Example Marketing Dissertations

Where Can I Find Example Marketing Dissertations

Writing A Marketing Dissertation

Example Marketing Dissertations – Writing a marketing dissertation will be easier for some university students compared to others, this is probably down to the fact that some students have a better understanding of marketing principles or have more exposure to marketing techniques in general. So what about students who have less knowledge of marketing but intend to complete a marketing dissertation? Having little knowledge of a subject area would deter many students from pursing a research project in a particular field but many see it as an opportunity to broaden their knowledge of a new research field. When I started my undergraduate business degree more than a decade ago, I had little knowledge of marketing principles or how to deploy marketing techniques in a real working environment.

Prior to my studies, I was led to believe that people working in marketing departments designed posters and created TV commercials for a living. I improved my perception of marketing by actually researching and writing marketing related projects. After a couple of years of study, I appreciated how all encompassing the field of marketing actually is, it is not all about poster design or TV commercials – far from it. I hope you gain valuable insight on how to attain quality example marketing dissertations.

If I fast forward to my third and final year of my undergraduate degree, I was at a quandary to what field of study I should select for my dissertation topic. I excelled in economics and business management but I discovered a passion for international marketing and how it has helped transform the global business landscape. I was intrigued by the way large multinational companies deploy contrasting marketing campaigns around the world. A Vodafone marketing campaign will differ across boundaries, a marketing campaign in the US will differ to that found in Asia and Europe. Same could be said of other large MNCs such as Microsoft, Google and Coca Cola. The culture, political make up, demographics and economic environment will determine how successful marketing campaigns are in certain countries, this is where interesting comparisons can be made.

Example Marketing Dissertations
Example Marketing Dissertations

I eventually decided to write my dissertation on international marketing techniques based on a large telecommunications company, I enjoyed writing the dissertation and I learned so much while compiling the dissertation. I would like to share with you how I began my marketing dissertation project and how I used existing literature (journals, books, case studies and articles) to help accomplish my marketing dissertation to a high standard.

Firstly, decide if you want to write a marketing dissertation or a dissertation in another research field, you cannot be in two minds at this point as you will get off to a bad start – this can hold you back and increase stress levels further down the line.

Initial Inspiration

Complementing on what to base your marketing dissertation on can be an arduous decision. Below is a list of pointers that may help you spark your research project into life, there is every chance that you already have your own inspiration;

Analyse what you have previously studied in your degree – Revisit the marketing subject areas you have already covered. You may discover that you have already researched a particular company, industry or technique in great depth. This will get your dissertation off to a great start and you can elaborate on this existing knowledge. During my studies I completed four marketing modules based on a well known telecommunication company, I rigorously researched the culture of this organisation and key members of the company’s management structure. I researched this on a domestic basis but I wrote my dissertation on the same organisation and adopted an international approach, this saved me a lot of time and effort. This gave me added confidence as I felt I knew what I was writing about.

Don’t attempt to write a generic or outdated piece of research. There is nothing inspirational about dedicating an entire dissertation to a defunct company or an outdated marketing technique. You will lose momentum and interest during the writing process and more importantly the person reading your research will switch off. Please avoid this if you can. Look at new marketing techniques and dynamic organisations. There are so many exciting mergers and acquisitions taking place right now and combing this with the social media boom will lead to an engaging research dissertation.

Benefits of Example Marketing Dissertations

Keeping on the Right Track Make sure you have quality reference material at hand. Ensure that the literature you are analyzing is not too dated and relevant to your dissertation. Academic journals and news articles tend to be up to date and you should be able to reference these in your own marketing dissertation. I decided not to include journal entries or news articles greater than five years. You must include key academic publications and marketing models regardless of publication date. This demonstrates that you have identified key scholars, models and publications relating to your field of study. This is important when writing a literature review or if you intend to critique existing literature. Make sure you adhere to your university’s referencing guidelines.

Look at existing literature in your field of study. I focused on key trends within the global telecommunications industry and how intrinsic marketing campaigns play a major role in the success of organisations. I had to look at literature within the information technology arena as well as marketing publications. I also looked at existing example marketing dissertation topics written by students who investigated my area of study. It was interesting to see how they structured and compiled their dissertation. I felt inclined to better their dissertation and to make my dissertation more interesting and cutting edge. Below is a list marketing dissertations I examined while I was writing my own marketing dissertation.

The Influence of Advertising on Consumer Behavior

Consumer Retail Loyalty: An Analysis Into Tesco

How Does Zara Sustain Competitive Advantage In Europe Without Advertising?

What is the Role Played by Social Media in Crisis Communications?

The Effects of Branding Strategy on the Smart Phone Market

An Analysis into the Importance of Advertising in the Retail Industry

A Comparison of the Marketing Mix in a Developed and a Developing Country

Below is a useful list of dissertation writing web pages that will help you construct your own dissertation:

Dissertation Help

How To Write A Dissertation Introduction

How To Write A Dissertation Literature Review

How To Write A Dissertation Methodology

How To Write A Dissertation Data Analysis

How To Write A Dissertation Results And Findings

How To Write A Dissertation Discussion And Conclusions

How To Write A Dissertation Bibliography

How To Write A Dissertation Appendices

How To Avoid Dissertation Plagiarism

Dissertation Tips

I’m sure this blog post will help you kick start your marketing dissertation project into life. The links provided should serve as a guide and give you a good insight into what constitutes as quality example marketing dissertation. Good luck and all the best.

