Loyalty Cards

An Exploration into The Relationship Between Brand Trust and Use of Loyalty Cards – A Case Study of Tesco

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This dissertation seeks to evaluate the relationship between brand trust and loyalty cards and show the impact of loyalty cards on brand trust of customers. In context to carry out the investigation, it has explained the facets of brand trust, customer satisfaction, perceived value and customer loyalty. The research is a quantitative, deductive study where primary data have been collected from three stores of Tesco Plc., in the UK (Birmingham Region) through the survey questionnaire method.  The research has assumed Uncles’ Research Model (2002) in the background and has modified it according to the objectives of the research. The questions in the questionnaire are mostly close-ended questions based on Likert Scale Rating which has been analysed through factor percentage analysis method. The research has successfully identified 4 factors with various sub factors and established the suggested research framework through justified literature review and data evidences, based on the conceptual model of Uncles’ et al. (2002). It has also accomplished all the  four research objectives showing that loyalty programs are considerably effective in earning trust from old and new customers by perceptible and imperceptible constituents, which can be explained both in behavioural and attitudinal aspects.  This research has also considered several literature gaps which were present earlier and tried to answer several of them.

Loyalty Cards Dissertation
Loyalty Cards Dissertation

The main purpose of this research dissertation is to evaluate the relationship between brand trust earned through loyalty cards used in many conventional retail stores. Many companies have now adopted the practice of loyalty cards because they consider this an excellent way of earning trust from customers and creating a special bond with them.This in turn helps in the retainment of old customers and also creates a good reputation in the market. The loyalty card system gives some privilege facilities to the member customers because they get bonus points and discount offers on products. This study will delve deeply into the concept of brand trust, the effects of loyalty cards in relationship marketing and the impact of loyalty cards on brand trust in reality, by considering the case study of Tesco and their Loyalty Club Card facilities for the UK customers. The main aim of the research is to evaluate and find out the relationship between brand trust and loyalty cards. It will identify and evaluate whether loyalty cards can confer brand trust in the customers. To fulfil the main aim, the following objectives will be further accomplished;

  • To investigate the impact of loyalty cards on brand trust of customers by a questionnaire analysis of Tesco club card members from three different stores in the UK
  • To critically evaluate the effectiveness of loyalty programs in increasing the perceived values and customer satisfaction which contributes to brand trust
  • To test the hypothetical assumptions regarding the relationship between loyalty programs, perceived values and brand trust
  • To prove that loyalty programs offer a good index of customer brand trust
  • The survey results will be interpreted through percentage analysis and deductive reasoning, thus proving the suggested theoretical assumptions

Workforce Diversity

Managing Workforce Diversity – An Examination of McDonald’s Workplace Diversity Strategy

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This dissertation is focused on evaluating how workforce diversity within the workplace can be effectively managed in order to achieve desired level of performance. Managing diversity can be defined as formulating and implementing the systems that can be helpful in managing the people in a way that potential advantages of diversity are maximized and potential disadvantages are minimized. Workplaces nowadays are becoming increasingly diverse with employees from different cultures, genders, races and ethnic backgrounds are working together in order to achieve the common goals and objectives. This increases the importance of formulating and implementing effective strategies in order to manage workforce diversity at the workplace. Existing research highlights the importance of managing diverse workforce has been significantly increased because due to the increasing trend of globalization, the organizations are establishing their business operations in different countries of the world which requires them to recruit the employees who belong to different cultures and backgrounds, encouraging diversity is helpful for the businesses to grow and achieve the strategic competitive advantage. Academics believes a diversified workforce is helpful in strengthening the organization which results in increased growth and improved business profitability. It is a fact that when recruiting employees from different backgrounds it provides an opportunity to the firm to understand the perspective of different types of customers. The workforce quality can also be improved with the help of an effective diversity policy because it enables the organization to reach a larger pool of candidates who have desired skills and capabilities which are essential to fulfill the business needs.

Workforce Diversity
Workforce Diversity

Research Objectives

  • To identify the role of managing workforce diversity in achieving high level of business performance
  • To discuss the role of effective human resource management practices in managing diversity at the workplace
  • To evaluate that how the diversity related issues can affect the motivation and satisfaction level of the employees at the workplace
  • To identify that how the management of workforce diversity can be helpful in improving the coordination among the employees at the workplace?

