Welcome! Here is a helpful collection of resources to help you Writing A Quality Business Dissertation. This post has been written to provide a general overview to writing business dissertations.
Writing Business Dissertations
Writing an extended piece of research such as a business dissertation can be a challenging but a rewarding process. The tips and techniques included here are designed to enable you to manage the writing process more effectively. This post highlights the importance of writing an inspirational business dissertation. It aims to help you to feel confident in writing your own business dissertation, and to support you in its successful completion.
Although your business dissertation should contain your own dissertation title or topic, you will also want to refer to the ideas of other academics that relate directly to your business dissertation topic. This shows evidence that you have research your business topic thoroughly.
Your business dissertation should critically evaluate existing ideas and identify potential problems that are still prevalent in your specific area of research. Also, do not forget to investigate a particular area of business that has not yet been explored. So many business management students write their business dissertations on over exhausted business fields of research. I have seen so many similar business dissertations written on Linkages between Organisational and Employee Behaviour and Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalisation. No disrespect here, but these business dissertation research topics are not exactly groundbreaking or original.
For you to handle academic research questions follow these steps;
Step 1 – Understand the question first
It is important to comprehend the requirements and expectations of the issue at hand. Be aware of different business genres that are creative writing, argumentative essays, and dissertation papers among others. Then lay out your ideas as per the requirements.
Step 2 – Manage your time
Set aside time to deal with the assignment. If possible come up with a timetable that will guide you when handling the assignment. Do not underestimate the time required to handle a given task. Give it the attention it needs for you to submit an outstanding business dissertation.
Step 3 – Identify your audience
You should always consider the person who is going to read or mark your work. If you are aware of their likes, then write about them, and their dislikes avoid them. Moreover, avoid writing using a personal viewpoint (using; I, we or us) unless you have been asked to give your personal views.
Step 4 – Do proper research. Don’t glance over…
In order to submit an high quality business dissertation you must understand the question and then make sure you do good research. Use books, newsletters, journals, and diaries. Google scholar offers help with academic materials such as books and journals articles.
Step 5 – Referencing
You need to be certain you reference and cite all the materials used either in Harvard, APA or MLA style of referencing depending on specifications and university guidelines.
Step 6 – Get advice
Consult teachers, lecturers, and friends for help. It’s not wrong to ask for help and assistance where you do not understand or feel that you’re going off topic.
Step 7 – Check, check and check again.
Once done proofread and edit your work as an assurance you have done the best. Ask others for their views too before presenting your work for marking. Your dissertation supervisor is always looking for a quality business dissertation that clearly shows you applied logic, creative thinking, constructive arguments / critiques, fresh ideas to the research field and appropriate referencing.
Step 8 – Final step
Before you submit your business dissertation ensure the research has the following;
The required number of words.
Free from plagiarism.
The assignment has met your university’s guidelines.
Correct dissertation structure – This is very important.
Importance of writing a quality business dissertation
According to a study by Edwards (2010) concepts developed for one assignment can be used for the next assessment. The assignment is a clear indication that you have an excellent connection between the course material and the assignment itself. Studies for instance (Kalogrides, Loeb & Béteille, (2013) claim that assignments assist the learners in developing better skills that make the better responsible in the future. The ability to work on diverse topics indicates that students can cope with for instance managerial task in the future when they get employed. When teachers give assignments, they are using their expertise knowledge of different development levels to accomplish the course objectives. However, accosting to Burman (1992) there are no enough evaluations that are applied in students’ assignment evaluation, and thus students are asked to positively work on the little that the teachers offer as an assignment.
Business Dissertation Topics
Below is a list of business dissertation topics that you can look into if you are struggling to find a specific topic to research. These business management dissertation topics are current and should help you.
Entrepreneurship / Innovation Dissertation Topics
Strategic Analysis of Banks and Small Firms
Business Incubators/Business Support
Creative Problem Solving and Effective Decision Making
Entrepreneurial Management of the Innovation Process Discontinuous Innovation
Initial Public Offerings
Managing Innovation within the chemical/pharmaceutical industry
Organisational Learning, entrepreneurship and innovation
Performance Returns of Entrepreneurship Activity
Technology Transfer and University Spin-Out Businesses
The Entrepreneurial Firm
The impact of Entrepreneurship education upon new business formation
Business Strategy Dissertation Topics
An investigation of how the decision to invest in future strategic high applications is made
Applications of the resource-based view of the firm
Business failure and its consequences
Capital Structure – its impact on firm behaviour and performance [note: this is intended to be a quantitative dissertation – some data may be available]
Corporate Environmental Strategies (such as corporate strategies to react to climate change; organisations and the natural environment, organisations and sustainability issues…)
Corporate Environmental Strategies and Sustainable Strategic management (such as corporate strategies to react to climate change; organisations and the natural environment…)
Corporate Restructuring – its impact on pay/performance/investment [note: this is intended to be a quantitative dissertation – some data may be available]
Creative industries: challenges and opportunities
Diversifying Market Entry as a Search Process
Doing business in China and India
Entry, Exit and Pricing in Electronic Markets
Executive Remuneration [note: this is intended to be a quantitative dissertation – some data may be available]
Far Eastern Business
How Climate Change had become a strategic issue for insurers [note: this is intended to be a qualitative research based on articles published in insurance papers]
Identifying Core Competences as Predictors of Market Entry/Survival
Informational Asymmetry, Player Fitness and the Football Transfer Market
Institutional change and reform in public services
Insurance markets for terrorism risks
International Business Strategy
Optimal Model Life for Successful Products
Organisational learning and knowledge management
Price Discrimination and Academic Journal Publishing
Prices and Price Dispersion in Electronic Markets
Pricing and Product Characteristics [note: this is intended to be a quantitative dissertation]
Strategic decision making
Strategic decision-making processes (investigation of how strategic decisions, such as decision to outsource, to diversify, to create partnerships/alliance, to launch a new business…are made)
Strategies for aging populations
Strategy and regulation: the case of financial services
Strategy in the financial services industry
Strategy in the insurance Industry
Sustainability and strategic management
The economic sociology of strategy
The history of strategy
The political philosophy of strategic management
Burman, J. M. (1992). Out-of-Class Assignments as a Method of Teaching and Evaluating Law Students. Journal of Legal Education, 42(3), 447-457.
