Life Cycle Costing Sustainable Construction

The Effectiveness of Life Cycle Costing in Sustainable Construction

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The UK construction industry is a fast pace and ever changing industry, with an increasing emphasise towards sustainability. As the public awareness of sustainability enhances the pressure on the construction industry to consider the concept progresses. Life cycle costing (LCC) is a technique that allows monetary evaluation of alternative investment or design options taking into consideration all of the life cycle costs associated with a building. The costs generally related to LCC are made up of capital expenditure (CapEx), operating expenditure (OpEx), which comprises of operational and maintenance (O&M) costs, general in-use costs and disposal costs. The outcome of the process assumes that a slight increase in CapEx can result in considerable savings over the life span of a building. A review of the literature, relevant to the research subject will introduce the key principles of LCC and investigate the limitations and barriers preventing further application of the process within the construction industry. The research will also explore the term ‘sustainable development’ in addition to the implementation of sustainable construction within the construction sector.

Life Cycle Costing Construction Dissertation
Life Cycle Costing Construction Dissertation

Further, the aim of the research is to identify the extent to which life cycle costing can be integrated into sustainable design to deliver sustainable construction. The data collection was conducted using a questionnaire, which was distributed among industry professionals and online social groups. The results from this were then used to draw conclusions and recommend any area of further research

Dissertation Objectives

  • To examine the extent to which LLC and sustainable design are being effectively utilised in the construction industry today
  • To investigate the methodology and limitations of LLC and identify why it is not used more broadly within the industry
  • To analyse whether life cycle costing can be used effectively for reducing the environmental impact of construction projects
  • To construct a set of recommendations and decisive conclusions to help support the use of life cycle costing as a tool for sustainability

Dissertation Contents – Life Cycle Costing

1 – Introduction
Background
Rationale
Hypothesis
Aims and objectives
Structure

2 – Sustainability in the Construction Industry
Sustainability information
Importance of sustainability in construction
Demand for green construction

3 – Legislation
Regulation and Initiatives
Zero Carbon Homes for 2016
Sustainability assessment methods

4 – Costs
Substantiating the Economy
Capital Costs
Whole Life Costs
Resale Cost and Value
Reducing Costs

5 – Research Methodology
Methods of research
Qualitative methods
Case studies
Other methods
Quantitative methods
Surveys
Other methods
Triangulation of methods

6 – Survey
Analysis of Responses
General identifying questions
Questions on legislation
The cost of sustainability
Innovative versus traditional methods of construction

7 – Conclusions and Recommendations
Limitations
Conclusions
Aim and Objectives
Recommendations for further research

References

Appendix

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Timber Construction Structural Element

The Reasons Why Timber Is Selected As a Structural Element in Construction Projects

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Timber has been used as a construction material since the beginning of recorded history. Over the past 100 years its use as a structural element in large scale commercial or industrial buildings has fallen dramatically when compared to steel or concrete. An investigation into the properties and physical characteristics of timber has shown that with careful detailing and specification it can be used in almost any situation that steel or concrete is currently used in. It has also been demonstrated that timber is the most sustainable of the main construction materials provided it is produced under the auspices of the accredited certification schemes. This has led the researcher to question why it is not specified more often in the UK construction industry. A questionnaire was sent out to determine the attitudes to practitioners from several disciplines towards the use of timber as a structural element.

Timber Construction Structural Element
Timber Construction Structural Element

The results showed that timber is used less often than steel or concrete and the results show that in theory timber is suitable for most structural elements of a building; in practice it is rarely used due to the perceived difficulty in design and on site construction of the timber elements compared to similar steel or concrete designs. It is suggested that further research be conducted to establish if the actual difficulties in design and construction match the perceptions of the designers and contractors expressed in this research. It is further suggested that detailed research into the relative costs of timber, steel and concrete would identify whether the perception that ‘timber is an expensive option’ is true. The overall aim of the research is to compare timber with steel and concrete when used as a structural element. It is anticipated that the research will demonstrate that timber can replace steel or concrete as a structural element under certain circumstances and will attempt to establish why it is not more commonly used.

