Women in Politics Empowerment

The Role of Women in Politics

The Role of Women in Politics – Over the years, there has been a growing recognition of women’s untapped capacity in leadership. Women are more involved in political decision-making and implementation of laws across the globe. The rate of representation of women in parliaments has grown tremendously over the past decade. There is a growing understanding of why women’s participation in politics is significant in developing and sustaining nations as their contribution towards a better society is well documented. Women’s participation in politics has contributed a great deal towards economic growth, gender equality, advancing social rights and in enhancing health, reduce mortality and fertility rates.

Women have been advocates towards economic growth. In the past, women were considered to be insignificant in the society, and they were uneducated. Women, therefore, had low economic status, relative poverty and limited business network which their hindered economic growth. Now that more women are educated and actively involved in leadership, they can attain access to economic resources and relative financial stability (Kabeer & Natali, 2013). This has significantly increased financial security across nations since women’s skills are effectively used in utilizing economic resources. Therefore, women’s involvement in politics has contributed substantially to economic growth worldwide.

Women’s meaningful involvement in politics has boosted gender equality. Not long ago, women were only viewed as property to men and hence were not accorded equal chance in various fields such as education and leadership. They also could not own property in some societies. Downs, Reif, Hokororo and Fitzgerald (2014) note that over the years, women leaders have formed women groups and movements that have given women a voice in the struggle to have equal rights as men. These efforts have proved successful in ensuring gender equality across the world. Women now participate equally as men in the making and implementation of policies and also their rights to education and own property among others. This has enhanced women empowerment which has led to gender equality.

Women lawmakers are family-friendly in their platforms hence they tend to advance social studies. This is majorly due to the role women play as mothers and caregivers to their communities. Kabeer and Natali (2013) posit that, women leaders use their positions to help minority and often forgotten groups such as disabled people who are unrecognized by society. Women can, therefore, improve the social relations in the society since they take into consideration community concerns and are more responsive to people’s needs. These qualities of women in power encourage confidence from the people hence social relations are enhanced.

Women in Politics
Women in Politics

Women in politics are a tool for improved health and reduced mortality and fertility rates. This relationship is obvious since nutrition and child health fall within the remit of the woman’s household decisions. More women are educated on family planning hence they can give birth to a manageable number of children whose needs they can cater for sufficiently (Downs et al., 2014). Ultimately, strong, educated and empowered women bring up children who are equally healthy, educated and empowered. These children grow to be responsible people in the society.

Overall, when women are entrusted to lead, countries often experience higher standards of living with significant developments in economic growth, gender equality, social relations and improved health which in turn reduces mortality rates. Women are just as capable of running countries as men, so they should not shy away from this enormous task. Allowing women to take up positions in politics will also help break traditional customs that hindered developments across nations. We as a society should be ready to entrust women to power since they are agents of change in the society.

References

Downs, J. A., Reif, M. L. K., Hokororo, A., & Fitzgerald, D. W. (2014). Increasing women in politics and leadership in global health. Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges89(8), 1103.

Kabeer, N., & Natali, L. (2013). Gender Equality and Economic Growth: Is there a Win‐Win?. IDS Working Papers2013(417), 1-58.

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Domestic Violence Rules Regulations

Domestic Violence – Fundamental concerns arising from domestic abuse is a major issue that is affecting most parts of the world. The reported cases and trends of abuse in relationships and within families are increasing despite the improvement in rules and regulations about domestic abuse . Despite the UK government enacting numerous regulations and rules, they have had minimal impact in reducing the rising rates of violence. The dissertation focused on rates and trends of domestic violence in the UK despite the changes in regulations and how the government can improve its operations to mitigate the high rates.

Furthermore, the dissertation found out the need for improvement in measures that the non-government organizations and the government have set in place to protect the victims of violence and reduce the cases of domestic abuse. The dissertation suggested that there is need to broaden the scope of awareness through educational programs. The government should adopt other measures that will aim at preventing the occurrence of such vices and safeguard the lives of victims. The main purpose of this dissertation was to develop an understanding of the various prominent cases of domestic abuse that exist in the UK over the past three decades.