Bucak, S. S., Jin, R., & Jain, A. K. (2011, June). Multi-label learning with incomplete class assignments. In Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2011 IEEE Conference on (pp. 2801-2808). IEEE.
Edwards, D. (2010). Managing an effective hardware based large class assignment.
Kalogrides, D., Loeb, S., & Béteille, T. (2013). Systematic sorting: Teacher characteristics and class assignments. Sociology of Education, 86(2), 103-123.
There are many other titles available in the business management and MBA dissertation collection that should be of interest to MBA students and academic professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of business such as strategy, leadership, international business, mergers and acquisitions to name a few. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.
Analysis of the American Meltdown Case in Relation to Leadership Skills and Organization Effectiveness
Leadership Skills – The role of leadership in any business environment is very important in ensuring effectiveness of the organization. In business, a leader is important since they define the purpose of the company or organization and lead it to success (Johansen and Kelly, 359). A valuable leader should be one who successfully makes innovations, ensures healthy competition and solves perplexing problems that may be facing the company. However, if a leader does not have the essential leadership skills, then he or she is bound to drive the organization to a downfall. This paper is an analysis of an American company that was affected by economic meltdown of 2008. The analysis will address specific aspects of leadership such as behavior, team processes and organization effectiveness.
Analysis of the economic meltdown of 2008 and how investment firms were affected
The case documented in the frontline website was a video that discussed about one investment bank named Bear Stearns Company. This company acquired huge exposure in 2008 through its dealings on subprime mortgages and other toxic assets (Frontline, 2014). Bear Stearns Company was also involved in trading of stocks and securities and at the same time was also a brokerage firm. In the year 2008, the company experienced one of the biggest failures that were partly caused poor leadership decisions among the country’s top economic experts (Frontline, 2014). This crisis was mainly caused by the housing sector which had invested a lot of money, amounting to trillions of dollars, in toxic mortgages. Most of the housing and investment firms were located on Wall Street including the investment firm, Bear Stearns Company.
During the same time, the company was facing a looming crisis due to the millions of dollars it had invested in bad mortgages and toxic assets. In addition, the company’s stocks had already dropped drastically from 171 dollars per share to a mere 57 dollars (Frontline, 2014). This made the company come into a state of bankruptcy and something had to be done urgently. The Federal Reserve chairperson, Ben Bernanke made a decision that the current crisis had to be taken care of urgently. In order to stabilize the market, Bernanke proposed a merger between Bear Stearns and another commercial bank JP Morgan (Frontline, 2014).
The American government made the decision that they would use thirty billion dollars to cover up the toxic assets and mortgages that Bear Stearns Company had invested heavily. However, this decision was a very dangerous and precarious one that saw many other companies become affected(Frontline, 2014). The economy faced a major meltdown as other investment firms such as Fannie Mac and Freddie Mac became victims of the collapse of giant mortgage companies. In the next few hours, the stock markets crashed completely and credit markets all over the world became frozen. This entire crisis was caused by terrible leadership decisions that were caused by economic leaders and stock market analysts.
Aspects of leadership skills and behavior as portrayed in the economic meltdown video case
Effective leadership is characterized by knowing the right decisions to make on behalf of the company or organization. A successful leader is one who is able to know which decisions can lead to failure and which ones can lead to success (Duygulu and Çıraklar, 391). Leadership entails keeping decisions compatible in light of the needs of the organization. In this case, the economic leaders made decisions that were disastrous to the investment firms and stoke companies located in Wall Street and all over America.
The secretaries of the national treasuries at that time were Henry Paulson and his partner Ben Bernanke. They were responsible for making decisions that were harmful and biased and were not beneficial to the business and economic industry. These leaders decided to bail out Bear Stearns at the expense of the other ones which were later doomed to fail. In addition, these two leaders made the unanimous decision to nationalize three of the county’s largest companies (Frontline, 2014). Moreover, they threatened senior legislators to release seven hundred million dollars or else they would be held responsible for the failing economy. Such leadership behavior can be termed as unacceptable since these two leaders took advantage of their power to manipulate other people.
A good leader must be able to socially integrate and envision the success of his company even in the wake of a looming crisis. He or she should not allow the prevailing situation to become a tempting factor to make him make an impromptu decision on behalf of the company (Duygulu and Çıraklar, 391). Leadership is much more than just a mere function and requires several positive traits such as competent behavior, self-sacrifice, integrity and performance oriented. These skills are crucial in ensuring that the organization runs effectively and that each member of the team is able to fulfill their obligations (Duygulu and Çıraklar, 391). When these traits are demonstrated and portrayed the daily business scenario, then success is bound to follow.
An efficient leader is one who is able to create a following that will listen and emulate them without any obligation at all. In this case, there was an economic meltdown that began by affecting the housing industry where people who had taken mortgages were at the highest risk. After rumors were released into the public that even investment firms and banks would be affected next, people decided to withdraw their stock shares from whichever companies they had invested (Frontline, 2014).
The leaders of the banks and investment firms had made wrong decisions that resulted in the collapse of their businesses. These leaders went ahead to make investment decisions that they knew would seriously affect the performance of the business. It is true to state that these leaders did not have the sufficient personal competence or attributes to make wise decisions on behalf of the company. The style of leadership must match the expectations and number of followers (Johansen and Kelly, 361). This means that leadership is not only a function of the leader but also of the people who are being led.
The economic leaders, bank managers and heads of the investment firms were responsible of leading a very large number of people (Johansen and Kelly, 361). This people looked up to them to make informed decisions that would be profitable and beneficial at the same time. It is dangerous when a leader does not put into consideration the plight of the people that he is leading. It is important that leaders should prioritize the concerns of the greater public before they make the final decision (Johansen and Kelly, 361).
