P&G Brand Advertising Campaign

Different Brand Advertising Campaign: Case Study of P&G

P&G Brand Advertising Campaign: As prescribed by different researchers and organizations, the cost of doing business is in the recent years is increasing (Amyx 2005; Williams and Page 2009). This is as a result of increasing competition within the market environment, where different businesses are doing everything possible to woo as many customers as possible. As a result of this, consumers of different products are the beneficially since all the extensive researches conducted are geared toward improving the quality of different products; hence, enhance consumer satisfaction. To achieve such objective, while still remaining relevant and competitive, the organizations need to formulate resilient strategies that build on distinctive competencies and provide a lasting competitive advantage.

On the same right, the said strategies ought to be sensitive and dynamic so as to encompass any eminent changes that are inevitable in any competitive market. Among the market strategies that different organizations are engaging in is the different brand advertising campaign. Advertising, as different researchers have claimed plays a key role in determining the success of a given product in the market. In regard to a different brand advertising campaign, the emphasis is on product differentiation, where the company tries to convince their customers, and other potential ones that their products are superior to similar products offered by their competitors. This is specifically done, in a bid to increase sales, command the market share and win new customers for increased profitability. Nevertheless, adopting a different brand advertising campaign is not a smooth ride but there a variety of handles that the marketers need to contend with at different levels. This is even true when a firm is facing competing rivals who also keep strengthening their advertising and product strategies with an aim of dominating the market (Brewster and Palmer 2001).

The study work at hand intends to explore some of the potential problems that a marketer may experience in his/her bid of using a different brand advertising campaign as his/her ultimate marketing strategy. To achieve the intended objective, the study will use P&G as its case study and will explore some of the challenges, and benefits it has achieved by employing the said marketing strategy instead of using the conventional advertising strategy. In addition, the research will propose some of the methods that can be employed to override those problems.

Brief description of P&G

William Procter and James Gamble are credited as the founders of Procter and Gamble (P&G) business that has in the recent past expanded to the international market; both in developed and developing countries. It has been regarded as one of the Fortune 500 American multinational corporations that have established its roots far and beyond its boundaries of Cincinnati where it was first established. The industry is supposedly the American biggest producer of household products and pharmaceutical goods. In particular, company is credited for providing over 250 brands that are grouped into six distinct categories. These groups include laundry and detergents, paper products like toilet papers, beauty care, food and beverages, sanitary towels and health care products.

In addition, the company also makes other products like pet food and PUR water filters and chemicals that are used internally and also by other chemical processing companies. As a way of attracting and retaining new clients, especially female consumers, the P&G also engages in production and sponsoring of Soap Operas that serves to distinguish its brand advertising strategies (A Company History: 1837- Today 2006). In fact, P&G is among business that have been credit with successful business innovations especially on brand management such as Connect and Develop innovation. According to Nielsen Company, P&G business is also among those companies that spend a fortune in advertisements alone. It is said to have had the highest advertising budget of all companies listed in United States by 2007 (Johnson 2012).

Brand Advertising
Brand Advertising

Despite all these positive aspects, the company also faces some challenges that demand prompt actions. Among such challenges is the continuous demand for new innovative and brands differentiation. The pressure originates from stiff competition that is posed by other small and larger competing companies. In addition, advancement in technology and new demands for new brands, the company is in a dilemma in deciding which brands to retain and those to discard. For instance, though soap and candle were the main products that the company produced in its initiation stages, candles have become obsolete due to the invention of electric lights among other products that rendered it irrelevant. Attracting, retaining and satisfying the clients are the main challenge that the company contend with all the time.

To handle this challenge effectively, the company has come up with different strategies that are also sensitive to the increasing cost of production in the company. In regard to this fact, as was observed by Jeff Neff of Ad Age, the company had even lost its usual top post in shopper magazine ranking. The failure to retain the top slot went on for three years making shareholders wary. The challenge is thought to have been as a result of effective advertising by its competitors like Unilever (Neff 2013).

In regard to its budget, as per its 2010 annual report indication, P&G is said to be spending cash amounting to over $10 billion in advertisements alone. According to the report, the percentage of Ads as a portion of sales for the said years was approximately 11.3%. This is an increase from the previous years’ where the same ratio was 10.9% and 9.8% in 2010 and 2009 respectively (Johnson 2012). Such increasing figures in advertising is said to have its toll on company’s inability to reward its faithful shareholders effectively (Edwards 2011).

Psychology of advertising

Advertising, since time in memorial, has been used in different circumstances by business to build powerful business force. In definition, as proposed by Brewster & Palmer, 2001, advertising may be referred to the purchased publicity conducted in a pre-planned way to seduce potential clients to act, think or behave as per the advertisers’ desires. According to Robert Hearth, advertisement is a tool that is most effective in persuading any potential and existing consumers to consumer certain products. According to him, companies that use advertising are amongst the most successful ones in the world (Heath 2012).

The same claim is echoed by Krugman’s idea who asserted that TV advertising has a direct influence on individuals even when processed inattentively. This is what is supposedly referred to by a number of individuals as subconscious seduction. Advertisers take advantage of this fact, first, to influence individuals’ mind and secondly, to influence their decision making in regard to certain products. Some psychologist believes that advertisements have both negative effects and positive effect on different individuals of a society. They also believe that the presence of advertisements on available media; whether television, newspapers, magazines, journals, radio and internet among others make all individuals target. They thus believe that advertisements have subliminally stimulated the way different individuals react in different situations (Amoto and Laudati 2001).

Richard Pollay, in his book, The Distorted Mirror: Reflection on the Unintended Consequences of Advertising claim that advertising seem to pop up in every part of the society, include the intimate space of customers’ homes. According to him, advertisements are created to attract attention, cause a change of attitude and influence consumer behavior toward certain ways (Pollay 1986). Nevertheless, some researchers still hold the idea that, though, advertisements has almost direct influence on individuals viewing them, businesses and individual marketers need to formulate their advertisement perfectly so as to inform customers of their products; hence, woo them toward buying (Hansotia and Wang 1997).

According to researchers, customers are highly responsive to advertisements, especially those that are aimed at informing them of new products in the market. Such advertisements are said to carry information persuading the customers to purchase a certain brand of products due to their superiority in quality and customer friendly prices. Depending on the response of the customers on product differentiation message contained in the adverts, firms are said to take appropriate actions; whether to increase or decrease their sizes. In cases where the customers’ responses are deemed positive, firms are said to increase their market size appropriately as they also adjust the prices of their products accordingly (Ferguson 20012).

Possible problems associated with advertising

As describe above, advertising is one of the strongest and most effective tool that businesses can adopt to reach their targeted customers. Nevertheless, in the process of designing, formulating, implementation and monitoring a myriad of potential problems may haunt the business. Such challenges are the center of interest in the succeeding discussion. The problems may include, but not limited to cost implication, consumer attitude, stiff competition from competing businesses, and product differentiation among others.