The dissertation focused on the various case scenarios that are prominent with both men and women as victims of domestic violence. Thus, the dissertation highlighted multiple contexts of violence to show how men and women are victims especially women who are abused by their partners. The dissertation also found out the reason why women are the most affected in domestic violence, and most of them do to report such cases. The study made a comparative analysis of the various domestic abuse cases and state laws to safeguard the victims between the UK and the US. The comparison helped in understanding the steps taken by the UK government to stop and reduce the cases of domestic violence in the country.

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Domestic Violence Dissertation
Domestic Violence Dissertation

The comparison was based on the United Nations standards, and this helped in giving a limelight on the legal structure of the UK and its initiative to reduce such cases. Many studies have focused on a comparison between the rates of domestic violence in other countries but have failed to compare the state laws in various countries and how they have reduced the rates of domestic abuse.

The main aim of the dissertation study was to focus on the rates and trends of violence in the UK for the past three decades despite an increase in the government efforts to enact more rules and regulations. The objectives of this study included:

  • To evaluate the impact of improved laws and regulations on the reduced cases of domestic violence in the UK for the past three decades
  • To analyse the most prominent and serious domestic abuse cases in the UK for the past three decades
  • To establish the differences in the way US has dealt with domestic violence cases better than UK government

Domestic Violence Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Contextual Background
Research Problem
Aims and Objectives of Research
Research Questions
Dissertation Rationale
Significance of the Study
Structure of the Study

2 – Literature Review
Definition of Domestic Violence
Domestic Violence Theories
Critical Feminist Theory
Social Learning Theory
The Experiences of Men and Women as Victims of Domestic Abuse
Violence Against Women as the Minority Ethnic Group
Patterns of Recent Domestic Violence in the UK
Improvement in Federal Laws on Domestic Violence
Comparative Analysis of Domestic Violence in US and UK

3 – Methodology and Research Design
Research Paradigm
Research Approach
Investigation Type
Research Design
Research Strategy
Data Collection and Analysis
Research Limitations
Ethical Considerations

4 – Findings and Discussions
Rates and Trends of Domestic Violence in the UK
Explanation of Trends of Violence using Feminist Theory Explanation of trends and rates of violence using social learning theory
Changes and Improvements in the UK Laws
Effectiveness of the improved changes in the UK law
How changes could be done differently and adopting perspectives from US

5 – Conclusions and Recommendations
Conclusion
Recommendations
Future Implications

Bibliography

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Youth Crime Juvenile Delinquency

Youth Crime Juvenile Delinquency

Theories Explaining Youth Crime

Youth crime equally known as juvenile delinquency is the participation in criminal activities by minors who have not attained the age of majority. Consequently, such behavior remains informed by various factors some of which can be alluded to as the cause of criminal actions (Goldson & Muncie, 2015). Common youth crimes include, for instance, underage drinking and smoking which are primary status offenses, violent crimes for instance robbery with violence and property crimes like burglary or theft. Despite the propensity of such crimes, little is known as to why young people turn to criminal tendencies. Subsequently, numerous theories have been postulated to explain the causes and core reasons as to why young people engage in youth crime. Thus, this essay endeavors to draw contrast and comparison between two such academic theories explaining youth crime; differential and labeling theories of youth crime.

The differential theory of crime notes that the criminal activities among the youth are acquired through social contact. Therefore, criminal mind and behavior are acquired through contact with a society which in turn represents the people (McShane, 2013). Developed by Edwin Sutherland in an attempt to explain the reason as to why youths engage in criminal actions, the emphasis of the theory is that criminal behavior among minors is a learned behavior. Consequently, a person learns to engage in criminal activity by devoting most their time in the company of individuals who have committed crimes, and such individuals believe that the commission of such crimes is acceptable. The young person in such learning environment, therefore, indulges his attitude, motive and drive for such a crime through careful understanding of the crime from an offender.

