Electronic Human Resource Management

Electronic Human Resource Management

The emergence of Internet technology has virtually changed the way humans execute their functions in all phases of activities. The Human Resources Department is not left out, as the adoption and implementation of web technology has revolutionalized the functions and responsibility of the HRM.  Thus, web technology, through e-recruitment is now being used in the recruitment of potential workers in every organization.  E-recruitment has been proved to be an efficient, quick and cost effective means of hiring quality workers into an organization. This paper is aimed at understanding the concept behind e-recruitment technology. These include the origin, types and elements of e-recruitment. The paper also discussed the effects of e-recruitment on the cost, time and efficiency of an organization. The relationship existing among the three variables (cost, time and efficiency) as well as their collective impact on organization is also discussed in this Electronic Human Resource Management paper.

Introduction to Electronic Human Resource Management

For the past ten years, E-recruitment has continued to attract the attention of Human Resource Managers, all over the globe. This relatively new technology that makes exclusive use of the internet is now being recognized as a cheaper and wide-reaching methodology, for recruitment of workers. This is shows that the revolution of internet technology is currently spreading over the world of job hunting and hiring. The term e-recruitment, which is also known as online recruitment, cyber-cruting, or internet recruiting, is used to describe the formal sourcing of job information on the vast World Wide Web. The term was first mentioned in articles during the 1980s. There are two major methodologies for e-recruitment. The first one is the use of corporate web site for recruitment. In this case, companies have corporate websites in which specially designed recruitment web pages are maintained for employment of people. The second methodology is the posting of jobs vacancies on online commercial jobs boards like monster.com. In this case, companies advertise vacant positions on other website that specialize in recruitment. Some good examples of these websites are naukri.com, timesjob.com, monster.com. Nowadays, a growing number of companies and organizations are resorting to these two methodologies for recruitment of skilled and talented workers.

Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HR)

According to Jim (2013), “Electronic human resource management (E-HRM) is the process of integrating components of information technology into the structural design of the human resource department”. Such components of information technology are specifically designed to help with tasks associated with human resources”. Adoption of E-HR is one of the best ways through which an organization can streamline its human resources. This goes a long way in making the human resource department to become more efficient and effective, thereby minimizing its operational and production costs. A typical E-HR suite is capable of handling many important tasks such as staffing, training, and payroll. These customized software suites is particularly suitable for handling all those tasks times that are time-consuming. This gives HR employees more time to concentrate on strategic processes that will improve the organization (Bondarouk and Ruël, 2006).

The Human resources department is a very important section in every organization. The department serves as the communication link between management of an organization and its employees. They are responsible for maintaining a satisfied workforce. Thus, if they ever err in any of their objectives, the company involved is going to have a bunch of disgruntled employees as its workforce. The department is also responsible for recruiting workforce for the organization. At times, carrying out all these tasks can be very difficult and time-consuming. This is the major reason why an ever increasing number of Human Resource Departments have begun the process of installing various forms of electronic human resource management to help out their HR managers (Buckley et al, 2004).

However, it is very important to note that Electronic Human Resource Management cannot replace the traditional human resource departments completely, rather it can serve as a very valuable supplement for the department (Jim, 2013) By installing E-HRM software, a business can streamline the more detailed tasks associated with the HR department.

In every organization, the E-HRM plays great role fulfilling the immense responsibilities of the Human Resource Manager. For instance, E-HRM can include software devoted to payroll issues thereby saving the Human Resource Manager, the time required to attain payroll issues. E-HRM can also be supportive in terms of staffing. During recruitment, the suite through its e-recruitment components can eradicate the stress and time-consuming processes associated with selecting the most suitable applicants..

E-HR also plays significant roles in the management aspect of the Human Resource Managers where it is actively involved in drafting policies and controlling both the traffic and collection of electronic information. Still under the management aspects, E-HR helps in controlling and organizing data within an organization. Accomplishing this requires the creation of effective record management policies. Such policies facilitate lean data storage which involves maintaining pertinent information while removing data as it becomes irrelevant (Jim, 2013).

So in summary, E-HR is a very clear example of using technology to boost the productivity of an organization. The fact that E-HR software suite are technologically secured means that the security of any organization that implement and interact with this piece of technology is also secured. The application of E-HR suite in Human Resource Department can boost the sustainability of the organizations. As already pointed out, one area in which E-HR has been successfully implemented is in the recruitment of the organization’s workforce.

E-recruitment definition

E-recruiting can be defined as the use of the World Wide Web and its peripherals, to attract suitable candidates for employment purposes (CIPD, 2011). In other words, E-recruitment is a process through which electronic resources were used to draw the attention of job seekers to vacant positions in corporations (Stone, 2006). Over the years, e-recruitment has recorded unprecedented growth and its applicability has continued to expand in many sectors of human endeavors. Many reasons have been attributed to the tremendous success recorded by this relatively new technology. Recruitment is a process that connects employers to prospective employees. It’s a process in which capable employees are located and incorporated into the workforce of organizations. Recruitment usually begins with the searching of prospective employees and ends when the job applications are submitted. E-recruitment is one of the most powerful and cost-effective ways of recruiting staff for an organization as it can play active roles in each phase of the recruitment exercise.

In practice, there are numerous ways through which E-recruitment can be implemented. It may be conducted through the use of the official website of the organization. Alternatively, the company may decide to go through a third-party job site or job board.  E-recruitment can also comprise the use of CV database, search engine marketing or social media platforms to fill vacancies. The common factor here is the use of internet in each of these methodologies. This is clearly in conformation with the definition of E-recruitment, which is the use of the internet in conducting recruitment exercise.

Also, there are different ways through which job seekers can take part in an e-recruitment exercise. The job seekers can log in on the employers’ recruitment website and submit their CVs online. Alternatively, they can submit their CVs on special database for prospective employers to assess. Today, many company and recruitment agents have moved much of their recruitment process online so as to improve the speed by which candidates can be matched with live vacancies, and reduce the cost and time duration of these exercises.

Historical Background

Barber (1998) defined recruitment as; “those practices and activities carried on by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees”. Recruitment is almost as old as the mankind. However, e-recruitment is a relatively new term that has just attained significant success within a short duration of time. As have already stated earlier, e-recruitment is simply the conduction of job advertisement, job application and selection of new employees on the vast internet world. Historically, e-recruitment can be traced to the existence in 1980s, of independent job boards popularly known as bulletin board systems. Since then, this method has a recorded an unprecedented increase in its acceptability and implementation among several organizations of the whole world. The United States of America was credited as starting the global trend, with the launch of monter.com in 1994. The significant success of e-recruitment prompted Edgley (1995) to declare that, “the future of the recruitment industry is on the internet”. An analysis conducted by Onrec (2005) showed that between 2003 and 2005, 94 percent of the world biggest companies have adopted e-recruitment methods, as the major means of recruiting new employees. A survey conducted by Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) revealed that up to 64 percent of the UK organizations used e-recruitment as far back as 2006 (Parry and Tyson, 2008). Cappelli (2001) declared that 90 percent of US companies were already doing recruiting by internet then. Today, the internet has been globally recognized as the sustainable avenue for recruitment of prospective employees and practitiomers of Electronic Human Resource Management.

How E- recruitment is linked with Technology and Management

Having defined e-recruitment, it is very important for us to understand how this system is linked to technology and Management. The technologies we are talking about here are the HR systems, while the management includes Line Managers and Human Resource manager who are actively involved in recruitment exercise.

Naturally, the Human Resource Manager has essential roles to play in e-recruitment. Of course, the Human Resource Manager is responsible for facilitating and coordinating the recruitment exercise. Thus, the use of e-recruitment can go a long way in reducing the burden of the Human Resource Manager which will in turn; enable the Human Resource manager to operate on a strategic level within the organization. Just like the Human Resource Manager, the Line Manager also has a very important role to play in the recruitment exercise. The Line Manager is mainly concerned with the selection of applications submitted by job applicants. The selection is usually in relation to the vacancies that are listed in accordance with the job role. The roles of the two managers help to boost the effectiveness of the recruitment exercise (Research Advisory Panel, 2006).

The discussion conducted so far shows that the Human Resource Manager acts as the bridge that link the Line managers with the job applicants. However, the roles of the two managers can be greatly facilitated with the introduction of Information Technology tools, such as the application tracking software. Details of these tools are discussed under “Elements of e-recruitment”.

Types of E-recruitment

There are two main methodologies for conducting employment on the vast internet world. These are: (1) Posting vacancies on the official websites of the organization and (2) Making use of Third party websites which enabled a huge marketplace for recruitment. The two processes serve the same purpose of using the internet to get the best suitable candidates that have the right skills, knowledge and abilities required for vacant positions in organizations.

The first method of e-recruitment is particularly popular among organizations that have strong IT culture. It is also the best alternative for organizations that conduct regular recruitment exercises. In that case, it is more economical for such organizations to invest on their own website and equipped it with the necessary modules to handle e-recruitment internally.

The second method of e-recruitment is used primarily by organizations that lacked online presence on the vast internet world. In this case, the job of online advertisement of vacancies in such organizations is conducted by companies that are specialty in that area. These companies range from the fully specialized ones like Monster.com to the less specialized ones like social networks site and online forums.

Even though the two methods generally differ in their modus operandi, companies that have vacant positions can use the two methods at the same time. Organizations that have strong online presence can also include a “link of apply” on the third party website. When a prospective employee click on this “link of apply”, he or she will be redirected to the company’s website to start the application process. E-recruitment is source of huge revenue for owners of these third party websites. According to Silber (2012), “International data corporation (IDC) estimates $5.3 billion was generated in the US in 2011 through online recruitment industry and it is roughly increasing by 4 percent until 2015”.

Elements of E-recruitment

For any e-recruitment platform to be reliable and sustainable, there are certain elements that must be integrated into its operational structure (Parry and Tyson, 2008). These elements of e-recruitment have their place individually within the online recruitment strategy of every company. The main elements of recruitment include:

  • Applicant Tracking
  • Employer Web Site
  • Job Boards
  • Online Testing

According to a publication by Online Recruitment Marketing Council (2004); “the effectiveness of combining several of these elements in a cohesive strategy is a genuine example of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts”. Many organizations have recorded significant success in integrating these elements into the operational structure of their e-recruitment module. This is because; a combination of these elements enables the recruitment processes to be fast, effective and cheap. It also reduce the manpower required to oversee the whole procedure, thereby enabling staffs of the Human Resource Department to concentrate on strategic operations that are specifically meant to move the company ahead. According to a publication by Online Recruitment Marketing Council (2004), “a clear understanding of these elements is very necessary when designing an online recruitment strategy”

Applicant Tracking

This is also known by several other names such as: Candidate Tracking, Candidate Management, Candidate Relationship Management and Applicant Database. Just like the name sounds, applicant tracking is a specially designed feature that enables the personnel responsible for the recruitment exercises to identify the status or progress of each candidate with respect to the jobs for which he or she has applied. In other world, the applicant tracking system help those in charge of the recruitment exercises to identify the number of applicants that have submitted applications for a particular position as well as those that waiting for interview. This customized system includes “an analysis of business processes within the end-user company from which will be derived a system configuration for the chosen Applicant Tracking system” (Online Recruitment Marketing Council, 2004).

Some of the features that are contained in a typical tracking system include:

  • Full history of the applicant
  • Ability to send e-mails to the applicants. The system must be capable of sending emails individually or in batches
  • Ability to conduct a search on the applicant’s database
  • Ability of every worker that is involved in the recruitment process to make use of the same system, For instance, the Applicant Tracking System will enable reviewers to review the CV, while interviewers will also have the ability to provide feedbacks for candidates that were interviewed for a vacant position.
  • It will also have reporting features that will enable the Human Resource Manager to identify the pipeline supply of candidates for key positions and measure time to hire.

Employer Website

This is also known Job page, Careers site and Recruitment pages. It is the most important aspect of an organization’s online recruitment strategy. It is the platform through which the full details of the job opportunities are communicated to the whole world. It is also the platform through which important data are collected from prospective employees. So in a nutshell, the employer website is the heart of an organization’s online recruitment strategy. The Job pages are updated with new vacancies or amended job details through simple web-based forms that are only accessible through the admin panel. It is very important to point out here that the Employer Website must have the same branding as the official websites of the organizations.

Some of the important features which a typical employer website must have include:

  • Ability to enable visitors to conduct job search
  • It must also enable prospective employees to create a profile, submit core personal details as well as CV
  • Apply for jobs online
  • It must have set-up job ‘alerts’ that will notify applicants of any changes to the jobs they applied or the availability of new job offers. Such notifications are usually conducted through e-mails.
  • Enables both applicants and non applicants to view the status of all on-line applications
  • It must allow a single application to be submitted for multiple job vacancies
  • It will enables applicants and even administrators to send job details to their friends

Job Boards

This is also known as Job sites. It performs the same function as the recruitment advertising section of a newspaper or magazine. Hence, this element of e-recruitment enables applicants to access several job vacancies that exist in different organizations. Generally, job boards feature jobs in different sectors and geographies, each carrying different branding. This means that job boards are mostly restricted to a particular class of jobs (such as the health service), region or even levels of seniority. It may also include additional information, which could be in form of articles or editorials. This additional information helps to attract the specific class of visitors that are needed by the organization.

There are some factors that must be considered before selecting job boards to use. Some of these factors are: cost, sector, location of the organization, etc. Thus, it is very important for the Human Resource Manager to obtain audited figures for the relative popularity of different job boards before making a choice.

Apart from the services mentioned above, some job boards also render additional services that are specifically aim at helping job seekers. For instance, some of these agencies are known to maintain CV databases which can be access by prospective employers and agencies. There is a variety of charging models for this kind of service which aim to make it cost-effective and quick for you to find suitable candidates. The features of job boards are exactly the same as those of Employer Websites.