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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on managing employee diversity in the workplace. There are many other titles available in the HRM dissertation collection that should be of interest to human resource management students and CIPD professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of HRM such as employee engagement, HRM Theory, absenteeism, training and development to name a few. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Technology Acceptance Model

The Adoption Rate of E-Mobile Banking is an Impact of Customers’ Acceptance of Information Technology in the Banking Sector

The information and telecommunications industry had been a key enabler of productivity across the societies and economies. The IT innovation is not only a significant contributor to the economies of a state, but also towards the growth of the industries. In the present days, banking industries have felt the influence of the telecommunications by a margin among other industries. The emerging information technology trends in across states had been a concern of the researchers. Precisely, m-banking services have had an uptake as the banking industry have enhanced access of service with convenience and ease to use cell phones. This thesis study is aimed to an extensive provide research on the most influencing factors affecting adoption of the technology in banking industry. In this case therefore, the research will place focus on the m-banking services in Australian banking sector (Drennan et al., 2009). The study incorporates Technology Acceptance Model to derive a conceptual framework in order to address its objective and research questions. In this study, data will be gathered from literature reviews and analysts, questionnaires, and interviews. The collected information from interviewing 40 respondents through a survey questionnaire will be used to compare and provide discussion on the factors influencing m-banking adoption rate. Data analysis methods will include weighted mean calculation, for analyzing the questionnaire data, and regression method to test the correlations and significance of factors influencing adoption rate of m-banking.

Chapter One: Background Of The Study

Banking industry in the contemporary world has been intensive users of technologies. Since its emergence, technologies have rendered essential roles to industries to deliver quality products and services. Particularly, their essence had risen from financial technologies such as information and telecommunications across nations. In comparison of the recent IT and telecommunications services with those provided in early 1970s, it is clear that, there had been a complete transformation of technology acceptance and adoption rate in banking industries. This way, there had been numerous researches as an area of interest to scholars, managers, and scientist to explore as the apparent world has taken a new face of technology (Drennan et al., 2009).

This research paper, therefore, places attempt to further past research basing on the past theoretical views of technology acceptance model.

Research topic

The adoption rate of e-mobile banking is an impact of customers’ acceptance of information technology and telecommunications innovation in the banking sector.

Statement of the problem

The adoption rate of any advancement of technology is not guaranteed that it will translate into consumer adoption. However, consumers’ acceptance and their willingness to adopt new technology have been evidence to be a crucial aspect to the banking industry. This is especially in implementation of new product development and marketing. In which technology diffusion is partially determined whether potential users accept and adopt the technology employed.

Significance of the study

Not only scarce research on the technology acceptance and adoption had been a hindrance to the banking sector, but also a limit to managers to understand the priorities of the formation of intentions to accept and adopt mobile e-services. Precisely, this research study focus on the factors affecting technology acceptance model as proposed by Fred Davis. It seeks to expand research on the significance of the factors affecting TAM. This knowledge helps stakeholders in realizing the prevailing environment and its trends in the subject sector.

Objectives of the study

Primary objective

  1. To determine the significance of the factors affecting adoption of m-banking industry.
  2. To determine the significance of the factors influencing technology acceptance model.
  3. To understand consumer behaviors influence on the product development and marketing.
  4. To understand better on how adoption of m-banking has impacted financial services in the banking industry.
  5. To offer recommendation towards designing of effective m-banking marketing strategies.
  6. Do the potential customers perceive the relevance of the e-mobile banking?
  7. Do the potential customers perceive mobile e-service easy to use?
  8. Does the cell phone banking influence users attitude towards adoption.
  9. Does the intention to adopt the e-mobile banking influence consumer behavior.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Internet mobile banking

Internet banking and mobile banking are both essential subsets of e-banking services. According to Lassar (2005, p. 177), internet banking can be defined as an electronic system that allows potential customers to perform various banking services electronically through bank’s website. It is an internet features which in the present day; mobile phones have been provided web surfing capabilities. It is an apparent trend of adoption of new mobile phones technologies that can enable users to access internet through their hand-held devices. The mobiles phones capabilities are enhanced by the wireless application protocol (WAP) cell phone banking with a similar inter-face to internet banking. Only that, the hand-held device is supported by the GPRS, WAP, EDGE, or 3G.