Labeling theory, on the other hand, notes that youth crime is a social construction, primarily by the ruling class. Postulated by Howard Becker in 1963, the theory is anchored on the tenets that the individuals in charge of the control of the society label young men from powerless class as deviant. Such labeling is however premised on stereotypical assumptions, and the effect is that young people of these social classes consider themselves criminals based on self-fulfilling prophecies (Kroska, Lee & Carr, 2017). Where the young person considers themselves a deviant as postulated by the ruling part of the society, they end up in criminal careers. Consequently, comparison drawn therefore between differential theory and labeling theory is that crime is socially construed and not innate. The different process that minors go through help in developing the criminal behavior, either from learning or from being labeled deviant.

Youth Crime and Sociology

According to differential theory, the learned behavior among the minors who commit a crime is not inherited, and neither is it invented. However, the criminal nature remains informed by the social norms and values that they draw from whom they substantially are in contact with socially (Akers, 2013). As such, no minor is born with the techniques and skills relevant enough to commit a crime.  Labeling theory equally draws on the same line by outlining that the deviant behavior is not inborn but instead created by the act of labeling. As such, every minor is born free of criminal behavior, and deviant behaviors remain non-invented. Eventually, this comparison indicates that the criminal activities amongst the youth are predicated on interactions with society and not personality as at birth.

Subsequently, another comparison between differential theory and labeling theory is the legal connotation that represents their foundation. According to Becker, the construction of the rules informs the creation of deviant behaviors within young men (Sjöström, 2017). However, it is the reaction of the people towards a deviant behavior that sufficiently leads to the final formation of criminal behavior due to social dissent that hampers the self-concept of the young person. Similarly, differential theory notes that law defines crime despite being caused by social interaction with intimate and non-intimate interactions. Therefore, the legal consensus in determining the ground basis of crime remains similar in both theories.

Eassey & Krohn (2017) notes that witnessing of criminal behavior does not inform the development of criminal behavior in young people. However, such actions are acquired through communication as the primary interaction process. Consequently, where a young person communicates with another person who has committed deviant action or is in the process of such commission, then such is likely to result in the formation of criminal behavior. However, the most robust interaction that leads to criminal behavior is the intimate relations between family members.

Third parties and media on the other are less influential in developing such behavior. The same contrasted against labeling theory indicates that criminal behavior is instead a construction of the rules by the those controlling the society (Akers, 2013). According to Howard Becker, for instance, a fight in a low-income community is a measure of deviant behavior or delinquency. However, in a high-income neighboured, the authorities fail to classify the same as delinquency. As such, crime is developed not from the actions of youth but the reactions of others towards the initial action.

In the differential theory of crime, the learning of the criminal behavior must include the acquisition of techniques and skills in performing the criminal activity. Additionally, the minor must also develop the motive and attitude necessary for the crime from the social interaction. (Gray, Durkin, Call, Evans & Melton, 2015). For example, where a young person interacts with a person who has been involved in murder through verbal communication, they are likely to learn the technique and motive employed by such person.

However, the choice to engage in similar youth crime remains predicated on the social norms and values that such a young person appreciates. The norms are equally learned through verbal communication and different actions. In labeling theory, however, not every deviance is labeled criminal except for negative labels. The formulation of the rules of the society determines whether deviant actions are outlawed or not and represent the primary source of criminal behavior.

Labeling theory provides for two types of deviance; primary and secondary. Primary deviance is emotive reactions to the behavior in question while secondary deviance denotes extreme case of social dissent as a reaction towards the behavior. The difference between the two is that in primary deviance the self-concept is minimally affected while in secondary deviance, the young faces ostracization from the social settings. The resultant effect of secondary deviant is that the young person, therefore, seeks such social recognition from groups that condone such behavior (Cullen & Jonson, 2014).

An example is drawn from acts of criminal prosecution. Criminal prosecution usually causes stigmatization due to the negative label according to its association. The effect of such labeling is in the action of equating the past of an individual to current deviant to the point of creating a belief that the person is a criminal. Therefore, the stigma that young people face represents one means which informs their involvement in the crime. In contrast, no stigmatization in differential theory causes criminal behavior. Such is occasional on substantial social interactions that are informed by criminal behavior.

