Example Dissertation Abstracts

Dissertation Abstracts

Title: Example Dissertation Abstracts – So, what is a dissertation abstract? Many academic institutions across different countries have contrasting views to what a dissertation abstract is. At study-aids.co.uk we believe that an abstract, in its purest form, is a concise summary of the entire dissertation this includes the dissertation topic, rationale and overview of the conclusions. A primary objective of an abstract is to provide the reader with a firm understanding of the content of the dissertation; this would include a concise synopsis of the dissertation aims and objectives.

It is important to note that the abstract will help a reader decide whether to read the whole dissertation or thesis in detail, or skip to the key findings. It is important to write an engaging and meaningful abstract so that you can inspire interest in your dissertation. Some students write a disjointed abstract which leads to low interest shown towards the dissertation, it is advisable that you engage the reader from the outset. Be mindful that a dissertation abstract is not an introduction its primary purpose is to summarise not introduce, many students lose sight of this.

In most cases the abstract is found at the beginning of the dissertation immediately after the dissertation title page. Dissertation or thesis abstracts tend to be separate from the main body of research and are often held in a university’s database of dissertation abstracts, there will be many dissertation abstracts contained within your university’s database. You may find that the abstract is available but not the entire dissertation project, you will have to contact the author to gain access to the research if this is the case. Nonetheless, you will get a clear understanding of the dissertation project from the contents of the abstract.

How Long Should A Dissertation Abstract Be?

As previously mentioned, dissertation abstracts differ depending on institution, location and level of study. A typical undergraduate and postgraduate dissertation abstract written at a UK university will be approximately 350 words in length. It is worthwhile noting that word count is important, 350 words will be adequate provided you write concisely and are summarizing your dissertation. Be mindful that academic electronic databases automatically truncate abstracts beyond a certain length. It is safe to say that academic databases such as ETHOS and JSTOR will omit sections of the abstract if it is deemed too long or convoluted, 350 words would suffice.

How To Write A Good Dissertation Abstract

Writing a good dissertation abstract has its perils, there is so much reference material and advice available at your disposal but in some cases this advice appears confusing and often conflicts with what you already know. We suggest you consult your university library in the first instance and have a conversation with your dissertation tutor; this will definitely set you on the correct path.

There are key points of interest you need to include in your abstract. Why did you undertake the study? What were you examining or investigating in the dissertation project. Be sure to return to your research question and ensure you have defined it concisely and succinctly. A good opening is often, “This dissertation study tested…”, “This dissertation study investigated…”, “This dissertation study examines…”. A dissertation abstract example will be included in this post. It is advisable to include what was done and how you achieved it. Be precise, don’t make broad statements. This is will differ depending on whether your dissertation is an empirical or a literature review structured research project. What did you find? Include specific outcomes and highlight conclusions on the research you will present. “The results from the survey questionnaire found that 83% of UK respondents are not aware that the European Court of Human Rights impacts the UK law system…”. “There was a significant relationship between low employee morale and high employee turnover…”

Dissertation Abstracts
Dissertation Abstracts

Example Dissertation Abstracts

This dissertation study examines what drives the children of the self-employed to enter self-employment themselves. In the aftermath of the financial crisis and from the subsequent development that many working places have been outsourced, the Danish government has elaborated an initiative to increase the rate of entrepreneurs to support economic growth in Denmark. It has been found that it is the enterprises of those new entrepreneurs, which are the primary engine in creating new jobs. However, research shows that despite the Danish welfare system, which provides safety in terms of unemployment, Danes are very reluctant in becoming entrepreneurs. One exception to this rule is the children of entrepreneurs. Their chances of entering self-employment are much higher, as investigated on basis of statistical data from IDA.

Through a constructive approach, this dissertation seeks to investigate what drives the children of the self-employed to enter self-employment themselves in their later life. This investigation is performed on three cases of second generation self-employed. The theories used in this dissertation to investigate the aforementioned are all within the constructivist paradigm. Building on Karl Weicks sense making theory, this dissertation views sense making as meaning constructed through stories. Those stories are analysed with a narrative framework, through this analytical tool the construction of motivational and supportive parameters are analysed. Furthermore, building on discourse theory of Laclau and Mouffe, this dissertation views social reality as constructed through language, in respect of articulations and discourses. Those discourses are analysed through the application of discourse analysis. With this analytical tool the articulation of the difference between the self-employed and the employee, and also the articulation of the upbringing of the second generation self-employed are analysed. Lastly, the analyses are being integrated through the sense making perspective. Finally, the dissertation concludes that the exposure to the self-employed as a role-model in childhood, plus the insight and emotional values attached to the identity of being self-employed, on one hand gives aspirations to enter self-employment, but on the other hand excludes the second generation self-employed from choosing a career as an employee.

Did you manage to find some relevant research strategies of your own in this post? What are your thoughts on writing a dissertation abstract and how would you implementing them? Feel free to let us know in the comments.

Collection of Dissertation Abstracts

Research Essay Grounded Theory

Grounded Theory

Challenges Associated with Grounded Theory

Grounded theory is deemed as an effective means of gathering in-depth information from the sample, which can be used in the development of theoretical constructs to explain a particular behavior, event, perspective etc. However the limitations associated with the sampling, validity, reliability and bias seem to raise concerns among scholars about the reliance on it as a tool of qualitative investigation.


Sampling in case of grounded theory has taken on a different approach from other research instruments associated with the quantitative domain. Suddaby (2006) stated that the earlier proponents of grounded theory have identified the sampling process consisting of identification of relevancy of data on the basis of the evolving understanding about the theoretical underpinnings. Such an approach is likely to expose a researcher to the limitations embedded in the simultaneous use of sampling and theoretical development.

Draucker, Martsolf, Ross and Rusk (2007) pointed out another limitation embedded in the use of sampling in grounded theory by asserting that the absence of a structured guide for the implementation of theoretical sampling tends to create difficulty for the researchers. The scholars even if well versed in the use of sampling for grounded theory may face issues in the implementation of the process at any stage of data collection. Therefore, indicating an important area of consideration for the scholars.

Grounded Theory Dissertation
Grounded Theory Dissertation

Another challenge in the implementation of sampling in grounded theory is that it follows an entirely different approach in comparison to the positivist philosophical foundations of research. It has also been observed that the grounded theory’s approach of using the collected data as a source of judgment for sampling negates the notion of development of hypotheses and their relative testing (Suddaby, 2006). The emerging sampling framework depicts a loosely coordinated idea of sampling, deviating from the essence of sampling techniques reflected in positivist methodology.