Internet mobile banking had been a fundamental change in the banking sector in the recent years. It is evidenced by the consumer movement from the conventional branch banking into more stand-alone banking services via electronic delivery channels than office branch. However, following the acceptance and intention to adopt new technology Chan (2001, p.10); modified the initial definition of mobile banking. His argument posits that mobile internet banking is an electronic transaction service via bank’s website by using a computer a computer and a modem to access internet. It is a field of study that researchers have considered the influence and the adoption of e-mobile banking. according to Suoranta & Mattila (2004, p. 364).typical e-mobile banking users will continue to use the wired channel while the current users of the automated bill payment and the branch offices will be shifted to mobile phone banking.

This way, cell phone banking users, cannot be drawn from the heavy internet banking users probably, because, they will continue using internet banking. Besides, he posit rationality for banks not to invest convincing its regular internet users to adopt a new electronic, but they should or rather attempt to enable potential customers outside this segment to be interested with the advantages of mobile phone banking. Precisely, the relevant performance of the new technology should be inessential issue of concern to the banking industry influence a change in accordance to customers on taste and preference.

Technology acceptance model

The initials steps required for adoption of the emerging information technology had been a hindrance of banking performance. It involves establishing which purpose the intended new system will address and what functionality the bank requires. This way, for any e-portfolio system the bank need to establish which one size fits all; corresponding to a series of standard functionalities (Zhang, et al., 2007).

Technology acceptance and its usage had been a focal point in a wide range of research studies. In this case, TAM application enabled understanding of conceptual issues related to the e-portfolio use. In which several theoretical models have been applied to provide sufficient study on user acceptance and usage behavior of emerging information technology trends. Several studies, including Roger’s diffusion theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Theory of Reason Action (TRA) gave inception of the Technology Acceptance Model. TAM has emerged to be preferable model that represents the preceding theories of technology usage through the profound beliefs related to the perceived usefulness and its ease of a technology. The previous researches have shown the powerfulness of TAM over other theories of the as a basis to explain the variance in systems use (Davis, 1989).

Technology Acceptance Model
Technology Acceptance Model

(Pearlson& Saunders, 2006) argues that, the use of TAM is predicted on the decision on or rather attention of individuals having control whether or not they accept the use of the system. The factors in the model are perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and the attitude towards the usage of the system and adoption. The behavioral intention to use by the potential customers is the essentials factor that draws whether the users will actually utilize the information technology introduced. This way, the firm may draw critical decisions-making to enhance its performance especially in the banking sector (Ajzen& Fishbein, 2000).This theoretical view, therefore, derives the of propositions below;

Technology Acceptance Model and study of e-mobile banking

The mobile services convenience and promptness to customers had been growing concerns to academic researchers. Accordingly, a past growing body of academic research has examined the determinants of the cell phone banking acceptance and its utilization (Arora et al., 2011),.

Dillon and Morris (1998, p.5) portrays the technology acceptance as the demonstrable willingness of individuals within a group to employ IT for the designed task as intended to support. Basically, the research investigated the instrumental influences involving beliefs on how to utilize technology. This way, it results in the objectives hence improvements in the performance. (Thompson, et al., 2006) argue that non-instrumental factors may be limiting factors on the acceptance of the technology. However, the TAM posits that, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of utility are the fundamental detriment that influences an individual behavioral intention (Hu et al. 1999).

According to Laurin and Lin (2005, p. 878) research; it extended the technology acceptance model. Their perspective towards understanding of the behavioral intention to the utility of the mobile banking survey was conducted in Taiwan included the perceived credibility, perceived self-efficacy and the perceived financial costs in m-banking context (see figure 1).In their research, they revealed that, all stated factors have effects on the behavioral, and the perceived credibility is evidenced to be the most contributing factor to intention. However, on later study to generalize their earlier m-banking acceptance model, Wang, Lin and Laurn (2006) adopted an extended constructs. That is perceived usefulness had a significant contribution followed by the perceived ease of usage contributed behavior attention.