The decision that was made by the top economist of the country Paul Krugman was responsible for the destruction of the entire country (Frontline, 2014). The decision that he made was an utter nightmare that any economic or policy maker could not agree to. The leadership skills and behaviors discussed in the documentary were directly related to the effectiveness of the organizations that were affected. Organizational effectiveness is very crucial to the success of the economy of every country or state. This term is used to refer to the strategies and initiatives that promote and encourage the company to realize its full potential. Organizational effectiveness ensures that the company or organization is able to make positive and lasting contributions that primarily target the development of the business (Hirsova et al, 102). Such effectiveness can only be achieved when the overall leaders are strong willed, hardworking and uphold a high level of integrity. To create organization effectiveness, business leaders are advised to focus on engaging and aligning other people into forming a workable team (Hirsova et al, 102). Each person in the company performs a unique role in ensuring that the company achieves its ultimate goal. Therefore, it is the duty of the leader to unite and cluster the employees into strong teams that will deliver success on behalf of the company (Schaubroeck, 1053).
The people’s management systems, their structure and capability must be included in the efforts of ensuring that effectiveness is achieved by the organization. The leaders of Bear Stearns Company did not exhibit any strategic planning in ensuring that the company did not run at a loss. Instead, these leaders chose to invest in a risky business venture that led to serious and damaging consequences. The company invested in mortgage and housing that later became toxic assets to them. In order for the company to be rescued from this hole, the leaders and top managers accepted the offer that the commercial bank JPMorgan was proposing for them. The latter company proposed to merge with them so as to lift them up from the imminent status of bankruptcy that as staring them in the face. Such a decision could be termed as being selfish and imprudent since these leaders were only concerned with what would happen to their lives in case the companies collapsed (Hirsova et al, 102).
These leaders did not put into consideration or think about the consequences that would follow after they made such a hasty decision. The merger of these two companies happened at the expense of the nation’s economy since it required additional funding from the treasury. A leader who has been chosen to serve at the national level is supposed to exhibit strong and robust behavior that is worth emulation since many people look up to him (Hirsova et al, 102). In addition, such leaders are expected to be completely selfless and serve the interest of the people to their complete satisfaction. The frontline documentary was able to show that the leaders in this case were selfish and made hurried decisions that were not beneficial for the company and country’s future at large. They did not exhibit any positive aspects of leadership such as being steady decision makers. Instead, they fall prey to the pressures of the failing company performance that was followed by a much larger disaster of economic meltdown.
These leaders should consider employing some modifications in their leadership skills and behavior that can help them in correcting the mistakes that they had already committed. First, these leaders should try to encompass the leadership qualities that are crucial for every person with the mandate to lead (Hirsova et al, 102). They should realize that being a good leader involves having high integrity, being hardworking and able to make informed decisions. A good leader is also one who studies the prevailing situation whenever a problem arises and sits down to plan the next forward move to make. Furthermore, effective leadership is one where the leader is able to incorporate the needs of employers and members of the organization so that everybody’s needs are met (Hirsova et al, 102).
In conclusion, the frontline documentary was able to highlight the dangers of what can occur when leadership is not effective. This documentary showed the case of what happened when economic and investment leaders made disastrous decisions when they were faced by an economic meltdown. The leaders of Bear Stearns Company decided to merge with JP Morgan Company even when they knew that such a move was terribly wrong. In the end, this decision resulted in a financial crisis where companies collapsed and others became bankrupt. To date, people still refer to this case study in order to learn useful tips on leadership and organizational effectiveness.
Johansen, Morgen, and Kelly LeRoux. “Managerial Networking In Nonprofit Organizations: The Impact Of Networking On Organizational And Advocacy Effectiveness.” Public Administration Review 73.2 (2013): 355-363. Business Leadership Skills Source Complete
Schaubroeck, John M., “Embedding Ethical Leadership Skills Within And Across Organization Levels.” Academy Of Management Journal 55.5 (2012): 1053-1078 Business Source Complete
Duygulu, Ethem, and Nurcan Çıraklar. “Effects Of Leadership Roles On Team Effectiveness Leadership Skills.” Ege Academic Review 9.2 (2009): 389-400
Hirsova, M. Zelena, V., Vachova, L., & Novak, M. (2013) Effective Leadership Skills – can Soft Skills Contribute to the Effectiveness of an Organization? Proceedings of the European Conference on Management, Leadership & Governance, 100-104
Effects of Multicultural Diversity Organizational Processes
Managing a multinational corporation requires one to understand different cultures that comprise the subordinate staff. This is because different cultural backgrounds promote different social communication skills that define personal relationship amongst members of a certain workgroup. Thus, Members in a heterogeneous group consisting of employees sourced from different cultural backgrounds have the ability to generate diverse ideas that can help streamline organizational strategies. This benefits the organization by improving and enhancing communication links within organizations. Information is thus shared freely amongst the subordinate staff of the organization. Predominantly male or female oriented workgroups suffer from intra-gender conflicts as competition for supremacy in the group disrupts communications within the entire organization. This because power and role struggles dominates relationships between employees as they seek favors from their senior managers hoping to be rewarded with promotions or pay rises. This presents barriers to effective communication hindering the flow of the necessary organization processes pivotal to the business as a separate entity.
According to Hofstede, a manager in charge of such an organization should strive to understand how the subordinates relate to each other culturally before grouping them together to perform a certain task. In addition, it is important for a manager to understand how cultural beliefs affect employee’s judgment towards organizational issues to align the organization goals focused on meeting their personal needs. Thus, the paper will focus on how multicultural diversity affects organizational processes in a Multinational Corporation such as Euro Disney Land.
Multicultural diversity is appreciating and accepting the existence of multiple cultures as related to the demographic make-up of a certain group of individuals. It affects relationships within a group depending on the level of acceptance of different cultures comprising the group. In an organization, it describes the demographic make-up at the organizational level aimed at harnessing benefits of different cultures both from major and minority identity groups. Proponents for embracing multicultural diversity in an organization suggest that increasing the number of minority groups improves cohesion within the organization’s management structure. For example, increasing the number of women in an organization to match the number of the male counterparts, improves contact between them. This in turn it reduces the overlap between sex roles and work roles that hinder proper information flow within the organization’s structure. The overall organizational effectiveness is enhanced by increasing the role of traditionally underrepresented groups within an organization. Multicultural diversity influences both positively and negatively the overall organizational effectiveness of a multinational corporation.