Online Testing

Another name for online testing is Psychometric testing. The term is used to describe the process of conducting some kind of assessment of candidates over the internet. This internet-based assessment can be “factual (for example numeracy, comprehension etc.) to the assessments of personality and identification of most appropriate kinds of work” (Online Recruitment Marketing Council, 2004). This is the main reason why employers use online testing as a selection tool as well as a special tool that help job seekers to identify another career opportunity.


Apart from the four elements of e–recruitment discussed so far, there are still other elements that can be of great help to the recruiter. However, these extra elements normally require one or more of the major elements to function. Some examples are as follows:

  • Intelligent CV parsing tools: These are online- based tools that validate the submitted CVs. This validation exercise, which is usually automatic, involves the extraction of unstructured data, and modifying them into a ‘structured’ format. The data that are usually targeted by this tool include: name, address, skills, employment history, education etc. The CV parsing tool may either be designed as a standalone system or incorporated into the functional and structural design of an Applicant tracking system.
  • Multiple posting tools: – These are special tools that simplify the tedious process of posting job details of vacant positions on multiple job boards. These tools also include the utilities for managing the purchasing of advertising from the job boards. It also enables the recruiter to evaluate the success rates of the job boards.

New Trends in E-Recruitment

Information Technology is very dynamic and progressive. The fact that e-recruitment is a product of Information Technology also means that its methodology is constantly changing and expanding. Certain new trends in e-recruitment are currently emerging in the vast internet world. It is very important for Human Resource Managers to identify this new trend and take advantage of digital tools and resources in order to find the best talent.


LinkedIn is a networking platform that now doubles as an e-recruitment tool. This online platform that has more than 150 million users is a reliable alternative to the popularly known job-boards. The main features that enable LinkedIn to serve as an e-recruitment tool include: ability of employers to post jobs, receive applications, and recognize ideal candidates. This networking platform also has recommendation and introduction capabilities in its functional structures.


This is also another online networking platform that has recruitment ability. However, twitter is not strictly for recruitment and is therefore less effective. Nevertheless, twitter enables employers looking for job seekers to get the word out quickly. Apart from allowing organizations to maintain an online presence, twitter also enable them to manage their company’s image successfully. This is always an important consideration for new hires. Thus, it’s advisable for recruiters to engage more in conversations with potential hires in twitter rather than relying only on posting details of job vacancies.

Video assessment

Video assessment is a relatively new recruitment tool that is yet to be embraced by many organizations out there. In this case, applicants are required to submit video formats of their introductions and answers to certain questions, together with their applications. This tool helps the recruiters to review the shortlisted applicants, prior to the interview. This saves time and cost for the recruiter.

Mobile Recruitment

This technology is also very new and has not been accepted by a great number of organizations. It involves the development of recruiting applications for different mobile platforms, such as IPhone, Android, Blackberry and Windows. There are wide varieties of such apps. Some allow recruiters to develop questions and send to applicants, who then answer by video and send back. There are also certain mobile apps that enable recruiters and applicants to fix interview dates that can be updated on both their calendars. Other mobile apps allow recruiters to do sophisticated web searches for applicants, identify the most suitable candidates for the vacant position and then contact them instantly. There are also other mobile apps that allow employers to post details of job vacancies to multiple web job boards simultaneously with just a single click.

Advantages of E-recruitment

Studies conducted by several recruitment experts’ show that an increasing number of organizations are using e-recruitment for identifying the most suitable candidates for open vacancies. Lang et al. (2011) identify 14 major advantages of e-recruitment. These advantages are in agreement with the opinions of many scholars (Lang et al, 2011). The advantages are as follows:

  • Cost efficiency and relative affordability
  • Time saving
  • Efficiency (Hiring Efficiency)
  • Ability to expand the geographical scope of recruiting measures
  • Corporate policy
  • Targeting of the right group of candidates
  • Increase in number of qualified applicants
  • Independence of place and time, as everything is conducted strictly online
  • Portrays a better image of the organization
  • Provision of adequate information about the organization as well as additional workplace
  • Realization of competitive advantage
  • Recruiting qualified staff more easily
  • Updating of job and applicant data
  • Usability

Disadvantages of E-recruitment

Despite the immense benefits accruable from the use of this piece of information technology, a number of disadvantages do occur and many of these challenges are synonymous with the normal challenges encountered in the use of Information Technology (Thompson et al., 2008).  To start with, most people are still of the opinion that the internet is not the first port of call for job seekers (Galanaki, 2002).  However, the major challenges of e-recruitment revolve on the likely effects its implementation is going to have on company’s overall performance, especially in terms of its effectiveness and behavioral influences.

The main challenge that faces e-recruitment exercises in our today’s contemporary world is mainly on the trade-off between quantity (increasing) and quality (decreasing) of the job applicants. Of course, one great advantage of e-recruitment is attraction of huge number of job seekers. But the higher the number of job applicants, the higher the number of unqualified job seekers (Pearce and Tuten, 2001; Chapman and Webster, 2003; Barber, 2006). Unfortunately, this negativity is capable of raising the cost and time duration of the processing.

Also, e-recruitment can change the social interactions of the job applicants and this can even cause the job seeker to lack the ability to present his or her own KSAOs to the employer (Stone et al., 2006).  For instant, it is very important for a marketing manager or assistant to be outgoing and a little bit talkative. Unfortunately, it is practically impossible to perfectly measure these attributes through e-recruitment. Indeed, what Pin et al. (2001) called “Lack of Human touch” can have negative effect on e-recruitment processes.

This method of recruitment also lack the features needed to perfectly address the issue of discrimination in course of selection (Barber, 2006). This claim is confirmed by the result of a research conducted by Garcı´a-Izquierdo et al (2010) on companies listed on Spanish Stock Exchange. The result of the survey conducted by this team shows that the level and type of information which some of these companies ask in their application forms, is capable of giving rise to discrimination. Barber (2006) also pointed out the possibility of disable people applying for positions that are impossible for them to handle.

Another survey conducted by Pin et al. (2001) in Europe revealed two other disadvantages of e-recruitment. These are poor segmentation and higher rate of employees turn out. As pointed out in the last section, one of the advantages of e-recruitment is “targeting of the right group of candidates.” However, the result of the survey conducted by Pin et al. (2001) contradicted this claim. According to the result of the survey, about 59 percent of the companies interviewed listed “targeting of the right group of candidates” as the main reason for not using e-recruitment. Pin et al (2001) blamed this on the fact that “matching the position with the candidates is impossible” because of the broad accessibility offered by the internet technology.  This put companies at the risk of having less qualified applicants with the cost of losing qualified ones. Even though the level of classification of contents on the internet has been improved and it is now possible for companies to find the related domain, the footprint of the problem pointed out by Pin and his team still remains observable (Suvankulov et al., 2012)

The second disadvantage of e-recruitment, discovered by Pin et al. (2001) is higher rate of employees’ turnover. This claim is confirmed by Smith and Rupp (2004) in their study on managerial challenges of e-recruiting. For instance, an employed person can get interested in a vacant position in an organization. This is possible since all information is freely accessible through the internet.

Finally, the low level of internet accessibility in certain parts of the world is another major disadvantage of e-recruitment. The absence of internet connectivity and its lack of awareness will surely keep qualified job seekers in the dark.


Even though e-recruitment has so many advantages over the orthodox methods of recruitment, it is not advisable to completely replace the recruitment process of an organization with the electronic methods. Similarly, it will be a very costly mistake for an organization to continue to depend solely on the traditional method for its recruitment exercise.  The best alternative will be to supplement the traditional method of recruitment with the electronic method. The loopholes of e-recruitment can be covered by the traditional methods while the whole process can be made faster, cheaper and more efficient by incorporating electronic technology into it. When two vacancies are there and two candidates are available the companies do not have much choice, thus they prefer to widen their search and attracts numerous applications. Indeed, receiving application manually can be time-consuming. Manual sorting of applications is not only tedious, but is a sheer wastage of resources. E-recruitment is the surest way through which organizations can facilitate the smooth flow of recruitment process in today’s competitive world. This technology provides a straightforward and stressful way through which employers meet their prospective employees. Thus, it won’t be wise to discard this wonderful piece of technology. Rather, e-recruitment should be use to make the traditional method of recruitment to be faster, cheaper and more efficient. It’s also the best alternative that can be used to minimize the huge cost of job advertisement.

How e-recruitment affects cost, time and efficiency

As already pointed out, there are many advantages that endear e-recruitment to the heat of many Human Resource Managers. Top on the list are: cost efficiency, time saving and efficiency. These three advantages can collectively boost the effectiveness of the overall recruitment process.

Cost Efficiency: E- recruitment is generally cost effective and thus, can help companies to save huge amount of money. Unlike other form of media e.g. newspaper, it is relatively cheaper to post job vacancies on website.  This enables recruiters to advertise job vacancies at very low cost. According to Othman and Musa (2006), the four main ways through which recruitment cost are reduced with the use of online methodology are:

  • Costs saved directly from the advertisements posted on other medium of communication e.g. Newspapers
  • Reduces mail costs from paying fees to the head recruiters or Job fairs
  • Reduces the workload of the of the Human Resource Department
  • Posting through emailing is relatively cheaper than Phone calls and fax

Even though the communication methods used in e-recruitment is cheaper, the whole process is still faster and easier. Also, developing a career website is also cheaper when compare to the cost require in tracking down the details of every applicants that applied for a vacant position. Of course, this reduces the number of manpower required as there would be no need for manual sorting of applications (White, 2008).

Time:  E-Recruitment has more effective advantages in saving time. The fact that recruiters can use the E-Recruitment processes together with the traditional recruitment methods means that the submitted applications can be sourced and processed quickly and yet adequately (Marr, 2007).  This saves long hours of sourcing and processing applications. According to the study of Barber (2006), “the ease of completing online application form and the time taken to process applications are done in minutes faster than weeks”. This also saves time for both the recruiters and job seekers. The structural design of e-recruitment platforms allows recruiters to pre select an application as well as obtains quick response electronically. All these feature save time for the recruitment process.

Efficiency: Hiring efficiency is another major advantage of e-recruitment. As we have seen so far, the internet technology reduces the cost of recruitment by ‘reducing employee turnover as well as the staffing costs (Stone et al., 2006). All these increase the hiring efficiency of the e-recruitments.

The three aforementioned variables, namely cost, time and efficiency are closely relation in terms of operation. For instance, reducing the cost of conducting recruitment exercise as well as the time duration sorting, selection and processing of job applications will surely go a long way        boosting the hiring efficiency of the organization. As already pointed out, these three variables are very important the success of any organization.

The relationships between the three variables (Cost, time and efficiency) and their importance to the organization

The highly competitive nature of today’s business world has made it very necessary for businesses to seek the most cost effective way to recruit new employees as well as for employees to seek employers (Ratling 2012; Vera etal, 2009). Many organizations now prioritized the recruitment of the most optimum employees because of the overall effect such a workforce will have on the progress of the organization (Vera etal, 2009).  Obtaining the best workforce for an organization can be easily accomplished through e-recruitment. Indeed, e-recruitment is known to be very effective in attracting administrative positions (Dictionaries, 2000).  In the last section, we stated that, the three variables; cost, time and efficiency are closely relation in terms of operation.

To start with, the cost of e-recruitment is relatively cheaper than other methods of recruitment. Despite the growing cost of running business in our society today, it is still very necessary for organizations to adopt effective methods that will enable the obtainment of high quality employees that are required to attain a competitive advantage over others. E-recruitment offers a cost-effective way of achieving this goal. A cost-effective, but reliable means of recruitment can go a long way in boosting the efficiency of any organization. This option is exactly what e-recruitment is offering.

A cost effective method of recruitment should also be time efficient. In other words, it must be capable of saving lots of time for both employers and job-seekers. Such system must provide round the clock services at a very fast rate, without compromising the quality of the work that is being rendered. The process of sorting out both eligible and ineligible candidates must be done quickly and efficiently, without the involvement of any middle persons. Thus, both cost effectiveness and time-efficiency are two great factors that help organization to be more efficient in rendering of services.

Significant strides have been recorded by the adoption and subsequent implementation of e-recruitment. This is seen in the statistical figures of some researchers. According to a survey conducted by iLogos.com, about 92% of Fortune 500 companies now have websites that are specifically meant for careers, while 96% of recruiters now publicize their vacant positions on their websites (Borstorff et al , Marker, and  Bennett 13). Verhoeven and Williams (2008) attributed this significant rise to the following advantages: “reduced costs, faster processes, wider accessibility, improve reputation and brand, higher quality of applicants, better match of the position, 24/7 running ability, and reduction of unqualified applicants”

Generally, the efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and profitability of every organization can be greatly enhanced by information technology (Looise, 2004; Fredric, 2001). These are exactly the effects e-recruitment has on organizations. Apart from these, the adoption and implementation of e-recruitment also save costs and maintain quality of customer service by reducing the time and resources dedicated to administrative tasks (Richards-Carpenter, 1996).  So in summary, the adoption and implementation of e-recruitment enables an organization to achieve its strategic alignment, boost its business intelligence and enhance its overall efficiency and effectiveness.


Even though e-recruitment is a relatively new terminology, a lot of researches have been conducted to unravel its immense potential and advantages. Thus, many authors have employed several methodologies in analyzing the effects of e-recruitment on the cost, time and efficiency of an organization. Holm (2010) conducted a research in which he determined whether the adoption and implementation of e-recruitment has any positive impact on the process and underlying tasks, subtasks and activities of the recruitment exercise. He made use of three large organizations that have well-established e-recruitment practices in his research. These case studies were conducted using qualitative research methods. One great advantage of this methodology is that it enables researchers to study processes of recruitment in their social context. The data used in the research were collected from multiple sources that are readily accessible for the analyst and these data were predominantly qualitative (Holm, 2010).  In order to get a more comprehensive idea of how online recruitment methods were used at the studied companies, the researcher analyzed the content of corporate recruitment web pages and the job ads that the case companies placed on their websites (Holm, 2010). Thus, Holm (2010) utilized a blend of qualitative methods, techniques, and data sources in his study.  The overall data analysis was deductive. At the end of the analysis, Holm (2010) discovered that e-recruitment had significant impact on the recruitment processes of all the companies that were used in the study.

