they are able to reduce costs and improve profits. A global business strategy should be customized in accordance with the conditions of the market. Adaptation to the local market means that the organization is able to create a customized marketing strategy (Doole & Lowe, 2005: p. 76).Thirdly, the organization must be able to implement innovation at multiple levels. This approach is beneficial since it will help the organization to attain strategic competitive success. Finally, it is important for organizations to develop the robust frameworks that can enable them to create flexible, agile, and scalable business structures (Doyle & Stern, 2006: p. 93).The use of multiple strategies is important for success as it will lead to long term innovation that will benefit the entire organization.
Research is defined as the process of investigating new phenomenon and validating existing theories and frameworks. It seeks to understand the theoretical assumptions behind specific studies by challenging them or modifying them. Selecting the appropriate research methodology is important part of the process. Primary research for this report will be carried out through a questionnaire which will be emailed to the business unit managers of Tesco. The benefits of primary research are that it enables the researcher to directly participate in the process. Moreover, the results can be quickly obtained through the questionnaire method. This method can save significant time. Secondary research for this report will be carried out through the systematic analysis of existing studies related to marketing and global business. Specifically, the studies will be selected based upon their relevance, reliability, and authenticity.
Secondary research is beneficial in many ways. Firstly, it helps to reduce time as existing studies can be employed for success. Secondly, it uses the vast literature in order to create a theoretical framework which can be beneficial in answering the research aims and questions of the report. Thirdly, secondary research helps the researcher to have access to resources in an efficient manner which will be used to solve the research problems (Levy, 2012).
Organizational Strategy and Market Characteristics
Empirical studies have found evidence that grocery sales in China are estimated to be around £600 billion in the year 2013 (Zhao, 2014: p. 184). There are 221 cities in the country which will witness an increase in population by the year 2025 (Zhao, 2014: p. 184). Moreover, urban dwellers are the largest customer segments which offer significant market potential for organizations like Tesco. Shopping malls are now popular places for supermarkets. The impressive standards of living among the middle class have enabled Chinese customers to focus on higher quality of life. This creates superior business opportunities for organizations like Tesco that are working in the retail market. Household spending on healthcare, transportation, and telecom services have doubled as compared with the last decade. The indicators prove that the customer segments have disposable incomes that allow discretionary spending. Tesco’s strategy in China can be based upon its key competitive advantages (Tesco PLC, 2014).
Branding and reputation are the key attributes of the organization which helps it to achieve core strategic advantage. Careful branded packaging and promotion can generate excellence value for Chinese customers (Zhao, 2014: p. 184).Supply chain management and logistics in China should be able to respond to the dynamic and complex environment by enabling Tesco’s management to make accurate forecasts. Technology can be used to maintain inventory and assess business transactions. This will help the management to make forecasts about the entire environment through the use of innovation and creativity (Levy, 2012). ICT technologies can help the organization to play a critical role in business strategy formulation. Creating value for customers and offering products that are difficult to emulate can be the core strategies in China provided Tesco is able to understand the dynamics of the market.
Tesco has transformed itself into an international retailer that sells food, clothing, household products, banking services, and others. The traditional market of the company has been the United Kingdom but in the past ten years, it has sought to expand into different international markets. International expansion is considered to be vital for the growth of the company as it helps to diversify income streams and enables it to take the advantages of globalization by using an efficient and effective marketing strategy (Zhao, 2014: p. 184).The competitive strength of Tesco is that it is the third largest international retailer in the world. The growth rate annually has been projected to be around 12% since the past decade. Strong partnerships with suppliers and other partners help the company to offer products and services in different markets. An effective supply chain management system helps the organization to manage its operations in a lean and flexible manner.
The international expansion strategy of the company remains weak as compared with that of its competitors. Product diversification is a weakness because the profitability can be impacted because of bad debt from credit cards. Tesco has inexperience in certain growing markets like smart phones and tablet PCs. New web technologies and IT require investments which can streamline and automate the core processes (Imrie & Dolton, 2014: p. 84).