Effects of Group Composition
Demographic diversity increases the pool of human resources that can assist an organization to achieve its set organizational goals and objectives. These may include styles, perspectives, insights related to solving complex organizations needs or problems. For centuries, women and people of color have suffered immense discrimination both at social gatherings and at work places (House, Hanges, Ruiz-Quintanilla, Dorfman, & Javidan, 2010). The cultural perspectives and styles of these marginalized groups are valuable assets that managers of organizations can exploit to improve the overall organization effectiveness other than relying solely on the role played by the majority groups.
In essence, multicultural diversity in managerial ranks of an organization serves the needs of an organization better as compared to reliance on dominant cultures only. Proponents for multicultural diversity further argue that cultural values dominant among black people such as forthrightness, assertiveness, verbal inventiveness, and good will can be beneficial in stimulating organizational interactions among the subordinate (Moon, March 1997). This is a positive representation of how odd deficiencies in a race can contribute to the overall integration of organizational values along ethnic lines. It is important to remember how each race contributes positively towards organizational effectiveness to meet the needs of each employee successfully. It is important for a manager to understand how cultural beliefs affect employee’s judgment towards organizational issues to align the organization goals focused on meeting their personal needs.
Employees feel confident and secure in their jobs whenever they see efforts being made to allow cultural integration within the organization. For example, being a manager of an organization located in the Middle East requires one to embrace the Muslim culture such allowing women to wear veils in the office. This may seem odd in western countries but in culturally controlled civilization such as the Middle East, they demand respect for their culture. Therefore, the manager has no option but to be flexible enough to meet employee’s personal satisfaction in their work. Members in a heterogeneous group consisting of employees sourced from different cultural backgrounds have the ability to generate diverse ideas that can help streamline organizational strategies (Cox, 1994). This in turn provides an opportunity for the manager to improve on the quality of decisions made by incorporating ideas sourced from different employees. In a study carried out at Apple.inc on May 3, 2008, mixed-sex groups performed better in organization processes than single-sex groups. This was an indication of how useful multicultural diversity is towards mobilizing human resources to achieve set organizational goals.
Diversity and Workgroup Functioning
Even though increasing the number of traditionally underrepresented groups yield more success to the organization, it does require power relations balance between the dominant and subdominant groups in the company. On gender representation, empirical values favor men more than women skewing the trend towards male dominated leadership. Some cultures prohibit women from desiring to compete equally to men for leadership but should rather concentrate on family matters (Kundu, July – December 2001). This favors men over women increasing the gender disparity in Multinational Corporation to less than 30% of the total number of employees. Allowing employees to express their individual perspectives at the place of work may fetch in both rewards and disaster for the organization. First, benefits because the organization has a large pool of human resources committed to meet the set organizational goals and objectives. On the contrary, they may express their newfound freedom to indulge even in matters not concerning them.
Integration and Learning
In a heterogeneous group, decision-making takes long as everyone’s opinion must be put into account complicating the organizational process that is simple when attempted by a homogeneous group. Thus, the manager should play the role of integrating cultural diversity in a workgroup to ensure all the functions of the organization are in harmony with the subordinate’s views (Cox, 1994). Training programs offer employees a chance to understand the role they play in an organization minimizing conflicts commonly associated with managing a heterogeneous group.
Access and Legitimacy
Unlocking the potential of a business or an organization requires communicating the organizational goals to all the members of the subordinate. Therefore, managing an international corporation requires giving every subordinate access to the information more so that relating to their field of operation (Cox, 1994). To control information shared within an organizational process; employees can be issued with different access codes limiting the information they retrieve.
Diversity Climate Factors
In a group, personal affiliations with people of different cultures affect the overall organizational behavior in a multinational corporation. Therefore, a manager in charge of such an organization should strive to understand how the subordinates relate to each other culturally before grouping them together to perform a certain task. This because employees define their values and principles based on their group affiliations. Most employees feel confident to work when coupled with subordinates they share a cultural background with since personal affiliations boost their self-esteem. Being a member of a certain tribe or race attracts several stereotypes that may irritate the subject of ridicule. For instance, a Black American would feel uncomfortable working with a white colleague because of the dark past between the two races (Kundu, July – December 2001). Muslims are falsely mistaken to be terrorists just because of their choice of religion. Other races seem to view them with suspicion thus weakening trust among subordinates. This eventually affects the overall performance of the group and may stall organizational processes due to differences in personal beliefs and affiliation.
Therefore, to rally such a group requires first understanding their personal relations in order maximize their output by utilizing their individual relationships. Personal affiliations are a key source of motivation that is cost-free to the organization. In this, the manager needs only to group the subordinates according to their personal affiliations to trigger personal motivation amongst the employees as they seek to impress their colleagues.
According to a research carried out by Ijzendoorn, a Dutch researcher in 2005 revealed that some persons affiliated to certain cultural groups suffer discrimination and prejudice for simply being members of the minority group. Authoritarian personalities present in dominant races seem less tolerant towards subordinates who are members of underrepresented minority groups (Guidroz, Kotrba, & Denison, 2009). This causes tension between how the two groups relate towards the chain of authority in an organization. For instance, the three major sources of prejudice namely communication proficiency, physical attractiveness, and legal issues such immigration affect relations among individuals in a multicultural group created to achieve a certain objective.
Irrespective of an employee’s educational status and academic achievements, physical attractiveness rooted in their DNA plays a major role when a manager is choosing the subordinates to work with. In addition, their communication attitude attributed to their upbringing and cultural backgrounds determines how an employee responds to others working in the same unit or group (Rao, 2006). In the current business world, English language is a prerequisite for every employee seeking to work for a multinational corporation. Thus, if someone is not proficient enough in the language they are viewed as not intelligent enough.
In an organization, the root cause of power struggles is because of stereotyping among the subordinates. For example, hiring a woman as the senior manager in organization causes a status of rebellion among male compatriots. This role-playing struggle affects the flow of information throughout the organization’s management structure. Those against the proposed power-sharing status in the organization present hurdles aimed at discouraging all her managerial efforts and strategies.
Stereotypes that exist within a working organization may affect the establishment of productive relationships across the subordinate staff as people relate to different cultural identities differently. If the divide is too wide between the two groups involved in the power struggle, the manager should intervene to arrest the situation before it evolves into a managerial crisis that may halt vital organizational process (Appelbaum, 2002). Personal relationships among employees working for an international corporation determine the level of trust bonding them together to achieve the set goals and objectives efficiently.