Electronic Human Resource Management
Electronic Human Resource Management

Similarly, Gopalia (2010) in his own study which was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of e-recruitment used Tesco as his own case study. His research methodology includes an exploratory, theory building approach. In other words, an exploratory and qualitative research approach is used by Gopalia in his study. The methods used in collection data were via literature review and case study. After his analysis, Gopalia (2010) discovered that e-recruitment is effective in terms of saving cost of recruitment and selection. According to him, “Case exploration about the effectiveness of online recruitment and selection depicts that it saves time to hire and reduces recruitment cost”. The methodologies used by Holm and Gopalia can be employed collectively in a different research that will enable us to understand more about the effects of e-recruitment on the cost, time and efficiency of an organization.

Facts and statistics about e-recruitment

Even though e-recruitment is a relatively new technology, a significant rise in its adoption has been recorded.  About 95% of the Global 500 companies now use e-recruitment as the main method of employing new workers (Barber, 2006; Kim et al, 2009). In Asia and America, the percentage of organizations that uses e-recruitment is put at 96%, while that of Europe is estimated to be 94% (Barber, 2006; Kim et al, 2009). The wide acceptance of e-recruitment by many agencies of the world has made it possible for employers to increase their capability of sourcing and meeting their recruitment objectives much faster.

 A statistical analysis conducted by Greenspan (2003), shows a breakdown of those that uses e-recruitment as follows: 26% for executives or managers, 26% for technical workers, 19% for professionals and a mere 5 and 7% for fulltime students and blue collar workers respectively. Evidence of about 43% of job seekers, who seek jobs online claim to have at least 10 years of work experience and half of those are looking to score jobs in the range of mid to senior level management (Gill, 2001). The databases of many online agencies are currently overflowing with resumes. Monster.com alone has about eleven million resumes that are very much available for employers. This explains why about 90% of those businesses that make use of the services offer by these online agencies are willing to renew their subscriptions annually. Gill (2001) observed that this is a great way for business to save their operational costs. He believed that between $ 50,000 and $60,000 can be save yearly by organizations that made use of these online agencies (Gill, 2001). About 56% of prospective employees that are interviewed by majority of companies are now known to be generated by these online agencies (SkillRoad Inc, 2012).  About 46% of those interviewed are usually hired (SkillRoad Inc, 2012). This shows the high success rate of using online methods of recruitment.


The highly competitive nature of today’s business world means that every organizations, companies and business establishment must strive to attract and retain the best and brightest employees. One of the surest ways of accomplishing this feat is by making use of the internet. E-recruitment is currently being adopted by an ever increasing number of organizations because of its cost effectiveness, fastness and efficiency. Despite its immense benefits, e-recruitment should not replace the traditional methods of recruitment. Rather, it should serve as a supplement to carter for the loopholes of the traditional recruitment methods. However, a lot still need to be done to make e-recruitment more effective and reliable. For instance, despite the technical strength of e-recruitment, it is also very important to incorporate a deep understanding of human resources into the structural designs of recruitment websites. It is also necessary for e-recruitment websites to have strong ability of market planning and promotion so as to be able to attract high quality applicants. Online recruitment service system is still in the early stages of development and needs further development to improve.

Appendix 1

Summary of previous research into the main effects of e-recruitment on the recruitment process as compiled by Holm (2010)

Changes in the recruitment process Changes in the recruitment process performance
The recruitment process turns into a marketing process of selling jobs, with more activities and resources dedicated to building company reputation, Internet communications, and relationship marketing. Automation of the entire recruitment process. Introduction of sophisticated on-line screening systems. Automated systems for contacting applicants. Shorter recruitment cycles. Bigger pool of experienced candidates. Efficient selection of best candidates.
Change from batch mode to continuous mode, with some activities being performed concurrently. Automated pre-screening. Long-term candidate relationship management. Cost savings, better efficiency, increased convenience for recruiters and clients, and shift of focus on effectiveness
Introduction of new processes, e.g. web-based pre-screening. “Just-in-time” recruiting on demand. Lower costs per hire. Shorter recruiting lead times. Improved quality of candidates

Appendix 2

Case Studies of companies used by Holm (2010)

Fictitious name Primary Industry Ownership Number of Employees  
ScandifinDanadrinco Banking and investmentAlcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages


Shareholding companyShareholding company


Energowing Design, production, and installation of energy systems Shareholding company 20,000+


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EFQM Model Economics

EFQM Model

A lot has been written on the EFQM Excellence Model generally and its application to the field of total quality management. This chapter is founded on the information search and review of literature that was conducted in February and March 2013. It largely investigates the EFQM model with respect to the adjustments it has undergone over the years.

Steered by the three research questions in this research, the literature review then explores the history of the EFQM Excellence Model, and the different adjustments the model has undergone as well. The chapter concludes with the current position the EFQM Excellence Model.

The EFQM Excellence Model

The EFQM- European Foundation for Quality Management was established in 1988 with the aim of assisting European firms to become competitive in the global market. The first choices of this establishment were to follow the example of the American MBNQA through forming the European quality prize (Conti, 2007). The mainstays of these prizes are extremely alike because all of them are founded on the philosophy of total quality management. On the other hand, there are a number of variations between nations. In accordance with Tan (2002), in developing nations these prizes provide little significance to factors like leadership and social responsibility. In Europe, the EFQM is more relevant to human resource management as well as social impact.

Successive forms of the EFQM Excellence Model have been created. The key reason for the adjustments is to be corresponding to the state of business. An evident illustration is the development of the MBNQA from a simple system of quality assurance to a system of quality management (Tan, 2002). The present type of the EFQM model dates from 2010. On the other hand, there is still not enough capability to evaluate this new type empirically. As a result of this, this paper will focus on the application of the EFQM model from 2003 -2012.

The EFQM model of 2003 varied in significant ways from the past one from the time it integrated a few concepts, like knowledge and information management, to draw up emphasis on process management and consumer orientation and to highlight the enhancement cycle (RADAR) and, in general, to make application easier in all sorts of businesses, private or public, multinationals or medium enterprises, or even in the non-profit organisations (EFQM 2003).

The EFQM Excellence Model supposes that, for a firm to be effective, whatever its industry, structure, size and so on, it ought to have a decent system of management. In light of this, the EFQM model is an instrument that may be applied to structure the system of management of a firm, through self-evaluation.

Self-assessment comprises a consistent assessment of activities and results of a firm with the excellence model (Calvo-Mora, Leal & Roldán, 2006) and it plays a part in identifying areas of improvement and strong points that as a result could facilitate to develop enhancement plans that ought to be incorporated in the strategic plans of an organisation (Jacobs & Suckling, 2007). In general, the scientific literature finds a positive correlation between company performance and self-assessment (Ahmed et al., 2003).

The EFQM Excellence Model is a flexible framework founded on nine principles. Out of the nine, five are Enablers whereas four are Results. The Enablers focus on what a firm, the Results focus on what a firm accomplishes. Enablers lead to Results (Mavroidis, Toliopoulou & Agoritsas, 2007). The EFQM model, realising there are a lot of strategies to attain maintainable excellence in all performance elements is founded on the principle that outstanding results with regard to customers, performance, and society are attained by means of resources, partnerships and processes. With reference to figure 1, the arrows highlight the dynamic attribute of the model. They indicate learning and innovation helping to better enablers that as a result cause advanced outcomes (Mohebi, 2002). This structure proposes the presence of correlations amid enablers and results and the actuality that being effective in a remote area is not satisfactory to attain excellence (Ehrlich, 2006).

EFQM Model Dissertation
EFQM Model Dissertation

Brief Summary of the Criteria Under the ‘Enablers’ group of the EFQM Model

Leadership- It is anticipated from the higher managers of leading firms that they would create systems of management in their firms and would struggle for their appropriate implementation and additional advancement (Collier & Bienstock, 2006). They would take the workers of the firm in assurance and would directly intermingle with their clients, suppliers and general public. These heads ought to be instrumental in making organisational transformations as and when requisite. They must come out as role models for the workers of their firm.

Policy and Strategy- Leading firms should have a long-standing strategic idea bearing in mind the anticipations of its different stakeholders (Ciavolino & Dahlgaard, 2009). These proposals must be evaluated constantly for appropriate implementation and upgraded obligatory. These plans must be founded on tracking the outer environment and monitoring the strong points of the organisation regularly.

People- It is desirable that firm manage their human resource obligations effectually by recognizing the capabilities of their employees and further advancing these to develop full advantage (Collier & Bienstock, 2006). There ought to be appropriate mediums of communication between senior managers and the staff members to identify their problems and prospects. The worker’s outstanding performance ought to be acknowledged and rewarded.

Partnerships and Resources- External allies, like suppliers, ought to be included in developing the coordination needs for more fulfillment of the buyers. The firm should assist these associates in their issues and form a synergy among them (Dahlgaard-Park, 2008). Outstanding firms ought to have well demarcated systems for dealing with their buildings, finances, materials and equipment. Old fashioned technology ought to be recognized in their operation and substituted with modern technology whenever the need arises. Appropriate application of information technology ought to be made and it must be guaranteed implied knowledge of the firm is transformed into systems of knowledge management.

Processes- Different processes must be well drawn and documented. The process ought to be analyzed for additional improvement constantly (Dahlgaard-Park, 2008). The firm must design and create its services and products on the basis of the anticipations of the clients. Long-standing relationships ought to be established with the consumers.

Brief Summary of the Criteria Under the ‘Enablers’ group of the EFQM Model

Customer’s results- How does the client view the firm? The firm is anticipated to develop processes to have knowledge of the consumer’s views of the firm (Go´mez-Go´mez, Martı´nez-Costa & Martı´nez-Lorente, 2011). People’s results- What are the views of the staff members of the firm regarding the firm? Therefore, systems must be developed to understand, monitor, forecast, and better the views of the staff members. Society’s results- What has the firm accomplished for the general public? What does the society notice regarding the firm? Therefore, systems have to be developed to understand, monitor, forecast, and better the views of the general public (Rooghani, M., & M. Homayonfar, (2005)). Key performance results- Key outcomes of performance are the results as intended by the firm. The results may be financial or non-financial. What the firm is accomplishing with regard to its intended performance is to be analysed and monitored.

According to Adebanjo (2001), the EFQM model integrates the principles of quality management mainly leaving the issues of quality management to individual companies. This implies that the aspect of quality assurance, related largely to the control of the production process, are presumed and organisations will possibly rely on other systems like six sigma, or ISO 9000 to concentrate in those features.

The Evolution of the EFQM Excellence Model

The EFQM Excellence Model is run by the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) (Iñaki, Landín & Fa, 2006). This is a nonprofitmaking body integrated in Brussels (McCarthy & Greatbanks, 2006). Its associates are firms from industry and service in addition to institutions of higher education, research organizations and other institutions from academia. Its key purpose is to pass on the concept of Excellence across Europe (Vernero et al., 2007). In this context, the EFQM offers a range of services from information material and training on self-assessment to measuring support. They are all enhancing the fundamental business of supporting and running the European Quality Award.

The basic EFQM Excellence Model was initially established co-operatively by specialists and researchers and printed in 1991 (Klefsjo¨, Bergquist and Garvare, 2008). Ever since, it has been constantly revised and upgraded. A key amendment occured in 1999. It was acknowledged that collaboration with external allies or networking in addition to invention and learning had occurred in the interim as vital encounters to organizational performance. The objective was to integrate both features in the novel model. In addition, model management, applicability, and usability must be enhanced. As an initial step, the EFQM distributed a draft for a novel model in April 1998 (EFQM 1999). Conversely, its graphic arrangement revealed the preferred learning sequence. However, two new components were incorporated: “Partnerships”, as an enabler, defined the firm’s astrategy to cope or work together with external partners; “Partners” denoted the relevant measures of performance. In addition, the subcriteria lost their previous objective of offering comprehensive requirements to every component. As an alternative, they now termed as the factors approach, positioning, valuation, and assessment. These had initially been part of the “Blue Card”, that is, the scopes for assessment. The subcriteria of the old model were shifted to the parts to tackle. The latter alterations triggered significant criticism. Firms already using the model for self-valuation objectives would have had to re-educate all their employees.

As (Jelodar, 2006)a result, they strongly supported an evolutionary strategy to model improvement as an alternative . Additional issues were witnessed in the actuality that all model matters were shifted from the degree of subcriteria to the parts to tackle. The latter are not obligatory however, potrayed as an classic guidance for firms to comprehend the model. As a result, scientists and practitioners were frightened the good judgment concerning the subjects of the model could become disoriented (Javidi, 2006). On the other hand, the novel model draft provided some substantial developments largely referring to the dimensions of assessment. These later created the RADAR-Chart. Following an intense talk with its associates across Europe, the EFQM chose to pull out the draft of the new model and presented a second suggestion which was a lot more in agreement with the earlier version (EFQM, 1999). However, it considered the aforementioned factors of invention and learning in addition to external associations which are nowadays both placed more to the front. Conversely, the original level structure with subcriteria, elements, and sections to tackle was maintained. This made it easier for firms to adjust and carry on their internal processes of self-valuation.