Another critical contrast between differential theory and labeling theory is the consequence of the primary action. The primary action in differential theory is social interaction while for labeling theory is negative labeling (Akers, 2013). The consequence of social interactions does not necessarily lead to criminal behavior as the youth still has to weigh such an option based on social norms and values learned. Despite the acquisition of knowledge, technique, and skill for the commission of the crime, the same is restrained by social controls. However, negative labeling primarily leads to the development of criminal behavior, especially in secondary deviance. Tentatively, due to societal segregation, the push for the search of an accommodating group causes the young person to only associate with persons tolerant of such deviant behavior.

Further, the aim of labeling theory is concentration on the reaction towards a deviant behavior committed by a young person. As such, there is unintended bias by academicians in the formulation of deviance as a source of criminal behavior among the youth. The concentration of differential theory, however, is twofold (Goldson & Muncie, 2015). First, the criminal behavior must be informed by social interactions of intimate relations although this must not always be the case. Secondly, criminal behavior only stems where the influence of communication is supported by lack of social norms and values for the offending young man. As such, there must be either a positive or negative social inclination for a crime to either result after the acquisition of knowledge, skills, motive, and technique to commit the crime in question.

Youth Crime
Youth Crime

Tentatively, the differential theory provides that where the person in the association is the primary actor in the commission of a crime and believes that such a crime is acceptable, then the criminal behavior is likely to result (Cullen & Jonson, 2014). Nevertheless, for such criminal behavior to arise, then the benefits of the commission of such a crime should outweigh retraction from such conduct. The variation of interactions and learning occasionally differ although the propensity to developing criminal behavior is based on consistency towards exposure. The same does not apply in labeling theory where the propensity of labeling affects the individual only where it is negative to the point of inflicting fulfillment of self-prophecy. Additionally, deviance only creates criminal behavior where it is secondary, and there is social dissent towards the action of the individual. Conclusively, criminal behavior according to labeling theory is not learned but placed upon a youth due to societal reactions.

The differential theory further contends that the learning of criminal behavior is similar to all other learning mechanisms employed in different spheres. However, the downside of such an argument is the motive for the uptake of such process (Muncie, 2014). Thus, according to the theory, all other learning mechanisms must be motivated for individuals to engage in such learning process. Consequently, criminal behavior needs motive before the young person gets into the process despite contentions that it is spontaneous. However, such notions are dismissed with the consideration that learning is innate despite the motive. In contrast to labeling theory, no learning is required while at the same time, the categorization is deliberate rather than spontaneous and lack of motivation

Crime actions represent the expression of specific needs that an individual either desires or desperately need. However, not all crimes are based on needs and want, and at the same time individuals can aspire and achieve needs without resorting to criminal behavior. Such notion represents a primary tenet of the differential theory (Kroska, Lee & Carr, 2017). For instance, in a scenario where two young people desire money and gold and one resort to crime to satisfy such need while the other opts for legitimate means. Thus, the mere need for gold does not inform the reason as to why the other engaged in crime and the other didn’t. The answer in the scenario above is predicated on social norms and values that the two different young people hold and exposure to criminal activity. Consequently, crime results due to the pre-exposure to criminal behavior and subsequent ignorance of the societal norms and values.

On the other hand, Labeling requires negative secondary deviance and social dissent towards the behavior for development of criminal behavior. An illustration stems where authorities treat similar behaviors in different social settings differently. Where for instance a particular kind of deviance is tolerated when unknown to the public although the society takes part in it secretly, such deviance when uncovered results in the development of criminal behavior (Akers, 2013). Such kind of deviance, for example, is taking of illegal drug substances. Although it is usually secretly undertaken, occasional public recognition of such deviance results in being branded criminal and subjection to public shame. It is such reactions that result in the development of criminal behavior in young people. The same becomes extreme where social dissent forces the particular young man to resort to groups that accept the kind of deviance that represent their common relationship.