In an organization, informal groups define themselves along factors such as common language, ethnocentrism, and social similarities among the subordinates. These social networks play a very vital role in enabling efficient communications within an international corporation. Differences in races and cultural backgrounds determine the dominant social networking skills possessed by different employees (Ely & Thomas, June, 2001). Therefore, the senior manager of a Multinational Corporation should be accommodative enough to understand how well to communicate to each group of employees formed along certain social networking skills. People prefer to associate themselves more with those who share a common cultural background, as they feel closer to them due the common features they share culturally.
Multicultural Diversity and Management
The basic attitudes and values shared by individuals of a certain cultural group affect their response to managerial attitudes and ideologies. Moreover, since culture affects how people think and act, it can affect positively or negatively government-business relations (Lott, 2010). In some cultures or societies, a few top managers are charged with the responsibility of making important decisions related to the organizations they lead in complete disregard of the opinions expressed by the subordinate.
In a country such as Japan, employees relate more close to an organization’s management as compared to their American counterparts who do not care about the welfare of the organization they are working as long as they get their pay. This shows that if one has to manage an organization that is based in these two countries, they must be ready to vary their managerial strategies to suit the two situations (Lott, 2010). In communist and socialist economies, cooperation is encouraged among people while in Capitalist economies competition is seen as the only way to achieve success. Therefore, the type of eco-cultural ideologies embraced by a society determines the type of organizational strategies used to implement the company’s missions on a foreign territory.
According to Hofstede, being the senior major of a multinational corporation requires understanding the different cultural divides that exist in a common work group. This is because an international corporation does business in different countries sourcing their human resource from the native population. This brings in the factor of cultural disparities as people relate differently to foreign authority. In some case, an international corporation doing business in a foreign territory may be seen as an extension of neo-colonialism especially in communist and nationalist societies. This presents barriers to effective communication hindering the flow of the necessary organization processes pivotal to the business as a separate entity (Bhattacharyya, 2010). A variety of opinions generated by cultural differences assist to improve the quality of decisions made as well as the emergence of unique behavioral styles of leadership. For decades, gender disparity affects the communication behaviors exhibited by individuals within a workgroup as they relate uniquely to each other based on their different cultural affiliation. Thus, it is crucial for a manager to create and develop workgroups that reflect gender balance based on cultural motivation to self-motivate the subordinates to remain loyal to their duties and responsibilities.
Predominantly male or female oriented workgroups suffer from intra-gender conflicts as competition for supremacy in the group disrupts communications within the entire organization. In male dominated, money and power are the main causes of conflict as each member of the group wants to be regarded as the most influential due to the great power and respect they command in the entire organization. Chauvinistic male senior managers tend to prey on women for sexual favors in exchange for work-related appointments that promise money and power to women victims (Kochan, Bezrukova, Ely, & Jackson, November, 2002). This stems from the way culture has conditioned men that a woman is barely a sexual object that can be bought at a cost. Due to the harsh economic conditions being experienced worldwide, women tend to give in to these temptations to gain financially even though they have to compromise their morals upheld by their cultures.
Influence on Group process and Group Outcomes
Positive communications links bonding the members of a workgroup together help to reduce conflicts as well as improve cooperation among the group members. Efficient problem-solving strategies coupled with concise communications links improve the overall performance of the workgroup. For a group of subordinates to achieve success in completing a task delegated to them by the senior manager, they must be willing to communicate ideas, collaborate as well as compromise their views and opinions to increase the overall performance of the group (Guidroz, Kotrba, & Denison, 2009). Therefore, the senior manager should give the group the freedom to be creative by allowing them to utilize their cultural affiliations to improve their daily outcome delivery frequency. Thus, effective communication skills sourced from employees sharing different cultural backgrounds reduce the degree of organization conflicts as well as establish positive influence on the overall workgroup outcomes.
Cultural and Gender Diversity and Group Outcomes
Multicultural diversity increases a groups critical thinking base as personal relations amongst the members of the group generate alternative viewpoints to an issue requiring consultations before a decision is made about the overall group process. This redefines the clarity of decisions of individual workgroups in an organization improving the overall organizational outcomes. If cultural diversities within an organization promote negative effects such as racism, tribalism, gender disparity and discrimination, then the ripple effect will cause a negative process outcome affecting other group processes such as communication (Bhattacharyya, 2010). Thus, the manager of such an organization should try to attain equitable balance between the effects of culture and gender diversity in order to focus the energy and resources of the entire workgroup towards achieving set goals and objectives. It is hard but with proper training and experience one can absorb cultural differences prominent in a group and promote unity and accountability within the organization.
Even though gender equity promotes balance and cohesion within a workgroup, empirical figures fail to support this phenomenon in a normal working place as men usually outweigh the number of female colleagues by far. This is because most cultures do not allow women to pursue their careers reducing their chances of entering the corporate level of business management (Ely & Thomas, October 2000). For instance, in countries such as Germany, France, UK, U.S, and Eastern European countries, good governance and leadership is viewed as the central keys pillars that support democracy and fairness within an organization. In an organization, the founders tend to determine the behavior of their subordinate leaders by ensuring they use management selection criterions that favor members of a certain culture as their preferred employees. Furthermore, the societal and cultural norms endorsed by the founders of an organization induce global leadership practices desired by the owners. In turn, the subordinate managers have the responsibility to enforce the norms throughout the organization.
Once the founders of the organization establish the initial organizational culture, subsequent leaders and their subordinates have a responsibility of upholding the practices irrespective of their cultural backgrounds. However, as the leadership of the organization is handed down to different generational leaders, dominant organizational cultures are usually altered to favor the dominant races or genders within the organization. This is usually unfair to the minority-underrepresented groups, as they have to tone down their cultural beliefs to accommodate the overall organizational cultural norms dominant in each workgroup they join (Moon, March 1997). Organizational contingencies force managers of international organization to adopt new leadership attributes aimed at fostering the desired communication behavior within the organization.