The Changes Incorporated in Version 2010

According to the 3 dimensional trait of the EFQM Model, this section elucidates the adjustments in each of these scopes, being: The Fundamental Concepts; The set of eight concepts was retained per se, however, all have a transformed and more vibrant title whereas the content for each was developed and is nowadays presented in a more organized manner (Tarí, 2006); The Model itself with the 9 boxes or criteria; Moreover, here the 5 enabler and 4 result benchmarks boxes were retained per se, however, have now  an improved naming, more uniformity inside, less similarity and were upgraded in content. Similarly, the weighting is now easier and more stable (Jacobs & Suckling, 2007). The RADAR factors for Results and Enablers. Here an enormous transformation was made for the ‘scope’ elements employed to evaluate the performance of the outcomes or ‘footprint’ of an firm. The set of aspects for evaluating strategies in the enabler criteria were polished with traits like effectiveness, creativity and suitability being incorporated into the popular trio of ‘approach’, ‘deployment’ and ‘assessment and review’(Shertan, 2008).

Above and beyond these key adjustments, also the weighting of the benchmarks was revised and streamlined, while retaining the ‘equal’ value amid the capability of a firm using the 5 enabler benchmarks and the performance it conveys for all stakeholders in the 4 result benchmarks. Each retains 50-percent of the total (Davies, Douglas & Douglas, 2007).

Changes in the Fundamental Concepts

The key principle of what these 8 models signify is established in this form of the Model,

their function was strengthened as in former times the possible value of this aspect of the Model has frequently been undervalued (Homayonfar, 2008).  This is apparent from the process of design employed for this form of the Model – this method employed the Fundamental Concepts as the base and indite for the rest. It was now the first time that a entirely reliable and direct connection was created amid each of the eight notions and each of the 32 benchmark areas, whereas keeping these 2 outlooks on Excellence separately.

Although the amount of concepts stays at eight and the naming looks relatively identical, a comprehensive interpretation of the description for each concept demonstrates the content has been improved considerably and signifies extremely well the elements we can discover back in firms that are worthy our admiration (Delghavi, 2007).   What did not transform is that the fundamental concepts are a exceptional and influential way to ‘define’ the position of being outstanding in a broad way.  Furthermore, the 8 concepts stay numberless; they have no sequence order, weight or significance.  Which of these 8 are the most vital to follow relies on the present state and particular environment a firm exists in and what it aims to turn into in the future, its determination. What did transform however considerably is the manner these 8 concepts are nowadays  visually incorporated with the two other elements, the eight notions are now visibly placed as the electrons  circling around a core with RADAR and the 9 benchmarks (or if one prefer it more – Satellites circling around the Globe) (EFQM 2010).


Table 1 -Fundamental Concepts

2003 Version 2010 Version

Key shift in content

Results orientation Achieving Balanced Results Concentration is presently on developing the key set of outcomes requisite to observe development against the  mission, vision,  and strategy, allowing leaders to formulate effectual and appropriate decisions.
Customer Focus Adding Value

For Customers Concentration is presently on plainly defining and communicating the value proposition and vigorously  involving clients in the service and product  design processes. Leadership and constancy of purpose leading with vision, inspiration & Integrity. The concept is at present more  dynamic, concentrating on the capability of leaders to adjust, react and  gain the dedication of all stakeholders to guarantee the ongoing success of the firm. Management by processes and facts managing by Processes The concentration is at present on how the processes are intended to convey the strategy, with end to end running past the “classic”  limits of a company. People Development and Involvement Succeeding through People The Concentration is presently on forming a balance amid the tactical needs of the firm and the personal prospects and objectives of the people to achieve their obligation and involvements. Continuous Learning, Innovation and Improvement Nurturing Creativity & Innovation. The concept presently identifies the need to improve and relate with networks and involving all stakeholders as possible sources of originality and invention. Partnership Development Building Partnerships. The concept has been extended to include partnerships  beyond the supply chain and recognizes that these should be based on sustainable mutual benefits to succeed. Corporate Social Responsibility. Taking Responsibility for a Sustainable Future. The concept presently centers on  vigorously taking responsibility for the business’s behavior and activities and handling its effect on the broader community.

The Current Version of the EFQM Excellence Model

What transformed in the way the Model functions with results?

In this section, let us evaluate what has transformed in the Model to promote a better evaluation of the performance of a company. In this segment we define first the modifications in the 4 generic benchmarks of results a firm realizes, and then how the RADAR aspects were upgraded to allow better Feedback, Analysis, Learning and Action (Andersen, Lawrie & Shulver, 2003).

What transformed in the results benchmarks?

For the 3 stakeholders being the people, customers,  and the public a firm is working with

and for, the identifying and the ‘stereo’ norm of having on one hand insights and on the other

hand indicators of performance stay the same (Bencsik & Nagy, 2007). On the other hand, the guidance and the the definition of which actualities and figures to concentrate on were put into precisely the same structure and were enhanced. A clear change was formed from a list of illustrations of processes to a more generic depiction of the form of or the areas of performance to apply in signifying outstandingor excellent levels of performance (Civcisa, 2007).

For the Result benchmarks 6, 7 and 8 a sharper dissimilarity between the observation (a) and pointer (b) elements of performance is now developed. This strengthens that outstanding performance can simply be established or attained of both the  efficiency and effectiveness are attained (Acur and Englyst, 2006). Each of the b) principle areas deals with the effectiveness side, with performance pointers that display how much is achieved, whereas each a) side deals with the efficiency part or performed all this action certainly ‘created a difference’.

As an illustration for consumer outcomes on the b) side a firm could indicate how fit and how much negative and positive response was managed, and how quick, whereas on the a) side the effect of this response on the definite insights by Clients is perceptible (Rusjan, 2005). Without taking part in an academic paper here on this subject, it is currently evident in the criteria that efficiency data is placed in 6a, 7a and 8a, whereas effectiveness data is under 6b, 7b and 8b (Pouyan &. Karimanpoor, 2007). As a last observation on this subject let’s remark both a) and b) can have slugish or leading pointers, this version of the Model does not employ this element to assign a result in a) or b).  On the other hand, for the  Key Results benchmark (9) a noteworthy transformation was made in the definition and identification of the outcomes the shareholders or proprietors of a firm anticipate to be attained. It now basically refers to ‘attaining what is intended for in the approach’ (Gomez-Gomez, Martınez-Costa & Martınez-Lorente, 2011). Certainly, also for this ‘bottom line’ principle the description and direction for appropriate facts and figures was improved like it was for principle 6, 7 and 8.

Another could be less noticeable transformation at first sight is the overview now of the notion of giving priority to key outcomes. In the description for every of the results principles a particular part is committed to establish the relative significance or weight for every of the sets of data employed to present and comprehend one of the aspects of the performance, which connects into the necessity to make contrasts and determine goals for these ‘Key Results’. The virtual weighting of principles, these transformed and gets both Consumer and Key outcomes at the same significance (150 pts each), and Individuals and The public both at 100 pts. For principle 9, and currently also principle 8 there is a 50/50-percent share between the principle parts a) and b), whereas for the people and customer principles 6 and 6 the 75/25 share stays.

Changes affecting the way we look at specific RESULTS of an organisation

Here amongst the vital transformations of the 2010 version of the  EFQM Model was created by transforming the order and improving the aspects of RADAR relevant to each of the results principles.  For the study (such as during an evaluation for instance) of the performance a attains achieves in a particular field still  two key elements are employed, however, these  transformed in order. By placing the ‘relevance and usability’ of the outcomes first, and the popular performance elements of ‘targets, ‘trends’, ‘causes’ and ‘comparisons’ add, a balance between the examination of set of information itself and what may be perceived as patterns in this information has been recognized clearly and resolutely now (Go´mez-Go´mez, Martı´nez-Costa & Martı´nez-Lorente, 2011).

Foremost the analysis in agreement with the approach of the ‘scope & relevance’, ‘integrity’ and ‘segmentation’ of the information employed to comprehend and show the outcomes for a specific principle (6, 7, 8 or 9) is performed. Just when a vivid picture of what we employed to call ‘scope’ is decided upon, the level of performance may be evaluated.  Together then these 2 aspects help in measuring how strong the performance is or where noteworthy prospective to advance can be realized.The adjustments to the results segment of the RADAR imply that those measuring need to form a judgement, based on the data they are given, with regard to: The percentage of the outcomes being applicable, segmented and integer  for ‘Relevance and Usability’; and if the performance is  probable to be maintained into the future, founded on  evaluating the tendencies and targets, contrasts with other firms, the understanding of the “reason & effect” connections, modifications in the operating setting, etc.

What transformed in the way the Model functions with enablers?

In general, the structuring into 5 enabler principles was kept as an easy way to divide into generally approved groups of tactics a firm can transform when targeting to advance its size and future performance.  Whereas on the well-known 9 boxed picture all main words were kept (with the exclusion of ‘Policy’), the invitation from ‘Processes’ into  ‘Procedures, Services’ and conformityhighlights the worldwide personality of the EFOM Model (Go´mez-Go´mez, Martı´nez-Costa & Martı´nez-Lorente, 2011).  It is relevant for any form of industry, size or development.  In addition, it stops some explanations of the principles that ‘forget’ the center of any firm  that lies into the plan and provision of their collection of services, or products , the contribution for Customers employed to fulfil their task.

Another could be less apparent transformation at first sight is the extension of the Response arrow underneath the 9 boxes with  ‘Creativity’. In addition, the ‘Learning’ and ‘Innovation’ as the preferred outcome of comprehending how enablers incorporate with outcomes and vice versa, this highlights inventiveness as an factor element influencing accomplishment, it illustrates the dynamic attribute of the EFQM Model.

What changed in the enabler criteria?

In agreement, 24 benchmark araes are still employed to structure an organized and comprehensive outlook on the dimensions and value of all the methodologies a fim has. There are 24 areas a firm may transform in the light of a continued and improved future performance.  Such as in the 2003 version, every benchmark has 5 criterion areas, apart from criterion 2 on Strategy which has 4 areas. Moreover the alterations shortened below per benchmark part, numerous attention was offered in this revision to bring the amount of management points to a standard amid 5 and 6. This way every point defines now more evidently  a particular subject that may produce valuable topics for discussion. Furthermore, a rationality analysis on these management points to define just realistic and modern practices of management was performed, giving rise to a general decrease (from >160 to 132) and a more concentrated content (Go´mez-Go´mez, Martı´nez-Costa & Martı´nez-Lorente, 2011). Even though the old expression ‘may include’ is currently methodically substituted by ‘Actually, Excellent firms:’, these management points must NOT be regarded as a worksheet or a list of compulsory practices or tactics, they act as a generic list of practices from actual life circumstances in a way to describe a particular criterion-part.  Perhaps the most influential incorporation was attained by re-cycling a number of or all of the shot points from the Fundamental Concepts into every benchmark field (Gomez-Gomez, Martınez-Costa & Martınez-Lorente, 2011).

Changes affecting the way we look at a specific enabler of an organisation

Even though the modifications here are less noticeable at first sight matched to the ones for the results aspects of RADAR, they as well demand cautious attention when adjusting to the 2010 version. Although for instance the term ‘review’ is substituted by the name ‘refine’, as well what is being ‘Assessed & Refined’ is currently defined more evidently in the novel picture. In general, one may view each of the RADAR letters have this form of development; this is mirrored as well in the novel picture for RADAR that well demonstrates now the ‘whole circle’ of the 4 areas of the RADAR rationality (Gomez-Gomez, Martınez-Costa & Martınez-Lorente, 2011). The 3 aspects and how these are made up of the 7 qualities remains mainly similar as a structure and the technique to come to an agreement of either a recording level or to enable an intensive exchange of insights for one of the 24 enabler benchmarks. On the other hand, a number of trivial changes in wording may have a substantial adjustment in the examination of an enabler, such as the ‘timeliness’ (or speed) of positioning.In conclusion, the medium for scoring objective is now more constantly employing the standard of ‘evidence’ to arrive at an agreement for each of the aspects and/or the subsection of qualities.  As a good description in the appendix is not yet obtainable, this generates a need for more management for the applied meaning of ‘evidence’, this for instance during a actual external evaluation.


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Advertising Media Planning

Advertising Media Planning

Dixons UK: Strength out of Weakness

The much publicized advertising wars between Dixons, the high street shops, and their other online competitors reflect the perceived desires of consumers and the projected benefits of sustained firm-customer awareness. The Dixons.co.uk advertising campaign in 2009 seemed to break a lot of rules in advertising and marketing planning while it actually reinforced, in a rather novel way, some key underpinnings of advertising theory. The campaign ultimately shifted perceived consumer psychology by targeting embedded thoughts and feelings in their reproduction in consumer behaviour through a successful repositioning of Dixon’s in the chain of retailers.  Additionally, the firm ultimately freeloaded the media coverage and the counterproductive strategies and positioning of competitors to its advantage.

The ‘Dixons.co.uk Strength out of Weakness’ case study successfully captures a creative “problem-solving” approach that more dogmatic strategists would have rejected, in exploiting the exceptional circumstances and situation of Dixon’s, which in this case, turned to be its weakest.  Coupled with general strategy in the market for technology, the Dixons.co.uk campaign was audacious in turning the perceived “doggedness” of the firm into its greatest asset in its public presentation and appearance.

The case study’s focus is the “Visit us last” ethos and modus operandi of the 2009 campaign. The concept and phrase is ingratiatingly self-deprecating and deterministic, easy to say, and provocative.  Dixon’s, a popular high-street retailer in London and around the UK suffered from a middle position. Web-sales in electronics were up, but Dixons was losing.  Customers did their own research on tech-products and could alternatively enjoy the more customer-friendly environments of retailers such as John Lewis.  The confluence of these factors weighed heavily in Dixon’s decision to use its implicitly lagging behind competitors (“Visit us Last”) message with competitive pricing.  The sensational response to the seemingly benign phrase proved to be provocative, provocatively fortunate as dixons.co.uk enjoyed both paid for coverage in the London Underground, for example, and unpaid coverage in the media, where dixons.co.uk received the majority of the publicity good or bad sharing the stage with many other competitors.