The use of theoretical sampling also poses the challenge of determining the sample size beforehand, as in case of quantitative modes of inquiry, or other qualitative means of data collection. Starks and Trinidad (2007) indicated that the sampling process for grounded theory continues with the inclusion of individuals as research participants, until the investigator is able to attain ‘theoretical saturation’. The ambiguity of the criterion for theoretical saturation encourages the use of great deal of subjectivity in determining the achievement of this objective. Such issues in sampling methodology may limit the scope of applicability of grounded theory.


The degree of validity associated with the data obtained through the use of grounded theory has also been challenged by the scholars (Lomborg & Kirkevold, 2003). One group of thought has emerged, arguing that the core elements used for defining the validity of a quantitative approach can’t have parallel application within the domain of qualitative research. As noted by Corbin and Strauss (1990) in order to comprehend the degree of validity of grounded theory as a qualitative tool of investigation, alterations need to be made in the framework illustrating the construct of validity.

Various researchers have offered an alternative perspective to the concept of validity, considering the application of internal and external validity incompatible with the philosophical basis of qualitative research (Sandelowski, 1993; Stenbacka, 2001; Davies & Dodd, 2002). These scholars suggest that the application of validity in quantitative research doesn’t bear the same valence in qualitative approach. The concept of qualitative validity as proposed by Sandelowski, (2003) is based on the perception of the reader about the degree of trustworthiness and credibility that can be associated with the research, thus adding a great deal of subjectivity in the decision. Such an approach carries the issue of the use of subjective opinion in evaluation of the quality of a scholarly work, leaving the possibility of erroneous perception.

A more refined approach has been presented by Rolfe (2006) who has considered the use of the criterion of credibility and transferability as an alternative approach to internal and external validity respectively. However, the use of these components also poses challenge to the qualitative research as the proponents of quantitative approach argue for the effectiveness of the factors of credibility and transferability. Credibility may provide sound arguments pertaining to the validity of the findings of grounded theory from the perspective of the people who were involved in the sample of the study, however similar perspective may not be found among others (Sandelowski, 1993).


The issue of reliability is also a key challenge the researcher has to face while deploying grounded theory as a means of inquiry, because the subjective nature of analysis makes it an intricate process. Golafshani (2003) indicated that within the sphere of qualitative investigation, researchers are more likely to focus on the criterion of dependability, illustrating the ability of the future researchers to replicate the findings. However, Parry (1998) argued that the inability of the future researchers to replicate the grounded theory in an exact manner also poses a challenge to the reliability of the findings generated during the research process. For the quantitative approaches, the degree of reliability is easier to determine as compared to the qualitative methods.

Sandelowski (1993) indicated that critics have viewed the use of means such as dependability as a potential source of threat for the level of validity of a grounded theory research. At one hand the incorporation of feedback from other researchers in the form of member or peer checking has been deemed to add to the degree of dependability or reliability of the findings, as the peers or other scholars can provide an unbiased perspective towards the accuracy of sample and its related findings. On the other hand, Sandelowski (1993) argued that such an approach should be incorporated in the methodology with caution as it can have a negative impact on the reliability of the findings and inferences.

Bias in Grounded Theory

The bias involved in the research process can also decrease the degree of trustworthiness and dependability of the inferences drawn from grounded theory. Although within the context of the application of grounded theory as a means of investigation, the researcher is required to identify the sources which can induce biased perspective in the perception of the researcher during the theory development process (Jones & Alony, 2011). However, such process of acknowledgement doesn’t guarantee that all possible biases involved in the exploration and construct development have been identified. There remains a possibility of overlooking sources of bias as trivial, which may in fact have a significant influence on the research process.

Another source of bias which can decrease the degree of reliability and validity of findings is the bias originating from the respondents, which has been identified as double hermeneutic and the Hawthorne effect (Jones & Alony, 2011). The researcher may find it difficult to identify how participants alter their responses on the basis of the knowledge they have attained during the investigation. Secondly, Hawthorne effect can also manifest itself in the form of behaviors that emerge as a means of forming a positive impression on the researcher, thus polluting the accurate version of reality.

A researcher using grounded theory needs to identify the sources of bias originating from his own ideas about an event, situation, behavior etc, which may be a daunting task, as the biased perception may prevent the researcher from acknowledging the presence of such issues. The inclination to follow preconceived ideas about the area of investigation can also result in filtering out of limited scope of information, and overlooking some important area of concern as it doesn’t seem to fit in the frame of reference adopted in the study (Parker & Roffey, 1997).

Furthermore, the researcher also needs to mitigate the ill effects of participant’s bias on the research findings, through a similar process of identification and control (Corbin & Strauss, 1990).  However, the effectiveness of the process can be challenged with the ability of the researcher to handle the identification of bias and sorting out relevant and accurate information from the participants. Considering the dual bias eminent in grounded theory, the researcher would need to be extra cautious in data collection, analysis and interpretation, as bias can seep into the investigation process during any of these stages, challenging the process of effectiveness of bias identification and handling .


Corbin, Juliet M., and Anselm Strauss. “Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria.” Qualitative sociology 13.1 (1990): 3-21.

Draucker, Claire B., et al. “Theoretical sampling and category development in grounded theory.” Qualitative health research 17.8 (2007): 1137-1148.

Golafshani, Nahid. “Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research.” The qualitative report 8.4 (2003): 597-607.

Jones, Michael, and Irit Alony. “Guiding the use of grounded theory in doctoral studies–An example from the Australian film industry.” (2011): 95.

Parker, Lee D., and Bet H. Roffey. “Methodological themes: back to the drawing board: revisiting grounded theory and the everyday accountant’s and manager’s reality.” Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 10.2 (1997): 212-247.

Suddaby, Roy. “From the editors: What grounded theory is not.” Academy of management journal 49.4 (2006): 633-642.

Sandelowski, Margarete. “Rigor or rigor mortis: The problem of rigor in qualitative research revisited.” Advances in nursing science 16.2 (1993): 1-8.

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Perfect Research

There Is No Hope In Doing Perfect Research

In her book, Educational Research for Social Justice: Getting off the fence, Morwenna Grifiths, a renowned writer and professor stated that, there is no hope in doing perfect research. In order to verify or denounce this statement, we must begin by clearly deciphering the true meaning of perfect research. The Merriam Webster Dictionary defines research as an investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws. Perfection, on the other hand denotes the state of flawlessness, totality, and accuracy. Perfect research can therefore be understood to be research that is immaculate and irreproachable. It has to be unmitigated and entirely without defect.