A Case Study on How Multicultural Diversity Affects International Corporations
Euro Disney Cultural Problems in France
According to Hofstede’s cultural dimension on power distance index, Euro Disney Park under the management of Ron miller failed to understand the acceptance levels of power and authority among the French population that they expected to be their customers. Since France has a high Power Distance Index of 69 out of 100 on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, it therefore means that the French population is more assertive to infringement on their individual privacy by the government or any powerful institution such as Euro Disney S.C.A (Keegan & Green, 2002). It was a failure by the management of Euro Disney to start requiring French citizens working for them and those visiting the park to speak in English at all meetings inside the park.
Trompenaars’ Research on Organizational Culture
According to Hofstede’s cultural dimension on Uncertainty Avoidance Index, France has a high score of 86/100. This means that the French population was not tolerant to trends of uncertainty and ambiguity that Euro Disney management were trying to introduce to the rigid French culture. Euro Disney management disregard for the French culture was the beginning of the company’s problems in its operations in France. In addition, they required all the employees working for them to maintain a strict Disney’s appearance code for members of staff. This appearance code for members of staff required every one working at Euro Disney to use no make-up, facial hair, tattoos nor any type of jewelry while working for the company.
Trompenaars’ research on organizational culture helps to explain the cultural differences between the United States and France by highlighting how the management of Euro Disney developed a pattern of assumptions that eventually led to its slow growth in Paris France. The Managers at Euro Disney made so many assumptions about how they expected the French population to accept their American culture. What they failed to understand is that the French citizens loved their personal space and individual rights protected by the French law and any attempt to infringe on was met with numerous lawsuits that destabilized the operations of the company (Keegan & Green, 2002). The most appropriate way that the company would have to gain popularity between the French population, would have been to embrace the French language and culture as proposed to them by the French government. This would have attracted even those natives of France who did not speak English fluently as they would be allowed to converse in French whist in the park.
Mistakes That the Company Made In Managing Euro Disneyland
The three major mistakes that the company made in managing Euro Disneyland are as follows. The first major mistake that the company made when they set ground in France was requiring English to be spoken at all meetings inside the park. Many throughout France criticized this ignorant stand on language (Goodman, 1999). One very vocal journalist wrote in a French paper Le Figaro that he wished with all his heart that the rebels would set Euro Disneyland on fire for the lack of respect for the indigenous French culture. Many protesters viewed this restriction on language use in the park as new age colonialism. It was not fair for the managing director of Euro Disneyland to restrict speaking in French in the park since it is the national language of France and his target market is the French population (Ely & Thomas, June, 2001). Some people refused to visit the park not because they were not interested but it was because they considered language restrictions in the park as a form of cultural imperialism that the Americans were trying to introduce to France.
Therefore, the company failed to attract the population it was targeting to capitalize on leading to the company making huge losses within its first year in operation. The second mistake that the company made was imposing dressing code regulations to all its employees. This regulation required all the employees of the company to limit their use of make-up, facial hair, tattoos and jewelry. The company did not take a proper dress code survey before they imposed this regulation (Keegan & Green, 2002). This is because if they did they would have learnt of the rich fashion culture that blooms in France and by imposing this regulation; they were insulting the fashion culture in France as a national heritage. The third major mistake that the company made in its operations in France was that they created small pathways like those in their main branch in California.
In summary, multicultural diversity affects the overall organizational culture that is dominant within workgroups comprising the organizational process. In addition, gender equity a key component of cultural relativity at work reduces conflicts within an organization improving the effectiveness of each organization process. In addition, personal affiliations with people of different cultures affect both positively and negatively the overall organizational behavior in a multinational corporation. Therefore, a manager in charge of such an organization should strive to understand how the subordinates relate to each other culturally before grouping them together to perform a certain task. Lastly, members in a heterogeneous group consisting of employees sourced from different cultural backgrounds have the ability to generate diverse ideas that can help streamline organizational strategies. This in turn provides an opportunity for the manager to improve on the quality of decisions made by incorporating ideas sourced from different employees.
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McDonalds A Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility Challenge
Corporate social responsibility provides business with significant benefits. One of these benefits is sustainability (Lindgreen & Swaen, 2010). Every company strives to establish a business model that will provide them with long term success. McDonalds has been faced with a CSR challenge that threatens its ability to establish long term sustainability (Slama, 2014). As McDonalds leaders, it is our responsibility to identify the implications of this challenge, what caused the problem, and initiatives to fix it.
The problem facing us is the quality of the food that we serve at our restaurants (Slama, 2014). There have been incidents where our restaurants have served contaminated food. Furthermore, there is a growing concern that our food does not promote a healthy lifestyle. Obviously, McDonalds strives to provide the highest quality products to our customers. Consequently, it is imperative that we examine our policies in order to find the source of the problem.
In the naturalistic decision making process, we have made decisions in the context of framing bias (Evans, 2008). Our emphasis on profit has hindered our efforts to improve our products and McDonalds has been unwilling to take risks to improve the quality of its products. However, without providing a better product to customers, it will be extremely difficult to maintain profits in the future.
While our current decision making methods have been partially responsible for this problem, it would be extremely dangerous to change it suddenly. Consequently, future efforts must be made within the context of our current decision making context (Evans, 2008). McDonalds’ current decision making consists of preserving current profits instead of providing future solutions. This is not a morally responsible attitude (Gigerenzer, 2010). McDonalds must incorporate social considerations into its decision making. This will enable it to give customers a quality profit and achieve long term sustainability.
Corporate Social Responsibility Decision Making
In this new context of decision making, McDonalds can look at feasible solutions for the future. The most important initiative for the future is a quality reporting system (Toby, Sr., 2012). Incidents of food contamination are unacceptable. Consequently, McDonalds must establish systems to carefully monitor the quality of its food. This would include McDonalds’ managers regularly inspecting the food distribution centers it buys from. Another important initiative is establishing a system to expedite the processing of customer feedback (Toby, Sr., 2012). This is especially important as people become more health conscious. McDonalds will be able to easily change its products to suit their demands.
These policy changes and initiatives will enable McDonalds to move confidently into the future. Changes in our policies will not harm McDonalds. Instead, they will strengthen the core of our organization and propel us on a path to long term sustainability (Toby, Sr., 2012). McDonalds has a moral and social obligation to provide the best quality products to its customers. If that means a change in policy is necessary, that change must take place. It will benefit both McDonalds and its customers. Ethical considerations are not a burden. They are a catalyst to future economic growth.