Cost implications

According to a discussion paper prepared by Kyle Bagwell of University of Columbia, Department of Economics on The Economic Analysis of Advertising, advertising is a sizeable business. According to him, in the year 2003, major companies like General Motors $3.43 billion, Procter and Gamble $3.32 billion and Pfizer $2.84 billion among other companies experienced such greater advertising expenses (Bagwell 2005). The high costs of advertising are to some extent influenced by the stiff competitions that exist in the market. In the case of P&G, though the company was the pioneer of so many products like cleaning detergents, health care products like shampoos and chemicals, a large number of potential competitors like Unilever have come up with similar products. In some instances, such competitors are said to outdo P&G Company in terms of quality of some products. They also do well in reaching out for consumers through their effective advertising and rebranding strategies.

In regard to adopting a different brand advertising campaign like it has been done by P&G, the cost of selling the idea would mean adjusting the advertisement budget upward. In a conventional advertising budget, the cost would be influenced by a number of factors such as the frequency of advertising, competition and clutter, market share of the brand being advertised and the product life cycle stage. In regard to frequency of advertisement, advocating for a different brand would mean that the cost would be relatively higher than that of already established products. The need for increasing the frequency of advertising is to try and ensure that the target consumers are convinced that the target product is superior to the ones being offered in the market (Brewster and Palmer 2001).

A company using a different brand advertising campaign is also expected to bear more financial burden in regard to competition and clutter. Clutter in this case refers to number advertisements that are run in a given media. P&G is expected to incur extra cost since it requires having more clutter than its competitors. In addition, the cost of designing such advertisement would cost them more than that of an already established product that have already been accepted widely and can still dominate the market even without the need for an advert.

Selling a different brand will also require the company to emphasis on the quality of the product it is selling. According to psychologists, consumers are always looking for a product that would not only satisfy them in terms of financial implication, but also one that meet their quality expectation. This will auger well with how well the product has gained ground in terms of market share. In addition, a new brand will demand that the advertisement be of high quality and eye catching and unique. To achieve all these, the company will require engaging experts in its production lines who will ensure that the quality of the product is not compromised. They should also ensure that their packaging line is managed by individuals who are experienced and understand how the markets work. The packaging material should also be appealing and unique so that it can stand-out amid competition. All the above objectives are only achieved if the company’s advertising budget is relative higher than that of the competitor.

In some instances, companies, including P&G are bound to rebrand their products in the form of product differentiation. This will mean that even an existing product, which has undergone such changes, would look as new product. To convince the existing consumers and also the potential consumers that the products are the same or relatively better will call for serious and extensive campaign. In order to reach all the clients, the company would not trust only one form of media, but would opt for a number of them that would be accessible by the target clients. For instance, in a bid to remain relevant and competitive in the sale of women product, P&G is said to be producing and supporting some soap operas both in TV and Radio. This means that its advertisement budget is higher than that of its competitors. With increased advertising budget together with other running expenses that companies incur in their bid remain competitive and attract to both customers and potential and existing investors, the company may fail to meet its long-term objectives.

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For instance, it is said that P&G had in some years failed to provide substantial returns to its shareholders due to increasing cost of production and running costs. Here, with a quick glance at the 2012 P&G annual report, the company’s net earnings reduced from $ 15,495 to $13, 292 despite an increase in net sale to $83, 680 from $81,104 in the year 2011 and 2012 respectively. This led to a decrease of $ 0.73 in net earnings per common share from continuing operations (P&G 2012; Johnson 2012). The increase in sales may be attributed to the progressive and active advertisement, but this lead to increased operation costs that have lead to reduction in net earnings. With the company failing to satisfy its shareholders, some are bound to withdraw their support while others may invest in competing companies. Such a move would be detrimental to the company and its products.

Consumer attitude and perception

Psychologically, individuals are said to react with a lag of diverse period in terms of changing their decision due to changes in certain issues (Gujarati 2007). In regard to the question at hand, individuals would also be cautious to jumping into buying new or rebranded products due to the natural nature of human being of the fear of unknown. In addition, as expressed in the previous section, customers are subjective to seduction borne in different advertisements. In cheer realization that other competing companies are as well striving toward winning more consumers, such companies are bound to benefit more when a company decide to go beyond the usual products. In addition, some researchers have argued that, the relevance and importance of a certain ad would be determined highly with how the consumer has interacted with ads In cases where the consumer do not have access to the ad, it would mean that they would be blind to the product being targeted (Rubin 1981). On the same note, the different brand advertising campaign may not encompass enough information to change the decision of the clients as Fernandez and Rosen (2000) found out in his research on goal-oriented consumer’s response.

Effect of competition on advertisement

According to economists, companies come up with advertisements for various reasons that are all directed to customers. On the same note, economists believe that marketers and advertisers retain ultimate right to decide on the content of advertisements, and customers have no option but to take the information carried by the ads. For this reason, consumers do not all the time openly accept the information. Instead, they are said to interpret advertisements differently. Therefore, adopting a different brand advertising campaign is bound to experience more challenges than the conventional way. In addition, since advertisements are bound to affect pricing of different products before consumers are fully persuaded that the different products are superior and selling at fair prices, the company may experience low growth as consumers opt to buy from their competitors (Kirmani 1990). Similar assertion are echoed by Sutton (1991) who said that though advertising is bound to improve customer perception toward a certain brand; hence, creating some barrier to entry, it is bound to increase competition; thus, forcing some firms to reduce their expenditure to avoid the ultimate effects of fierce price competition.

Economists, to some extent, agree that advertising is majorly adopted by monopolistic firms, to gain product differentiation and achieve market control. With product differentiation objective achieved, the firm is as well said to have gained some ground in controlling the market. In the study’s case scenario, P&G Company is not a monopolistic but is surrounded by able rivals and even potential entrant. For this reason, convincing the customers that their products are superior would mean increasing its advertisement clutters; adopt alternative campaign strategies among other ways. Different brand advertising campaign may also, instead of increasing awareness of the product increase the demand for a rival company’s product at the expense of the marketer.

On the same right, such advertising strategy would reversely lead to a decline in consumer value especially in developed market due to increased commodity prices to counter the extra financial experiences trigger by the ads. For instance, P&G sponsored the US Olympic Team and had an advert dubbed ‘Thank you Mom’. Inasmuch as the ad had gained popularity in the US, P&G Company may have not scored properly due to the high cost of running the advert. According to a report released by the company in 2012, the ‘Thank you Mom’ advertisement required the company to think globally. This would involve formulating a communication objective that would cut across board; hence, requiring an expansive and expensive plan to articulate (P&G 2012).

Product differentiation

One of the key pillars toward a successful advertisement campaign is price differentiation. Firms and companies that have successfully managed to persuade their customers that their products are overly different from others in terms of quality, outcomes and costs are said to have been rewarded with unequivocal market share and dominance. In regard to product differentiation, a firm opting to conduct a different brand advertisement campaign is bound to employ either the horizontal or vertical differentiation. In definition, horizontal differentiation consumers are said to differ in what they prefer in a product. That is; the characteristics like color, taste, and sources bestowed on a given product. On the other hand, in regard to vertical differentiation, the emphasis is on product characteristics that make consumer go for quality. Therefore, a problem of ensuring that the products under scrutiny in different brand advertising campaign are purely different from other may arise.