Dissertation Objectives

  1. Evaluate the physical characteristics of timber, focusing particularly on its use as a main structural element, comparing the properties to similar steel and concrete elements
  2. Identify whether the perception that timber is rarely used in commercial or industrial buildings is correct
  3. After establishing whether objective 2) is true, identify a trend which indicates why timber use is rare or, if 2) is false, the reason why there is the perception
  4. Establish whether the results of the research would have an influence on the choice of materials in the future

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Innovation Management UK Construction

How Innovative is the UK Construction Industry?

Title: Innovation Management in the UK Construction Industry. The contemporary built environment increasingly calls for the incorporation of innovation in the agenda of Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) organisations. Being widely recognized for its vital contribution to achieve a competitive advantage, innovation is perceived as the backbone to secure survival in the dynamic construction market. However, a contradiction is created when the necessity for the construction industry to innovate meets the distinctive elements of the industry’s own nature characterized by a temporary, adversarial and fragmented culture.

Innovation Management

This is the point where the need to face innovation with a conscious and well-integrated approach is revealed. Therefore, the present work aims to discuss how AEC organisations adopt innovation management at the organisational level, where organisational variables and management interventions affect its integration in the business, and to further provide suggestions for its wider promotion in the construction industry. The research carries out an extensive literature review and a series of interviews for the elicitation of empirical data, involving professionals closely related to construction innovation.

Innovation Management UK Construction Industry
Innovation Management UK Construction Industry

The findings revolve around the examination of the construction-tailored concept and context of innovation and proceed to the investigation of the organizational dimension represented by strategies and techniques, as they are suggested by the literature and actually embraced by the interviewed construction firms. The synthesis of the innovation management interventions enable their suggestion to AEC companies, provided that they are critically assessed to their individual needs and capabilities. Consequently, this study can be a useful instrument for organisations that wish to contribute to promoting innovation in the construction industry.

Dissertation Aim and Objectives

The aim of this research is to discuss how AEC organisations adopt innovation management in the contemporary built environment and provide recommendation in order to promote and integrate innovation in the construction industry. In order to achieve the stated aim the following objectives are set:

  • Examine the current state of innovation in UK construction
  • Explore the role of innovation management and the organisational dimension of innovation in construction industry
  • Investigate the approaches of AEC organisations to strategically and tactically promote innovation
  • Identify effective strategies and techniques and provide suggestions for the adoption of innovation management by AEC firms

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Rationale
Research Aim and Objectives
Research Methodology
Structure of the Dissertation

2 – The Concept and the Context of Innovation in Construction
Defining innovation
Innovation in construction
Influencing factors on construction innovation
The role of the client and manufacturers
The structure of production
Industry relationships
Regulations/Standards
Organisational resources
Innovation performance of the construction industry

3 – Innovation Management at Organisational Level in a Construction Firm
Innovation management in construction
Organisational variables and management interventions
The role of leadership
The organisational environment
The business environment
Management approaches

4 – Research Methodology
Research Approaches
Quantitative Research Method
Qualitative Research Method
Research method selection
Methods of data collection
Literature Review
Interview
Synthesis exercise

5 – Data Analysis and Discussion
Classification of results
Background of the sample
Definition of innovation
Perception of in-house innovation
Barriers to innovation
Strategic approach to innovation
Tactical approach to innovation
Role of the construction sector
Synthesis of the findings

6 – Conclusions, Recommendations and Further Research
Aim and objectives restated
Recommendations
Limitations
Further Research
Summary

References

Appendix
Interview Transcripts

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Dissertation Social Media Deployment UK Construction Industry

The Impact and Effectiveness of Social Media Deployment within the UK Construction Industry

Over the past decade, social media has been at the forefront of how many individuals and organisations use the internet. This user-driven technology has provided a platform for users to publish their own content and share information through a variety of different interfaces. Often seen as industry that does not embrace change, the construction industry must ensure it understands the opportunities social media brings advertising, promotion, collaboration and communication are some of the themes considered.