I hope you enjoyed this Example Marketing Dissertations post. Your comments and thoughts are welcomed. Feel free to add more ideas and personal experiences to this post.

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Where Can I Find Finance Dissertations

Where Can I Find Finance Dissertations?

Finance Dissertations – I graduated from university just over a decade ago and I distinctly remember how fellow students and I found it difficult choosing a finance dissertation topic in our final year. We had the added pressure of on going assignments coupled with starting a finance dissertation. Reflecting back on my personal experiences, it takes time, dedication and after many attempts you should be able to start your finance dissertation once you have identified a suitable topic and title.

This article will help you formulate a strategy for your finance dissertation, some of these ideas will be glaringly obvious to you, I let you decide; selecting the dissertation topic is the preliminary and most important element. Decide on a topic that you are keen on and have good knowledge of, don’t base your dissertation on a topic which you know little about as this may lead to a weak and less substantial research dissertation. It will advantageous to look at assessments you have already completed on your finance degree as you will be able to exploit and enhance this research, you should be able to base your finance dissertation on the existing research you have undertaken. I completed three finance assignments based on international finance constraints of developing countries, I found that I got a good understanding of this field of study and I based my finance dissertation on this topic. This helped me out immensely as I could base my dissertation on subject matter I am familiar with and I had existing resource at hand such as journals, key literature and articles. I suggest that you assess what you have already covered during your degree as this may lead you to formulate a robust finance dissertation topic.

Finance Dissertations
Finance Dissertations

Once you have decided on a dissertation title or topic you need to ensure you have the correct resources at hand, this would include relevant articles, prominent literature in the field of finance and access to up to date journals. You will find that your university’s library will host many academic databases and you must exploit these as they will host a plethora of finance subject material, this will prove vital in the dissertation literature review section of you research project. I suggest referencing journal articles no older than 5 years unless you are referencing a key piece of research by a prominent scholar. Don’t quote outdated reference material as it will detract from your overall grade, keep it cutting edge and up to date.

Finance Dissertation Topic Ideas

Try to focus your dissertation topic on finding the solution for upcoming problems in the finance industry or within a dynamic organisation. Examine how international finance has become such a critical factor in global economies. Try to identify how global finance has changed over the past decade notably within developing countries. Assess how retail banking is changing and how internet banking has boomed in recent years. Analyse stock market behaviour across different boundaries and look at the financial competitiveness of nations. Discuss investment opportunities for global companies and nations; the list of topics goes on. You can always attribute advantages and disadvantages to these areas. Below is a list of sample finance dissertations I used when creating my own dissertation, they may prove useful to you.

Sample Finance Dissertations

Dissertation – A Cross Boarder Analysis Into Credit Scoring

Dissertation – Implementation of Microfinance

Dissertation – An Analysis into the Effectiveness of Margin Financing A UK Based Exploratory Study

Dissertation – Feasibility and Deployment of the Four-Factor Asset Pricing Model in the UK Stock Market

Dissertation – Rivalry And Integration Strategies Of Global Stock Exchanges

More Finance Dissertation Examples Here

I recommend that you use statistical analysis in your dissertation analysis section, this will help underpin your findings and prove that you can use appropriate finance models in a research project. You have the opportunity to critique finance models at some point in your research, only do this if you have a valid reason to do so. Using at least two finance models such as dividend discount model (DCF), value at risk (VaR), expected return, regression analysis, forecasting and standard deviation should be included in your finance dissertation.

Don’t forget to reference all material used in your dissertation in the reference and bibliography section, this is so important. You do not want to write an outstanding research project and run the risk of dissertation plagiarism. Always abide by your university’s plagiarism guidelines, it is very easy to fall into this trap especially when using material found on the internet.

I’m sure this article will help you write your own finance dissertation topics and that the links will provide guidance. Feel free to add any comments or additional advice that would add to this post.

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How To Write A Business Management Essay

How To Write A Business Management Essay

This blog post is an systematic guide on how to write an effective business management essay, it outlines some of the frequent pitfalls of management essay assignments. It also provides management students with a factorial program to business management essays and research papers. This is also intended for business related courses like human resource management,marketing, accounting, economics, systems consultancy, and others. I hope you get a better understanding on how to write a business management essay.

People read management essays to acquire valuable current information that is timely. Moreover, management essays connects theoretical knowledge to concepts prevalent in the market. Management essays offer students an opportunity to apply theoretical information in the field. After all, management is a soft skill that requires development outside of the class setting. The essays enable students to reflect on the theories and various management frameworks applied in class. Writing a business management essay can be a daunting essay and a management student almost always requires support in meeting all the challenges related to the task.