Lastly, a contrast can also be drawn from the impact of the primary factor in the commission of the crime. The differential theory contends that the impact of learning from known criminals who have accepted criminal behavior may or may not result in the commission of a crime (Goldson & Muncie, 2015). Labeling theory on the other hand points that the deviance if secondary and negative and therefore results in social dissent, then criminal behavior automatically arises due to identity problems. Thus, the probability of development of criminal behavior between the two theories varies among the young people.

In conclusion, it remains apparent that the two academic theories endeavor to create rationale and motive for the rampant statistics involving youth crime. The differential theory alludes the criminal activity within the youth population to the social interactions that they undergo. Such social interactions are either from intimate relations that is family members and relatives or from non-intimate relations including strangers.

Where the young person is exposed to interactions through communication from persons with criminal experience and such persons accepted the crime, then the young person is likely to develop criminal behavior. Nevertheless, for such behavior to ensue, then the young person’s adherence to norms and values within the society remains compromised. In labeling theory, criminal behavior arises among young people where deviant behavior is associated with social dissent, and such reactions create the segregation of the young person from the social recognition they require. Resort to groups that appreciate such deviant behavior automatically results in the development of criminal behavior. Conclusively, both theories provide that criminal behavior among the youth be socially construed and not innate or inherited.

References

Akers, R. L. (2013). Criminology theories: Introduction and evaluation of youth crime. Routledge.

Cullen, F. T., & Jonson, C. L. (2014). Labeling theory and correctional rehabilitation: Beyond unanticipated consequences. Labeling theory: Empirical tests, 63-88.

Eassey, J. M., & Krohn, M. D. (2017). Differential Association, Differential Social Organization, and White‐Collar Crime: Sutherland Defines the Field. The Handbook of the History and Philosophy of Criminology, 156.

Goldson, B., & Muncie, J. (Eds.). (2015). Youth crime and justice. Sage.

Gray, A. C., Durkin, K. F., Call, J. T., Evans, H. J., & Melton, W. (2015). Differential association and marijuana use in a juvenile drug court sample. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice11(1), 2015.

Kroska, A., Lee, J. D., & Carr, N. T. (2017). Juvenile Delinquency, Criminal Sentiments, and Self-Sentiments: Exploring a Modified Labeling Theory Proposition. In Advances in Group Processes (pp. 21-47). Emerald Publishing Limited.

McShane, M. (Ed.). (2013). An Introduction to Criminology Theory. Routledge.

Muncie, J. (2014). Youth Crime. Sage.

Sjöström, S. (2017). Labeling theory. Routledge International Handbook of Critical Mental Health.

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Social Isolation Independence Learning

Comparing and contrasting Social Isolation, Social Independence and Social Interdependence in terms of potential influences on learning outcomes for individuals and groups

International students experience social isolation for a diversity of reasons like discrimination, or commonly being in circumstances where they feel as their thoughts and judgments are not assessed. Social isolation may possibly lead to incredibly serious mental as well as physical health threats (Mark & Campbell, 2011).  In campuses, social isolation emotion has been scrutinized in numerous studies and is determined to happen on the recital of individuals at dissimilar level. Additionally, the emotion of social isolation in universities begins at the insensible level and subsequently marked different ways among students. Both social isolation and social independence are linked with improved mortality, although it is unsure whether their upshots are independent or whether isolation represents the expressive course through which social isolation prejudice health.

It’s no furtive that international students who are socially isolated to be susceptible to be at superior threat of health issues, from temper disorders as depression toward stress-related chronic circumstances such as heart disease (Baker, & Clark, 2010). During tutoring, social interdependence ought to be ordered in the midst of international students’ learning objectives. International students may possibly engage in a course of endorsing each other’s accomplishment while, all at once, be internalizing principles associated to civic liability and contributing toward the common good.

Even if social isolation is most ordinary within the elderly, international students may also be influenced by both social independence and social interdependence. Abridged social contact, being alone, isolation and independence are connected with condensed quality of existence. Interdependence refers to how group of people assess their level as well as superiority of social contact.