Another study by Cheong and Park (2008) carried out research on reluctance factors of the Korean’s to adopt m-banking services. In addition to the conventional TAM factors included additional constructs; facilitating conditions and the switching barriers. The findings in the research show that facilitating conditions affluence the positively the intention to use m-payment, whilst switching barriers negatively affected the behavioral intentions. Besides, Gu et al., (2009) research in Korea examined the determinants of the mobile banking. The authors introduced another factor; it considered trust as an additional key construct of the behavioral intention to utilize an introduced technology. In addition to self-efficacy, social influence, facilitating conditions, system quality, structural assurance, familiarity with the bank, and calculated-based on trusts were indicated as the key constructs of behavioral intentions. However, perceived usefulness and ease to use were the most contributing factors on behavioral intentions.

Another stream of research in developing countries was carried out to understand the socio-economic and technological impacts of m-banking adoption. Research placed study that m-banking in developing countries is considered as a complimentary service offered by the banking industry. It is considered an alternative of ATMs and internet banking. However, important criteria such as convenience and ease to use seemed to be important when they consider adopting m-banking. The appeal for the cell phone banking in developing countries revealed that influence on the convenience may be less than accessibility and affordability due to the network quality connection, coverage, and costs (Donner and Tellez, 2008). However, Laforet and Li (2005) investigation in developed countries; examined consumer behavior, motivation, attitude, and cultural influence on the m-banking in China. In the findings, customers in China do not attach much importance on m-banking convenience but perceived risks and technological skills are the most influential factors.

Lastly, Sripalawat et al. (2011) carried out to examine positive and negative factors influencing m-banking acceptance in Thailand. The research considered subjective norms, self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease to use as the positive factors. Contrary, the study considered device barrier, lack of information, perceived risk, and financial costs as the negative factors. Their findings not only revealed that positive factors are the most influential than negative factors, but also subjective norms to be the most influential amongst positive factors.

Conceptual framework

The conceptual framework deduces its constructs from the past literature reviews as from chapter two. The study basis is from the extended Technology Acceptance Model by of Luarn and Lin (2005). Its shows the factors which influence the adoption of cell phone banking. The constructs suggests that the technology user adoption of a new information system fundamentally determined by two factors; perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of the system. In addition, perceived credibility, efficacy and financial cost also affects the behavioral intentions of users to adopt m-banking. The model in this case, therefore, states the gaps between the past literatures reviews and the current study.


The successful marketing of the new technology remains one of the crucial aspects of banking industry that employs technology to satisfy customers across border. However, it places challenges when addressing the factors that influence potential customer’s decision to adopt the newly introduced technology. It requires better understanding on behavioral intentions to accept new technology. Specifically, the influence of beliefs of the existing technology moderates its adoption necessary another technology. This way, the study will gain better understanding through the past tentative literature reviews and followed by empirical research amongst customers. Besides, the study will provide extensive information to the field of marketing with possible strategies to m-banking.

Chapter Three: Methodology

This chapter provides discussion on the methodologies and various data collection techniques. These techniques will be employed as demanded by objectives of the study. The research methods were designed owing to the objectives of the study. For this reason, therefore, the strategies which the paper will use are to determine the major significance of the factors affecting adoption rate of mobile banking (Bryman, 2012).

Research approach

Philosophical approaches enable planning of the research design and the choice of methodology. It provides guide in choosing appropriate research methods regarding to the research objectives and research questions. In accordance, they follow research design choice, performance, assessment of design and the research quality. Besides, they are approaches which provides guide of the choices available from epistemology and ethnology as well (Johnson, 2000). Regarding ethnology, the paper will use realism paradigm to address the hypothesis of the study. This way the paper will adopt realism of factors affecting significantly the behavioral intentions to adopt mobile banking in Australia. On the other hand, the paper will use objectivity as its epistemology approach to base on the assumptions to deduce results without biasness. The researcher, therefore, will carry out the study in a neutral state to address the objectives successfully (Bryman, 2012).