In regard to P&G, as documented in its 2012 annual report, its main objectives is to have brands with strong equities in the minds of consumers, those that retailers are demanding and those that are platforms for innovation. Achieving such objectives is not a significant challenge to P&G since it has financial, technological and manpower strength. Nevertheless, the same notion is sure in its rival competitors’ agenda. The only sure way to ensure that its product retain their reputation is to ensure total differentiation, which in part is supported by effective and extensive advertisement (Barroso and Llobet 2011).

In this right, Roberts and Lattin (1991) found out consumers reaction toward consuming a certain brand is more influenced by their choice sets later than their awareness sets. According to them, the consumers’ awareness is highly influenced by such things like advertisements while the choice set is determined by the consumers purchasing decisions. Therefore, a firm that is determined to employ a different brand advertisement strategy should emphasis on influencing both awareness and choice set factors, something that may be problematic to balance and achieve as (Goeree 2008) found out.

Shon Ferguson (2012), in his study on Endogenous product differentiation, market size and price stated that consumer love for diversified brands leads them to becoming more sensitive to product differentiation efforts by different firms; hence, uncontrollable increase of differentiated products in the larger market. In respect to this, he argued that expansion of market base by firms through product differentiation and advertisement may eventually lead to higher prices of such products. If this does happen, consumers are then said to divert their attentions to other similar commodities that are offered at lower prices. This is because, with polarized market, consumers have a wide variety of commodities that they can choose from; hence, the notion of consumer loyalty does not hold (Ferguson 20012).

This is true even to the case of P&G Company that, though having been among the market pioneer is competing with so many other late entrants. In addition, as some researchers have argued, so much concentration on the need for price differentiation would eventually lead to a compromise in terms of prices or quality (P&G 2012). Therefore, the most appropriate advice that researchers have offered is for firms to remain cognizant of the consumers’ need and marshal toward satisfying them by and large.

Grossman and Shapiro while investigating the effect of informative advertising realized that advertising help the elasticity of demand faced by each participating firm. According to them, the lower the cost of advertising, the more the advertisement clutter will increase and the better informed the consumer will become (Amoto and Laudati 2001). In such instances, where the customers are well informed, and more firms are engaged in advertisements, a firm that spend more money in advertisements is bound to suffer since advertising in a market where consumers have full knowledge of the market does not necessary mean increasing your customers.

Recommendation

To avoid the potential problems that are associated with different brand advertising campaign effectively, marketers would need to take a number strategic measure. First, as it has extensively been discussed in the previous section, the marketers should constrain their budgets in such a way that they adhere to the company’s objective. This can be done by ensuring that the advertisements are perfectly formulated to reach the target group effectively while at the same time, minimizing the cost of running those adverts in different media.

In regard to consumer perception and attitude, the adverts should carry exceptionally, convincing and persuasive messages that reflect, if possible, the actual reality of the brand being advertised. This would auger well since customers who have had the potential to purchase the product can pass the same information to them that are aware of the brand but have not made a positive choice of purchasing them. In addition, this would give the company a competing edge against its potential rivals and potential entrants.

The company should also formulate its advertisement with cheer realization that the advert can have an anti-competing outcome, where it promotes the products of the competing firms. The company should also have its shareholders and investors in mind; hence, it would continually receive financial and other forms of supports even in times of turmoil.

Conclusion

P&G Company, like many other large and small companies, engages in intensive advertisement in a bid to weather down any potential competition. In fact, Procter and Gamble is said to be the leading company in terms of advertisement. This is true even with the fact that it is always in the top three of the most profitable multinational company. The need for regular advertising, where it is reported to collaborate with other firms and sponsor is said to emanate from the need to inform its customers regularly of its superior brands that have dominated the market. In a bid to advertise, like any other companies, it faces challenges that drag down its objectives.

Among the advertising strategies that a company adopts, different brand advertising campaign is one that can lead to greater success in reaching customers. Nevertheless, there are a myriad of challenges that are attached to the strategy as discussed in the previous section. In particular, the campaign would be more expensive than the conventional methods employed by many companies. It requires maximum time to convince the customers that truly, the brand the company is selling is superior and better than the similar ones in the market. Again, the customers may not be fully convinced; hence, though having the awareness of the product may opt to consume those offered by competitors. The strategy is also said, sometime, to work against the company where it indirectly promotes the products of its competitors. Therefore, as much as the company would love to use this strategy, it should be wary of the challenges; hence, plan appropriately. The advert should be formulated in such a way that all the unnecessary costs are avoided while at the same time, targeting to reach all the potential customers.

References

AMOTO, Giuliano and LAUDATI, Lariane L. (2001). The Anticompetitive Impact of Regulation. illustrated ed., Edward Elgar Publishing

AMYX, c. (2005). Small business challenges:The perception problem size doesn’t matter. Washington business Journal, 50-76

BAGWELL, Kyle ( 2005). The Economic Analysis of Advertising. New York, NY, Columbia University

BARROSO, Alicia and LLOBET, Berald (2011). Advertising and consumer awareness of new, differentiated products

BREWSTER, Arthur Judson and PALMER, Herbert Hall (2001). Introduction to Advertising. illustrated ed., Albuquerque, NM, The Minerva Group, Inc.

A Company History: 1837- Today. (2006).

EDWARDS, Jim (2011). How P&G’s Ad budget grew to $10B, Accomplishing Less and Less as it went

FERGUSON, Shon M. (20012). Endogenous Product Differentiation, Market Size and Prices. Research paper, Research Institute of Industrial Economics

FERNADEZ, K. V. and ROSEN, D. L (2000). The effectiveness of information and color in yellow pages advertising. Journal of Advertising, 29 (2), 61-73

GOEREE, Michelle Sovinsky (2008). Limited Information and Advertising in the U.S. Personal Computer Industry. Econometrica, 76 (5), 1017-74

GUJARATI (2007). Basic Econometrics. 4 ed., India, McGraw-Hill Education

HANSOTIA, B and WANG, P (1997). Analytical Challenges in Customer Acquisition. Journal of Dierect Marketing, 11 (2), 7-19

HEATH, Robert (2012). Seducing the Subconscious: The Psychology of Emotional Influence in Advertising. illustrated ed., Burlington, MA, John Wiley & Sons

JOHNSON, Bradley (2012). Procter & Gamble Co.’s Advertising Spending, 1987 to 2012

KIRMANI, Amna (1990). The Effect of Perceived Advertising Costs on Brand Perceptions. Consumer Research, 12 (1), 160-7

NEFF, Jeff (2013). P&G Regains Top Slot in Shopper Marketing

P&G (2012). 2012 Annual Report

POLLAY, Richard (1986). The Distorted Mirrow: Reflections on the Unintended Consequences of Advertising. Journal of Marketing, 50 (1), 18-36

ROBERTS, John H and GLEN, L (1988). Modeling Multiattribute Utility, Risk, and Belief dynamics for new consumer Durable Brand Choice. Management Science, 32, 255-66

RUBIN, A (1981). An examination of Television Viewing Motivations. Communication Research, 8 (1), 141-65

SUTTON, John (1991). Sunk Costs and Market Structure. MIT Press

WILLIAMS, Kaylene and PAGE, Robert (2009). Marketing to the Generations. Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business

I hope you enjoyed reading this post on the brand advertising campaign of P&G. There are many other titles available in the marketing dissertation collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Television Media Advertising

Impact of Television Media Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior

Dissertation Title: Impact of Television Media Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior. Advertisements play a huge role in altering the behavior of consumers towards the products shown in the advertisements. In recent times, an increase in advertisements per brand has been observed. Advertisements have huge influence in purchasing decision of customers for particular brands. It is a ubiquitously accepted fact that advertisements can bestow special attributes upon a product or service that it may have lacked otherwise. This work focuses on identifying the influence of advertisements on the consumer behavior and attitude.

