Schizophrenia Assignment

The many aspects of mental health education among mental health consumer groups or their families; case study of Schizophrenia

The traditional format of the health care involves a clinician or a health worker being the major decision making factors on the modality of treatment, with a relatively insignificant proportion of inputs from the consumers. However, in modern settings such inputs from the targeted consumer population are highly appreciated, especially in chronic and debilitating disease management, where concerted efforts of the clinical staff, patients and their families is essential in tackling the disease. A key to such inputs and interactions is to raise the awareness of the targeted consumers or their families on the various aspects of the disease, its monetary and social costs, as well as to raise the psychological acceptance of the patients in the society. Mental health is one such area where beneficiary interactions between the patients/caretakers and the providers of health services on the many aspects of the decision making could be of maximum utility. This is because of mental health disorders are not only generally chronic in nature, but also because social interactions play equal role as much as medicine in the successful treatment of the disease.

Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating mental health disorder, with an abnormal social behaviour and failure of objective thinking. Confused state of mind, hallucinations, abject thinking and lack of motivational thinking are some of the general symptoms of the disease. There is also a higher rate of suicidal thinking among the schizophrenic patients. While both a genetic makeup as well the conditions of upbringing have been shown to influence the disease, the general understanding is that schizophrenia is a syndrome, with multiple or complex causative factors. Due to the complex and the chronic nature of the disease, prolonged or even lifelong treatment is essential. In addition, social rehabilitation as well as sympathetic public perception and counselling are extremely necessary for the successful management of the disease condition. Due to the generally poor social interactions and abject thinking, it is important that the patients and associated family members or caregivers are aptly educated on the various available modalities of therapy as well as being provided with the necessary moral support of the institutions and health workers who are involved in the treatment of the patient.

Benefits of educating the consumers of schizophrenia treatment

Close observation, sympathetic care, timely therapeutic interventions are extremely essential for schizophrenia cases and it is important that the care givers are also educated on the many aspects of successful and prolonged care. In many developing countries, the family of the patient is the primary effectors for the care of the patient due to constraints of money, lack of physician’s effective attention time and poor number of supporting staff. In such a scenario proper education of the consumers not only ease the process, but also helps in relieving the psychological distress of the patient. Proper education also helps in dealing with the caregiver’s stress and maintaining a healthy environment around the patient who needs a social support more than the medicines. If the family of a patient is properly educated, they are well informed about the illness and are more “skilled” to deal with their deceased relative. Moreover, it also helps in a smooth process of settling insurance claims, money management and availing welfare benefits from the designated agencies. At a national level, there should be a streamlined education program and a process so that each care giver knows which physician to consult, how to reach the hospital for consultation, and how to mange the initial expenditure. It is essential to consider the psycho-sociological impact of the nature of this syndrome.

Potential barriers to effective education with the selected group

Schizophrenic patients generally have poor social interactions, and some of the symptoms such as suicidal instincts, auditory hallucinations and abject thinking, make the sufferers alienated from the general population where the patients form part of.  Such alienation at work place, educational institutions or close societies could be detrimental for the patient and could in turn lead to increased social reticence and suicidal tendencies. Similarly, like other chronic mental health disorders, the family members of schizophrenic patients face unfriendly behaviour from close societies, in addition to the difficulties in managing the patients. In totality, a schizophrenic patient’s family is itself not in a healthy frame of mind and hence special concerns or skills should be employed to properly educate them. Caregivers at hospitals, mostly have to deal with a higher number of patient’s per head basis and are already under stress. Money is another potential barrier and the caregivers also point to the need of proper transport, medical insurance and food in developing countries. Most of the time in a developing country, it is a cultural problem, the family is not highly educated and if the case is the first in their family, they do not know how to proceed at the first hand. Effective communication skills to a larger group with different social background are another potential barrier in a multiethnic, multilingual society such as India and Australia. Education cannot be provided to each and every individual on a personal basis in highly populated societies where the patient load is higher. Hesitation to participate in a community based rehabilitation program is another constraint as you have to convince maximum number of the individuals to get educated and participate in such an event. ‘Self determined medical discontinuation’ is another hindrance as many patients would stop consulting the physician and discontinue taking their psychotic medication. Hence, the patients should be educated on a recurrent basis and should be informed well that even if they think they are healthy they should continue their follow up management. Schizophrenia patients also suffer from a vocational impairment due to various reasons and according to the social drift hypothesis they are driven towards are social backwardness. This has to be addressed not only by proper education from therapy point of view, but also from the point of view of vocational empowerment. Psychosis and Schizophrenia in children poses an additional barrier as it shows a worse prognosis and educating the consumer in such cases needs special skills.

Skills required by the nurses

Schizophrenia cases involved an enhanced psychological stress and many a times the situation gets complicated by the family attitude, patients’ failure to adhere to the treatment regime, tolerability issues, embarrassment and recurrence. In such a scenario the educating nurse should exhibit an exceptional degree of restraint, compose in their behaviour and control of their own stress.