A management essay writer should design an essay that tests existing knowledge and develops it. The act of preparing the essay should be aimed at developing particular subject knowledge on management – Enhancing your know in a familiar subject is recommended. Your management essay should bear in mind that the instructor is interested in determining the level of knowledge of the student, thus the flow of reason is crucial. You should build logic arguments just like in a debate. In other words, you should be able to make the readers of your essay think logically, and do not just expect them to believe the statements made by the essay. The method of justifying your claims is quite crucial. One of the best ways to do this is to offer evidence for every claim made. An evaluation of the evidence will also come in handy.

While writing management essays, it is always crucial to provide theoretical backing to claims and arguments. Connecting current affairs to conceptual ideas enables your readers to connect current information to past scholarly ideas. This provides room for critical thinking and the reader is left to be the judge of what they read. Some essays demand that you do more than a single task. For instance, some require that you provide an outline of the main organizational theories underneath modern management spheres. They also require a discussion of their importance to professional career situations. Such questions usually require that you do more than just describe the theories. The most usual written comment on management essays by examiners is something similar to “you have not responded to the question set”. Marks are never awarded in such instances because you have answered a question the examiner did not set.

Perfect Research
Perfect Research

Before writing a business management essay, it is crucial to have a plan. There are two types of plans that are crucial in writing management essays. Firstly, it is crucial to plan for the time you will need. Secondly, you need to come up with an essay plan. The amount of time is hard to determine as it depends on a number of elements. However, the most vital factor to consider while making a time plan include the level of knowledge you have on the topics that you intend to write about. If you intend to write on a topic you have little knowledge, chances are high that you will spend so much time. Management writers are always advised to focus on topics that they profess so much knowledge. These could include your most favorite topic or even topics you studied through case studies and field trips.

Before writing the essay, make a plan of the possible visits. This could include visits to lecturers and tutors, social events, or field trips to management professionals. At this juncture, make a point of availing possible textbooks, journals, newspapers, articles, and other relevant materials on management issues. The internet can also offer vital information for the management essay. Making an ample data collection process is a crucial step in coming up with a management essay. This is because this stage can offer current and past information that can be used to contextualize the topic you are planning to write about. The nature and length of planning depend on the amount of information collected and length of the management essay.

Before writing a business management essay, it is crucial for you to analyze the expectations that your audience are likely to have. Moreover, you should strive to ensure that the tone of your paper is formal and on point. Most management essay readers are elites and researchers seeking the underlying idea in every statement.

Determining the structure of the essay is crucial before embarking on the writing process. Most management and academic writing present the structure to include the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The introduction is the most vital part of the essay as it sets the pace for both you as the writer of a management essay, as well as the reader. The introduction is used to captivate the attention of the reader, thus it should be as interesting as possible. The introduction contains the synopsis of the management essay, and introduces various theoretical frameworks. The last part of the introduction should have a thesis statement. A thesis is a statement of claim made by an essay writer. The thesis statement offers the threshold on which the writer measures all other arguments and claims in the essay. A thesis statement provides the direction and tone of the essay hence should be constructed rationally.

The introduction is followed by the body of the essay. This is the section where you present various claims, arguments, positions and knowledge. All the data collected are analyzed and their deductions presented for analysis. The body of a management essay should be able to connect past knowledge with current knowledge. For instance, when writing about organizational behavior, you should connect current organizational behaviors rampant in existing businesses and connect to classical management trends.

It is also crucial to relate organizational practices to outside factors. Some organizations behave the way they do because of external elements like government policies and competition. The body of a management essay provides an explanation of the points introduced at the introduction stage and should reflect a clear flow. You should present your points in a systematic pattern of presenting your points from the strongest to the least strong. Before writing the essay, you should create an outline of the main points as this will facilitate a systematic flow. Highlighting the points will also ensure that you maintain your word count. It is always important to adhere to typographical and other guidelines provided by your university lecturer. This will help secure marks lost through simple mistakes. Another important reason for highlighting the main points before embarking on the real writing process is to ensure that the essay observe consistency. A good management essay should stick to explaining and developing specific points of view rather than offering a discussion of every management aspect. Showing a clear connection of the arguments with the topic throughout the research is crucial.

The body should offer an analysis of data and measure them with respect to the thesis statement. Usually, data is collected with the objective of determining the validity of the thesis statement. After presenting an in depth argument in the body section, the next important step after the body is the conclusion. This stage is crucial as it consolidates what has already been debated. The tone of the conclusion is vital as it offers more persuasion for your readers. This section should not introduce new knowledge but should just reinforce what has already been discussed. The concluding stage presents the end of the paper and should offer an ending tune.

Thanks for taking the time out to read this blog post and I hope you found it useful. I would be grateful if you could share this blog post via Twitter, Facebook, or Google+ I would like to generate as much social media buzz around this post.

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How Does Brand Loyalty Influence Customer Behavior

How Does Brand Loyalty Influence Customer Behavior?

The rise in living standards, ease of accessibility to finance coupled with a wide variety to choose from has made consumer durable market to grow with a rapid rate. Many players are getting into the market. With the advances in communication and technology, new lifestyles and the quest to appear young and beautiful, the demand for quality beauty products has increased significantly. Consumer quality sector is characterized by the emergence of exchange offers, discounts and intensive competition. People nowadays want to imitate in regards to dressing, language, and politics among other lifestyle aspects. The increasing population is bombarded with information about maintaining a youthful look, making women seek for cosmetics that suit them.  With this knowledge in mind, beauty manufacturing product companies make every effort to brand them to capture the booming market. Companies are competing on the basis of firm grasp of the local and international market, their well acknowledged brands and hold over wide distribution network. The penetration level of consumer products remains high.