Television Media Advertising Dissertation
Television Media Advertising Dissertation

The Researcher utilized survey Research Design in the collection of the data. This was due to the simplicity involved in seeking people’s opinion using Questionnaire. Stratified Sampling Method was used to get the sample size for this study is 250. Data gathered from the study were analyzed, tested and interpreted using sample percentage frequency table. The collected data were analyzed in tables and simple percentages, while the hypotheses were tested using the chi square technique. Hypotheses were tested critically to reveal the authenticity of responses by the respondents to the research questions.

In the final analysis, attempts were made to bring to summary the tested research hypotheses and two major conclusions were made. By virtue of this study, it was discovered that television advertising positively shapes a consumer’s perception about a product. Advertising is expensive, its outcome is usually uncertain, and most times it takes long before having any effect on consumers’ buying behavior. It is due to these reasons that many companies find it appropriate, intermittently to decrease expenses on advertising or to totally exclude it. On the other hand, some organizations sometimes consider it needless to advertise when their products are already enjoying great patronage without advertisement. Such behavior indirectly fails to reflect the fact that advertising is not just a present expense but a future investment.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To study the impact of television advertisements on the consumer segments
  • To study the impact of television advertisements on the consumer buying segments
  • To study factors affecting the consumer buying process with respect to television advertisements

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I hope you enjoyed reading this post on Impact of Television Media Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior. There are many other titles available in the marketing dissertation collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Advertising Essays Benefits

The Benefits of Buying Advertising Essays

Advertising

Benefits of Buying Advertising Essays – Advertising is all about face value in a business. Anyone studying marketing knows that advertising is more about brands and what you present to your customers and how you present the products according to their requirements and needs. Advertising has grown into a full blown industry that has become more than guesswork and instinct. With the world turning into a global village in the past two decades and with the world of advertising getting attention around the globe, you’re not just competing against local competitors, you’re competing against the world market.

Changing Trends in Advertising

Advertising has become more about facts and figures as the competition has peaked. There are so many products out there that the customers can easily compare and buy the products that they need at better prices. The one thing that the other product company did better than you was to market their product better. How? You think you did everything that you could to sell your product in an effective way but if you pay attention, you will notice that it has been mentioned that the customer would compare the product and he/she will chose the product that fits his/her needs better. Advertising companies make an effort to know what the customers need and at what price to market their product in such a way that the customers felt like that the product was made for their use. It might seem like an easy thing to do but it is not. The customers’ choice change so rapidly and advertising companies don’t usually have time to conduct extensive studies and keep up with the market trends at the same time.

Advertising Essays
Advertising Essays

Concept of Advertising Essays

There are professionals however, that have ample time to do both of these things in a given period of time. They not only research and record the trends in market but they also find out the preferences and the choices of the customers. And we get their work in form of advertising essays.

Advertising Essays

Advertising essays are a detailed study of different aspects of advertising including consumer behaviour, trends in advertising, trends of earnings by other companies, trends of loss and profit in different advertising agencies, advertising strategies and other topics. These essays are written by professionals and expert analysts who observe the trends in market and do extensive research on the topic. Our advertising essays are easily available for university students and span most elements of marketing.

Benefits of Buying Advertising Essays

  • Any business could benefit from buying these essays for contemplating their market strategies. Advertising essays are written from an advertising point of view completely.
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  • They are a reliable predictor of the present and the future trends in advertising.
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Advertising essays are usually considered and discarded as literature. People mostly believe in theoretical and practical approaches but it is an established fact that calculated risks are better than impulsive risks. Advertising essays are tools in your arsenal that could help you get a hold of the local and international market and move ahead with your advertising strategy.

Advertising Essays | Advertising Dissertations

Essay Facebook Marketing

Essay Facebook Marketing

Marketing in the current era is believed to take a different dimension to hit its target. With the fast growing technology in the current word professional marketers are widely relying on technology to promote and advertise their goods and services. For this initiative to perform comfortably they need to ensure that engaging customer interrelation by electronic means will work effectively and deliver the best result. When using technology or online marketing sometimes it does not seem to be real to customers and internet users, and they get to prefer television marketing which might be effective to the surrounding environment. This act as a problem or difficulty in effective marketing and it will automatically lead to poor responsiveness on the organization. Some of the social network working well is face book marketing, they have handled there problems effectively when it gets to advertising measurements. For instance the click-through rate for face book marketing which has done very well over throwing placard advertisement which has dropped over time.

(R., U.M., & A., 2005) Supported that there is a study that published the part of customer overview of social network marketing; this networks grow quickly over a short time of period. In this case study, little is discovered on the behavior of online marketing to the internet users. Due to problems and difficulties capital ventures produce incorrect and insufficient facts which lend to a problem for the advertisers loose track and cannot even identify the targeted viewers.

The new research is carried out to accomplish the research on internet users approach to social networks marketing. The area of study will be Facebook. Facebook is a one of the popularly, most used and known social network used by both young and old. It is commonly used for business matters or personal matters.  Facebook marketing is much different from other customary marketing. This is a service that is mostly used by start-up organization to involve the social network people. This means that Facebook marketing is still at its early age and it is a beginning dimension of marketing which is growing very fast.

However this research entailed aims and objectives, a purpose and also some of the encountered problems. The purpose of this study was to analyse Facebook marketing on how to approach it, measurements on how to appraise their efficiency and also Facebook marketing strategies. There are some challenges and problems of this study this include increasing a close view and analyse measurement of Facebook marketing strategies adapted by different organizations.

The main aim of this study is to find out what influences users on quantity of time they spend on Facebook. This was done at a view point of the kind of usage, brand and how much they are involved in advertisement. The managed result also showed that Facebook usage was on: post on timeline, fun, looking for friends and during free time. It also showed that gender and marital status contribute to the time spent on Facebook. Objectives of this study are:

  1. To view Facebook marketing activities
  2. To evaluate the intensity of Facebook marketing strategies
  3. To examine the consequence of Facebook marketing activities
  4. To charge the helpfulness of Facebook marketing measurements in terms of importance of social network sites
  5. To find out how marketers are adapting to the advertisement changing world.

Reason for the study

Facebook was first discovered in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, it was confined to college students requiring users to use their email ids connected with their colleges. Facebook movement enlarged new has association and today Facebook gets 200000 memberships daily and 54 billion standard page view. Social networking sites they are no longer innovative but Facebook marketing has tried to improve and maintain its users. Facebook is a website equipped with different types of software that are needed in the internet to allow user to perform activities that can be performed on different website making it an outstanding social networking. Apart from the marketing function, Facebook marketing is also used for public communication and personal private communication like sending family pictures.