The overview of the research methodology which the study will employ involves three-layer approach (see figure 2). It provides aims of developing an experimental framework to study the empirical findings. It incorporates a combination of both the primary and secondary data necessary to validate the study accordingly. This way, the paper will be able to test null hypothesis about a specific factor influence on the m-banking adoption (Saunders et al., 2012). The hypotheses derive form from the TAM literature review and interview data collected are as below.

  • H 1: perceived usefulness has a significant influence on the m-banking adoption rate
  • H 2: Perceived ease of use has a significant influence on the m-banking adoption rate
  • H 3: Perceived credibility has a significant influence on the m-banking adoption rate
  • H 4: Perceived self-efficacy has a significant influence on the m-banking adoption rate
  • H 5: Perceived financial cost has a significant influence on the m-banking adoption rate

Justification of the research methods

Basing the research actual need, qualitative and quantitative analysis will be used. The study sought to choose both techniques because it will employ to determine the significance of the specific factor on m-banking. It will therefore include the weighted mean average and regression analysis of the primary data. Amongst the techniques which will be used, the study will prefer interviews to be most appropriate to facilitate survey questionnaires effectively.

Questionnaire design

Technology Acceptance Model accommodated the banking industry analysis. Accordingly, it make it best-suited theoretical framework to study the factors affecting cell phone banking. The model will refer to the significance of the factors to determine behavioral intentions of the potential customer to adopt it. This way in provided a conceptual framework to address the hypothesis as it involves lots of internet participant of varied dimensions such as the customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. To improve on the validity and credibility, the study will paper will use both closed and open-ended questionnaires: in which questionnaire form will contain demographic questions, ratings for the constructs influencing m-banking adoptions, and throws open questions to try cover in summary any factor beyond the listed ones (Oppenheim, 2000).

Data collection

Primary data collection

In order to identify the significance of the key factors affecting the adoption of m-banking in Australia banking industry, respondents from top three bank’s respondents will be selected. This will be the primary source to form the null hypothesis to be tested in the study. The selection is based on the assumption that these respondents understand the nature of the industry banking services especially m-banking. This way, will ensure the result will fit into the context of the study. Besides, the data collection method will follow the questionnaire design mentioned above (see section 3.3).

Secondary data collection

Apart from the past literature reviews, the study will also use secondary method to source information from the bank managers. It will obtain answers regarding significances of factors affecting m-banking by processing questionnaires avenues such as the number subscribers, m-banking frequencies and customers’ satisfaction feedback messages. Similarly, it will access data from the bank’s customer care desks data concerning the subject matter of the study covering the limited range of two years; the past year of 2013 and to the current records of 2014 (Matthews et al., 2010).

Face-to-face interviews Justifications

Face-to-face interview technique had been most preferable over the past years to date. Researchers, analysts and journals had found it effective for empirical studies. Since it develops life participation in which the informant feels he or she is involved. Hence, attains a sense of ownership of the study too. Put simpler, it is an in-depth direct and a repeated face-to-face interaction between the researcher and the informant. This way, it enables the respondent to share freely and openly their opinion about the subject of the study regarding their experience, attitudes and lifestyles. Therefore the research will be in a position to uncover the respondent’s situations, attitudes and experience effectively (Oppenheim, 2000).

Besides, interviews will be used to draw opinions of the respondents. The interview methods will include Face-to-face interviews which is the preferable over email, and in-world interviews.

In-world interview justifications

In-word environment is a recent times innovations which enables internet users to engage in a virtual environment through avatars. It is more like face-to-face social interaction but it is computer mediated communications feature which participant may as well interact through live chats. This is a marketing platform which banking industry places their products advertisement in an immersive environment such as online gaming, videos and so forth. Perhaps it is adopted for some reasons to embraces the Second Life way of doing things in 21st century. In this case, therefore, the study will engage respondents online through in-world interviews at ease. It is a technique which is essential especially respondents are unavailable to participate in face-to-face interviews.

Email interviews justifications

These are research interviews essentially conducted in rare occasions. Mostly, it is applied in case where the respondent is unavailable at the time of or uncomfortable in having face-to-face interviews. It is a rare instance that considers time constrains in which respondents will participate via email. The researcher will forward mail with semi-structured questions expected to be replied within a period of one week. All the respondents will be assumed that they are computer literate and had access of internet. This is because they on the expectations of the study that if they are using m-baking therefore are computer literate. However, email-based might raise confidentiality, deception and consent, otherwise, resolved to provide confidentially and identity protection (Bryman, 2012).