Evans, J. (2008). Dual-Processing Accounts of Reasoning, Judgment, and Social Cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 255-278.
Gigerenzer, G. (2010). Moral Satisficing: Rethinking Moral Behavior as Bounded Rationality. Topics in Cognitive Science, 2(3), 528-554.
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Toby, Sr., D. H. (2012). Corporate social responsibility initiatives. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 3(1), 95-115.
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International Organization for Standardization (ISO) states that product realization includes: Product and service provision; product control and service provision, validating the process of service provision and production, traceability and identification, property of customer, preservation of product; purchasing process, purchasing, information of purchasing. verification of purchasing product; design and development planning, design and development inputs, design and development review, designs and development outputs, design and development verification, verification of development and design, validation of design and development, control of changes in design and development. Planning of product; processes related to customer, determination of requirements and related to the product; control of devices for monitoring and measuring. (Cobbett et al 2005).
ISO 9001 : 2008 requires department to perform the roles in planning product realizations, Recap of ISO 9001 requirements in planning of product realization are planning and developing the process required for product realization and keeping the consistency of the planning, and documentation should be done in an suitable form, i.e. confirming the names of the plant and determine how best to cultivate or procedure or collect the materials of the plant. Determination if the planning is appropriate i.e. determining the key physio-chemical features of the material and establish the parameters. Here we need product requirement and quality objectives, need for document, process and resources. Validation, verification measurements monitoring, test activities and inspection i.e. establish and determine a good dosage from based on the findings that are confirmed and the legal requirement of the customers for the prospective products, procedure for the product acceptance. Record are required as evidence that the resulting product And the process meet the requirements. The industry pharmaceuticals would establish after determining a suitable dosage form based on confirmed findings and legal customer requirements for the prospective products then registration dossier to be finalized by PTRMD with other departments assistance majorly MCQC.
ISO 9001 Process
As per ISO 9001 : 2008 department role in customer related process there are three QMS processes or requirements under sub close 7.2. It should entail. 1).the requirement connected to the product: customer requirement should be determined, like if it is decided that given medicine should be powder, tablet or capsule others will feature in the a head task, regulatory and statutory requirements needed to the product, not specified for given product though needed for intended or specified use that is known and any requirement that is considered necessary should be given. 2) The industry pharmaceuticals should review the requirement above, the product requirement should be reviewed before supplying the product to the targeted customers for the purpose of ensuring the exact definition of the product requirement, maintaining any subsequent follow up action and the review result, ensuring its ability of meeting the requirements, when the given requirements have not been documented, before any acceptance they must be confirmed, if there is any change in the requirements of the product, ensure amendment of the relevant documents and the personnel who are relevant, are informed of the requirements changes. In situation like, if the report from TL to the CEO gives support for further action on given procedure the CEO will give direction for the TL to proceed with customer-related processes as per sub-clause 7.2. (3) customer communication; the department should be a well implemented and determined for communication with the customers on inquiries, information of the product, handling of the order plus the amendments, feedback of the customer plus the complains made by the customers. (ISO 9001). For instance the team may or may not be reconstituted but the new incoming directions of the given medical research may call for a wide range of expertise from the various units or may be from outside of the team. 4) customer communication is determining and implementing proper ways of communicating with the customers for the purpose of product information, contracts, inquiries or handling of orders including amendments, feedback of the customer plus the complains of the customer.
Role of industry pharmacy department in development and design process as per ISO 9001 : 2008.Recap of ISO 9001 requirements in respect of development and design processes. The roles are: 1) Design and development planning, the team should plan and have control of the design of the product and development for determination of the; stages of development and design consist of verification, appropriate view, and the validation activities for every given stage. The industry pharmacy should produce the highest customer friendly and legal acceptable form of dosage, authority and responsibility for the development and the design, managing the interfaces between the groups that are involved for ensuring effective and clear responsibility assignment, update as appropriate the output planning during the development and the design, the development and design may involve any unit or department depending with the situation. 2) Design and the development input; designing the requirement of the product maintain record and the inputs. The industry pharmacy would strive to provide animal facilities and come up with the most appropriate study model. Applicable legal requirements, and the applicable information derived from the same design, essential requirements for the development and design, review of the input for adequacy, resolving of ambiguous, incomplete or requirements that conflict. The industry pharmacy should strive in providing the highly efficient and economic procedure for the raw materials qualification and the finished product. 3) design and the development output; the output of the design and the development should be documented in a way that they are suitable for verification against the input to the process, and the output should; provide purchasing information service and products, meet the requirements of the design and development, reference or contain the criteria of product acceptance, define the essential characteristics for proper and safe use, the products should be approved before their release, like the industry pharmacy would study design for trials in clinical rest with the CEO office who may utilize expertise from in or outside.
Industry pharmacy role in the development design and processes as per ISO 9001 : 2008. There are 7 QMS processes or requirements under 7.3 (Magaji et al 2012). should be within; development and design review, where the team should perform systematic design review and development at the appropriate stages in accordance with the arrangements that was planned in evaluating the ability of the given results, to requirements as the design review and development are important in discovering the efficient and economic procedures within the industry pharmacy department concerned with the development and design, identifying problems and stating the necessary actions, the result of the reviews should be maintained and do follow up actions subsequently . 2) Development and design verification in accordance with the planned arrangements, the team should conduct verification for ensuring the input requirements are met by the output, and put in maintenance. The result of the verification and continuous follow-ups, for instance the industry pharmacy should give most efficient and economic procedures for qualifying the given raw materials and the end product. 3) Control of design and development changes; identifying changes of the design and development and maintaining the records, verify, validate and review the given changes and make appropriate approval before they are implemented, i.e. when the given products or services fail to pick up as it was planned they have to be re-designed. Evaluating the changes in form of their effects on constituent parts and products already delivered, put in records of the changes result and continuous follow up actions.