View of the study

Communication occurs where there is a sender and a receiver of a message being transmitted. Computer application is one of the ways that that is used to communicate; IT modification has developed the mode of communication making it acceptable for social work communication to be accepted. This has allowed users to acquire widespread awareness. Availability of different software that make up Facebook it is possible to use Facebook marketing instead of using other different websites to promote and advertise you product. This are things like uploading an image or a video so as customers can view all the features of the product. It has also been discovered that most of the users do not pay attention to the advertisement in there profile and this can lead to companies developing a communication direction with their clients and this is much better than social marketing (Bakker, 2003).

Social networks

Social networking has affected individuals differently. The networks link connect individually online all around the word. IT development has put together the daily lives activities of individuals. Out of curiosity people have widely accepted social networking and they engage more on social networking. They send links to their friends and also write more on their profiles. Some websites have restrictions on who is to join in terms age, gender or religious and others group there members into different categories like mutual racial or gender but there are some other groups that do not carry any restrictions and anybody can join.

Competitive market structure

Social networking is based on a competitive market where they work hard for each website to increase its competitiveness advantage for each site to emerge the best then they should be creative and come up with something unique.  This is done by working and coming up with new and more resolution to get hold of their clients. Marketers work on this by making simple online brand communities, this are social sites that depend on structure position of their relationship among their brand followers and they are focused; non- geological limit communities. This communities influence their customer intentions and behavior due to their good relationship. They also create an easy working environment for their customers like providing contact information. Facebook being one of the social network sites with billions of users they take advantage the relationship to market products. They are different methods used to market in Facebook like rumor marketing, dispersal of modernization, buzz marketing and viral marketing. Rumor marketing is one that is mostly used.

Social network analysis

Social network examination is quite important to search for the best technique to determine “who talks to whom” in a group of people. It is also very important to analyse a social network to understand which group suits you and also to understand the type of information that is required.

Importance of Facebook marketing

Facebook marketing has become one of the best marketing channels in the word of businesses. One of the major importance of Facebook marketing is has varied areas and also makes things appear to be more real. It can also advise and help organizations on how to get new clients. The development of Facebook marketing has helped user to rely on online communication whereby you don’t have to appear face to face. Facebook has turned out to be one of the social networks which have grown drastically in rumor marketing. In most cases rumor Facebook marketing requires a face to face appearance so as it can be more effective for buyers to buy the product. Companies that want to introduce a new product in the market mostly go for internet marketing. This is because there are several users and also rumor marketing is more effective if used on social sites. This is also cheaper than employing other classical advertising channels and also Facebook is managed by individuals and their relationship among each other helps them to communicate effectively. You should also consider the most effective and persuasive to use for good promotion. Nielsen researched and found out that 78% of 26000 Facebook users are invited by the Facebook old members. Deloitte consumer products group found out that 62% percent of clients are influenced by user appraisal to read more about products. Empirical researches inspected that new ideas are passed through interpersonal statement. In the current generation every business has have an online Facebook account this helps in targeting the young generation are also it gives everybody an opportunity to give out there views. (Bakker, 2003) defined the Facebook marketing method as that includes electric media of channel where a buyer and seller interact. These suggest that e-marketing is concerned with promoting products through technology.

Facebook Marketing Essay

Facebook marketing and business

According to researcher It was discovered that Facebook marketing has altered marketing communication in business and company. Most of the vendors use Facebook marketing to look compare and contrast products and services offered by different companies. This also helps to analyse the strength and weaknesses of the rival company. Clients also consider the security of each website. (Kozinets, 2009, pp. 252-264) Confirms that business that engage in Facebook and e-marketing grow by 46% quicker than those that use classical advertising. Online usage of marketing by companies has believed to be of an advantage over their rival companies. Facebook is the most essential social media platform in e-commerce business has large companies. For instance Ebay and Amazon are the largest e-commerce to reach its vast extensive users.

(C.M., Anthony, & E.A., 2004, pp. 90-204) investigated on possible measure that Facebook marketing can advice the development of the young and growing business to increase their sales and their profits. On the other hand (Henkin, 2006, pp. 109-483) insists that Facebook marketing can be used as an outstanding media off communication and can also assist clients to come up with what they want. (DiClemente & Hantula, 2003, p. 785) emphasized that there was truth in (Henkin, 2006) suggests that Facebook can be used by small companies to gain big numbers of people and increase their sales. Facebook creates a good customer relationship; this is by a close supervision to assess the customers’ feedback and also to monitor your rivals at a close watch. Del and Fedex Company are some are some of the companies that employ Facebook marketing to promote their products. For instance Del uses Facebook to get rid of the supply chain offer this will offer a reader a design of how straight selling has contributed to the company to be the word class firm while Fedex company concentrate on creating a simple order which directs them to the achievement of the courier organization not only in America but everywhere in the word. (C.M., Anthony, & E.A., 2004).

The development of technology has helped Facebook marketing to play other important role other than just helping in business representation or supervising in the supply chain then they can help the company to understand how they can produce their products.  (Briggs & Burke, 2002). To achieve an efficient firm then Facebook can advice on it is important for firm to have self belief and also put more effort in Facebook marketing. In a number of cases Facebook marketing is believed to have achieved the best like. Big companies like Amazon, Fedex and Dell they have grown rapidly and this is made possible the individual examination of each company to ensure that face book marketing is working effectively in the companies.

Marketing plans

To come up with effective marketing plans the organization should involve the community to get opinions on what their products should have and what is the best time to release their products this will help the organizations to have the best market plan. Advertising is one of the ways that you can involve the viewers and get their opinions. This can be done through television advertisement. In the current years Facebook advertisement is considered to be the best since the viewers can easily live there comment. (Steinfield Ellison Lampe 2008 434–445). This is essential to Facebook marketing plans.

Perceptions of advertising relevance and value

In another research it discovered that clients have a different reaction of online marketing. These reactions can be identified on the use of Facebook marketing. One of the client behaviors is seen on Facebook marketing offered as a two level arrangement showing widespread insight of Facebook marketing and the personal insight with marketing. The other effect is seen at an individual level where one is able to converse with each other regardless the distance (Alwitt & Prabhaker, 2004). Facebook has gain popularity and it is highly praised for its power to influence more and more people to use. It contains unique measures like image sending, text sending and also sending video links. It is possible and very easy for Facebook marketing affiliates to access information regarding a company when they view the multilingual profile of the business. It also helps business organization to describe more about their products in there profiles (B. & Ellison, 2007).

Advertising avoidance

This may appear mostly when viewers don’t pay attention to the advertisement this can occur when people don’t pay attention to the pop ups in the internet or when people revolve to other programs on the television when there is a ads break. Others don’t even pay attention to the ads place on the newspaper. Advertising confusion may appear when there is over advertising in a well known advertising media (Palmer and Koenig Lewis 2009 pp 162-176).

Credibility

Credibility can be defined as the belief or a personal thinking of something. Media and marketing credibility could be described as the perspective of the customer thinking and customer believe about media advertising. It has been discovered that online media credibility can be measured. Another research carried out discovered that internet information is not restricted. This makes online information not to be trusted since it is not restricted. Peoples mostly don’t pay attention to online pop up advertisement because they don’t trust in it.