Research is both an investigative and confirmative evaluation of a hypothesis or hypotheses. One cannot claim to be conducting a research if they do not formulate a hypothesis to point at the specific or general question the research seeks to answer. Research may take two forms:  qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative or quantitative research can take quasi-experimental, comparative, case study, historical and developmental analysis. A researcher is therefore required to focus his/her energies in comparison, differentiation, review, appraisal, judgement, advancement and evaluation of research conducted prior by fellow researchers.

From this front, I opine that every single research that has been conducted on earth, or elsewhere, is perfect. Why? Every perfect open ended question has infinitely variable possible answers. Therefore, it can rightly and fairly be argued that, every result derived from research is perfect. This is entirely because the objective of research is to discover facts or prove laws and theories. Whether the laws or theories are proved or denounced and whatever the facts discovered are or are not, this is an expected and necessary end to any research. If the results were known certainly before the investigation or experiment is conducted it would not be research, would it?

New facts, inventions and re-invention are all possible results of any given research. Isaac Newton defined the law of universal gravitation with reference to Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. His lack of appreciation of Heliocentrism and his contrasting ideas led him to the discovery of gravity.  Given the unembellished meaning of research (to search again), research is a continuous process of improvement, dismissal or appraisal of facts, theories and laws that have been advanced prior. It is therefore deductible that no single research is adherent to the rule of authenticity presented with the definition of research. Every research problem must have a source (Exell, 12). Research is borne by the researcher’s environment, encounters, previous research findings, state of mind, background et cetera. The researcher’s creativity notwithstanding, societal, psychological and occupational factors also come into play. Therefore, no research problem is totally authentic and in the end no research is perfect.

There can be perfect research if the researcher, his/her tools, methodologies, resources, the environment and the specimen are impeccably perfect. However, due to our earthly nature, none of these factors can be said to be without defect.  One research method may be considered to be better that the other, based on either ease of use, faster or more accurate results. However, no single research method is considered perfect. In fact, it is widely accepted that research is imperfect given the two types of errors that plague the qualitative or quantitative research process and results – random and systematic.

Random errors are caused by changes in quantitative experiments that cannot be known or predicted. These changes may be methodological or instrumental. The precision of the final result of a research is how similar the results of repeated measurement of the same quantity. Random errors can be minimized but they cannot be completely eliminated. Systematic errors on the other hand arise from the natural imperfections of the instruments used by the researcher or the imperfection in the manner of use by the researcher. Consequently, the instruments produce consistent fake patterns of differences between the values that are observed by the researcher and the true values. Given that the systematic errors are consistent, they are undetectable and unavoidable no matter how many times the experiment is conducted.

Perfect Research
Perfect Research

Perfect Research

Besides random and systematic errors, the research process biases in the selection, measurement and intervention also threaten the accuracy of research (Mehra,45). In addition to that, the researcher’s personal bias in selection of say, the research topic, samples and specimen yields inaccurate results. As long as these unavoidable errors continue to occur in research, there is no hope of perfect research.

True Meaning of Perfect Research

Research that lacks constraints is flawless. Such research is also a fallacy. Any research that comes without budgets, time and other limitations is absolutely obsolete and unrealistic (Mehra, 42). Common research practices require that a researcher sets the time, environment and resources to be consumed for his/her research. Given that the world is full of limitless possibilities, there are inexhaustible amounts of data that can be gathered, processed and analyzed. Therefore, every reasonable researcher must expect to encounter constraints.  Research limitations extradite the fallacy of perfection in research.

Research can never be complete. Every researcher’s conclusion is open to discussion and testing by him/her and other researchers. Over time, theories and laws are put to the test. Some are revised while others are disregarded. Partial acceptance and partial severance of theories and laws is common too. Provided the earth continues to revolve, change is the only constant factor known to man and as such, research is open to varying results in varying times and environments. No researcher’s conclusion is final (Mehra, 15).

In conclusion, every research process that is completed and yields conclusions is a success. However, the idea of a perfect research is, in my opinion, illogical. Every research problem has a source; none is perfectly authentic. Secondly, every research is diseased by errors and biases that are not predictable and some, not known. Thirdly, no research can be said to be exhaustive. The world is limitless and so is research. Every environment is static. The parameters or variables are cannot remain unchanged. Then there is the most obvious challenge of the imperfect human nature of researchers.

Every researcher is imperfect, so are their research processes and conclusions. If research were perfect, the world would be bland. Knowledge would be doctored and limited. It is in its imperfection that research finds perpetuity and relevance. The ideal research is flawed and incomplete, imperfect so to speak. In light of the discussion above, I concur with the Griffith’s submission, there is absolutely no hope of doing perfect research.


Mehra, B. (2002) Bias in Qualitative Research: Voices from an online classroom.  The Qualitative Report, 7(1)

Please add your thoughts or theories if you feel that you can contribute towards this post. All comments are welcomed. Thank you.

MBA Project International Economic Environment

International Economic Environment

This report is an analysis of operating business in the international economic environment. Having knowledge of the international business environment is of most importance for modern managers as all major business concerns are dealing worldwide for all types of business transactions and second thing is that almost all business are or desiring to be globalized. Hence a manager must have knowledge about these factors of international business environment.

Definition of International Economic Environment

One system all over the world which only used for the trade internationally among the developed and developing countries is called International Economic environment. It is a sub-field of economics that is concerned with environmental issues. Environmental economics is distinguished from ecological economics in that it emphasizes the economy as a subsystem of the ecosystem with its focus upon preserving natural capital. On the other hand, International Economic Environment means the environment in different countries, with conditions similar to the home environment of the institutions, influencing decision-making on capabilities and resource use.

Terms of International Economic Environment

There are three terms to spread out all over the world of International Economic Environment. If any countries want to be world trader he must follow the three terms to be real international trader.

  • Competitiveness.
  • Monetary.
  • The Law of One Price

There are also other two conditions must be satisfied before international economic exchanges can become beneficial for all involved. The sustainability of ecosystems on which the global economy depends must be guaranteed. And the economic partners must be satisfied that the basis of exchange is equitable; relationships that are unequal and based on dominance of one kind or another are not a sound and durable basis for interdependence. For many developing countries, neither condition is met.