In many instances, and particularly in the fields of marketing and advertising, “theory” is a pejoratively value laden term.  The logocentric practice of advertising may be theoretically averse (for example, ‘theoretically’ often connotes a thought not in practice, or for example, ‘in theory’ is usually referring to something that should work given abstract paradigmatic assumptions).

Just as advertising as a discipline is particularly concerned with human communication and behaviour, the policies and practices of firms in the branding marketplace are engaged in the same mechanisms. The two would benefit greatly from more dialogue, just as advertising and marketing theory has been enriched through its interdisciplinary framework.  Advertising academics interrogate fields as diverse as Linguistics and International Relations (among many other social and behavioural sciences) for example.  In the case of the former, the perceived structure of human cognition as language (Derrida 1970 18) has enabled advertisers to extend neuroscience research with more qualitative data to the greater impact of marketing plans (Hackley 2010).  In the case of the latter, trends say, for example, in fair trade can be linked to the demographic within the developed country of consumption (Landes 1999).  The attitude of modernity understood by academics is dictated by the forces of modernity (Latour 1991).  These social movements have led to the rise in the branding of brands and parts of brands such as Costa and Starbucks to highlight “fair trade” coffee and other products in response to public opinion (Doran 2009).  Here social movement theories, psychology studies have all had an effect on academic advertising, but in order for advertising to affect these important concepts, a paradigmatic theoretical perspective is necessary. Advertising sciences need advertising, and advertising needs cross-disciplinary creative strategies.

The dixons.co.uk strategy defined the problems facing the ailing firm, and worked with the legacy and assets of its beleaguered position in the electronics retail market, and developed a coherent and creative strategy to attract attention and ultimately purchases.

The result however, of a firm advertising without a creative strategy theoretically grounded, is much like the critique of existing advertising initiatives by the Y & R consultancy firm’s outline for creative marketing strategy:

“Without a [creative] strategy, advertising belongs in the theatre of the absurd provocative, ambiguous, uncertain, interesting but what’s it all about?”

Similarly, Vaughn warns of advertising theory’s marginalization in its nascent stages and encourages inquiry:

If we had a proven theory of advertising effectiveness it would help in strategy, planning, response, measurement, and sales prediction.  We have no such theory.  Empirical ‘proof’ is scattered in numerous company and agency files.  The possibility for a scientifically-derived model of advertising seems remote. (Vaughn 1980). However, ‘maverick’, these marketing tools were effectively promoted, and so provoked public interest, not just in firm-awareness, but even of corporate marketing strategy.  In this instance, dixons.co.uk, however sensational its message, followed a very clear and realistic problem solving approach.  The commonly built upon and processed original Y & R Work Plan (1970) worked from such consultancy advocacy to see its creative and practical benefits.  The dixons.co.uk strategy, as outlined in the case study, involved first assessing the primary problems facing the firm.  For the purposes of this essay, it is necessary to briefly discuss the Y & R Working Plan as its skeletal and theoretically pragmatic approach is consistent with the extension of the dixons.co.uk branding.

The Y & R plan departs from four primary elements.  First is in the statement of the “key fact”, based on an analysis of all ‘facts’ pertaining to the key fact (1).  The plan then defines the problem  (2) marketing must engage with in respect to the key fact.  Thirdly, there must be a “statement of the advertising objective (3) which stems from the problem”.  Finally implemented is a creative strategy (4).

The strategy outlined and documented in the case study shows the very reach and multi-pronged media venues of the program, ‘Strength out of weakness’.  Importantly, it works from the perspective of a creative strategy to overcome very immediate hurdles: Significantly, the group determined “the only realistic way anyone would choose and buy from Dixons UK was if they visited already knowing exactly what make and model they wanted”.  This is not the strongest selling point.

If we determine the key fact is to be that Dixon’s “was passed its 80s heyday”, then the following problem resulting from this must be passed as a heteronomy of factors.  First, Dixon’s perceived strengths must be taken into account.  Dixon’s inventory capabilities were massive.  Since it’s high street shops had gone the way of Curry’s, its main issue was that there were very few prospective customers who came to dixons.co.uk directly.  Dixon’s had to attract customer’s straight to dixons.co.uk, the firm’s fate rested on this.  The advertising objective would be to make dixons.co.uk the most attractive online electronics distributor.  The overflow from traditional retail would follow.  The creative strategy implemented marketing signs, specifically in the London Underground, that exaggerated a consumer’s trip to the lofty auspices, and lofty prices of high street retailers, featuring the most desired electronics, ending the perfunctory phrase with “…and then go to Dixons”. Competitive pricing, highly researched consumers of electronics, and a provocative slogan and ad campaign combined to make this very effective for Dixon’s.  Following from this, a coherent capture:

High street retailers have knowledge, expertise and service, but don’t have low prices. Dixons has low prices but doesn’t have great service, expertise or knowledge. Now get devious. So, Dixons has the low prices and they do the service for us.A transposition of the technology market to the FCB grid developed by Richard Vaughn shows how a firm can augment its own position by using the services and positions of competitors to greater penetrate where venue and product meet consumer.  This was Dixon’s strategy.

FCB Grid Advertising Media Planning
FCB Grid Advertising Media Planning

The figure above is an example taken from Richard Vaughn (1986), “organizing advertising effectiveness for strategy planning” (Vaughn 1980 27).  Consumer electronics can be thought of as “high involvement”, as individual specs cater to the consumers’ needs.  Electronics are also both high think and high feel—high think in that consumers read and try extensively, they research electronics.  However, there are inherent stratifications in the electronics market that can only correspond to “feel”, such as that of a hi-fi stereo system or a sterling-silver washing machine.  Dixon’s positioned itself to wedge these three parts of a triangle through its creative marketing triangle.

The high concentration of billboards and advertisements taken in London’s Public Transport created media frenzy as it replicated in exhibition.“…and then go to dixons.co.uk” urging commuters coming home who do not want to deal with lines at Oxford Circus, and the friends they tell about a peculiar ad, etc.

Interestingly, the “tone” of the advertisement, an especially important characteristic in advertising and marketing theory, challenged common perceptions in how a brand could promote itself, and in so doing, created a kind of feedback continuum of interested traffic.  A simple creative solution was needed. Compared to the $3.4 billion GM spent in 2006 in U.S. advertising (Horsky 2006), the much smaller budget of Dixon’s was proving profitable beyond the wildest imaginations of executives.

Placement in the underground was critical, the case study showed a progressive growth in “hits” in London area ISPs, and the underground was once again shown to be a great marketing vehicle for the right advertising strategy.  In this case, marketing and advertising placement was appropriate for the project, as the buyers of electronics are typically as varied as the professionals and musicians and children that travel the Tube.

The dixons.co.uk media coverage descended—much to Dixon’s advantage—to the dirty depths British presses are capable of.  It dragged in some high names, but always featured Dixon’s as the challenger, the underdog, or else the precocious electronics giant—regardless, people now spoke of dixons.co.uk.  This is and has been a significant issue for firms to develop effective and cohesive advertising strategies. Dixon’s capitalized on “major improvements in the quality of consumer information and the growth of targeted media which allow firms to precisely target according to consumer segments within a market” (Iyer et al 2005 461).  The placement of provocative ads on the London underground for example captured a commuting captive audience’s attention. This broad demographic are all in the market for electronics, it’s efficacy was not in declaring its position, but in reactivating products in the mind and imagination of somebody on the Victoria Line, for example..

“Strength out of weakness” was the perfect campaign strategy. It used Dixon’s entrenched market position and vulnerabilities to its advantage by exploiting its legacy, its inventory capabilities, and it’s resolution from one main problem to one basic fact.  “The only realistic way anyone would choose and buy from Dixons UK was if they visited already knowing exactly what make and model they wanted”. The site was subpar.  Product comparison, review of specs, product and design aesthetics: “This wasn’t just a minor difference communications might be able to gloss over. It was fundamental. By identifying the key facts, understand the problem in relation to these key facts, a creative and effective strategy was promoted.  Dixon’s made a good holiday run and then some on this, consistent even with foundational advertising theory thirty years ago even as it appeared radical.


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Traditionalism and Modernism

Dissertation – Philosophical and Historical Understanding of Traditionalism and Modernism in the UK

Chapter 1: Introduction

This dissertation is focused on enhancing philosophical and historical understanding of traditionalism and modernism in the UK. The principles of modernity have played an important role in order to contribute to the decline of faith in Britain. It is also concluded that the traditional principles are getting obsolete in a contemporary society and people living within the society are more likely to adopt the modern way of living. The present era is the era of materialism and all goods and services are transformed into commodities for sale which also includes healthcare, religion, education, personal identity and in some cases happiness and people are very less likely to emphasize on the social norms and traditions.

1.1 Main Objectives of the Study

The points of the exploration are:

  1. To provide a philosophical and historical understanding of Traditionalism and Modernism.
  2. To assess how commercialization and commodification have resulted in the decline of religiosity.
  3. To juxtapose the Modernist doctrine of egalitarianism to social solidarity within the construct of a mechanical society.
  4. To assess how objectification of human-beings has resulted in the decline of ‘Sacredness’ through the principles of sexuality.

Chapter 2- Literature Review

This chapter will comprise of a literature review that will examine various components of modernity including: attendance to consumerism and commodification; the ideology behind egalitarianism and its root to capitalism; the shift from social solidarity to individualism and the classical and modern approach to sexuality.

2.1 Attendance to consumerism and commodification

There is much research evidence that argues how faith has played a role during the post-Enlightenment era and pre- Enlightenment era. Sarah Williams in Buckingham (2003) argued that the working class have a more complex way of imagining their belief structures and suggested that this decline does not adequately explain these phenomena. Thus we need to look at the way individuals have conserved faith and how they translate their faith in the modern era.

This suggest that the decline in faith in Britain may be an exaggerated point, as times change individuals must learn to contemporize their Faith by bringing to life the traditional principles that they hold true and living them in a society which demands a modern form of life. In other words Balshaw (2004) says that “the Sacred does not disappear indeed in many ways it is becoming more rather than less prevalent in contemporary society” (Clements and Sarama, 2003).

According to Fredrick Michelle (reference) the Cold War symbolized the battle of two opposing and prominent ideologies, capitalism and communism. These ideologies were best represented by the United States and the U.S.S.R, who during the Second World War were allies in combating the forces of Nazi Germany. Their opposing ideologies twisted not just their own nations but the entire world into a state of conflict, which was perhaps one of the most trying periods in human history. The United States which was the beacon of a free market economy, characterized by democracy was in conflict with the U.S.S.R a totalitarian dictatorship characterized by communism. According to Michelle this conflict had an enormous impact on the social, economic and political sphere.

Coffield, Moseley and Eccleston (2004) added that the demise of the U.S.S.R led to a paradigm shift which resulted in capitalism being the dominant commercial culture globally. This global ideological take-over is more commonly referred to in modern times as consumerism, which is a powerful worldview that has deep effects on the attitude and way of living of people all around the world. Principally consumerism calls for all goods and services to be transformed into commodities for sale. This includes, but is not limited to healthcare, religion, education, personal identity and in some instances happiness as being means of commodification.

In this worldview therefore prosperity is measured in terms of material acquisitions namely in the form of money, as being the ultimate goal to a successful and meaningful life. This attitude has subsequently influenced societies view on religion (Cunningham, 1998). For instance take Christmas or Easter which are both sacred and public holidays in Britian, however According to Gertler and Vinodrai (2002) many grown-up members in religious rituals don’t intentionally comprehend the typical importance of these ceremonies. He added

“You may ask many civilized people in vain for the real meaning of the Christmas tree or of the Easter egg. The fact is they do things without knowing why they do them. I am inclined to the view that things were general”.

Although it is more dominant in Western societies, there is also now an emergence of this worldview even in developing nations, which is leading more and more people to conform (out of necessity) to a commodified worldview (Hamilton, 2003). It would be reasonable to assume that this might infect the world of religion as well, so that commodification effects religious conceptions. Moving into a world of commodification whereby people are tied to seeing things as objects, objects that can be bought and sold. This is something I will investigate in my interview.

In addition, Hall and Thomson (2007) The Protestant Ethic & The Spirit of Capitalism reveals to us how Calvinists in the sixteenth and seventeenth century looked upon an individual’s prosperity inside business and reserve funds was an evidence that they were bound for salvation. We can relate this to the early beginnings of free enterprise and an individual’s obligation and prospects, with time the stress of religious beliefs was disintegrated as a free market system succeeded. With this new society came increasing rationalisation, this lead to disillusionment and definitely alongside that came a reduction in religious belief system and church participation.

As well, spiritual experience is something that can be understood, not by practice or by individual effort, but through a simple exchange, money for ablution. It is therefore not surprising that many religions today have adjusted their fundamental tenants and have become “consumer religions” Loveless (2002), or religions that promise material success by selling religious services. This it is not surprising that in this context religion, both new and old, take matters of the utmost sacredness and commercialize them. That is why in a country with such a rich history such as Japan a funeral can cost more than one million dollars!

 One of the major influencers of formative sociology of religion in Scanlon, Buckingham and Burn (2005) suggests that Western societies are undergoing an extensive period of secularization. He found that in Britain alone church attendance during the mid-nineteenth century had fallen by a staggering forty percent. Juxtaposed with a study conducted in the 1960’s where the decline in church attendance was only ten percent, this shows us that over the course of thirty years there was a decline of over thirty percent in attendance. This highlights that secularization has been part and parcel of the modernist philosophy and it can therefore be concluded that secularization is a component of modernism. Naturally this leads to a question, that is, to what extent has Faith decreased due to the forces of modernity?

2.2 The ideology behind egalitarianism and its root to capitalism

Weber accepted that religion (and particularly Calvinism) really served to offer ascent to the rise of modern capitalism, as he affirmed in his most celebrated and disputable work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.