This research is scoped down to understand the relationship between consumer behavior and brand loyalty, factors affecting consumer decision making, the role of brand loyalty in consumer durable goods and the position of the individual consumer in the segment. The path forward will be to study the secondary data for industry overview, collect primary data for more insight and  derive conclusions based on primary and secondary data. The research findings will be addressed based on the theories of consumer buying behavior and brand loyalty.

Organizations must engage in making strategic decisions that are capable of improving the firms’ image so that they can have an advantage over competitors. To be specific, these image enhancing strategies ensure that the organization increase the loyalty of the current customers. In addition, the image enhancing strategies should help in the attraction of new customers to the organization. Strategic decisions that can bring enhanced image to the organization have included the selection of target markets, and modification of products to suit the demands of the customers. Other strategic decisions on prices, location of products and services, promotional efforts, and operating policies help in improving the organizations’ image.

The implementation of these strategies ensures that there is a solid background for effective image in the organization. An organization’s image ensures that if there is something about it that is not known, the knowledge the customers have on the organization fills the void. The main concern of this research is to determine whether the perception about the brand image affects customer behavior.

Research objectives

The interest of the research is to determine if brand loyalty influences consumer behavior. This study would be of value to those organizations concerned about the society and those concerned with the attaining off the highest possible profit. Further, the study aims to find if consumers have positive attitudes for those organizations that improve their brand loyalty and social responsibility.

Specific research objectives include:

  1. To find the relationship between consumer behavior and brand loyalty.
  2. To find out whether consumer behavior leads to change in the brand image quality, for instance, product quality or service quality.
  3. The influence of customer satisfaction on the brand’s image
  4. Does consumer behavior affect brand image?
  5. Does consumer behavior lead to change in the brand image quality?
  6. Does customer satisfaction affect brand image?

Research questions

Literature Review

The main focus of this study is to measure the attitudes of customers in relation to brand loyalty and to ascertain its influence of this attitude on brand loyalty. Study of attitudes enables organization managers to answer questions as to why a consumer purchased one product over another. The understanding of the consumer attitude towards particular products ensures that they come up with strategies and decisions on major products and market decisions.

The image associated with a particular product or service ensures that it has a competitive advantage over other products and services. A company’s brand is valuable strategic asset in achieving goals and objectives. Brand loyalty can be referred to as the consumer decision; whether conscious or unconscious concerning the use of a product or service. It may also refer to the intention to buy or use a particular product for a long duration of time. Brand loyalty is achieved due to the right features, and the quality of the brand. Quality of the product must be at the right price for the consumer to perceive the brand as being loyal to their needs. Organizations can change consumer behavior concerning a particular product or service through advertising. Advertising ensures that consumers acquire new habits, and instill those habits by telling the consumers how the product is of value to their money. Consumers should also be encouraged to continue using the products and services in the future (Hoyer and Maclnnis, 2008, p. 27).

According to Pride and Ferrel (2008, p.123), the main reason why organizations do not have strong brand loyalty is because they are not familiar with various ways of disseminating a strong and clear message that distinguishes their product with that of the competitor. In addition, the message should distinguish the product in a positive and memorable manner. The major challenge of organizations is to avoid the disadvantages of portraying a particular product or service as having negative image. An organization’s image should not be viewed in terms of the product and service attributes; the organization’s philosophies concerning environmental management, philanthropy, and ethical considerations are critical in influencing consumer behavior.

Societal Conscious Marketing

Most organizations have adopted marketing strategies that focus on societal needs. Each of these strategies is philosophical or operational concepts used by organizational leaders to enhance the objectives of their businesses. The following are some of the concepts widely used in organizations (Phillips, 2010, p. 45).

  1. Product concept: products should be produced in large volumes since all of it can be sold to the consumers
  2. Selling concept; products can only be consumed if they are heavily promoted
  3. Product concept; consumers will buy high quality products that are within their price range
  4. Marketing concept: specific customer demands can only be met if organization produces products that are equal or better than those of the competitor. In addition, the products should be priced lower than the competitor.
  5. Societal marketing concept: This term involves marketing in a manner that does not harm the society, people, and the environment. Societal marketing concept is motivated by the need to satisfy direct customers and other constituents in the market.

Brand loyalty can be exercised in several ways. The main activities that organizations can do to improve brand loyalty include environmental friendly activities, philanthropy, ethical activities with local, national, and international communities, customers, and employees. Environmentally friendly activities can include recycling, waste reduction, and other strategies aimed at minimizing the organization’s impact on the environment. Philanthropic activities include engaging donations of money, food, facilities, and time. These activities are classified under the title known as cause related marketing (Kahren, 2009, p.36).