Privacy

Privacy matters in social internet sites have become one on of the problems. People don’t trust internet with their information. Some people end up exposing extremely personal information on their website which can be accessed by everybody.

Evaluation

Social media use different methods to converse which are innovative shift. Some of the social media are blogs, wikis which are similar to Facebook as well as LinkedIn. With the developing technology more and more social sites are coming up but customers’ use this websites after lawyers have inspected them and they are found fit to use.

New FTC Guidelines Implicate Social Media

The Federal trade Commission issues testimonials or improvement guidelines that are relevant to social media whether it is a sponsor or not. In Inadvertent liability may affect not present wary monitor. In fabric association a company as well as a blogger or tweeter, it has got to be released by the blogger or tweeter as well as accountability for deteriorating.

Company Sponsored Social Media

Companies using Facebook marketing, YouTube and all the other social media they need there pages to be well regulate in matters of law or trademark and copyright infringement. Facebook is one of the sites that are much easier to regulate and still deliver all your messages.

Employers/Employees Issues

Both the employers and employee play a role in the development of the company. The two parties use social media for business and personal matters. This requires one to be more careful about the laws governing the company. All business is based under laws that that should be well followed by both the employs and the employer.

Employee Use of Social Media

If a company is not allowed to use social media the employees should be fully educated on the consequences of social media participation and they should also know how to differentiate their private and professional life. If a company uses social media then they should know how to handle the business matters to portray a good picture of the company.

Employer Use of Social Media

Companies are more application amusing media to

  1. Awning abeyant job applicants.
  2. Investigate doubtable counterfeit claims for workers’ advantage or unemployment benefits.
  3. Adviser agent conduct, which may reflect ailing on the company.

This amusing media is still evolving in the favor of accepting an accounting policy. As an employer you should acknowledge any risk that can be encountered by the company if the product is posted online.

Intellectual Acreage Issues

For a company to be full recognized it should have a trademark or a copyright to help it protect the company brand. This trademark should appear on the ambit of the product or article for it to be recognized easily.

Policing One’s Bookish Acreage is Essential

This is analyzing amusing media sites for crooked use of a company’s batter name, logo or more bookish property. By quickly policing a company’s bookish acreage on amusing media sites, an aggregation can more acceptable bulwark off an affirmation. Although this can be time arresting there are abundant accouterments a business may use to advise the web.

Trademark Aegis in Basic Worlds

The use of barter names and logos are so essentials and it has become a rising concern. The law is much concerned on these items. Brand support argument has become one of the issues that are a concern online.

Misappropriation of Corporate Bookish Acreage for Amusing Media User Names

Misuse of logo and name is growing rapidly and it has become of allot of concern. People have been using logo and names that resemble. An example is where there are hundred Starbucks sucks pages and groups as well as fake and totally disapproved hundred Starbucks suck pages and groups. Facebook is one social site that has adopted an action to accord with incidents of brand imposters and fake brands.

Copyright Infringement

Agenda Millennium Absorb act was established to the accepted amusing media sites has created a specific action to approve dispute. Most of the sites have begun these procedures that are the agreement of service and a quicker action and also a sure way to accomplish copyrights than litigation.

Litigation Issues

The development of technology is governed by lawsuits that are not supposed to be violated by the company or the users. The use of the amusing media is all about having fun and a lot of excitement. In most cases amusing media acutely expands the cosmos of potentially accountability abstract and impact destruction. In all cases of social media legal matters should be kept into consideration despite the category of the social media.

Contemplating the Close Consumption Experience

A lot of research and investigation have been carried out about the amusing networking website. This website frequently pop up questions like “What is on your mind?” to the members this question helps people to give their real life emotions and experience. These make a lot of users to spend a lot of their time examining their own thoughts. In a business with a customer research may encounter problems during their research. If a business uses Facebook marketing then it will help the owners to get the real expression of the customers. According to Mathews inculcated a thoroughly civil appearance of empiric absoluteness beyond all bookish disciplines, such that the article of our observations is accepted to disentangle in a law like way, uninterrupted by chat with its assemblage or eruptions of anapestic self-disclosure or promptings of close will.

For Virginia Woolf, it was a moment of being; for James Joyce, an epiphany; Ezra Pound, a magic moment; Walter Benjamin, shock; and for T. S. Eliot, the still point of the axis world. Introspection then, bedridden with what a lot of accurate scholars, and absolutely customer ability theorists, would accede a too baby sample, never had a chance, (Wasserman Faust 2004 46-90) which is an abashment accustomed its inherent abeyant to abduction the abstruse moment. Companies like Google and Facebook they have a secret writing system which cause the rising of salaries. Some of the well paid technology professionals are from Silicon Valley rose. In 2011 it was 5.2% to breach $100000 barrier, while pay rose just 2% nationally, according to a contemporary bacon survey. One admission academy senior, announcement anonymously on the Web, claimed that Facebook marketing office offered a $100,000 salary, a $50,000 signing bonus, and $120,000 in banal options. According to the announcement filed in affiliation with Facebook’s planned antecedent accessible alms of stock, the company’s headcount jumped from 2,127 to 3,200 full-time advisers in 2011. Unlike some ample companies, Facebook marketing does not leave recruiting programmers to its animal assets department.  One thing is that most companies don’t hire for specific jobs Facebook puts new hires through a six-week Cossack affected area they circle through projects, allotment one that apparel them best. “Facebook marketing and added companies accomplishing this are saying, (Simonite 2012) ‘You can plan for us and still be ambitious and actualize your own thing.

Although the coder antagonism looks like a fun and able meritocracy, it as well reflects problems in the U.S. apprenticeship system. Very few women participate, and a lot of the winners are from overseas. “Facebook [is] aggressively traveling to added countries because there aren not abundant accomplished humans in the U.S. Facebook marketing has a able ability of ‘hacking’ and already a month, advisers are accustomed 24 hours to absorb developing a new app. Successful ideas, which were prototype at a drudge day, cover the Like button and Timeline. The affair of the day was ‘distribution’ via the Open Graph API. By positing user ‘actions’ (such as read, share, like, ate etc) to the Open Graph (OG), this advice can be aggregate beyond the After three added circuit of academician teasers, Facebook marketing will fly the top 25 coders to its arch appointment in Menlo Park, for an adrenaline-soaked after piece this March that will accolade the best $5,000. In return, Facebook marketing gets an attempt at hiring the stars apparent forth the way.

Online marketing has become one of the most leading systems of marketing that is applied by both large and smalls business, both old and new they all engage in online marketing. Some of the social website that rare widely used is Facebook marketing. Therefore, Facebook marketing is believed to be one of the modern ways that people can use to promote and advertise their products. In the current year email marketing and mobile marketing are used. What makes Facebook the best among is that it contains both Emails marketing and online marketing to. Companies that use Facebook marketing capture more clients thus making more sales. The coming up of Facebook marketing and all other social networking websites in businesses and observation of laws ensuring that they don’t violate any laws has created a remarkable marketing environment for business and its client. Facebook having its positive side it still have some negativity that might cause damage to the business. Some of the problems faced by Facebook marketers are: some of the people may end up revealing their personal information on the website which will be accessible by anybody; this shows that Facebook does not provide privacy. Social website also does not restrict information this can lead to people sending counterfeit information which is not reliable to the users. This leads to many viewers not relying on internet advertisement and they prefer to use TV advertisement. This causes decline of sale in internet marketing. For a business to be successful on e-marketing they should educate there both the users and the employees on how they should use the internet without violating the laws. According to the objectives of the research it has been proved that most of the marketers and business owners have adapted technological method of promoting their products. All the problems that were encountered by the marketers were noticed and it became easy for them to come up with the effective solutions. All the measure of how to appraise Facebook marketing strategies were analysed and they can now be practiced.