Elements of Economic Environment

The elements of International Economic Environment are more important. It has five elements. Every elements is described below,

Economic Conditions: – Economic Policies of a business unit are largely affected by the economic conditions of an economy. Any improvement in the economic conditions such as standard of living, purchasing power of public, demand and supply, distribution of income etc. largely affects the size of the market. Business cycle is another economic condition that is very important for a business unit. Business Cycle has 5 different stages viz. (i) Prosperity, (ii) Boom, (iii) Decline, (iv) Depression, (v) Recovery.

Following are mainly included in Economic Conditions of a country:-

  1. Stages of Business Cycle
  2. National Income, Per Capita Income and Distribution of Income
  3. Rate of Capital Formation
  4. Demand and Supply Trends
  5. Inflation Rate in the Economy
  6. Industrial Growth Rate, Exports Growth Rate
  7. Interest Rate prevailing in the Economy
  8. Trends in Industrial Sickness
  9. Efficiency of Public and Private Sectors
  10. Growth of Primary and Secondary Capital Markets
  11. Size of Market

Types of International Economic Environment

It has two parts:

  1. Microeconomic
  2. Macroeconomic

Microeconomic part means focuses on the recent economic environment and the effect of location on business and performance. The Macroeconomic part means focus on the broader or spreader economic environment and the world economy as all in all.

International economics system

International economics is concerned with the effects upon economic activity of international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the international institutions that affect them. It seeks to explain the patterns and consequences of transactions and interactions between the inhabitants of different countries, including trade, investment and migration Such as:

Finance system: International finance system explains and researches the spread of money over the international financial markets, and the impacts of the exchange rates.

Trade System: Which studies products, goods, and services all over the world boundaries and it makes some policy to spread up its trading system.

Monetary Macroeconomics System: this factor research capital and macro flows all over the world.

Analysis of International Economic Environment

Economic Environment means the effect of the working on the business all over the world. It studies trade system, policies, structure, and nature of an economy, level of income, distribution of income and wealth etc. The economic environment explains the economic conditions of any countries where the international organization operates. The features of economic environment are related to the all economic activities effects. The roles of international economic environment are increasing gradually day by day. Cause it has various types of system which are explained above the report. It has many organizations like World Bank, WTO, and UN etc.

We can accurately grasp the characteristics of international marketing environment, determine whether the enterprise market opportunities, can select the appropriate target market, can develop the appropriate marketing mix strategy. In other words, the correct assessment of the international marketing environment, to conduct international business success is the basis for marketing activities. Generally, the larger impact of international marketing activities is mainly economic, political, legal and cultural environment. Enterprises to enter the market of a country, we must first analyze the country’s economic environment. A country’s economy through the market size and economic characteristics of the two factors are reflected in relatively prepared.

Characteristics of the international economic environment

International economics environment is worldwide sector. It has some own characteristics which help anyone to fine out the conditions, rising and declining of economy of any countries of the world. It helps them to find out the lickings of their economic system. International economic environment play role of its system into every country. It has own Trade Centre, like WTO. Annually it presses its growth and declining reports. Some bindings are given to those countries. All business sectors services are provide to that country.

Importance of Economic environment

The most general and important consequence is that we naturally and automatically give priority to the economy (the household of man and part of the socio-economic environment) over ecology (the household of our planet, which constitutes the natural environment), when it should be obvious (were we not blinded by our familiarity with and dependency on the status quo) that for medium and long-term human survival it has to be the other way around. Day by day the importance of the economic environment is increasing.

Challenges of International economic environment

A related characteristic of market economies that is relevant to managers concerns the nature of property ownership. There are two pure types-complete privet ownership and complete public ownership.

Nowadays there are many challenges to overcome all obstacle of developing world economy. But there are four challenges go ahead as a main features. Four challenges are now main factor for us.

China Economy: In this ultra-modern world, Chine is the big fact. Socialist, Scientist, researches that next era China overcomes USA and European economy.

Politicization of global economy: Politics is the main factor nowadays. Now every country is violated by political violence all over the world. Everyone wants to become higher than another one. So these types of economy are the challenges for the modern economic environment.

Poverty, inequality and insufficiency: Almost all over the many countries are live under the poverty line. There have no proper system and capital to improve them. However, inequality and insufficiency of the products and working system they are not developed. So, it is the challenges for it.

Greenhouse effect: Greenhouse effect is now an n important discussion all over the world. Economic environment is totally effected by this. So it is the fact.

Theme of global business environment

Shift in the locus of power from North to South

The locus of global economic, political, and demographic power has been shifting from the Global North (broadly speaking, developed countries) to the Global South (developing countries). Although this shift has been taking place for decades, the new intensity with which it is occurring and the changing implications that it has for business will shape the global business environment in the coming years.

For businesses, supply chain structures are less likely to follow the “make in developing, sell in developed” paradigm. Additionally, in a globalized talent pool, educated workers are coming from new places, so companies must raise the bar or get left behind. Furthermore, the entrance of new competitors means that some threats may not even be on the radar.

New models of consumer engagement

With ubiquitous connectivity, universal access to knowledge, and an increasingly global consumer environment, companies are being forced to redefine how they engage with consumers. These trends can be double-edged swords. Connectivity in social media, online mobility, mobile payments, and augmented reality offer new ways to market products and services to consumers, but they also add complexity and competition. Access to knowledge and broader globalization can create consumer opportunities, but the former creates intense price pressures, and the latter can cause organizational complexity—both of which combine to squeeze profitability.

Many companies are already at the forefront of engaging the new consumer, while others are still lagging behind, or worse, attempting to shoehorn outmoded concepts for consumer engagement into electronic avenues. Companies can gain an immediate advantage with the following strategies:

Invest in electronic and social media-based consumer engagement. This applies not only to consumer products companies and retailers but also to businesses in other industries.

New paradigms, changing business models, and constant innovation

From research and development (R&D) and consumer engagement to product design, manufacturing, and corporate governance, the paradigms that have defined business are changing. Technology-enabled global operations transformed R&D functions during the information technology revolution; now, educational achievements in developing countries and aging populations in established markets are changing them again. Technological advances on the horizon, such as three-dimensional printing, will change established manufacturing methods just as computer-aided design and automation did 20 years ago.