According to Dutton (1997), organizations have been turning philanthropy activities inward towards their employees. This is done through paying them in order to volunteer for their favorite charities. She asserts that words like “ethics’, honesty, truth and trust are good sentiments. She, however, notes that they mean nothing if they are not adopted by organizations. Ethical activities include using different hiring practices and employee relations such as high moral values, fair pay, equal treatment, and equal opportunity for all workers. Organizations that do not treat workers fairly have the risk of lowering their brand image. Brand image should start with internal operations; there is no point of trying to show the external clients that business ethics are good while simultaneously engaging in unethical activities towards the employees. Employees play an important role in advertising the organization to outside clients more than any other marketing strategy.

The question of how brand loyalty affects product evaluation was examined by Brown and Dacin (1997). Their study looked into the differences between the impact of organization brand loyalty which include the organization’s ability to produce and deliver quality products and services and the corporate social responsibility’s impacts on consumers. In their first research, students analyzed their hypothetical scenarios. The outcome was that brand loyalty had a significant effect on the way consumers evaluated the product attributes and the overall image of the organization. Further, the authors found out that social responsibility had no direct impact on the organization’s image. Their second study found out that social responsibility became significant predictor of product loyalty in the consumers and its evaluation.

Marketing Dissertation Examples
Marketing Dissertation Examples

According to Kim (1996) product demand is determined by non-product factors such as cleanliness, public relations, atmosphere, advertising and the convenience of the brands’ locations. In any organization, quality of products can be determined according to the consumer attitude towards the product with other products available to the consumer in the market.

“Perceived quality is different from objective or actual quality, a higher level abstraction rather than a specific attribute of a product, a global assessment that in some case resembles attitude, and a judgment usually made within a consumer’s evoked set” (Zeithaml, 1988, p.4).

Zeitmal further assert that few consumers are able to analyze and measure the objective properties of a product. This is because the objective assessment depends on the verifiable standards, the objective measurement can be questioned because it depends on who set the standards.

Theoretical framework

The A Priori Approach

According to Lunn (2011), the theory introduces theories and concepts from other disciplines including behavioral sciences. The value of behavioral sciences has been used in consumer knowing what the consumer wants. Well known examples are included in the manifestations of motivational research and such attitude theories as those of Festinger and Fishbein. The A Priori approach involves giving the consumer an all embracing label such as “economic man”, “problem solver”, “learner”, and “existentialist”. The strength of the a priori lies in the organization and the systematic basis of knowledge provided about certain aspects of the consumer.

Brand Loyalty Theory

According to Katz (1960), Brand loyalty theory has three distinct dimensions. The first dimension is referred to as emotive tendency towards products and services. The emotive tendency refers to the consumer likes and dislikes which is manifested on how they purchase a particular brand in the market. The second dimension is known as evaluative tendency towards products and services. Katz refers to this tendency as positively biased evaluation of a product or service. Organizations use positive characteristics to define brand utili6ty to the customers. The evaluative tendency of the product or service can also be determined from past experience in using the brand.

Behavioral tendency towards the brand is the next dimension. Katz (1960) refers to the behavior tendency as the biased responses consumers have towards a particular product or service regarding its procurement, purchase and consumption characteristics. Consumer characteristics such as shopping, paying for the product, as well as its consumption determine the behavior tendency. Behavior tendency is developed after using the product for a long period of time. In addition, behavior tendency can be developed from good or bad tendencies toward other brands.

Black Box Theory of Behaviorism

Sandhusen (2000) assert that the black box model is an interaction of several perspectives concerning a specific brand. The perspectives include the stimuli, consumer characteristics, choice patterns and consumer responses. The focus of the organization is not in the internal processes within the customer: the organization focuses on the relation between stimuli and response of the customer. Stimuli are related to the marketing characteristics developed by an organization in order to lure the customer in purchasing of the brand. The environmental stimuli are determined by social factors such as politics, economy and the culture in which the brand is to be used. The black box symbolizes the buyer characteristics and their choice patterns, which determine their response towards a particular brand.

Hypothesis

This research focuses on the various factors that influence consumers’ brand loyalty towards a given brand. From the various factors that influence brand loyalty, below are the hypothesis derived.

H1: There is a positive correlation between brand loyalty product and brand name

H2: There is a positive correlation between brand loyalty and product quality.

H3: There is a positive significant relationship between brand loyalty and product design

H4: There is a positive significant relationship between brand loyalty and product price.

H5: There is a positive correlation between brand loyalty and promotion.

H6: There is a significant correlation between service quality and brand loyalty.

H7: There is a positive significant relationship between store environment and brand loyalty.

Research Methodology

The main objective of this research was to establish how brand loyalty influences cosmetics buying behavior of UK female consumers. This section also highlights the various processes undertaken in obtaining and analyzing the information gathered for this research. This includes a description of the research design and methods used in collecting the data that were analyzed to arrive at a conclusion in the study.

Research philosophy

Based on the nature and the topic to be studied, this research will be conducted on positivist philosophy. It will be based on this philosophy because the research will involve testing of hypothesis developed from deductive theory, involving measurement of observable social realities.

Approach

This research will be conducted on deductive approach based on hypothesis testing from the data collected. Data will then be analyzed to either confirm or disapprove the hypothesis.