Sample and sampling size

In order to achieve the desired objectives, sampling strategy is important to be used especially, where qualitative approach is intended to be used. According to this study, the target population will be Australian top three bank’s customers. It will consider thirty respondents between the age of eighteen and seventy five. The study target pre-assumes that the population is the actual customers of the bank with access to the internet, computer literate, bank account and the uses m-banking services (Davies, 2007).

Random sampling method will be employed for the sample selection from the identified banks. This will be a necessary method for the study in order to avoid selection bias. It will create an opportunity in conducting the survey at neutral state for the sample population. The pilot-testing of the model will be conducted prior the study in order to ascertain the strategy performance, reliability and validity.

Methods of data analysis

Data analysis is a logic way of understanding and interpretation of the collected data. It includes two processes; analytical process where the data will be collected, categorized, compared, and integrated. Whilst interpretation process of analyzed employed circularly while making out sense out of the analyzed data (Hassan, et al. 2013). Since the study seeks determine the significances of the factors affecting adoption of m-banking in Australia, it triggers the need to employ statistical method of analysis. Therefore, it will incorporate two methods of data collection;

Weighted mean for the questionnaires

The results of the closed-ended questions will be assessed using TAM constructs significance. They will be scale from 1 to 5; strongly disagreed scores 1, disagree scores 2, neutral scores 3, agree scores 4 and strongly agree will equate 5 scores. To analyze the results obtained from the informants, the weighted mean score will be calculated accordingly. Similarly, open-ended questions will be analyzed at a personal interpretation, but at a neutral state rating the significance of the defined factors of adoption in ranks.

Least square method regression analysis

A least square multiple linear regression will be used to assess the correlation between the predators among the five independent variables and the m-banking adoption intention. This way, their variance will be used to in behavioral intentions to adopt m-banking will be therefore used to analyze the factor’s significance will be ranked accordingly (Smith, 2011).

Validity, Reliability and Ethics

Qualitative research is considered to execute reliability and the credibility of the study. Ethnology choice of realism will enable the stability of the study in conjunction with epistemology positivism approach. Positivism will be essential to deliver a neutral interpretation or measures without bias of the open-ended questionnaires. Use of repeatedly random sampling method and in-depth interview reviews also contributes the reliability of the research study.

While the reliability concerns the consistency of the scores results validity concerns, how the results will be interpreted. Validity will concern how well the study results place support of the theory or the constructs of the research paper. Accordingly, the collection data and analysis techniques will be pilot-tested prior the actual research. Besides, the constructs validity will be assessed by means of convergent and discriminant validity as well. That is, comparison of the similarity of results from different instrument of data analysis methods used.

Considering ethics, the paper will ensure the study will not cause any harm to the respondents by ensuring; their consensus to be part of the study contributors via interviews prior commencement of the study. Secondly, explaining the benefits of the study and guaranteed confidentiality in the procedures. This way, the research will provide their protection rights to respondents accordingly (Walliman, 2010).


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Tax Fairness and Tax Efficiency

Tax Fairness and Tax Efficiency

A tax is a financial charge or a levy that is imposed to a taxpayer by an organization or state. Tax can be levied directly or indirectly, and can be paid in the form of money or its labor equivalent. The paper is going to focus on methods of levying a tax to students from their final examination. The tax paid should be in the form of points from the student’s average score. The purpose of this study is to find the fairest way of collecting tax from the class. therefore, focusing on tax fairness and tax efficiency.

Tax Base, Rate and Structure

Tax base is the assessed value of a set of assets, income streams or investments, which are subject to taxation. Therefore, tax must be imposed on things which have a tax base. The property tax base of the students score is the scores value. An efficient tax system should have a tax rate. This describes the burden ratio which is expressed as a percentage which a student is taxed. This study is focused to incorporate a fair tax rate to the scores of the students which will enhance equity in the tax system. The structure of this tax system is on the basis of points from the average score of each student. This structure is suitable since the students do not have a source of income. This will help the students work hard to reach their targets after tax hence increase competition. For healthy competition to be effective, a fair method of collecting taxes should be imposed. The study is going to focus on the three methods of levying taxes in order to come up with the efficient method that should be applicable in the class.