Redefinition of the social contract

In both developed and developing countries, citizens are demanding more from their governments, and governments are facing challenges in meeting their needs. The events in the Middle East illustrate citizens demanding greater representation and accountability from their governments, enabled by ever-present connectivity. The forms of government that are—or were in place are proving to be unequal to the task. In the developed world, constituents are insisting on more protection from various forms of volatility, be it economic, health, or security. Governments in these countries, however, are constrained by rising debt, changing global governance models, and a talent deficit. Some countries, such as China, are struggling with both sets of problems. As governments worldwide face new demands and new constraints, a wholesale reevaluation of the social contract is taking place.

The global war for talent

Changing global demographics combined with governments’ disparate ability to invest in education have caused a shift in the composition of global talent. Talent is increasingly located in developing markets, both in numbers (younger, growing populations) and in skill sets (more university degrees, especially in science and engineering). The global recession has accelerated this trend, with many developed countries reporting a reverse brain drain—highly skilled emigrants leaving their host countries to return home, where capital is more plentiful and growth rates higher, to find work or start businesses.

At the same time, technology has made global collaboration more prevalent, and changing business models and business needs have made knowledge workers more valuable. Product cycles are becoming shorter and technological competition more intense, placing greater pressure on companies to keep pace by identifying and cultivating the best minds. The result of these new and accelerating trends is a global war for talent that will determine which companies, and governments are able to innovate and prosper and which ones will simply follow.

MBA Project International Economic Environment
MBA Project International Economic Environment


This situation presents risks and opportunities. Highly networked companies are able to take advantage of a growing pool of global talent and, by doing so, raise the bar for their competitors, including the less well-networked. This heightened level of competition means that all companies, including today’s innovators, need to be alert to changes in the competitive landscape for talent. In addition to locating and connecting with the most talented people, companies will face greater pressure to retain the most talented employees. Retention mechanisms and core human resources skills will become increasingly important to keeping high-value, high-performing workers. The policies of various geographic locations will have to be scrutinized to choose countries that offer fewer restrictions on the migration of highly skilled workers.

Risk of International Business

In every sector risk is compulsory. Then no one stay behind the sector although he knows it is not good. In the international economic environment sector also have many risk. Most of the important risk is included below. To develop in this sector you should mind it.

  • Operational Risk
  • Political Risk
  • Technological Risk
  • Economic Risk
  • Financial Risk
  • Terrorism Risk
  • Strategic Risk
  • Planning Risk
  • Social Risk

Important of Studying International Economic Environment

By studying following gaudiness, everyone will be able to know what the main factor of International Economic Environment is. Without it no one can find out which countries are poor or rich. Following are the importance and objectives of studying International Economic Environment:

  • Increasing awareness of the one country political policies and economic system
  • Learning the system of improving relation through appropriate communication
  • Identifying the other developed countries economic policy

Changing the Economic Market

The future of any institution depends on its law, rules and regulations and depending on economic, social and technological sector.  Whether it’s emerging markets like China or Brazil impacting sales and production, demographical situations changing buyer’s behavior and challenging service models, companies need to adapt to turn threats and challenges into opportunities. Under this plan, the economic impact has to be estimated by the regulator. Usually this is done using cost-benefit analysis. There is a growing realization that regulations (also known as “command and control” instruments) are not as distinct from economic instruments as is commonly asserted by proponents of environmental economics. E.g.1 regulations are enforced by fines, which operate as a form of tax if pollution rises above the threshold prescribed. E.g.2 pollution must be monitored and laws enforced, whether under a pollution tax regime or a regulatory regime. The main difference an environmental economist would argue exists between the two methods, however, is the total cost of the regulation.

Relationship to other fields

Environmental economics is related to ecological economics but there are differences. Most environmental economists have been trained as economists. They apply the tools of economics to address environmental problems, many of which are related to so-called market failures—circumstances wherein the “invisible hand” of economics is unreliable. Most ecological economists have been trained as ecologists, but have expanded the scope of their work to consider the impacts of humans and their economic activity on ecological systems and services, and vice-versa. This field takes as its premise that economics is a strict subfield of ecology. Ecological economics is sometimes described as taking a more pluralistic approach to environmental problems and focuses more explicitly on long-term environmental sustainability and issues of scale.

Environmental economics is viewed as more pragmatic in a price system; ecological economics as more idealistic in its attempts not to use money as a primary arbiter of decisions. These two groups of specialists sometimes have conflicting views which may be traced to the different philosophical underpinnings.

Another context in which externalities apply is when globalization permits one player in a market who is unconcerned with biodiversity to undercut prices of another who is – creating a race to the bottom in regulations and conservation. This in turn may cause loss of natural capital with consequent erosion, water purity problems, diseases, desertification, and other outcomes which are not efficient in an economic sense. This concern is related to the subfield of sustainable development and its political relation, the anti-globalization movement.

Environmental economics was once distinct from resource economics. Natural resource economics as a subfield began when the main concern of researchers was the optimal commercial exploitation of natural resource stocks. But resource managers and policy-makers eventually began to pay attention to the broader importance of natural resources (e.g. values of fish and trees beyond just their commercial exploitation; externalities associated with mining). It is now difficult to distinguish “environmental” and “natural resource” economics as separate fields as the two became associated with sustainability. Many of the more radical green economists split off to work on an alternate political economy.

Environmental economics was a major influence for the theories of natural capitalism and environmental finance, which could be said to be two sub-branches of environmental economics concerned with resource conservation in production, and the value of biodiversity to humans, respectively.


The International Economic Environment is now an important demand for every country to make up them as a development country in the world. The article considers culture, religions of people from various countries, traditions, customs, which from the multicultural environment of international economic activity. Every manager should have through understanding of International Economic environment, only then he can drive the organization to the path of success. All over the world, all countries differ in conditions of: Stage of economic development, economic environment etc.


Balasubramanian, Arun: Towards a Philosophy of Environmental Education Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development, Singapore.

Sankar, S.: Environmental Economics, Margham Publications, Chennai. P. 7.

Karpagam, M.: Environmental Economics, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi-20. P-5

Robert N. Stavins: “environmental economics,” The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract & article.