In The Protestant Ethic, Weber contends that capitalism emerged in Europe partially due to how the faith in destiny was deciphered by regular English Puritans. Puritan religious philosophy was dependent upon the Calvinist thought that not everybody might be spared; there was just a particular number of the choose who might avoid damnation, and this was built in light of God’s decided beforehand will and not on any activity you could perform in this life (Sefton-Green and Sinker, 2000).

For all intents and purpose, Weber noted, this was troublesome mentally: individuals were (naturally) restless to know whether they might be endlessly cursed or not. In this way Puritan pioneers started guaranteeing parts that in the event that they started doing great fiscally in their organizations, this might be one informal sign they had God’s approbation and were around the spared – yet just in the event that they utilized the tree grown foods of their work well (Thomson and Hall, 2006).

This alongside the logic suggested by monotheism prompted the advancement of normal accounting and the computed quest for fiscal achievement past what one required basically to live – and this is the “soul of capitalism.” Over time, the propensities connected with the soul of private enterprise lost their religious essentialness, and balanced quest for benefit turned into its own particular profit. Resulting to inequalities (class, race, gender, sex) in different institutions within society.

In 2005 Wilson concluded based on the finds of another study that only six percent of people in the Christian populous attend church (Thomson and Hall, 2006). His study outlines the pre-existing notion which has been upheld that there is a drastic decline of religious values, beliefs and practices which ultimately resulted in the loss of its social significance due to commercialism. To provide a succinct example of this, gone are the days when something as sacred as a wedding ceremony occurs in a church.

 Most dream weddings today are about the honeymoon not about the marriage itself. In nearly each culture, the marriage could be a vital life event that involves celebration in a very deeply personal and memorable method. People, place, and preparation are the foundation of the marriage, as couples style a ceremony that tells their story. While the motivations and preferences of every couple are terribly completely different, the deep desire to celebrate love in a very special and lasting method is consistent across ages and cultures. Wedding tourism, that is, voyaging universally with the end goal of getting hitched or commending a wedding (Sefton-Green and Sinker, 2000) has ended up progressively mainstream lately (Loveless, 2002).

Weddings have become a commodity, providing opportunities for every host destination to plug itself as an area wherever a special life event is commemorated in Associate in an unforgettable method (Boden, 2001). According to Cunningham (1998), a UK primarily based supplier of marketing research, one in 5 United Kingdom and Northern Ireland weddings takes place abroad; between 2005 and 2010, the amount of weddings abroad exaggerated by twenty seven percent. The need to honeymoon abroad has additionally been growing, as client preference analysis discovered that the share of consumers eager to honeymoon abroad has up from fifty seven percent to seventy percent within the period from 2008 to 2010 (Mintel, 2010).

It is therefore logical to conclude that commercialization and commodification are, as previously mentioned, characteristics of capitalism. Another facet which emerges from this ideological worldview is egalitarianism and in particular its connection with globalization. Cunningham (1998) highlights that religion is the “opiate of the masses” -a way for the elites to reinforce the oppression of the lower classes. This results to class inequalities taking place on both global and local level.

According to Cunningham (1998), economically speaking, 20% of the world population is rich. This shows that 80% of the worlds wealth is controlling the economics of the world. The social effect of globalization which promotes inequality is largely due to geo political influences and the internet. Berger (1967) states that with the fast development of technologies, media and sciences comes a decay of religion and an addressing of its place in the public eye. He happens to state that religion, previously, has held the explanations for our unanswerable inquiries and offered intending to lives. Notwithstanding that our inquiries are currently replied by science and innovation then the congregation and religion is no more required. This procedure is additionally alluded to as the Rational Choice Theory (RTC) of Religion.

The influence of the internet and the meta geo politics effects different countries. For instance, if one nation (Britain) is going through the credit crunch and recession process, this affects other countries within. For example the case of the Twin tower bombings in Washington paved the way for Muslims to be viewed as terrorist not only on a local front but on a global front too.

This influenced the notion of individualism in religion, whereby members of society are somewhat forced to practice their faith behind closed doors.

2.3 Shift from social solidarity to individualism

Buckingham (2003) did an investigation of the Arunta native tribes in Australia. He found that religion has social capacities for its parts. Clements and Sarama (2003) discovered tribes treated most things as normal yet a few things were separate as taboo and move wonder. Durkheim contended these exceptional things speak to something of incredible force and in his view this can only be society. Thus worshipping these things is worshipping society, regardless of the possibility that these tribes weren’t mindful of it. Durkhiem argued that the collective consciousness of society was deteriorating and as a result, individualism has taken over.

Buckingham (2003) argues faith performs a social occasion by providing psychological support throughout times of emotional stress that may otherwise threaten social life. This shows how Religion plays a solidarity role in individuals life, by allowing them to have a sense of belonging.

Balshaw (2004) contended that Individualisation sees religion as progressively ‘a matter of individual decision’ not just as far as things like love, additionally as far as a ‘pick and blend ” approach to religions (joining together different plans and rationalities to make customized manifestations of conviction). Such individualisation advances to fulfil religious desires in circumstances where people ‘can no more depend on social foundations.

Religion is genuine for Durkhiem; it is an articulation of social order itself, and undoubtedly, there is no social order that has no religion. This shows that the standards of religion still however exist in modern society. Thus Religion is a declaration of our aggregate cognizance, which is the union of the greater part of our distinctive awareness, which then makes an actuality of its own. Along these lines without the faith in confidence we see an increment in Anomie. Where by people create a feeling of norm lessness which regularly has a pessimistic effect on their mental, physical and enthusiastic soundness. Also the development in libertarianism and independence heads a development in Def interest, which than prompts secularization and outcomes to the decay of confidence. Hence the value of egalitarianism leads to the breakdown of social solidarity whereby individualism is the core principle as appose to solidarity. As Wagner (2004) so skilfully expressed “But ultimately, modernity is about the increase of individualism and individuality.” whereby shared beliefs within ones community is not embraced through a collective consciousness but through individuality. For instance if one was invited to attend a wedding, one will only attend if the dates are suitable and fits the schedule of that particular individual.

“We must stop thinking of the individual and start thinking about what is best for society today” Hillary Clinton, (1993) however in modern day individuals represent their own particular interest toward oneself. Collaborating just to the extent that needed by Laws, Contracts and Public opinions that constrains their actions. This is something I will explore in my research, by inspiring my interviewee’s to discuss their personal views on religion in relation to solidarity or individualism.

2.4 Classical and modern approach to sexuality

In The Transformation of Intimacy (1992) Giddens alludes to the new examples of sexuality. He contends that the radicalized modernity is converting intimacy. Sexuality has ended up unreservedly drifting. argued that sexuality in modern society is fixated with the notion of sex being freed from both reproduction and subservience to a fixed object. This is something I will investigate in my research, by eliciting my interviewee on their perception of intimacy and sex in modern era.

In Addition, several factors have begun to wear down the power of clergy in the Western world: the shortage of male priests (Hoge 1987), non-ordained women performing clerical tasks (Wallace 1992), the presence of women clergy (Lehman 1987) and the changes they have introduced (Ice 1987), declining church attendance and participation. Thus this therefore highlights how sexuality tends to play a role of a limitation rather than a strength when discussing the decline of faith in Britain. Men no longer have the only authoritarian role within the church, women are allowed to participate in such activities.

The traditional point of sexuality – Clements and Sarama (2003) discusses the traditional Chinese philosophy in understanding sexuality. She argues that the Ying and Yang example whereby both sexes complement each other, whereby Yin and yang are complementary opposites within a greater whole. Everything has both yin and yang aspects, which continuously work and act together, never existing in total stasis. However in modern era, we see the notion of Ying and Yang deteriorate dramatically due to the increase of same sex relationships. This state’s how traditionalist philosophy has perhaps extended its branches and as a result of this, Traditionalism only exists to a certain extent in the modern era philosophy, due to features of modernity where individuals take for granted the notion of “free will” and use it perhaps for selfish and material advantage as appose to spiritual and generous way of living.

Cunningham (1998) had a fixation on sex. He developed a theory of how our sexuality begins at a very young age and develops through various fixations as one gets older. Many of his theories was based on pleasure principle, which was developed because of sex. In modern society, sex pleasure is not limited to genital satisfaction.

politically speaking, sexual abusive has only in recent years been brought to the surface in modern society. Individuals who were brought up in a mechanical society, whereby women were used as sex objects, rape victims, was more or less seen as a norm.

Angela Davis argued that women of a particular ethic background was more at a disadvantage of being abused as appose to their white counter part. However due to the various policies implemented in modern society such as the 1967 act on abortion, and the sexual effect Act implemented in 2003 shows how sexuality has shifted from traditional to modernistic views. Whereby Sex cannot be used as a patriarchy act rather it is know against the law to treat Women as sex objects,

It is also important to highlight the fact that homosexuality is booming in the UK, with the gay and lesbian marriages now being legalised. Almost three-quarters of a million UK adults say they are gay, lesbian or bisexual – equivalent to 1.5% of the population, a survey suggests. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) says 480,000 (1%) consider themselves gay or lesbian, and 245,000 (0.5%) bisexual. Not only does this show the shift in traditional to modern philosophy but also how the traditional notion of sex has completely and utterly been dismantled because of “new” types of sexuality.

In addition with the enhancement of medical practice and cures, doctors are now able to robot-ify the notion of reproduction through IVF and other medical procedures which kills the traditional approach to reproduce.

The holiness of marriage is dead, Goode (1971) and Gibson (1994) contend that secularization has brought about marriage getting less consecrated and to a lesser degree a profound union and even more a viable responsibility which can without much of a stretch be relinquished. Research British Affiliation association indicates that 65 per cent of marriages no longer involve a religious ceremony, so many people do not attach much religious significance to their marriages. Not to mention the increased commercialisation and commodification of sexuality through pornography and mass media communications (Hall and Thomson, 2007)

Cash based foundations advertise private enterprise; wage obliges employment, and families oblige pay. Along these lines, the economy has profound/great impacts on examples of sexuality, particularly marriage and childbearing (Gertler and Vinodrai, 2002). The family has normally/(previously) been a solid organization, underpinned by both religion and the lawful framework. It is identified with a stress that attracts regard for family capacities of help and childrearing, typical practices of dependability, and the familial lust (illegal in the public arena). Medication has ended up more critical in the creation and control of sexuality, a pattern alluded to as the medicalization of sexuality (Tiefer, 2004). Traditional society might not have the intends to take care of sexual issues, for example, sexual transmitted deceases or abortion.

Chapter Three: Methodology

This chapter describes and explains the methodology deployed in this study and at the research methods reading which informed my choice of methods. This study is a practical project of field study type.

Chapter One introduced the subject of this dissertation, i.e. to investigate the nature and impact of national and local initiatives on geography teaching in schools with ICT (Information and Communication Technology). The focus is particularly the significant factors that influence and facilitate teachers’ ability to embrace ICT and incorporate it in their geography teaching and use it with pupils. I am interested in discovering what the main barriers are to teachers who do not integrate ICT in the geography curriculum. This had to be “doable within the time, space and resources available” (Blaxter, et. al., 1999, p.25) and was refined from the early rather ambitious aims to being more focused.

There are many models of the research process, most of them devised according to a series of stages. Cohen and Manion (1994) identify eight stages of action research, which appeared rather too scientific in approach, as I was seeking to “understand individuals’ perceptions of the world” (Bell, 1999, p.7). Other representations of the research process, including one with five stages of research shown in diagrammatic form showing design, sampling, data collection, data analysis and the report are presented by Blaxter et. al. (1999, p.8). This seems to be a rather over-simplification of a long and complex process.

Johnson identifies the following “stages of activity which must be worked through in carrying out and completing an investigation” (Johnson, 1994, p.172).

  1. Establishing the focus of the study
  2. Identifying the specific objectives of the study
  3. Selecting the research method
  4. Arranging research access
  5. Developing the research instrument
  6. Collecting the data
  7. Pulling out of the investigative phase
  8. Ordering the data
  9. Analysing the data
  10. Writing up
  11. Enabling dissemination

(Johnson, 1994, p. 172)

These and other “representations of the research process” such as those presented in diagrammatic format by Blaxter et. al. are “simplifications and idealizations of the research process” (Blaxter et. al. 1999, p.7). They acknowledge that the work of researchers is “anything but linear” (Blaxter et. al. 1999, p.7). They present some other models of research, including their own preferred “research spiral” which shows the process going through “a number of cycles, the effects of each one impacting upon the way in which successive cycles are approached” (Blaxter et. al., 1999, p.10). However, Johnson’s stages have guided my research as my preferred approach is through clearly defined small steps and which fits well with the model of geographical enquiry. Johnson also moves beyond the dissertation report as being the final stage, through to dissemination of the findings, which I identified early as being an objective of the research process.

Using the Johnson model the remainder of this chapter describes and explains the methods I undertook in the ten-month period of the research.

3.1 Establishing the focus of the study

This was relatively straightforward as it stemmed from my interest in geography as a school subject and in ICT as a tool for teaching and learning. Blaxter et. al. see research as being “powerfully affected by the researchers own motivations and values” (Blaxter et. al., 1999, p.15) and this seems to be essential in order to sustain the interest over a period of time, to be able to utilise strengths and prior knowledge and for the research to be useful in my professional life.

3.2 Identifying the specific objectives of the study

Cohen and Manion (1994) identify the first stage in the research process as being identification and formulation of the “problem”. There may not always be a “problem” as such as the focus for research, but in this instance there is. The problem identified is that despite statutory curriculum requirements and government initiatives to support the development of teachers skills and to provide curriculum materials, “the use of ICT is underdeveloped” and “new technology is used effectively in geography in only three schools in three” (Ofsted, 2001a, p.1).