Industry pharmacy role in purchasing processes as per ISO 9001 : 2008 which is associated with: 1) purchasing process, the industry pharmacy should ensure that purchased products fulfill their its specified purchase needs in consideration of the type of the products on subsequent process of realization or final product (Magaji et al 2012) i.e. even if there is central purchasing unit supplier department and administration responsible with special and general purchases the criteria for the latter in product realization are furnished by industry pharmacy. Select and evaluate suppliers upon their ability to make supply in accordance with the requirements, establish the procedure of selection (Pharmaceutical, Inc.), re-evaluation and evaluation, and Keep the result of evaluation and subsequent follow up actions. Like the industry pharmacy should provide or source the procedure for the purchase starting materials plus other goods and reagents. 2) Purchasing information requirements to ensure that information of purchase contains the information describing the product to be purchased plus the requirements. Product approval processes, equipment and procedure.
Ensure the quality of being sufficient of the given requirements before making communications to the supplier, and the various department or units should be responsible in verifying purchased items supplied to them. 3) Verification of purchase product is to implement and establish the inspections or other necessary activities for confirming that the products purchased meet the indicated requirement of purchase i.e. Units or departments are responsible for verification of items purchased to them. Should be responsible if the customers or the organization proposes for product verification at the location of supplier they should give the intended verification arrangement and the method of releasing the product in the information for purchase.
Recap of ISO 9001 requirements, there are 5 QMS requirements and processes under sub-clause 7.5 (Megaji et al) the processes are: 1) control of service provision and production. Services provision should be planned and control should be carried out in controlled condition to be applicable. In industry pharmacy every department can provide different data such as taxonomic data and the department can provide highly specialized services as chemical synthesis and forensic analysis, efficacy or toxicity data or data of comparative effect of non-economic or economic species or the antimicrobial potential of a given herb. The information of given product characteristic should be available. Necessary instruction for work should be available i.e. the department responsible should put into writing dossier for registering and regulatory agency of medicine. Suitable equipment should be used. Measuring and monitoring equipment should be available. Monitoring and measuring activities should be implemented. Implementation of delivery, product release and activities of post-delivery. 2) Validation of process for service provision and production, it entail validating service provision or any production in which continuous measurement or monitoring may not verify the given output. This validation consist of processes in which deficiencies may turn out apparent only after service delivery or product use. Through validation, it demonstrates the ability of the process to achieve the planned outcomes. Arrangement of validation should be established including applicable; equipment approval personal qualification, records requirements approval and process review criteria, using defined procedure and methods and re-validation i.e. where herbal medicines and pharmaceuticals needs to pass a battery of test like disintegration test (Capsules and tablets) and before being approved identification.
Industry pharmacy roles in production and service provision as per ISO 9001 : 2008. The recap of ISO requirements there are 5 QMS requirement process under sub-clause 7.5 (Megaji et al 2012), in respect of service provision and production process are: 1) identification and traceability; where appropriate identify the product using best means during the product realization, the key role of the department should be to help establish or propose probable route of production to be done on pilot scale since in chemical medicine production, several in-process quality procedures control are needed.
The department should identify the status of the product with respect measurement and monitoring requirements throughout the product realization it requires that the industry pharmacy should be able to make identification of the product by using appropriate means throughout product realization. Traceability requires that, maintain records and have control of product unique identification as this process is important for regulatory processes and product realization. This are essential strategies that will help in tracing a given problem to their various sources hence every department must take great care with property of customer which are under their control.
2) Customer property; the industry pharmacy should exercise care with any property of the customer while it is still being used or under the control of the department, customer property should be verified, identified, safeguarded and be protected. Any damaged, lost, or unsuitable customer property should be recorded and be reported, this an essential approach for addressing regulatory concerns and accountability concerns which are associated with given pharmacologic agents like poisons and narcotics.
Product preservation should be done during the internal processes and delivery to the required destination for the purpose of maintaining the requirements conformity since applicable preservation consist of handling, identification, packaging, storage and protection i.e. product status should be identified with respect to measurements and monitoring requirements, the departments are required to have defined reference active crude extract, market substance which is defined.
Industry pharmacy department’s role in control of the measuring and monitoring equipment as per ISO: 2008 recap of ISO 9001 requirements, some of the equipment’s in need of re-calibration and calibration are: volumetric wires, refractometers, gravimetric instruments, photometers, electronic devices and various electronic equipment’s.
The recap of ISO 9001 requirements in respect of monitoring and measuring equipment’s processes include. 1) Control of monitoring and measuring equipment’s the department is to determine the measurement and monitoring to be made and the needed equipment for production of product conformity evidence. like the practise of standard’s needs, all units and departments to do calibration to their equipment’s as it is described by procedures for operating and in performing this other control measure needed assessing and recording prior result validity if the method or equipment are observed to conform to the requirements, verification and calibration result records should be maintained, re-confirm or confirm the ability of any software or the used programmes for measurements or monitoring before its initial usage.
2) Control and use measuring and monitoring devices for ensuring that capability of the measurements is consistent with measurements and monitoring requirements, and ensure for the validity of the result in situations where it is necessary; the equipment’s should be calibrated to international or national standards, verify or calibrate the equipment’s for measuring prior to use or at specified intervals, the equipment’s should be safeguarded from improper adjustments, they should be re-adjusted or adjusted as necessary, they should be protected from deterioration and damages.
3) The validity of prior results should be assessed and recorded to find if the device conforms to requirements, in ensuring the result validity the department would; verify or calibrate the measuring equipment’s at prior to use or at specific intervals, equipment’s to be safeguarded from improper adjustments and damages, do the necessary adjustments and re-adjustments, record the equipment’s appropriate basis and do the identification of the equipment’s for measurements for determining their calibration status. 4) Conforming the software used ability for measuring and monitoring for the application that is intended before its initial use.
In conclusion accompany that certifies the level of ISO 9001 : 2008 has got numerous advantages compared to the others, since the companies outsourcing sponsors and customers will also benefit from this .It will help the company to assure their customers that they will meet their needs for product development, product design, servicing, installation and product developments beside meeting the needs of cGMP requirements. (Pharmaceutical, Inc.) And compliance to ISO standards is normally voluntarily though many pharmaceutical companies view it to be hard because of the added level of quality system oversight that that FDA current good manufacturing practises.
Quality and Compliance – Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
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