UNEP: Guidelines for Conducting Economic Valuation of Coastal Ecosystem Goods and Services

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Educational Inequality

Powerful Knowledge and Educational Inequality

Powerful knowledge is an important idea in the modern educational discussion, focusing on the question of how different styles of education and different courses of study serve students in different ways, preparing some for positions of importance and leadership, and miring others in a perpetuating cycle of working-class, and often poverty-level, existence. It is clear, from an observation of how the educational system is currently working in Australia, that there is a significant level of inequality in what students learn between the vocational-oriented competency-based training, or CBT, institutions and the higher-education institutions, which leads to an inequality in future opportunities for the students, and even finally to an inequality in the ability of these students, in their adult lives, to engage in the important conversations of their democratic society and even to participate in the political activities of their country as citizens. In this literature review, I examine the implications of powerful knowledge and vocationally-oriented education in Australia and propose solutions to the problem of educational inequality based on powerful knowledge. In conducting this literature review, I collected sources pertinent to the subject, first from the class readings, and then from my own searches on the topic, to ensure objectivity and to obtain information about current statistics in Australian education. Except where I was looking for historical data, sources were generally from 2000 and later


Powerful knowledge is, simply put, the knowledge that is required to be able to have power (Young & Muller, 2010). Powerful knowledge “is the knowledge needed to progress in the world but also that least likely to be discovered outside of school for those from disadvantaged backgrounds” (Whitty, 2010, p. 32) (p 32). There are different bodies of powerful knowledge in the different disciplines, and then there is a generally accepted overall powerful knowledge, which is used to demonstrate to people from widespread disciplines that an individual has the capability of thinking clearly and logically, communicating effectively, and other important qualities for effective leadership (Beck, 2013). Even before powerful knowledge became a concept as such in education, the idea of norms without with students would not be able to get a job or would not have credibility in their fields permeated education, and provided the conceptual basis by which teachers ruthlessly eradicated grammatical anomalies from their classrooms and enforced normative, middle-class speech patterns under the assumption that speaking with lower-class dialects would make students sound uncouth and uneducated (Ogbu, 1995). Powerful knowledge goes far beyond simple normative grammar usage, however, and includes a host of thought patterns which indicate rigor of intellectual thought, such as knowledge of testing methods. It is knowledge that enables individuals to think critically and systematically, learn new subjects and comprehend them, understand logical rigor and fallacies and experimental methods for proving unsubstantiated claims (Beck, 2013). But how does this lead to educational inequality…

Particular powerful knowledge is determined by each discipline (Green, 2010). Some disciplines have powerful knowledge that is highly specialized and inaccessible to individuals outside that academic discipline. This powerful knowledge is called esoteric knowledge (Beck, 2013). Esoteric knowledge is powerful knowledge that is so discipline-specific as to be inaccessible to anyone outside of that discipline. Scientific fields are this way, with a specific vocabulary and knowledge base that is not used outside the field. There is an initiation required for an esoteric knowledge field (ibid).

Knowledge of the powerful is knowledge of the ruling class; that is, the ideas they think about and consider important  (Beck, 2013). It is whatever topics make up the compelling conversations of the day: capitalism versus socialism, universal human rights, pacifism versus imperial militarism, etc.. There is a strong connection between knowledge of the powerful and powerful knowledge, a) because the powerful people are often rigorously schooled in powerful knowledge, and b) because the discussions in the knowledge of the powerful often use powerful knowledge paradigms, without understanding which it is oftentimes impossible to engage in the discussion. However they are related, they are not the same thing (ibid). The connection between knowledge of the powerful and powerful knowledge goes a long way toward explaining the phenomenon that political debates are often divided along class lines, with more educated people tending toward one side of the debate and less educated people tending toward the other (Rose, 2000).

Powerful knowledge and knowledge of the powerful are concepts that exist within the framework of critical realism. Critical realism is a framework of viewing the society as a whole, with knowledge and norms outside of the viewer and even outside of the individual member of society. Essentially, from a critical realist point of view, curriculum development must take into account the “big picture” in order to serve the total needs of society (Priestley, 2011). Critical realism is closely connected to the idea of inequality in education as related to powerful knowledge. As Michael F.D. Young said, the knowledge issue is both an epistemological issue and a social justice issue, because those kids who don’t get to university often don’t get access to what I call powerful knowledge and they are the people who need it most, because they’re going to find life really tough without it (quoted in Whitty, 2010, p. 31). Is this an argument in favor of educational inequality…

Within the discussion of how education happens in light of powerful knowledge theory, there are further concepts to be defined. The classification of knowledge refers to how students view the knowledge that is available to them. For instance, school subjects are often separated from information gained at home and from each other, so that math, science, English, and history classes often have nothing to do with each other in a student’s school experience. As Bernstein explains it, “Classification reflects the distribution of power and the principles by which boundaries are established between categories. Strong classification is underpinned by the rule that ‘things must be kept apart.’ Weak classification is underpinned by the rule that ‘things must be brought together’” (Whitty, 2010, p. 36). Thus curricula that focus on integration between subjects and curricula that aim at bringing students’ home experiences into the classroom as a basis of reference are weak classification curricula, while curricula that separate out subjects and focus only on the things that are supposed to be learned in any given lesson (without reference to students’ extracurricular experiences) are strong classification curricula. Subjects that are heaviest in powerful knowledge tend to be the most strongly classified, and subjects that depend on esoteric knowledge are almost exclusively strongly classified. That is, there is usually quite a bit of overlap between elementary social studies and students’ home lives, but there is not likely to be much overlap at all between calculus and a student’s everyday life.

Framing is the way in which the material is presented and the methods of student engagement in the literature: “Framing, on the other hand, reflects the distribution of control over communication. Strong framing is where the transmitter has explicit control over the communication; weak framing gives the inquirer more apparent control over the communication” (Whitty, 2010, p. 36). Thus classes that are strongly framed are likely to be lecture-heavy, and students will learn facts from the instructor, the textbook, and other authorities. In classes that are weakly framed, students are likely to learn in a more discovery-based model. As with classification, subjects with significant amounts of powerful knowledge tend to be more strongly framed than subjects without powerful knowledge, and subjects with esoteric knowledge are the most strongly framed. As was stated above, esoteric knowledge generally requires an initiation, which often takes the form of strongly framed education.

Classification and framing are of utmost importance in this discussion. Classification is how students see the information they are learning – is it only important in the classroom, or is there overlap into real life? Strong classification education is self-referential in the classroom; weak classification education overlaps into everyday life. Similarly with framing, subjects that are framed strongly build up information systematically in a series of lectures; subjects that are framed weakly have little prerequisite knowledge required and allow students to approach problems according to their own curiosity and interest notably in educational inequality…. Whitty (2010) says that weak classification and weak framing have been largely unsuccessful in British systems, but that strong classification and strong framing also perpetuate an educational inequality, with the result that there is a need for a third solution.