There are different opportunities for Tesco which can move into various product categories like digital entertainment, smart phones, and tablet PCs. Foreign markets like China, Malaysia, South Korea, and others offer significant business potential for the entire organization. Online shopping can be enhanced as a means of ensuring robust success within a short period of time. Increasing value proposition for existing and new customer segments can be a beneficial strategy by the organization as it can lead to the highest levels of efficiency and effectiveness (Tesco PLC, 2014).
Tesco can face significant threats from local and international competitors. Furthermore, the economic recession has reduced the spending power of customers which means that there can be a reduced profitability for non-food products and services. International expansion is a good option for Tesco but each country has different levels of regulation and laws which must be complied by international organizations in order to achieve critical success within a short period of time (Imrie & Dolton, 2014: p. 84).
The political factors inside any country can be related to taxes, legislation, and country stability. China is a rapidly emerging economy which has pursued investor friendly business policies. There is an increased demand for retailers which can help to create jobs for the local population and improve the local economy. The Chinese government is authoritarian in nature but it has been pragmatic enough to pursue policies which can help it to remain integrated with the overall global markets (Dowling, 2006: p. 91). Political stability in China is relatively high which offers a congenial environment for foreign investment. This is important because it helps to ensure the highest levels of efficiency and effectiveness.
The economic factors are concerned with the costs, profits, and prices that a company must take into consideration while operating in a foreign market. The goal of the company should be to conduct an internal and external analysis which can be used to understand the dynamics of the market. China’s rising middle class enjoys highly disposable incomes which makes them one of the largest customer segments in the world (Ferrell & Hartline, 2007: p. 98).Furthermore, the middle class has awareness and perception regarding foreign brands which is considered to be part of their affluent lifestyle.
Social factors exert a profound influence on the purchasing behaviors of customers. Tesco needs to take into account the social and demographic changes which have taken place in China in order to formulate a robust and dynamic strategy for change (Hooley & Piercy, 2008: p. 123). The goal should be to create efficient and effective approaches which can be used to penetrate the market. Food and non-food items can be introduced in the Chinese market in accordance with the dynamics of the market. Customers in China have high levels of awareness and perception regarding foreign products.
Operating in any market means that companies should be able to focus on operational excellence and competitive advantage. Technology helps to achieve this critical goal with the focus on achieving long term market share. The goals of companies like Tesco should be to make investments in technology which result in efficient business processes and help to provide real time data to the management which can be used in the decision making processes. Outlets should employ technology to reduce waiting time for customers. RFID can be employed for inventory management. Communication systems can be used to link main office with various outlets for making decisions and obtaining real time information (Hooley & Piercy, 2008: p. 123).The use of an integrated strategy can help to accomplish the critical goals within a short period of time.
Tesco is the third largest retailer in the world which has been achieved because of its core competencies. The core competencies of the organization have included the ability to successfully develop a core business model that is flexible and adaptable in accordance with the competitive nature of global markets. Strategy formulation in Tesco is based upon the use of market research which helps to achieve efficiency and effectiveness. A complete internal and external analysis is conducted by the organization in order to achieve its critical targets within a short period of time. Tesco’s strategic growth model seeks to focus on cost and product differentiation as mixed strategies that enable future growth and development. China is an attractive market for internationalization because it will help Tesco to take advantage of the business opportunities. China’s middle class segments have increased with highly disposable incomes. Moreover, Chinese customers are spending on clothes, luxury products, healthcare, and others as part of the drive to improve their quality of life. This helps to ensure the success of the retail market. Tesco can take advantage of the Chinese market by using a systematic and calculated approach. It needs to use its core competencies which can be adapted in accordance with the local market conditions. Moreover, it needs to focus on using its core competencies as a means of ensuring the highest levels of success within a short period of time. Technology can be used to maintain inventory and assess business transactions. This will help the management to make forecasts about the entire environment through the use of innovation and creativity. ICT technologies can help the organization to play a critical role in business strategy formulation. Creating value for customers and offering products that are difficult to emulate can be the core strategies in China provided Tesco is able to understand the dynamics of the market.