References

A., A. S., & M., P. (2007). Online Social Networks and Insights into Facebook Marketing Communications. Journal of Internet Commerce.

Adamic, L. A., & Huberman., B. A. (2010). The Nature of Markets in the World Wide Web.Quarterly Journal of Electronic Commerce.

Alwitt, L. F., & Prabhaker, P. R. (2004). Identifying Who Dislikes Television Advertising: Not By Demographics Alone. Journal of Advertising Research.

B., B., & Ellison, B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 13.

Bakker, G. (2003). Building Knowledge about the Consumer: The Emergency of Market Research in the Motion Picture Industry. London: Frank Cass and Company Ltd.

Briggs, A., & Burke, P. (2002). A Social History of the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press.

C.M., C., Anthony, S., & E.A., R. (2004). Seeing What’s Next Facebook Marketing. Boston: Harvard School Publishing Corporation.

Cowan, R. S. (2007). Communication Technologies and Social Control Facebook Marketing. New York:: Oxford University Press.

D, B. (2006). Friends, Friendsters, and MySpace Top 8. Friends, Friendsters, and MySpace Top 8.

DiClemente, D. F., & Hantula, D. A. (2003). Optimal Foraging Online: Increasing Sensitivity to Delay. Psychology & Marketing.

Geyskens, I., Gielens, K., & Dekimpe, M. G. (2002). The Market Valuation of Internet Channel Additions. Journal of Marketing, 66.

Hardin, G. (2008). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science – Facebook Marketing.

Hart, K. (2007). Online Networking Goes Small, and Sponsors Follow,. The Washington Post.

Henkin, D. (2006). The Postal Age: The Emergence of Modern Communications in Nineteenth-Century America. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

J.H, M., J., S., & H, K. (2002, january). Building Brand Community. Journal of Marketing.

Kozinets, R. V. (2009). E-Tribalized Marketing? The Strategic Implications of Virtual Communities of Consumption,”. European Management Journal, 17.

Kreshel, P. J. (2003). Advertising Research in the Pre-Depression Years: A Cultural History.Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 15(1).

R., A., U.M., D., & A., H. (2005). The Social Influence of Brand Community: Evidence from European Car Clubs. Journal of Marketing, 69, 19–34.

R., G. M. (2008). Facebook Marketing Stranger Danger and the Online Social Network. Berkeley Technology Law Journal Annual Review, 23.

T., H. M. (2008). An Ethnography of Social Network in Cyberspace: The Facebook Phenomenon. The Hong Kong Anthropologist.

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Advertising Media Planning

Advertising Media Planning

Dixons UK: Strength out of Weakness

The much publicized advertising wars between Dixons, the high street shops, and their other online competitors reflect the perceived desires of consumers and the projected benefits of sustained firm-customer awareness. The Dixons.co.uk advertising campaign in 2009 seemed to break a lot of rules in advertising and marketing planning while it actually reinforced, in a rather novel way, some key underpinnings of advertising theory. The campaign ultimately shifted perceived consumer psychology by targeting embedded thoughts and feelings in their reproduction in consumer behaviour through a successful repositioning of Dixon’s in the chain of retailers.  Additionally, the firm ultimately freeloaded the media coverage and the counterproductive strategies and positioning of competitors to its advantage.

The ‘Dixons.co.uk Strength out of Weakness’ case study successfully captures a creative “problem-solving” approach that more dogmatic strategists would have rejected, in exploiting the exceptional circumstances and situation of Dixon’s, which in this case, turned to be its weakest.  Coupled with general strategy in the market for technology, the Dixons.co.uk campaign was audacious in turning the perceived “doggedness” of the firm into its greatest asset in its public presentation and appearance.

The case study’s focus is the “Visit us last” ethos and modus operandi of the 2009 campaign. The concept and phrase is ingratiatingly self-deprecating and deterministic, easy to say, and provocative.  Dixon’s, a popular high-street retailer in London and around the UK suffered from a middle position. Web-sales in electronics were up, but Dixons was losing.  Customers did their own research on tech-products and could alternatively enjoy the more customer-friendly environments of retailers such as John Lewis.  The confluence of these factors weighed heavily in Dixon’s decision to use its implicitly lagging behind competitors (“Visit us Last”) message with competitive pricing.  The sensational response to the seemingly benign phrase proved to be provocative, provocatively fortunate as dixons.co.uk enjoyed both paid for coverage in the London Underground, for example, and unpaid coverage in the media, where dixons.co.uk received the majority of the publicity good or bad sharing the stage with many other competitors.

In many instances, and particularly in the fields of marketing and advertising, “theory” is a pejoratively value laden term.  The logocentric practice of advertising may be theoretically averse (for example, ‘theoretically’ often connotes a thought not in practice, or for example, ‘in theory’ is usually referring to something that should work given abstract paradigmatic assumptions).

Just as advertising as a discipline is particularly concerned with human communication and behaviour, the policies and practices of firms in the branding marketplace are engaged in the same mechanisms. The two would benefit greatly from more dialogue, just as advertising and marketing theory has been enriched through its interdisciplinary framework.  Advertising academics interrogate fields as diverse as Linguistics and International Relations (among many other social and behavioural sciences) for example.  In the case of the former, the perceived structure of human cognition as language (Derrida 1970 18) has enabled advertisers to extend neuroscience research with more qualitative data to the greater impact of marketing plans (Hackley 2010).  In the case of the latter, trends say, for example, in fair trade can be linked to the demographic within the developed country of consumption (Landes 1999).  The attitude of modernity understood by academics is dictated by the forces of modernity (Latour 1991).  These social movements have led to the rise in the branding of brands and parts of brands such as Costa and Starbucks to highlight “fair trade” coffee and other products in response to public opinion (Doran 2009).  Here social movement theories, psychology studies have all had an effect on academic advertising, but in order for advertising to affect these important concepts, a paradigmatic theoretical perspective is necessary. Advertising sciences need advertising, and advertising needs cross-disciplinary creative strategies.

The dixons.co.uk strategy defined the problems facing the ailing firm, and worked with the legacy and assets of its beleaguered position in the electronics retail market, and developed a coherent and creative strategy to attract attention and ultimately purchases.

The result however, of a firm advertising without a creative strategy theoretically grounded, is much like the critique of existing advertising initiatives by the Y & R consultancy firm’s outline for creative marketing strategy:

“Without a [creative] strategy, advertising belongs in the theatre of the absurd provocative, ambiguous, uncertain, interesting but what’s it all about?”