Education Dissertations Essay Powerful Knowledge and Educational Inequality

Vertical knowledge and horizontal knowledge also play an important part in the discussion of powerful knowledge. Vertical knowledge is the abstract knowledge encountered in the higher-education system; it is what we refer to as powerful knowledge. Horizontal knowledge is day-to-day knowledge, such as vocational training knowledge (Wheelahan, 2010). Some disciplines require very structured instruction and have hierarchical (vertical) knowledge. Even problem-based learning requires a thorough instruction in the basics before students can understand enough to solve the problem. Physics is one such discipline. In academic disciplines, powerful knowledge is the knowledge passed down by the instructor. Other disciplines do not have such a specific set of vocabulary and concepts that need to be imparted by the teacher. These disciplines lend themselves well to problem-based learning and often deal with horizontal knowledge. Vocational skills are often this way (Wheelahan, 2010).

Knowledge-based education and project-based education are also terms that are used to make the distinction between curricula centering on powerful knowledge and curricula centering on practical skills. The fate of project-based education has been mixed since its original introduction as a revolutionary answer to the problem of school failure and drop-out rates. In Britain, as project-based education came en vogue as a progressive movement in education, it became clear through test scores that students were not gaining the abstract conceptual framework they needed for leadership success (powerful knowledge). As this trend became apparent, wealthier parents simply paid to send their students to private schools that taught knowledge-based subjects earlier, so the working-class students were primarily subjected to the lower standards and lower grades that resulted from the project-based reforms (Whitty, 2010).

Powerful knowledge in the modern educational system

Currently, the discussion of powerful knowledge centers on a discussion of career or vocational-oriented training as the model for education versus a more liberal arts, knowledge-for-knowledge’s-sake model of education. Education is commonly considered to aim towards the purpose of enabling students to acquire a well-paying job, and this is the case in the powerful knowledge discussion as well. In modern educational theory, “There has been a movement toward … wanting subject-learning to be thought of in terms of what the learner should be ableto do as a result of that teaching” (Yates, 2011, p. 34). This shift has been notable since 1975, and has changed the face of education from one of learning about the world to one of learning how to do a job (Yates & Collins, The absence of knowledge in Australian curriculum reforms, 2010). Digital technology is a force driving skills-based learning (Young & Muller, 2010). Easy access to education, more convenience in taking classes, and other factors lead people, especially working people trying to get better jobs, to take advantage of competency-based programs that will qualify them for a promotion or a more lucrative career path. Thus we recognize competency-based training (CBT) as an important aspect of education in the context that the vast majority of students, after college, will need to be able to support themselves with a career.

The question at hand is not whether education is intended to provide students with the means of entering the workforce, but what role their education forms them to play in that workforce. There is a significant difference between the roles that higher-education, academic programs prepare students for and the roles that vocational training programs prepare them for: “The purpose of an academic curriculum is to induct students into a field of knowledge (the academic disciplines) while the purpose of a vocational curriculum is to induct students into a field ofpractice. The process of selection (the classification of knowledge) and the way knowledge is selected, sequenced, paced and evaluated (the framing of knowledge) will be different in each” (Wheelahan, 2010, p. 55).

Vocational training provides students with the knowledge they need to do a specific job. As it is performed in Australian schools, CBT does not provide broader knowledge about the subject matter, or vertically-integrated knowledge that would allow students to move upwards in their career area, or to apply their knowledge to another, related field:

CBT excludes students from access to disciplinary knowledge because it collapses the distinction between vertical and horizontal discourses, and because knowledge in curriculum is weakly classified and framed. Students are not provided with the ‘recognition’ rules they need to access different kinds of knowledge. CBT does not provide students with the capacity to recognize and navigate the distinction between theoretical and everyday knowledge and between different kinds of theoretical knowledge. The boundaries are rendered opaque. (Wheelahan, 2010, p. 56)

That is, if CBT combined its job-based training with a vertical integration of knowledge, it would be providing students with powerful knowledge and preparing them to become leaders in their field. As it is, however, vertical knowledge and abstract reasoning are not included in CBT curricula. In other words, CBT teaches students how to do things, but it does not teach them how to think. In fact, currently, abstract knowledge in VET programs is limited to knowledge that has practical application. According to the Training Package Development Handbook, while knowledge must be expressed units of competency, their elements or performance criteria should not be entirely knowledge based unless a clear and assessable workplace outcome is described. Knowledge in units of competency:

  • Should be in context;
  • Should only be included if it refers to knowledge actually applied at work. (quoted in Wheelahan, 2010, p. 57)

Limiting generalized information also limits students’ abilities to synthesize information and come up with solutions to new problems, because it teaches a series of actions to take in a given number of scenarios and no more. Thus current standards of CBT in fact disadvantage students even in the workforce for which CBT supposedly prepares them. In one striking example, a competency-based program at a university and a parallel higher-education program at the same university set assignments aimed at the same general objectives. The competency-based program has the objective, “Develop and update the legal knowledge required for business compliance” in the tourism and hospitality industries, while the higher-education program has the objective, “provide students with an understanding and awareness of the basic principles of Contract Law, a familiarity with relevant case law and an introduction to the statutory provisions pertinent to the course” (Wheelahan, 2010, p. 58). The students in the CBT program learned specifics of current legal requirements for running a hotel. The students in the higher-education program learned the principles behind those specific requirements, thus enabling them to think about a multitude of different industries, and the reasons behind the requirements, and even be able to create a proposal for future policies given changing circumstances. The specific knowledge of the CBT students prepares them for a very specific job, with very little competence for upward mobility. The generalized, powerful knowledge of the higher-education students prepares them for a wide range of jobs, up to and including making new policies on a lobbying or legislative level. Powerful knowledge prepares students for power; failing to give students powerful knowledge sets them up for not being able to have power.

This is not only a problem of CBT versus higher education; it is also a problem of class. As one study on class in Australian education showed, “middle class children destined for professional and managerial occupations are taught a curriculum that emphasizes choice, flexibility and independent learning, whereas those destined for semi- or unskilled occupations are taught rote learning, punctuality and obedience” (Gerwitz & Cribb, 2009, p. 113). In other words, lower-class children are taught the skills of serfdom while middle-class and higher children are taught the skills of rule and leadership.