Schizophrenia Assignment
Schizophrenia Assignment

Since the patient itself and its family have an educational gap with respect to the medical field, a nurse should have the ability to bridge the gap between a layman and a professional. The nurse should have exceptional communication skills, should be available during off hours, should be willing to tolerate seemingly off the subject queries and should be able to understand the needs of the consumer. Most of the needs of the consumers are related to money, medical reimbursement and insurance issues and as such the nurse should be well acquainted with the relevant subject, although not directly related to medicine. Many a time’s patients are unwilling to adhere to the schedule. The severity of the side effects of the schizophrenia treatment such as sedation, weight gain or pain etc is the major concern of the patients. The nurse should in such cases educate the patient as well as their family about the alternative methods such as long acting injectable (LAIs) instead of oral therapy, etc. Nurse should be able to identify the patient’s strength area and make use of that strength for proper counselling approach. It has been observed that the preferences of patients and their family doctors vary, say for example, patient does not like the idea of shared care records while the health practitioner advocate for it. In such case the responsibility of the educating nurse is to ensure that patient and their family members are educated in the benefits of community participation. In many cases of patients undergoing treatment with the second generation antipsychotics, we have to induce them for a regular exercise schedule. Nurses should be able to motivate the patients and hence a nurse should also have motivational skills. Proper fitness is also required as the nurse should lead by example, that regular exercise is beneficial.

Conclusion

Schizophrenia is not only a medical problem, but a socioeconomic crisis. It not only harms the patient per se, but also affects its family as well as the whole community. Consumer education that involved counselling of the patient as well as educating the family and involving the whole community is an important tool for improved outcome. It not only reduces the stress environment, but also helps in improving adherence to the treatment regime, delaying the reduction in the social attainment, delay in the loss of cognitive skills and improve the overall status. Nurses imparting the education hence have an added social responsibility in addition to their medical duty and thus should be equipped with special communication skills. Controlling the stress, inspirational and motivational behaviour and above all a positive attitude is the most important requirement.

References

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Brooke-Sumner, C., Petersen, I., Asher, L., Mall, S., Egbe, C. O., & Lund, C. (2015). Systematic review of feasibility and acceptability of psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 19.

Chen, M., Wu, G., Wang, Z., Yan, J., Zhou, J., Ding, Y., Song, L. (2014). Two-year prospective case-controlled study of a case management program for community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia. Shanghai Arch Psychiatry, 26(3), 119-128.

Geerts, P., Martinez, G., & Schreiner, A. (2013). Attitudes towards the administration of long-acting antipsychotics: a survey of physicians and nurses. BMC Psychiatry, 13, 58.

Girma, E., & Tesfaye, M. (2011). Patterns of treatment seeking behavior for mental illnesses in Southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based study. BMC Psychiatry, 11, 138.

Heresco-Levy, U., Ermilov, M., Giltsinsky, B., Lichtenstein, M., & Blander, D. (1999). Treatment-resistant schizophrenia and staff rejection. Schizophr Bull, 25(3), 457-465.

Karthik, M. S., Warikoo, N., Chakrabarti, S., Grover, S., & Kulhara, P. (2014). Attitudes towards antipsychotics among patients with schizophrenia on first- or second-generation medications. Indian J Psychol Med, 36(3), 288-293.

Kasckow, J., Appelt, C., Haas, G. L., Huegel, S., Fox, L., Gurklis, J., Daley, D. (2012). Development of a recovery manual for suicidal patients with schizophrenia: consumer feedback. Community Ment Health J, 48(5), 564-567.

Kendall, T., Hollis, C., Stafford, M., Taylor, C., & Guideline Development, Group. (2013). Recognition and management of psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ, 346, f150.

Kheirabadi, G. R., Rafizadeh, M., Omranifard, V., Yari, A., Maracy, M. R., Mehrabi, T., & Sadri, S. (2014). Effects of needs-assessment-based psycho-education of schizophrenic patients’ families on the severity of symptoms and relapse rate of patients. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res, 19(6), 558-563.

Kreyenbuhl, J., Buchanan, R. W., Dickerson, F. B., Dixon, L. B., & Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research, Team. (2010). The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): updated treatment recommendations 2009. Schizophr Bull, 36(1), 94-103.

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Omranifard, V., Yari, A., Kheirabadi, G. R., Rafizadeh, M., Maracy, M. R., & Sadri, S. (2014). Effect of needs-assessment-based psychoeducation for families of patients with schizophrenia on quality of life of patients and their families: A controlled study. J Educ Health Promot, 3, 125.

Pjescic, K. D., Nenadovic, M. M., Jasovic-Gasic, M., Trajkovic, G., Kostic, M., & Ristic-Dimitrijevic, R. (2014). Influence of psycho-social factors on the emergence of depression and suicidal risk in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Danub, 26(3), 226-230.