Traditionalism and Modernism
Traditionalism and Modernism

At about the same time as I commenced this work in January 1999, the Government announced details of NOF training (funded through proceeds from the National Lottery) as an entitlement for all teachers. This was a particularly interesting development as it raised expectations for the integration of ICT in geography teaching and I decided that NOF training would become the focus for my research. The geography support team of Staffordshire Local Education Authority, of which I am one of two officers, was encouraged to bid for approved training provider status working in partnership with the School of Computing at Staffordshire University. The bid was successful and Staffordshire ICT for Teachers (SIfT) initially became a regional provider of geography ICT training for the NOF initiative and subsequently became a national provider, attracting teachers from schools all over England. Johnson advises that it is important to “attempt to define specific objectives in advance” and this development provided me with the trigger to assist in “identifying particular objectives” including help with “choosing the research method and deciding on the forms of access needed” (Johnson, 1994, p. 173).

Background reading and the literature review was an on-going process. Initial reading influenced “formation of research objectives” (Johnson, 1994, p.173) but new official reports were published during my research, specifically by Ofsted (2001b) and Teacher Training Agency, (2001), which had a significant impact on my work, predominantly to reinforce my own findings, so reading continued throughout the research period. In the literature review I have attempted to “provide the reader with a picture …. of the state of knowledge and of major questions in the subject area being investigated” (Bell, 1999, p.93).

3.3 Selecting the research method

Guided by Johnson (1994, p. 174) I found that selecting the research methods was a “crucial element” in the research process. I decided to use a variety of complementary research methods which were largely qualitative through interviews with teachers and observations and examination of documentary evidence in order to form case studies, but with some initial quantitative research to gather background evidence of teachers’ experience and attitudes, in order to set the scene.

Case studies were used to “follow up and to put flesh on the bones” (Bell, 1999, p.11) of the initial survey and to examine “participants’ perceptions and judgements” (Simons, 1996, p.229). Although case study research has had its critics in the past, it is “now widely accepted as a form of research” (Simons, 1996, p.225) and fits my objectives of investigating how individual geography teachers view the use of ICT in their teaching and how they are supported or otherwise in their schools. The notion of the “paradox of case study” is introduced by Simons (1996, p. 225) who claims “by studying the uniqueness of the particular, we come to understand the universal” Simons (1996, p. 231).

Johnson (1994, p.183) notes that “qualitative methods are slow” and indeed visiting six schools to interview eight teachers, was a time-consuming process, but one which I felt was worth pursuing in order to obtain a better illustration of the varied nature of the schools and to reflect the individual perceptions and experiences of the teachers during their NOF training.

3.4 Arranging research access

Through my work as Geography Adviser and as a member of the NOF Approved Training Provider, SIfT, I was “totally enmeshed in the subject” of my research and “an active participant” (Blaxter et. al., 1999, p. 11). My close involvement is significant because it explains how I gained access to the teachers I interviewed and provided relatively easy access to geography teachers. I gave out questionnaires to teachers embarking on their NOF training with SIfT during the period September 2000 to April 2001. This work has been “affected by the researcher’s own motivations and values” (Blaxter et. al., 1999, p.15) although it does not aim to investigate the quality of a single training provider, the SIfT schedule and materials, but the wider impact of strategies and initiatives. This research therefore is as “open and transparent as possible” (Blaxter et. al, 1999, p.16). The sample of teachers is small, all undertaking their NOF training with SIfT but broadly representative of geography teachers from a range of schools, as shown in Chapter Four. Retrospectively, it could have been possible to include a school in this study which had not started NOF training yet, in order to make comparisons with those who had.

3.5 Developing the research instrument

Three main research instruments were used during this work. An initial survey questionnaire was given to teachers embarking on their NOF training with SIfT. The questionnaire evolved after being trialled with a teacher who was not part of the sample. Bell (1999) provides sound common-sense advice on designing and administering questionnaires. The questionnaire was designed to be quick and easy for teachers to complete, with several questions involving a choice of tick boxes, with a minimum amount of written response required. Twenty-nine questionnaires were returned, so it was a relatively small sample. The sample was a “non-probability sample” (Cohen and Manion, 1994, p.88) with the participants selected for “convenience” as they attended initial “face-to-face” training days at the start of their SIfT training. Most of the respondents completed the questionnaire during their training day and returned it at the end of the day, thus maximising the return with minimal inconvenience to the teachers.

The data from the returned questionnaires was collated and analysed and the findings can be found in Chapter Four. The questionnaire was designed to “gather data at a particular point in time with the intention of describing the nature of existing conditions”, (Cohen and Manion, 1994, p.83). From this initial questionnaire a small sample of teachers was identified who would be “prepared to complete a more detailed questionnaire in 4 – 6 months time” which would form the basis of the more detailed case studies.

The next stage was undertaking the research to form the case studies. I visited each of the six schools and conducted a prolonged interview based on another, more detailed questionnaire with one or two members of the geography department. I support the view that “a major advantage of the interview is its adaptability” (Bell, 1999, p.135) and each interview was “semi-structured”, although based on the same questionnaire schedule, differed according to the responses of the teachers involved and their experiences set against different school contexts.

Traditionalism and Modernism Dissertation
Traditionalism and Modernism Dissertation

As part of the background to the school, reference was also made to the most recent Ofsted report available for the school. In most of the case study schools an examination was made of pupils’ work using ICT and in some cases informal lesson observations were undertaken during these visits. These were used to provide a recognised context for the case study and to draw some conclusions with Ofsted’s annual subject report.

3.6 Collecting the data

Questionnaires were distributed to and collected from teachers at the start of their NOF training, from September 2000 to April 2001. It was important to gauge the experiences of teachers prior to the start of their NOF training in order to gather information to provide the background to the case studies. The initial questionnaire was confidential, but teachers who were offering to take part in a follow-up questionnaire and school visit were invited to give their names. Anonymity in the report was promised and respected. The questionnaires provided a mixture of data. Some of the data was subsequently analysed in a quantitative way, largely to do with the background and experience of the teachers and the ICT resources which they had experience of. Other data, to do with perceptions of ICT in geography and the NOF training was more qualitative.

The fieldwork period took place in May and June 2001 and was a “distinct and discrete phase of the investigation” (Johnson, 1994, p.177). During this time visits were made to six schools, and eight teachers were interviewed based on the follow-up questionnaire and some classroom observations and scrutiny of pupils’ work were also undertaken. The interviews were used to gather information about teachers’ experiences and opinions of NOF and provision of ICT support in school and their plans for the future with regard to ICT developments. These visits took place four to eight months after teachers had started their NOF training, so that the case studies could start to examine the impact of the training. The interviews, classroom observations and Ofsted reports provided more detailed qualitative data used to form the case studies, which can be read in Chapter Four.

3.7 Pulling out of the investigative phase

The fieldwork period was a most significant part of the research and the part in which I found I was “investing most in the study, by way of time and personal involvement” (Johnson, 1994, p. 177). I tried to avoid the “open-ended period of data collection” (Johnson, 1994, p. 178) as I intended to include six case studies from the start. However, because this stage was arguably the most interesting and rewarding, it was tempting to visit more schools, although this was impossible because of time constraints. Each visit lasted on average three hours, which included a general tour of the geography department, the interview, classroom observation and talking to pupils.

The research was intentionally undertaken during teachers’ involvement in significant professional development, as this was critical to the issue. However, some schools were still at an early stage in their development of ICT in geography and in School C, Teacher 5 said “Come back in January and see what we have done then” when developments would be further embedded in practice. This is a frustration of small-scale research, which in some ways never seems complete.

3.8 Ordering the data

All the questionnaires were “collated and classified” and kept for subsequent analysis and held on file even after the research was complete so that the researcher was “prepared to be accountable for the investigations” (Johnson, 1994, p.179). Field notes were written up based on the interviews and classroom observations.

3.9 Analysing the data

The data collected from the questionnaires and school visits form much of the substance of Chapter Four, to help evaluate the specific experience of some teachers in order to make generalisations. The tension between the study of the unique and the need to generalise is necessary to reveal both the unique and the universal and the unity of that understanding (Simmons, 1996, p.238).

The findings from my research are compared to findings from my background reading and of official reports from Ofsted and TTA, to avoid the weakness noted by Johnson that in many dissertations “little use is made of the data collected in the eventual discussion of the thesis topic” (Johnson, 1994, p. 179). The initial questionnaires were analysed and the data is presented in Chapter Four in statistical and tabular format where appropriate. This is compared with research from elsewhere, especially with findings from Ofsted and TTA. The data collected from interviews and classroom observations during school visits form the basis of the case studies partly though quotations from teachers and to make recommendations which can be found in Chapter Five.

3.10 Writing up

The aim of this stage was so that “the overall conclusions or ‘message’ of the research be summarized in an assimilable and memorable form” (Johnson, 1994, p. 179) and to communicate “the researchers empirical experience” to a wider audience (Johnson, 1994, p. 180). The case studies in Chapter Four are “ideally suited to the needs and resources of the small-scale researcher” (Blaxter et. al., 1999, p.66).

3.11 Enabling dissemination

It was important to research an aspect of education that was topical and relevant to today’s teachers. It was an important part of the research process that the findings and particularly the recommendations are made available to a wider audience of teachers through my work as Adviser and as a member of the Geographical Association’s ICT Working Group. Consequently some of the findings, results and conclusions will be used on courses. I feel that I have a “duty to make dissemination possible” (Johnson, 1994, p. 180) to the rest of the SIfT Geography team in order to influence future developments and strategies.

Chapter 4 – Findings and Analysis

In this chapter the results of the data analysis are presented. The data were collected and then processed in response to the problems posed in chapter1 of this dissertation. Three fundamental goals drove the collection of the data and the subsequent data analysis. The findings presented in this chapter demonstrate those goals were to develop a base of knowledge about the relationship between the individual and their own faith in modern society. Their interpretation of the scared holidays such as Christmas and Eid. And their personal views on sexuality and faith. These objectives were accomplished.

One of the first inquiries for my Investigation is to see whether you belong with a religious affiliation? My outcomes uncovered larger part of my members had a place with a religious association. However during my semi structured interview, I came across a candidate who was atheist in their views of the manifestation of the divine. This highlighted a slight increase as non-religious believers in UK. As stated by the 2001 consensus In the UK, the individuals who portray themselves as non-religious have climbed from 31% to half between 1983 and 2009 as stated by the British Social Attitudes Survey’s 28th report issued in 2011.

The data reported in this project during my focus group method, suggested that participants were only answering the question based on what their fellow group members would answers were. During my focus group interview I found that only one participant agreed to belong to a religious affiliation. However when leading my semi structured interview, I found that my members were more calm in noting my inquiries in a truthful way without needing to stress over different members replies. This brought about my information to overflow legitimacy.

Furthermore when asking my participants, weather they attend a place of worship. I found that throughout my centre gathering strategy, members non-verbal communication were unbelievably unfriendly with dubious answers, for example, “as often as one can attend”. Applicant B, throughout the focus group interviews included “I attend my place of worship because I am born into a faith and therefore I must practice by it”. This explanation specifically highlighted to me how maybe the more established era have neglected to install in the more youthful era the exclusive explanations for the importance of heading into a place of worship.

What was staggering is when asked the same inquiry throughout my semi structured interview, participants were more quiet into going in-profundity with their replies. Applicant D for example said “I attend my place of worship because it is a part of my identity, tradition and history. It provides a sense of solidarity within the community and family and gives us a sense of belonging “. Needless to say, the general contention here to highlight is the way that 75 percent of my participants concluded up in not having attended a place of worship. What’s more, when asked what relatives are less averse to go to a place of worship, majority of my participants addressed the elderly parts of the house hold. The older generation are more religious than the youthful ones; ‘for many young individuals, disengaged conviction is, progressively, offering path to no conviction whatsoever’ (Davie, 1990: 462).

This indeed highlights how the more seasoned era who have existed by their Faiths standards and customs, principles and ethics as pair to the new era who fit in with the post illumination period have diverse perspectives on attending a place of worship.

Moreover, the commodification of religion was highlighted throughout my research. When my participants were asked why they attended a place of worship, candidate A answered” was only a result of a special occasion such as Holi” . This demonstrated to me to what degree commodification has really occurred in advanced time. Christmas and Holi are holy days which have obscure philosophical implications which happened to be obfuscated because of the strengths of a free market system and consumerism. Whereby everything including religious, occupation, wellbeing, and training is utilized as a product to upgrade capital for public opinion

Interestingly, a census completed by the Yougov in walk 2012 in the interest of the British Humanitarian Association demonstrated most individuals in Britain (63%) had not attended a place of worship, 43% of individuals attended a place of worship over a year ago and 20% of individuals had never attended. Only 9% of people had attended a place of worship within the last week. Furthermore statistics collected by the National Centre for Social Research in 2009, showed membership of most religions is lower now than it was 30 years ago.

Question 5 in my research was revolved around identity and what element helps the essentialness of their character (religion, family, occupation, training) . Throughout the focus group discussion, all the members said either Family or Education was a number one necessity in their lives. However not one member picked religion as an essential element that shapes their character. Similarly when conducting my semi structured interview, the same results were presented to me in contrast to focus groups . Greater part of the members said “occupation” as their component which shapes their character. Candidate A discussed how ” imperative it was for them to have a better quality of life therefore, working would be the only solution. I can buy all the things I want too”. This fortified Durkhiem belief system of independence. Whereby individuals in the public arena today is really so self image orientated. the “I” is more essential than “we”. Realism over rides mysticism in current.

The third aim of my research was focused around the traditional and modern principles of sexuality. With a recent report stating that 4 out of 10 marriages are expected to end in divorce (Morrison, 2002). This could be said to show a declining importance of religious morals and beliefs in people’s lives. At the point when participants were requested their opinion on “sex before marriage”. The effects of this was shocking without a doubt with 99 percent of my members concurred with the idea of having intercourse before marriage. Only one participant did not agree with this thought.