Progressive Tax

This is a tax that is imposed as a percentage of the student’s final examination grade. This means that amount of tax increases as the taxable base amount increases.  A progressive tax increases the tax burden of the individuals who have the highest scores. This tax system is not suitable in the class since it would decrease the morale of the students to work hard. Students will high scores are deducted many points relative to students will low scores. This method is not fair to the hardworking students, hence should not be applicable in class.

tax fairness and tax efficiency
tax fairness and tax efficiency

Proportional Tax

This is a method of taxation imposed with a fixed tax rate. In other words, it is a flat tax system.  The percentage of tax does not vary with the decrease or increase of the student’s score. This means that every student has to pay an equal percentage. Therefore, students with high grades on their final examination pay a higher percentage of tax relative to students with low grades. This method of taxation is not suitable since equity does not prevail. Students would be discouraged to work hard in avoidance to pay a high tax. The method favors the students with low scores because they will be deducted few points for their tax.  Therefore, progressive tax system should not be applied in class since it is unfair to the hardworking students hence decreases their morale to work hard.

Regressive Tax

This method of taxation takes a larger percentage from students with low scores than students with high scores. In general, a progressive tax is applied uniformly. This means that it hits the students with low scores harder. This method of taxation is suitable in class since it challenges the lazy students to work harder in order to avoid the high burden of taxation. Therefore, every student in class will be striving to get a high score, and this increases the competition. Continuous levy of this tax will improve the overall performance of the students in the class.

This method of taxation is fairer relative to others since its increases competition in class. The purpose of levying a tax on points is to improve the overall performance of the students and create healthy competition. Every student will work hard to get a high grade so that they do not suffer from a high tax burden. Therefore, the employment of this method of taxation is suitable and would be more effective compared to other methods of taxation.

Tax Equity

Equity is the concept of fairness in the collection of taxes. More specifically, it refers to equal chances in life regardless of identity to provide all students in class with basic and equal minimum services to increase their commitment. Horizontal equity in class means the students who are not hardworking should pay more. This method treats differently those who have differences in levels of aspects. Equity is related to the concept of tax neutrality or the idea that an effective tax system should not discriminate against students or distort their behavior unduly. Every student is entitled to pay tax, what varies is the amount of tax paid. Therefore, this paper recommends regressive method of taxation in the class since it is efficient and would improve the overall performance of the students.

Did you find any useful knowledge relating to tax fairness and tax efficiency in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.

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Stewardship Financial Reporting

To What Extent And How The Stewardship Aspect Helps The Decision Usefulness Aspect In Financial Reporting

Financial reporting is a formal process by which a company communicates with its stakeholders through disclosing its financial figures. According to the recent conceptual framework of IASB about financial reporting, there are two aspects of objectives of financial reporting. One is stewardship, which deals with management responsibility towards the company, and another one is decision-usefulness, which mainly deals with the decision-making users of the financial statement.

Stewardship is an ethical term in accounting that imposes a responsibility to the management of an organization to take care of business carefully and provide reliable information the stakeholders about the resources of business by financial reporting (Williamson, 2002). On the other hand, decision usefulness is a concept related to the preparation of financial statement in which a company try to provide better information by considering the relevant decision makers.

There was a debate among the experts whether the stewardship should consider as an objective of financial reporting or not and whether the decision usefulness provide same concept like stewardship. However, later the IASB and FASB resolve this debate by introducing an exposure draft. In the exposure draft, it told that stewardship should consider as a separate objective of financial reporting (Kothari, 2008).

Stewardship Financial Reporting
Stewardship Financial Reporting

Some experts believe that the stewardship has relationship decision usefulness. They also believe that the stewardship aspect of objective helps the decision usefulness to an extent. On the other hand, some experts believe that there is no relationship between these two. Let us see how and to what extent stewardship helps the decision usefulness.