Vargas, G., Strassnig, M., Sabbag, S., Gould, F., Durand, D., Stone, L., Harvey, P. D. (2014). The course of vocational functioning in patients with schizophrenia: Re-examining social drift. Schizophr Res Cogn, 1(1), e41-e46.

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View Nursing Dissertations Here

Nursing Dissertation Topics

Outstanding Nursing Dissertation Topics

I have been asked to assist a handful of students regarding nursing dissertation topics. As mentioned in other posts, our website will not write a nursing dissertation for you but we will point you in the direction of existing research. Firstly, your nursing dissertation is an extensive research project on a related topic of your choice relevant to your studies. Ordinarily, your nursing dissertation will contain precise knowledge in that specific area of research. For instance, you will emphasize clear objectives of the research that you are doing and keep the research on-topic. Be mindful that you need to engage your research and your knowledge with the reader. An integral part of your research is to choose an appropriate nursing dissertation topic. It is the first step toward starting your nursing dissertation and you should not deviate away from your chosen topic. A recommended method of finding a suitable nursing dissertation topic is to examine your existing knowledge in a particular field.

If you have knowledge in patient care it may be worthwhile developing a nursing dissertation topic in this field of study. You will be familiar with key research, prominent authors and you will be comfortable in using existing literature and research in this field. You may find that you will lift a lot of pressure if you are comfortable writing about a particular field of nursing that is familiar. You will need to expand on your existing knowledge and turn this into an impactful nursing dissertation topic.

There is no doubt that your nursing dissertation topic will fall into a specific area of nursing. As a nursing student, or practitioner what is important to you in the health and nursing environment? Maybe there is something that you see in patients that you think is worth exploring in greater depth? There are many areas of nursing for you to explore, these areas may include: child care, mental health, pediatric nursing, clinical management, midwifery or future nursing trends in a particular region. The brainstorming process will help you to write a creative and attractive piece of research.

Nursing Dissertation Topics
Nursing Dissertation Topics

I had a conversation with a nursing student who currently works within the NHS in the United Kingdom and she recommends formulating a nursing dissertation topic on practices, procedures or interventions that are of a particular interest in the field of nursing. She went on further to say that researching something that you do not have a connection with can be daunting, you must have a connection with the research you are undertaking. The nursing dissertation topic must be of interest to you and engage the reader. I must add that the nursing student in question completed a BA (Hons) Nursing Studies degree with first first-class honors.

Possible Nursing Dissertation Topics

Below is a list of nursing dissertation topics that may prove useful to you. I do hope you take inspiration from these dissertation topics in an attempt to stimulate your writing process from the outset. Please be mindful that the below nursing dissertation topics have been submitted to universities and are offered as a guide for reference purposes.

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Nursing Dissertation – Prevalence of Schizophrenia in Urban Regions

Nursing Dissertation – The Expanding Role of Mental Health Nurse Prescribing

Nursing Dissertation – Predisposing Risk Factors of Breast Cancer

Nursing Dissertation – Nursing Shortages and Counter Solutions

Nursing Dissertation – Analysis into the Place of Ethnic Minorities in Nursing and Midwifery NHS Workforce

Whether you choose to write your nursing dissertation on the topics above or if you have come up with your own nursing dissertation topic, you need to ensure that you write your research on something you are interested in and knowledgeable on. As previously mentioned you can alleviate a lot of pressure when writing research on a field of nursing you are familiar with. It is worthwhile noting that writing a nursing dissertation topic is similar to writing a dissertation in another discipline as it has the same form of structure and layout. There will be an introduction, literature review, hypothesis, methodology, data analysis, results and findings and bibliography sections. However, the initial step is to select a suitable nursing dissertation topic from the outset, you will subsequently develop a research proposal on what you have established as your nursing dissertation topic.

Nursing Dissertation Help

Always keep close to your designated dissertation supervisor. You never know when you need their advice and guidance – this support is priceless. A dissertation supervisor can always put you back on track especially if you deviate away from your chosen nursing dissertation topic. Also, you will get help on your nursing dissertation structure. This is essential as you do not want to write a nursing dissertation using a bespoke structure, this will ultimately lower your overall grade.

You need to dedicate time to your nursing dissertation proposal. You will find that your dissertation proposal is a key milestone in your research project. It should be succinct and will describe the statement of intent for your nursing dissertation. Your supervisor will have a clear understanding to what you are researching and what the dissertation aims and objectives are. A synopsis of the hypotheses should be included in the dissertation proposal.

Fully utilize readily available information. You will find that you will have a plethora of nursing related research at your disposal, utilizing this research will be a key component of the literature review contained within your nursing dissertation. You need to ensure you do not plagiarize any material and reference all material in accordance with your university’s guidelines. I suggest using online libraries for current research such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), EBSCO and JSTOR. It is safe to say that your university will access to these resources and it will benefit your nursing dissertation topic as you will be referencing credible material.

I hope you enjoy reading this post and that you have added confidence in wiring your own nursing dissertation topic. I would be grateful if you could leave a comment below.