Data Collection Methods

Data collection will consist of surveys, filling in questionnaires and conducting interviews with cosmetic consumers and dealers in London, UK. Qualitative evaluation shall be employed in this research besides using subjective techniques such as interviews and observations to gather relevant and substantive data. Quantitative approach is preferred for this research due to the varying experiences of the consumers of these products. Upon collecting data using interviews and questionnaires, the data will then be carefully analyzed. This shall be carried out using both the One-way ANOVA and the Pearson’s guideline to establish how brand loyalty influences consumer behavior with respect to cosmetic consumption in UK.

Questionnaire Design

In this research, a questionnaire was developed, and pilot tested through personal interviews with seven senior-most managers at Superdrug, which is the second largest health and beauty retail shop in UK. The questionnaire used for collecting data was divided into two segments: the first section concerns the demographics of consumers and the second were about brand loyalty factors. This research involved sampling randomly 400 female cosmetic consumer of between 18 to 42 years of age. In order to obtain a reliable data, the survey was distributed in London City at five major cosmetic shops. The malls included L’Occitane, Jo Malone, Floris London, Boots and Screenface, in addition to Superdrug retail shop.  A total of 400 usable questionnaires were then returned and collected 60% response rate.

Table 1 reveals that age composition of those aged between 18-25 years were 25% of the respondents. Yet again, the table reveals that close to half of the respondents ages varied between 27-35 years. About 26% of the respondents were between the ages of 36-42. The sample survey was almost balanced at 51% for the married and 49% for the unmarried. With regard to education level, the surveyed respondent revealed that 72% of the respondent had at least a degree and 18% having completed high school. This implies that only 10% of the respondents had postgraduate degrees.

Data Analysis

This research used the One-way ANOVA to establish whether there is any significant correlation between independent variables (product quality, brand name, design, price, service quality, promotion, and store environment) and age and income the consumers interviewed. The main reason for adopting the One-way ANOVA as the most appropriate tool is that it was found to be the best for testing the hypothesis when at least two groups are measured on an interval scale. The purpose of the One-way ANOVA is to show the degree of variability of the sample values taken by considering to what extent the observation within each group differs and how much the group means differ.  Apart from the One –Way ANOVA, the researchers also found it appropriate to use the Pearson Correlation for purposes of analyzing the relationship between the two variables, which are both ratio and interval-scaled. This is based on the fact that the correlation coefficients determined using the Pearson’s guideline is used to establish the degree and direction of the correlation, which is suitable for hypothesis testing. In this regard, the research used Pearson correlation principle to test the independent variables (product quality, brand name, price, promotion, design, store environment and service quality) that influenced consumer brand loyalty and to establish if there is any correlation between the variables.

Results

Table 2 below shows the Cronbach’s Alpha (coefficient alpha) of each of the variables tested.  The findings reveal that all the variables have a high degree of reliability. Table 3, on the other hand, shows the seven autonomous variable factors of brand loyalty that were experimented during the research through questionnaires given out to the respondents. The results were also ranked using the Likert scale in the questionnaire: strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree. The result is then gotten from the uppermost average score of brand loyalty factors based on the answers provident by the respondents. In overall, the result reveals that product quality is the most vital factor. In UK environment, most respondents choose product quality as the core aspect that influences their brand loyalty.

The One-way ANOVA scrutiny of the factors of income level and brand loyalty was conducted. This was meant to establish if there could be any significant relationship between the two variables. Here, there are four variables that are most significant according to the study, which include brand name (0.000) promotion (0.004), product quality (0.009) and service quality (0.038). In overall, the result shows that, in UK, majority of the consumers prefer brand name, promotion, and product and service quality as factors of brand loyalty. According to table five below, only two variables that are significant. These are price (0.014) and the brand name (0.050). An analysis of this data reveals that, among the age groups surveyed, female consumers aged between 36-42 prefer brand names more compare to other age groups.

Test of Hypothesis

As revealed in Table 4 below, brand name was found to have considerable positive relationship with brand loyalty. The results of this research revealed that consumers preferred brand image only when they foresee positive functions or benefits from the product in question. It is then that they will recommend the brand, react positively to the price premium and accept brand extension to other categories of products within the same brand.

The quality of the products was shown to have a positive correlation with brand loyalty. This kind of correlation is demonstrated based on Cohen’s (1988) principle, in which a correlation of (r=0.0302) is considered moderate. Therefore, based on these statistics, the finding showed that product quality has a lot of significance with regard to consumer decision-making process. The findings of this research revealed that brand loyalty and price had a positive relationship. In this case, price was found to be more important for any average consumer in the market. Nevertheless, those consumers with high brand loyalty were not very much sensitive to prices. The research showed that as long as these consumers were satisfied with a given brand, they would continue buying the product with the same brand irrespective of the price increase.  On the other hand, the findings did not show any correlation between product design and brand loyalty. Out of all the seven variables tested, many consumers did not consider product design as an important factor for UK consumers to become loyal to a given cosmetic brand.