Educational Inequality

Educational inequality stems from class inequality, and begins long before students arrive for their first day of school. According to Bernstein’s theory, children learn by means of codes, and these codes are present from early childhood in the home (Hoadley & Muller, 2009). In Bernstein’s theory, these codes are the different things that students learn, which make the difference between education and socialization for leadership and education for labor work. These codes create a class divide at an educational level. The four original contexts of language that socialize children and determine their leadership place in later life are the “regulative, instructional, imaginative and interpersonal” (Hoadley & Muller, 2009, p. 70). That is, children learn social codes about the rules they must follow, the instructions that are given to them, the imaginative activities in which they engage, and the interactions they have with others, including parents, teachers, and friends. The home environment determines in a large part what the student’s success will be in learning the explicit, abstract knowledge presented in school. Therefore, students from middle- and upper-class families are at an advantage, while students from lower-class families are at a disadvantage, because lower-class children often communicate more literally and have less working language for abstract thought or creative instruction (Sadovnik, 1991). `Power and control are the two ends of the instructional spectrum, and the language in which children learn to understand and convey ideas sets them up to either have power over others or to be controlled by others (Hoadley & Muller, 2009, p. 71). These codes are the “how” of pedagogy – whatever students are learning, are they learning it through authoritarian/teacher-controlled discourse or through open-ended/student-controlled discourse? (ibid). Problem-based and inquiry-based pedagogy help to address these inequality issues, as they train students to take an active role in their education, and this has been the basis of progressive movements toward such modes of education.

However, there is another element in education which stands at odds to the importance of student-initiated learning: powerful knowledge. Curiosity-based and open-ended learning work well for “mundane or everyday knowledge,” but they do not provide an effective tool for students to gain “esoteric or universal, principled knowledge” (Hoadley & Muller, 2009, p. 75). Concept-rich subjects are often best taught in a specialist-centric or expert-centric learning environment (ibid). In addition, framing is extremely important in hierarchical subjects, and this affects the extent to which students can be in control of their own discovery (p. 76).

There is a strong link between higher income/higher academic achievement and lower income/lower academic achievement (Wheelahan, 2010, p. 52). Lower academic achievement often leads to CBT programs in tertiary education, while higher academic achievement often leads to “the elite professions and the academic disciplines” (ibid). This is an issue of income inequality. Students from higher-class backgrounds are more likely to already be in a position in which they can assimilate the presence of an authoritative teacher and still remain engaged as active participants in their own learning, but students from lower-class backgrounds are more likely to resort to the codes that they learned from childhood, responding to authority with passivity and rote obedience, which limits the effective engagement they take in the subject and thus their success at learning the powerful knowledge (Wheelahan, 2010). Meanwhile the school path destined for lower-achieving students, CBT, “acts as a mechanism for social stratification because it denies students access to the abstract theoretical knowledge they need to participate in ‘society’s conversation’” (Wheelahan, 2010, p. 47).

Competency-based training “ties knowledge and skill directly to workplace performance and roles, and not to systematic structured disciplinary systems of meaning” (Wheelahan, 2010, p. 48). Esoteric knowledge allows for abstract discussion of ideas; CBT does not deal in these abstracts (p. 49). This limits students’ abilities to move within their field to other jobs which are related but not exactly what they were trained to do, or to move upwards within their field to higher levels of management, if they were not trained for such positions, as they failed to gain the abstract knowledge that would let them apply their practical knowledge to other situations. Young and Muller (2010) say that learning powerful knowledge requires the background of a middle-class household; otherwise, the student will not have the theoretical and discursive framework to be able to learn the information as powerful knowledge – that is, as abstract knowledge – or be able to make use of it.

Not only is CBT a problem for job mobility, and therefore social mobility, but it is even a problem for a democratic government. As Wheelahan (2010) compellingly argues, “democratic access to theoretical knowledge is a precondition for an effective democracy because such knowledge is the means that society uses to conduct its conversation about what it should be like and how it should change” (p. 48). This idea builds on the definition above of knowledge of the powerful: it is necessary to have training in powerful knowledge in order to engage in the knowledge of the powerful, and therefore to effectively participate in a democracy.

Rather than lifting students out of poverty and enabling them to have a better life than their parents, CBT in Australia is currently perpetuating the cycle of poverty and disenfranchisement. The numbers confirm the analysis that this is a problem as low-income students only comprised 14.6% of the higher-education student body in 2002 (Thomas & Quinn, 2007, pp. 38-39).

Students from low socio-economic backgrounds are not only underrepresented in higher education (that is, academic environments aimed at providing powerful knowledge and preparing students for leadership) and overrepresented in CBT programs, but they are becoming more so. As the numbers of lower-income students in higher-education programs continues to lower, the wealth and class divide becomes more entrenched, with the children of the leaders becoming leaders and the children of the workers immediately becoming workers (Wheelahan, 2010, p. 53).


CBT programs must begin to offer theoretical, abstract, powerful knowledge as part of the program. By adding powerful knowledge questions and abstract reasoning sections to current testing standards for CBT programs, institutions would be required to teach this knowledge. This would enable students learning a particular profession to have the knowledge and skills they need to be able to become leaders and policymakers in that field, rather than having limited upward job mobility.

Of course, there are also differences in abilities that must be taken into account. One way to address this would be to include multiple hierarchies in the CBT programs. “Multiple hierarchies of knowledge” refers to hierarchies about how we value knowledge, and especially how we assess it (Nairn, 2012, p. 26). The failure of the current system demonstrates that single and dual forms of valuation are insufficient to ensure that each student has a fair chance. However, with more systems of standards, it would be possible to customize the taught skill sets (including the “skill” of engaging abstract knowledge) to reflect a wider variety of ability levels, rather than a simple dichotomy between the future powerful and the future not powerful.

When determining higher-level skills that will be tested on in the CBT programs, standards creators should use potential vertical career movement as a standard for the information and thinking skills that need to be taught. An example was given above of standards in a CBT program for the hospitality industry and a parallel standard in a higher education program, in which the CBT standard was quite specific as to laws in the single case and sector, while the higher education standard was broad and abstract, referring to underlying principles by which students would be able to understand and even create other policies.  By considering that a CBT student in the hospitality industry may move up to the position of regulator or lobbyist in the industry, classes should be offered that hone the cognitive skills required for those positions. In my own teaching practice, even without the benefit of redefined standards, I can use the paradigm of future career movement to determine what powerful knowledge my students will need to be successful in their fields of study, and introduce them to abstract concepts in class discussions regardless of their future educational path.


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