What was much all the more amazing, is that the discourse changed from sex before marriage to what the Holy religious scriptures sayings were in reference to sexuality. This demonstrated to me, that my members were completely mindful of the conventional perspective of sexuality, then again they pick not to pay heed to that. It is as though Faith has not part in Modernity.

When asking participants whether religion is a big part of their everyday life? is it a private or public matter? Focus groups, outcomes demonstrated a large portion of my members concurred with religion being an imperative part of their lives, in any case they included that religion in particular a private matter. This to me highlights the idea of independence existing in modern society. It doesn’t however indicate that there has been a decrease in religion but instead we immerse ourselves into the modern era, we accumulate characteristics of the modernity in order for us to fit in within society.

Semi structured interviews showed 100 percent of my members concurred with religion being a private matter. Applicants and B and C went further on by examining how the global forces have impacted their choice in making religion as a private matter. Candidate B utilized the illustration of the 9/11 bombings making it perilous for Muslims to stroll around out in the open because of generalization.

Chapter 5: Conclusion

On the basis of the above discussions, it can be concluded that the principles of modernity have played an important role in order to contribute to the decline of faith in Britain. It is also concluded that the traditional principles are getting obsolete in a contemporary society and people living within the society are more likely to adopt the modern way of living. The present era is the era of materialism and all goods and services are transformed into commodities for sale which also includes healthcare, religion, education, personal identity and in some cases happiness and people are very less likely to emphasize on the social norms and traditions (Short, 2003). The people nowadays are measuring prosperity in monetary terms and it is considered to be the ultimate goal to a successful and meaningful life. According to Clements (2010), the emphasis of materialism in the modern era is due to decline of faith and misconceptions about the religion and people are not following the religious values which is very alarming situation. This can be understood from the fact that attendance in the churches is continuously decreasing in many countries of the world (Calthorpe and William, 2001). It is not only very common in the developed nations like United Kingdom but it is emerging in the under developed countries. One of the main reasons behind this is faith has come to mean an acceptance of creedal truths as objective facts and the religious scholars are not successful in convincing people about God’s existence. There are significant percentage of people who believe that existence of God is an Illusionary thing. Religion also has been used by the elites in order to exploit the lower classes which are creating inequalities both at the global and local level. This is more common in those countries where the literacy rate is low and people don’t have necessary awareness about their rights. The lack of awareness regarding the individual rights results in exploitation which is also harmful for the society. Although there is no religion in this world which allows exploitation of the people, however, the negative use of religion is also common in some parts of the world.

The recent development of technologies, sciences and media has also contributed significantly in order to reduce the interest of the people in religion. The strong confidence of the people on science and technological progress has decreased their faith on religion. The people living in different parts of the world have started believing that religion has nothing to do with the modern society. However, it is a fact that religion plays an important role in order to bring peace and comfort in the people life by allowing them to have a strong sense of belonging. It has been used by the people in order to improve their quality of life and bring prosperity in the society by following the ethical and moral standards. On the basis of the discussions which are made in the literature review chapter, it is also concluded that in the present era, there is a strong shift from social solidarity to individualism. This shows that instead of thinking about the over the overall society, the people are more concerned about their individual benefits. Although the standard of religion still exists in the society, however, people all over the world are not following the religious values or standards in order to spend their life. It is a fact that few decades back religion was considered one of the most important factors that can help to transform the life of the people. However, in the present world, there is a slight increase in the non religious believers in the UK and all over the world. The individuals who claim themselves as non-religious are increasing and there are very few people who are ready to show their religious affiliations.

The discussions made in the research findings chapter helps to explain that older generation were more religious than the youthful ones and if necessary measures are not taken in order to increase the religious affiliations of the people then after few years there will be very small percentage of people who will claim themselves as religious. According to Ofsted (2009), nothing is more dangerous than the elimination of religious values from the society. The discussion reflects that there are very few people nowadays who believe that religion is an important element that shapes their character and help to improve their life. The high modernity in the society is as a result of capitalism and industrialization and it is more likely to reorder to natural and social world. This helps to understand that there will be a strong impact of capitalism and industrialization on the society (Short, 2003). It is also concluded that due to capitalist and industrial development, people are more concerned about movement of goods and capital and there is a strong decline on faith and on the traditional forms of society. The research objective of providing a philosophical and historical understanding of Traditionalism and Modernism has been achieved through the discussions which are made in various sections of the dissertation. The discussions made in the literature review chapter reflect that few decades back people had deeper respect for long held cultural and religious values and these values were considered to be an important part of the society. Therefore, people were more traditional and prefer to adopt the traditional values. However, in the modern era, there is a criticism on traditionalism and majority of the researchers believe that traditional values restricted both individual freedom and the pursuit of happiness (Ofsted, 2009). This increases the importance of modernism and it has motivated the people to follow the modern values, norms and traditions.

The proponents of modernism believes that in order to grow in the society, exploit the economic opportunities in an effective manner and achieve the desired level of economic growth and prosperity, it is essential to follow the modern values because the traditional methods and values are no longer effective in the modern society (Clements, 2010). There is a common perception that traditional values were more effective in the past and the present world demands implementation of the modern values. However, there are also some researchers who believe that it is important to have a combination of modern and traditional values because both values have significant importance in improving the overall society (Stark and Laurence, 1992). The research objective of assessing how commercialization and commodification have resulted in the decline of religiosity also has been achieved. The discussion made under the literature view section of the research shows that in the modern era of globalization and capitalism, the different societies of the world are more focused on commercialization and there is a strong decline of religiosity. One of the main reasons behind this is everything in the present era has been commercialized and people have started believing that implementation of the religious values could create hurdles in the growth and development of the society. This opinion is not correct because religion always have an important role in order to meet the needs and requirements of the humans and society (Richard, 1978).


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Cunningham, H. (1998). ‘Digital Culture – the view from the dance Floor’ in Digital Diversions: Youth Culture in the Age of Multimedia. Ed. Sefton-Green, J. London: UCL Press: 128-148.

Gertler, M. S., Florida, R. Gates, G. and Vinodrai, T. (2002). Competing on Creativity: Placing Ontario’s Cities in North American Context. Report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity and Innovation and the Institute of Competitiveness and Prosperity. Ontario, Canada.

Hall, C. and Thomson, P. (2007). “Creative Partnerships? Cultural policy and inclusive arts practice in one primary school.” British Educational Research Journal 33 (3): 315 – 329.

Loveless, A. M. (2002). Literature Review in Creativity, New Technologies and Learning. NESTA Futurelab.

Scanlon, M., Buckingham, D. and Burn, A. (2005). “Motivating Maths: Digital Games and Mathematical Learning”. Technology, Pedagogy and Education 14 (1): 127-139.

Sefton-Green, J. and Sinker, R Eds. (2000). Evaluating Creativity: making and learning by young people. London and New York: Routledge.

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Discrimination Human Rights

Is discrimination ever tolerable? When should discrimination become a human rights issue?

If one had to explain what exactly discrimination is, in the context of mutual human relations, one could simply say that it is an action in which an individual is treated unfairly in comparison with another person, under similar circumstances. But the issue is far more complex than could be expressed so briefly as there are many forms of discrimination, both direct and indirect. While defining discrimination in plain and simple language would not be possible,  it can be stated that discrimination becomes noticeable only when a person is unjustifiably excluded from an activity or expelled completely from a group of people; and after it becomes noticeable it also becomes a human rights issue and needs to be dealt with seriously.

While unfairly treating a person or group of people differently from other people or groups of people can be termed as discriminatory and illegal, it certainly does not mean that discrimination is always unlawful. Two common examples of justified discrimination are affirmative action and varying height requirements for men and women who wish to be part of the Police Force. This kind of discrimination is, in fact, aimed at ironing out the existing inequalities. Affirmative action is used to give opportunities to already underrepresented groups. Similarly, having different height requirements for men and women means women are given an equal chance to be part of the Police Force.

There are instances where discrimination becomes absolutely essential and if not practiced there is a serious risk of causing harm to one or more persons. One would not expect a blind person or a person with limited vision to be issued with a driver’s license. The act of discriminating against him in this case, is crucial in ensuring his own safety and the safety of people on the road. In other words, discrimination against people with some kind of physical or mental disability becomes vital when it means putting them in life endangering situations. Similarly, one would not hire a person with learning disabilities to teach school children. One needs someone who can effectively teach the students and that would be impossible in this case. Discrimination in cases where a person is considered to be unqualified for a particular job should not actually be regarded as discrimination at all. If a person is not qualified for a particular profession or job, there might be many other opportunities that fit perfectly with their skills and expertise.

Discrimination in Society

Instances of justifiable gender discrimination can be seen in society and are definitely not considered to be wrong. A woman is treated with love and affection by her boyfriend. He would not do the same with one of his male friends, (if he’s heterosexual) and this is not discriminatory at all. Justifiably, a man with a terminal disease would either be unable to get health insurance or get it at a very high rate. A person who gets pulled over for driving drunk a couple of times, may get his license revoked and this is definitely rational discrimination.

The only negative side to defending certain forms of discrimination is that sometimes the line between the benefits and harms of discrimination is somewhat distorted. What seems right at the time from every logical angle may eventually turn out to be discriminatory in the future. In many ancient societies women were rarely allowed outside the house; they were considered to be weak and mentally less capable and therefore, not fit to do things other than household chores. At that time this was considered to be the norm but today it comes under gender-based discrimination. The only rational way to decide on an issue like this is to consider whether the particular discrimination has more benefits or harms and to decide accordingly.

Generally, discrimination becomes illegal when it is carried out in respect of a person (persons) belonging to a specific social group. If one doesn’t hire a mentally challenged person for a teaching job that would not be discrimination but if one excludes him simply because he is Asian, it definitely comes under discrimination. If this happens in rare instances, the said individual could always find a job elsewhere but if it becomes a general practice in society, whereby the person is unable to find a job anywhere, it is social discrimination. This means a personal dislike for a certain social group cannot always be fought against; every human being has the right to have likes and dislikes. However, if this dislike is so widespread in society that it affects a person’s right to a normal life, it is clearly discrimination.

Even in cases where the intention was not to discriminate, if the final outcome is the exclusion of a particular group and unequal opportunities for them, it will still be called discrimination. For example, if there is the same height requirement for men and women who wish to enter the army, this would mean fewer women would get in. If this gender inequality is present in other parts of society as well, then it means fewer employment opportunities for women and therefore, it is definitely discriminatory even if the intent was not there.

There are certain factors that are uncontrollable and therefore, being discriminated against on account of these factors is completely unjustified and unlawful. For example, one has no control over the color of one’s skin or one’s country of origin. Discrimination based on these factors, is thus all the more unfair.

There are five main factors which are used to discriminate against individuals. Discrimination against people from a particular race or a certain ethnic background is the most common one. Treating a person unfairly because of his/her sexual preferences is another. Using a person’s religion or belief system against him in a way where he is denied equal opportunities and is unable to profess his beliefs is also wrong. Age-based discrimination, whether it is because the person is too young or too old is still unjust. The last is unfavorable treatment of people with disabilities, both in employment and in general dealing.


Most countries in the world have some form of legislation to deal with cases of discrimination. The people of New Zealand, for example are protected against discrimination in a number of different areas in accordance with the Human Rights Act 1993 and with United Nations conventions. Similarly, the Employment and Industrial Relations Act (2002) completely prohibits discrimination in the workplace. Federal law prohibits discrimination based on (but not limited to) race, sex, religion, disability or age and yet it is only the state of Michigan and 6 other cities that have actually imposed a ban on discriminating against hiring people who are overweight. It is understandable if obese persons are unable to perform their duties but to overlook them simply because they don’t look good is completely unwarranted. The Citizens Medical Center in Texas only hires people with a body mass index less than 35. They claim that the intent is to hire people who appear normal and therefore do not attract attention to themselves. The policy clearly goes against the federal law on discrimination. Certain companies refrain from hiring smokers which is justifiable considering the side effects of the habit and the consequent higher health insurance premiums for such people. However, any form of physical appearance, which does not hinder the person from performing his work efficiently, cannot be used to discriminate against him. Appearance discrimination indicates intolerance towards the physical appearance of people which is completely and totally unjustified.

There are several courses of action that can be taken by a person who is being discriminated against. Going to court is one option but before going to the court one can also file a complaint with one of the several government bodies. These include the Industrial Tribunal  (under the Employment and Industrial Relations Act, 2002), the National Commission for Persons with Disability (under the Equal Opportunities (Persons with Disability) Act) , the National Commission for the Promotion of Equality for Men and Women  (under the Equality for Men and Women Act), the Public Service Commission (under the constitution of Malta), the Ombudsman (under the Ombudsman Act), the Broadcasting Authority (under the Constitution of Malta), and the Employment Commission (under the Constitution of Malta) .

In order for the authorities to take action, the complaint must be made by the victim himself. Legal Notice 461 0f 2004 and Legal Notice 85 of 2007 however, allows people or organizations with a legitimate interest in the case, to support the individual in judicial or administrative procedures, with his permission. By law, the National Commission for Persons with Disability has the power to assist such people. The assistance could be of a financial or legal nature or it could simply be help in writing the complaint. The Commissioner for the Promotion of Equality is empowered under Article 11 of the Equal Treatment of Persons Order, to investigate the matter and to take necessary steps if the complainant needs help in formulating the complaint itself.

Under the Employment and Industrial Relations Act, if there is a case where an employee has been dismissed without due cause or if there is any other violation under Title 1 of this Act, the matter will be transferred to the Industrial Tribunal for a decision, following a referral made by the complainant or someone acting on his behalf.


To conclude it needs to be emphasized that the defining factors in the act of discrimination change with time. What we consider a normal act today, might become discriminatory in the not-too-distant future. However, discriminatory actions against certain individuals or a particular group have far-reaching consequences and therefore cannot be taken lightly. Steps have to be taken to regulate society through effective legislation and through regulatory bodies that can take action against individuals or parties that are guilty of such discrimination.

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