According to the findings, promotion and brand loyalty were found to have a positive relationship. Product promotion was considered as one of the most valuable factor in determining a consumer’s brand loyalty. This includes the use of sales promotions, commercial adverts, personal and public selling. In fact, the research revealed that many female consumers spent considerable time reading product labels before purchasing the product. The research also revealed that brand loyalty and service quality had a positive relationship. Findings showed that service quality encouraged many consumers to prioritize a store. The result indicated that salesperson consumer relationship results in long-term orientation of customers towards a given store. Similarly, trust developed in the salesperson seems to relate to the overall discernment of the store’s service quality, which leads to customer’s total satisfaction with the store.

The findings also showed that the environment of the store is also positively related to brand loyalty. The store environment is seen as major factors that influence consumer brand loyalty. This research revealed that many consumers were much sensitive to attributes of the store such as a variety of selection, merchandise displays, packing space, and ease of accessibility to vehicles and the overall goodwill of the store in buying products.

Table 1. Demographic Sample Description
 Age Frequency Percentage (%)
18-2527-3536-42 100196104 254926
Marital statusMarriedUnmarried 204196 5149
Education:High SchoolUndergraduatePostgraduate 7228840 187210
Table 2. Reliability Analysis of Brand Loyalty factors
Variables Alpha
Product QualityBrand namePricePromotionDesignService Quality

Store Environment

Brand Loyalty

0.65720.70280.66180.69740.74820.8200

0.7139

0.6646

Table 3. Brand Loyalty factor Ranking

Factor of Brand Loyalty Ranking Mean/Average
Product Quality 1 3.68
Q1. The brand is durable than others 3.69
Q2. The materials used by the brand are natural 4.11
Q3. The brand has sufficient color 3.65
Q4. The brand has good functional quality 3.77
Mean Average     3.80
Design   2
Q1. The brand provides wide variety of designs 3.72
Q2. Designs of the brand are suitable for me 3.79
Q3. Designs of the brand have distinctive features 3.73
Q4. Designs of the brand are trendy and fashionable 3.85
Mean Average     3.77
Brand Name                                                          3
Q1. The brand is trustworthy 3.70
Q2. Brand image and name attract me to buy 3.82
Q3. Brand Name is selected irrespective of price 3.41
Q4. Brand reveals my individual personality 3.96
Mean Average     3.72
Promotion               4
Q1 Ads of the brand is attractive 3.64
Q2. Ads of the brand attract me towards purchasing the product 3.44
Q3. Product displays are entrancing 3.62
Mean Average      3.56
Store Environment                                                   5
Q1. The brand has good store location 3.64
Q2. There are adequate outlets for the brand 3.76
Q3. The interior show is gorgeous 3.50
Q4. Music and color inside the store are beautiful 3.36
Mean Average     3.57
Price       6
Q1. Increases of price not hinder me to purchase 2.99
Q2. The brand provides goods value for money 3.52
Average Mean 3.56
Service Quality 7
Q1The salesmen in the store are knowledgeable 3.21
Q2. The salesmen in the store are willing to help 3.39
Q3. Vendor of the store is and courteous and friendly 3.18
Q4. Vendors in the store have neat appearance 3.33
Mean Average     3.28

Table 4. Significance of Brand Loyalty factors with brand loyalty

Variables Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed)a
Product QualityBrand name

Price

Promotion

Design

Service Quality

Store Environment

Brand Loyalty

0.3040.561

0.466

0.411

0.140

0.333

0.3690.0020.002

0.005

0.006

0.162

0.001

0.010

Conclusions and Findings

Various studies have focused on understanding the concept of brand loyalty and the factors influencing it. Product attributes, after sale service, marketing capabilities, perceived quality or aesthetics, depth of product line as the key difference factors influencing the behavior of purchasers. Brand commitment is also a necessary condition for true brand loyalty to occur.  Packaging, new product trial, price, store location corporate social responsibility and advertisements influence consumer behavior. While several factors influencing brand loyalty have been studied in the extant literature, this research has revealed that brand loyalty influences consumer behavior. Consumers may also compel entrepreneurs to change the brand image in terms of product or service quality. Similarly, the brand image has been proven to satisfy the consumer expectations.

The dimensions of brand loyalty theory clearly depict how consumer’s tastes and preferences influence their buying power. This is followed by an assessment of the product to decide if they will buy it or not. The assessment also referred to as evaluative tendency compels organizations to brand their products to attract customers, an aspect of competition. Product branding can be enhanced by advertising, changing the brand name and promoting it to improve recognition.  The behavioral tendency proposed by Katz is creations of a bandwagon effect among consumers to enable them continue buying the product. The initial products are branded in a way of attracting customers though subsequent ones show depreciation, a strategy used by marketers.  Branding through advertisement show some favor of the product while despising others, thus discouraging customers from using those other products whether related or not. The black box model looks into the customers willingness created by the company’s emphasis of the product. The characteristics of the buyer determine their choice of product.

From this research, the brand name and image has a significant impact on customer choice with all factors kept constant. As part of consumer behavior, every brand has some features which consumers always associate the brand with. They consume a given brand on the basis of its features. Again, the consumers take into account the quality, and price while making buying decisions. The point of purchase is another factor that comes to a buyer’s mind. Being a highly demanded product by women, they want to buy cosmetics from a good reputed and trustworthy purchase point. Exhibition malls serves as favorite consumer purchase point.