  • Stewardship helps to increase the decision usefulness to the relevant decision maker by imposing responsibility to the management to take care of business professionally. When the management take cares the business resources in an efficient way, the output of financial report will automatically be reliable (Young, 1998).
  • Stewardship influences the organization to conduct audit of their financial statements by an independent auditor. The decision usefulness will rise when an independent auditor review the financial statement (Latham, 2005).
  • Stewardship helps in accurate valuation of a company by recording and providing accurate information to the decision makers. This accurate valuation information increases the reliability as well as decision usefulness among the stakeholders.
  • It protects the interest of all related parties to the business by disclosing right information to the right parties. When the flow of information is in a perfect condition, the related parties of business will not lose their interest to the business and can make their decision in an efficient way.
  • Stewardship helps to satisfy the regulator body’s of an organization by managing the organization carefully, ethical financial disclosure and giving proper payment such as tax to the tax authorities. When the users of financial statement see that the regulator body’s are satisfied with this origination, they will also satisfied and the decision usefulness of financial statement will ultimately rise (Latham, 2005) .
  • It highlights the responsibility not only the management but also the regulators, investors and credit providers etc. This helps to increase the financial accuracy of the company. For an example, stewardship imposes the government to seek accurate documentation of financial statement of a company to project future growth in the stock exchange. When the company provide actual documents, the relevant decision makers of financial statement can take proper decision by using accurate information.
  • Stewardship helps to reduce agency problem in an This attracts more potential investors to the organization. When the agency problem reduces, the decision maker can make better financial decision about business and the concept decision usefulness will increase (Gjesdal, 1981).

Advantages of Stewardship

The extent to which the stewardship helps the decision usefulness is a relative concept rather than absolute. This means the decision usefulness may vary upon the degree of stewardship of the management or agent of a company. According to the Joachim Gassen (2007), the usefulness of financial statement in decision-making is much depends on the information available to the market participant. The information availability directly related to stewardship of the management. If the management discloses fair information to the users, the decision usefulness of financial reporting will increase. Let us see a table about the extent to which stewardship helps decision usefulness.



Degree Decision usefulness Decision output

Management integrity to business







Recording financial information accurately


High Positive
No Low


Conduct audit by independent auditor


High Positive
No Low


Accurate financial disclosure




No High


However, there are some arguments against the relationship between stewardship and decision usefulness according to some expert’s opinion. This means the stewardship and decision usefulness are two separate objectives without any influence to each other.

  • Stewardship and decision usefulness should define as completely separate objectives because of their parallel relation (Ernst and Young, 2008).
  • Stewardship mainly deals with past performance of organization to asses’ future performance. On the other hand, decision usefulness provides better information by considering present situation of the company. Therefore, the relations between these two are different (Hand, Isaaks and Sanderson, 2005).

Though there are some negative views about the relationship between stewardship and decision usefulness, there are some strong positive points also. Stewardship directly or indirectly influences the decision usefulness of a financial statement. It helps to increase management integrity, accurate financial recording, increase the reliability of information to the decision makers by conducting regular audit and disclosing accurate information. These points ultimately increase the decision usefulness of financial reporting to the related decision makers. The extent to which stewardship helps decision usefulness may vary according to the degree of stewardship of management to the information in financial reporting.


Duncanwil.co.uk (2002) Duncan Williamson: Concepts and Conventions of Accounting

Ernst & Young (2008) International GAAP 2008: Generally Accepted Accounting Practice under International Financial Reporting Standards. International: Wiley (April 14, 2008), p.146 page, stewardship.

Gassen, J. (2007) Are stewardship and decision usefulness complementary of conflicting objectives of financial accounting?

Gjesdal, F. (1981) Accounting for Stewardship. Journal of Accounting Research, 19 (1), p.208-231.

Hand, L., Isaaks, C., & Sanderson, P. (2005). Introduction to accounting for non-specialists. London, Thomson Learning.

Kothari, S. (2008) conceptual framework of financial reporting. International: Pearson, p.38-40.

Latham, A. (2005) The Stewardship Function in Accounting

Ventureline, D. (n.d.) Accounting Theory Definition

What is Financial Reporting? (n.d.) What is Financial Reporting?

Young, R. (1998) The stewardship role in accounting

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