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The research and analysis was conducted on the topic of marketing strategy for Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry to attract SME’s in order to bring FDI in Japan. Five objectives were designed in order to get vital information and understand the importance of foreign direct investment and the effect of different marketing strategies on foreign investment. The objectives were related with government policies, METI’s marketing strategies for acquiring and motivation of foreign investment, different promotion strategies used by METI and recommendations for influence of potential investors towards investment. In this regards author have collected important information and data regarding foreign direct investment.
Mostly respondents’ age was between 35 to 45 years which indicate that they were young and have strong knowledge about foreign direct investment regarding issues and different strategies that need to be used for acquiring of investment in the country. There was 5-likert questionnaire which comprised on 21 questions and 6 questions for interview have designed. Total 57 respondents’ responses on 5-likert questionnaire and 11 respondents’ responses through interview were collected. Mostly respondents stated that foreign investment plays an important role if government should take initiatives towards motivation and with the help of marketing strategies and also provide some incentives for foreign investors. In this regards, METI is playing an important role for acquiring and motivating of foreign investors in order to get more satisfaction and growth in country’s economy. In which METI have introduce some promotion activities and legal actions such as social medial, technological interaction, intellectual property protections and other aspects that influence the foreign investors to invest more and more.
To identify problems involved in hampering FDI in Japan
To study the relationship between the foreign investors and METI
To perform a validation for current marketing strategy of METI and propose a new framework for the marketing strategy depending upon the research
To devise and suggest appropriate strategies for Japan that are based on the use of modern marketing tools and techniques
To know how Social Media Marketing, E-Marketing, and internet promotional tools specifically can be brought to use to develop a positive repute for investing in Japan
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This dissertation seeks to evaluate the relationship between brand trust and loyalty cards and show the impact of loyalty cards on brand trust of customers. In context to carry out the investigation, it has explained the facets of brand trust, customer satisfaction, perceived value and customer loyalty. The research is a quantitative, deductive study where primary data have been collected from three stores of Tesco Plc., in the UK (Birmingham Region) through the survey questionnaire method. The research has assumed Uncles’ Research Model (2002) in the background and has modified it according to the objectives of the research. The questions in the questionnaire are mostly close-ended questions based on Likert Scale Rating which has been analysed through factor percentage analysis method. The research has successfully identified 4 factors with various sub factors and established the suggested research framework through justified literature review and data evidences, based on the conceptual model of Uncles’ et al. (2002). It has also accomplished all the four research objectives showing that loyalty programs are considerably effective in earning trust from old and new customers by perceptible and imperceptible constituents, which can be explained both in behavioural and attitudinal aspects. This research has also considered several literature gaps which were present earlier and tried to answer several of them.
The main purpose of this research dissertation is to evaluate the relationship between brand trust earned through loyalty cards used in many conventional retail stores. Many companies have now adopted the practice of loyalty cards because they consider this an excellent way of earning trust from customers and creating a special bond with them.This in turn helps in the retainment of old customers and also creates a good reputation in the market. The loyalty card system gives some privilege facilities to the member customers because they get bonus points and discount offers on products. This study will delve deeply into the concept of brand trust, the effects of loyalty cards in relationship marketing and the impact of loyalty cards on brand trust in reality, by considering the case study of Tesco and their Loyalty Club Card facilities for the UK customers. The main aim of the research is to evaluate and find out the relationship between brand trust and loyalty cards. It will identify and evaluate whether loyalty cards can confer brand trust in the customers. To fulfil the main aim, the following objectives will be further accomplished;
To investigate the impact of loyalty cards on brand trust of customers by a questionnaire analysis of Tesco club card members from three different stores in the UK
To critically evaluate the effectiveness of loyalty programs in increasing the perceived values and customer satisfaction which contributes to brand trust
To test the hypothetical assumptions regarding the relationship between loyalty programs, perceived values and brand trust
To prove that loyalty programs offer a good index of customer brand trust
The survey results will be interpreted through percentage analysis and deductive reasoning, thus proving the suggested theoretical assumptions