Other factors like age, occupation and education of consumers will influence buying decisions following the way each group has been exposed about the product. Young people will have more taste of cosmetics because they want to look good while old ones are slightly less concerned with beauty. Exposure and knowledge of a product affects its demand. The raw materials making the brand also play a vital role of its choice. If a sample cosmetic is known to contain harmful chemicals, it loses its market. An organization will get to know what factors influence the purchase decision of a consumer before branding the product. Accordingly, it will direct its marketing effort so that it can get potential customers to purchase the products.

Subject Issues Learnt

Brand loyalty is the consumer’s conscious or unconscious choice that is expressed intentionally or a behavioral pattern to repurchase a brand again. This happens following the perception of the consumer that the brand provides the right image, characteristics or quality based on reasonable price. Hence, consumer behavior is habitual. Beginning from product design to creation of a mature brand, good marketing strategies, which depend on a clear understanding of the memory, motivation, learning and decision processes, influence the consumer’s choice. Launching of new products, market segmentation, timing market entry and brand management are all related to the theoretical framework employed in the research.  Branding is by far and large the most important factor influencing the product’s success or failure in the market place. It can also greatly impact the company’s perception by the buying public. Brand is not only a company’s product but also a representation of the individual company and that is where the core of brand loyalty falls.

Brand loyalty is simply more than the consumer’s commitment to repurchase a product. It incorporates the high attitude towards the product demonstrated by repeated buying.  This loyalty is a business investment because of the high prices being paid by the customers.  Depending upon the nature of the product versus basic necessities or luxuries, consumers a single or brand loyalty. This brand loyalty is affected by their brand choice as well as by their store loyalty behavior. The bondage of brand loyalty is strong especially through repeated advertising and promotional schemes. The main factors that influence brand loyalty are the quality of product, habit of use and regular availability of the product. Searching for a product means mental and physical information about products, prices and shops. Consumer information is thus a marketing tool that can be used to understand the interactions between a specific target segment and marketplace so as to meet the consumers’ needs and wants.

Brand image or the good reputation of a particular service ensures that it maintains a competitive advantage over other products and services. An organization’s brand is valuable strategic asset in achieving goals and objectives. Brand loyalty can be referred to as the consumer decision; whether conscious or unconscious concerning the use of a product or service. It may also refer to the intention to buy or use a particular product for a long duration of time. Brand loyalty is achieved due to the right features, and the quality of the brand. Quality of the product must be at the right price for the consumer to perceive the brand as being loyal to their needs. Organizations can change consumer behavior concerning a particular product or service through advertising.

The reasons why people become brand loyal are because the favored brand satisfies the consumer needs and wants than the competitors do. Again, there is a reduction of perceived risk, sticking with a favorite brand improves certainty. Brand loyalty helps maintain self image in reinforcing the customer’s self concept and confidence. It is also the path to least resistance. Marketers use strategies like in-store and o-location impulse triggers, notably point-of purchase displays. Consumer inventiveness is the predisposition to buy new and different products rather than remain with the previous choices and consumption patterns.

Consumer behavior is influenced by social, cultural, Psychological and personal factors. Culture influences buying behavior depending on the country, geographical region, religion, nationality and racial groups. The societal classes such as wealth distribution, education and occupation impact the behavior of consumers towards a product. Social factors like family, reference groups, roles and statuses influence buyer behavior. Personal factors include lifestyle, economic situations, age, occupation, personality and self concept. Perception, motivation, learning, beliefs and attitudes are psychological factors affecting consumer behavior. Marketers should, therefore, look into these factors in branding particular products.

References

Brown, T. and Dacin, P., 1997. The Company And The Product: Corporate Associations And Consumer Product Responses. Journal Of Marketing, 61 (1), pp.68-84.

Dutton, G., 1997. Warming The Cold Heart Of Business, Management Review 86 (6), pp.17-20.

Hoyer, W. and Maclnnis, D., 2008. Consumer Behavior. New York: Cengage Learning.

Kahren, F., 2009. Brand Loyalty. Washington D. C: Whimsical Publications.

Katz, D.,1960. The Functional Approach To The Study Of Attitudes. New York; Public Opinion Quarterly.

Kim, H., 1996. Perceptual Mapping of Attributes and Preferences: An Empirical Examination of Hotel FandB Products in Korea. International Journal of Hospitality Management 15 (4), pp.373-391.

Lunn, J., 2011. Models Of Buyer Behavior: Consumer Decision Process Models. New York: Marketing Classics Press.

Phillips, C., 2010. Brand Loyalty. New York: Youwriteon.

Pride, W., and Ferrell, C., 2008. Marketing. New York: Cengage Learning.

Sandhusen, R., 2000. Marketing. London: Routledge.

Zeithmal, V.,  1988. Consumer Perceptions Of Price, Quality, And Value: A Means-End Model And Synthesis Of Evidence, Journal Of Marketing, July, pp2-22.

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Construction Management Dissertation Topics
Construction Management Dissertation Topics

 

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Construction Dissertation – Difficulties in Implementing Lean Construction in The UK

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