Similarly, Vaughn warns of advertising theory’s marginalization in its nascent stages and encourages inquiry:

If we had a proven theory of advertising effectiveness it would help in strategy, planning, response, measurement, and sales prediction.  We have no such theory.  Empirical ‘proof’ is scattered in numerous company and agency files.  The possibility for a scientifically-derived model of advertising seems remote. (Vaughn 1980). However, ‘maverick’, these marketing tools were effectively promoted, and so provoked public interest, not just in firm-awareness, but even of corporate marketing strategy.  In this instance, dixons.co.uk, however sensational its message, followed a very clear and realistic problem solving approach.  The commonly built upon and processed original Y & R Work Plan (1970) worked from such consultancy advocacy to see its creative and practical benefits.  The dixons.co.uk strategy, as outlined in the case study, involved first assessing the primary problems facing the firm.  For the purposes of this essay, it is necessary to briefly discuss the Y & R Working Plan as its skeletal and theoretically pragmatic approach is consistent with the extension of the dixons.co.uk branding.

The Y & R plan departs from four primary elements.  First is in the statement of the “key fact”, based on an analysis of all ‘facts’ pertaining to the key fact (1).  The plan then defines the problem  (2) marketing must engage with in respect to the key fact.  Thirdly, there must be a “statement of the advertising objective (3) which stems from the problem”.  Finally implemented is a creative strategy (4).

The strategy outlined and documented in the case study shows the very reach and multi-pronged media venues of the program, ‘Strength out of weakness’.  Importantly, it works from the perspective of a creative strategy to overcome very immediate hurdles: Significantly, the group determined “the only realistic way anyone would choose and buy from Dixons UK was if they visited already knowing exactly what make and model they wanted”.  This is not the strongest selling point.

If we determine the key fact is to be that Dixon’s “was passed its 80s heyday”, then the following problem resulting from this must be passed as a heteronomy of factors.  First, Dixon’s perceived strengths must be taken into account.  Dixon’s inventory capabilities were massive.  Since it’s high street shops had gone the way of Curry’s, its main issue was that there were very few prospective customers who came to dixons.co.uk directly.  Dixon’s had to attract customer’s straight to dixons.co.uk, the firm’s fate rested on this.  The advertising objective would be to make dixons.co.uk the most attractive online electronics distributor.  The overflow from traditional retail would follow.  The creative strategy implemented marketing signs, specifically in the London Underground, that exaggerated a consumer’s trip to the lofty auspices, and lofty prices of high street retailers, featuring the most desired electronics, ending the perfunctory phrase with “…and then go to Dixons”. Competitive pricing, highly researched consumers of electronics, and a provocative slogan and ad campaign combined to make this very effective for Dixon’s.  Following from this, a coherent capture:

High street retailers have knowledge, expertise and service, but don’t have low prices. Dixons has low prices but doesn’t have great service, expertise or knowledge. Now get devious. So, Dixons has the low prices and they do the service for us.A transposition of the technology market to the FCB grid developed by Richard Vaughn shows how a firm can augment its own position by using the services and positions of competitors to greater penetrate where venue and product meet consumer.  This was Dixon’s strategy.

FCB Grid Advertising Media Planning
FCB Grid Advertising Media Planning

The figure above is an example taken from Richard Vaughn (1986), “organizing advertising effectiveness for strategy planning” (Vaughn 1980 27).  Consumer electronics can be thought of as “high involvement”, as individual specs cater to the consumers’ needs.  Electronics are also both high think and high feel—high think in that consumers read and try extensively, they research electronics.  However, there are inherent stratifications in the electronics market that can only correspond to “feel”, such as that of a hi-fi stereo system or a sterling-silver washing machine.  Dixon’s positioned itself to wedge these three parts of a triangle through its creative marketing triangle.

The high concentration of billboards and advertisements taken in London’s Public Transport created media frenzy as it replicated in exhibition.“…and then go to dixons.co.uk” urging commuters coming home who do not want to deal with lines at Oxford Circus, and the friends they tell about a peculiar ad, etc.

Interestingly, the “tone” of the advertisement, an especially important characteristic in advertising and marketing theory, challenged common perceptions in how a brand could promote itself, and in so doing, created a kind of feedback continuum of interested traffic.  A simple creative solution was needed. Compared to the $3.4 billion GM spent in 2006 in U.S. advertising (Horsky 2006), the much smaller budget of Dixon’s was proving profitable beyond the wildest imaginations of executives.

Placement in the underground was critical, the case study showed a progressive growth in “hits” in London area ISPs, and the underground was once again shown to be a great marketing vehicle for the right advertising strategy.  In this case, marketing and advertising placement was appropriate for the project, as the buyers of electronics are typically as varied as the professionals and musicians and children that travel the Tube.

The dixons.co.uk media coverage descended—much to Dixon’s advantage—to the dirty depths British presses are capable of.  It dragged in some high names, but always featured Dixon’s as the challenger, the underdog, or else the precocious electronics giant—regardless, people now spoke of dixons.co.uk.  This is and has been a significant issue for firms to develop effective and cohesive advertising strategies. Dixon’s capitalized on “major improvements in the quality of consumer information and the growth of targeted media which allow firms to precisely target according to consumer segments within a market” (Iyer et al 2005 461).  The placement of provocative ads on the London underground for example captured a commuting captive audience’s attention. This broad demographic are all in the market for electronics, it’s efficacy was not in declaring its position, but in reactivating products in the mind and imagination of somebody on the Victoria Line, for example..

“Strength out of weakness” was the perfect campaign strategy. It used Dixon’s entrenched market position and vulnerabilities to its advantage by exploiting its legacy, its inventory capabilities, and it’s resolution from one main problem to one basic fact.  “The only realistic way anyone would choose and buy from Dixons UK was if they visited already knowing exactly what make and model they wanted”. The site was subpar.  Product comparison, review of specs, product and design aesthetics: “This wasn’t just a minor difference communications might be able to gloss over. It was fundamental. By identifying the key facts, understand the problem in relation to these key facts, a creative and effective strategy was promoted.  Dixon’s made a good holiday run and then some on this, consistent even with foundational advertising theory thirty years ago even as it appeared radical.

References

Derrida, J. (1974), Of Grammatology, Johns Hopkins UP.

Doran, C. (2009), ‘The Role of Personal Values in Fair Trade Consumption’, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 84, pp. 549-563.

Fill, C. (2009), Marketing Communications: Interactivity, Communities and Content, 5th Edition, FT Prentice Hall.

Hackley, C. (2010), Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Approach, 2nd Edition, Sage Publications LTD.

Hauser, J. and Wisniewski, K. (1982), ‘Dynamic Analysis of Consumer Response to Marketing Strategies’, Management Science, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 455-486.

Horsky, S. (2006), ‘The Changing Architecture of Advertising Agencies’, Marketing Science, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 367-383.

Iyer G., Soberman D., and Villas-Boas, J. (2005), ‘The Targeting of Advertising’, Marketing Science, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 461-476

Landes, D. (1999), The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, Norton.

Latour, B. (1993), We Have Never Been Modern, Harvard University Press.

Vaughn, R. (1980), ‘How Advertising Works: A Planning Model: putting it all together’, Journal of Advertising Research, pp. 27-33.

Vaughn, R. (1986), ‘How Advertising Works: A Planning Model Revisited’, Journal of Advertising Research, Feb/Mar, pp. 57-65.

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