Many within the industry have already adopted social media into their businesses, but there are some who have no interest. Four interviews were carried out with a variety of differing industry professionals; the findings were investigated to establish how social media was being used throughout the industry and how companies were looking to use it in the future.

The main findings showed a varying degree of social media adoption and differing views on the opportunities it presents for the industry in the future. It has been concluded that while it appears that social media has been adopted by the construction industry, it has only been bit part as most companies using the medium seem to only consider it a tool for promotion and few understand or implement it as a collaborative mechanism.

Dissertation Objectives

  • Assess the current use of social media within the construction industry
  • Compare the construction industries use of social media platforms to that of other industries
  • Investigate the reasoning construction companies choose to use or not to use social media
  • Critically appraise the effect of using social media and discover if there is a significant difference for those who have not invested in this medium
  • Consider the opportunities social media provides for a business and understand how it could affect the construction industry in the future
Social Media Construction Industry

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
An introduction to social media in construction
Research rationale
Aim and objectives
Methodology
Secondary data collection
Qualitative research
Dissertation structure

2 – Literature Review
What is social media?
Types social media and the main platforms
Types of social media
Social media platforms
Uses of social media in business
Social media in construction
Social media in other industries
Social media as a collaboration tool

3 – Research Methodology
Quantitative
Qualitative
Chosen approach
Questionnaire design

4 – Data collection and Analysis
Data analysis respondents
Data analysis results
Introduction and general use of social media
How social media influences the perception of the construction industry
Organisations use of social media
The future of social media in construction

5 – Discussion
Social media in the construction industry
Implementing social media into a business
The future of social media in construction

6 – Conclusion, Limitations and Recommendations
General Conclusions
Satisfying the objectives
Analysis of objectives
Limitations
Recommendations

References

Appendix
Interview transcripts

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Dissertation BREXIT UK Construction Labour Market

Future Impact and Implication of BREXIT on the UK Construction Labour Market

Title: Future Impact and Implication of BREXIT on the UK Construction Labour Market. The construction Industry remains one of the most influential industries within the British economy. As the CBI (Confederation of British Industry) reported, for each £1 spent on construction output, a total of £2.84 in total economic activity is generated. With ambitious government plans and scheduled deadlines around the corner, it is essential for the construction industry to retain an access to the required resources.

The skills shortage remains an issue within an industry where a remedy has not been found to overcome the labour shortfall problem. The foreign workforce has been successfully used in recent years to fill the gap within the construction labour market, but the gap between the retiring workforce and the number of new entrants into the construction market remains significant. The 2016 EU Referendum resulted in a decision to leave European Union.

UK Construction Dissertation BREXIT
UK Construction Dissertation BREXIT

Although exact strategies of dealing with this decision are unknown yet uncertainty started affecting the construction industry immediately after the referendum result. At first, many foreign workers consider transferring their skills to other countries where access to the single market remains unaffected. This dissertation aims to analyse the effect of Brexit on the construction labour market and assess foreign workforce movement within the United Kingdom.

The aim of this dissertation is to analyse the current and potential future trends of foreign worker movement within the UK construction sector.

Dissertation Objectives

  • Provide a clear and precise analysis of the construction industry labour market in UK focussing on the foreign workers coming from EUA8 countries.
  • To evaluate the current tendencies within the market and make reliable assumptions towards the possible changes in trends resulting from Referendum decision.

1 – Introduction
Background
Aims and Objectives
Research Questions
Research Structure

2 – Literature Review
UK Construction – Labour Market
Foreign Workers in Construction Industry
Skills shortage and solutions
BREXIT
Effect of BREXIT on Construction Industry
BREXIT Strategies

3 – Research Methodology
Research Strategy
Quantitative Research
Qualitative Research
Primary Research
The Survey Approach
The Case Study Approach
Secondary Research
Research Ethical Practice
Limitations

4 – Data Analysis
Interviews
Interview Results
Questionnaire
Questionnaire Results
Office for National Statistics

5 – Conclusion
Research Purpose
Research Objectives
Research Limitations
Recommendations for further research

References

Appendix
Questionnaire

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