Social isolation may possibly be more precisely measured than social independence through the number of communal contacts that international students have. Social interdependence might be distinguished from social dependence, self-determination, and helplessness (Agarwal & Nagar, 2011).  Social dependence exists as soon as the goal attainment of student A is exaggerated by student B’s actions, although the reverse is not accurate.  Conversely, Social independence subsists once the goal accomplishment of student A is unaltered by student B’s actions.  Social helplessness exists once neither the individual nor others may possibly influence goal accomplishment. Interests might not be absolutely linked with social isolation and a huge deal relies on the personality of the independence made (Coleman, 2011).

The teaching tactic of outcomes-based health education is mostly anchored in both social isolation and social independence. For this reason it might be very hard for social isolation to detriment from Outcomes-based health education as of their incapability to form associations or work mutually with others within groups. Within the light of this impediment, the aspire of the explore was to resolve the association linking social isolation and intellectual accomplishment at major health level as well as to determine which aspects relate toward social isolation ordinarily (Coleman, 2011). The variance within academic accomplishment may possibly be explained through social isolation making it a vital changeable once academic accomplishment is envisaged at major health level.

Communally isolated individuals are extra expected to experience unhelpful health outcomes like failing to seek out treatment for state of affairs before they turn out to be life-threatening (Gillies, Ashman & Terwel, 2008). Additionally, international student with energetic social networks are extra expected to come across friends, or associates who persuade them to visit the doctor so as to acquire a determined cough checked out, while an isolated individual might allow the cough to advancement until they practice serious complexity breathing. Isolated individuals are expected to hunt for or get behavior for drug compulsion problems that they may be not capable to be familiar with on their own. Grown-up adults are particularly prone toward social isolation as their relatives and friends die.

Despite the fact that loneliness is frequently fleeting, accurate social isolation and social interdependence habitually lasts for years and seems to be a chronic stipulation which affects all features of a person’s life and can have severe outcomes for health and safety. Socially isolated students have no solitary to twist to in individual crisis, no one to divulge in for the duration of a predicament, and no one alongside whom to assess their individual behavior aligned with or from whom to discover etiquette or socially satisfactory behavior (West, Tjosvold, & Smith, 2005). Both social isolation and Social interdependence may possibly be problematical at any age even though it has dissimilar effects for dissimilar age cohorts (social isolation for young people might have dissimilar outcomes than social interdependence for mature people, even if both age cohorts might experience it).

Social independence and social Interdependence may help international students acquire or build up a worldwide intellectual ethos: local or local issues are referred to broader formation, courses and events throughout comparative, major and minor advances and methods. Individuals exercise critical consciousness coping with social issues, appealing explicit debates, and learn to distinguish the scalar insinuations of facts claims (Thanh, 2014). Additionally, international students are capable to plan, execute and review a high quality innovative academic or practical research in a comprehensive, meticulous and reliable manner, of superiority to value periodical in peer-reviewed article. Individuals display comprehensive understanding and serious assessment of the dynamics of authority relationships in preferred locations, in a background of strengthened urbanization and worldwide interconnectedness.

Social independence enable variables linked to social connections within individual, number and occurrence of connections, variety of network ties, and variety of network ties to be assed. A number of inquiries facilitate international students to recognize their discernment of their individual academic success, and identify their associations with other members they recognized as “knowing” in their course (DeZure, 2000). Both social independence and social Interdependence may also help international students learn to link through theory and/or carry out their academic movement to health issues with extraordinary spotlight on ethical issues as well as critical commitment.

Social Isolation Independence

Social interdependence characteristically results within opposition relations that occur as individuals deject and barricade other individuals’ efforts to accomplish. On the other hand, social independence takes place as students persuade and assist each other’s efforts so as to accomplish the group’s objectives (Johnson, 2009). International students spotlight both on raising their individual success and avoid anybody else from being extra successful than they are. No relations exist as soon as individuals work separately without any interface or exchange with each other. Moreover, individuals spotlight only on raising their personal success and disregard as inappropriate the efforts of others.

To turn out to be a fully residential adult one must actualize numerous health developmental facets, one being the societal facet (Thanh, 2014). If international students social health development is hindered, it might not simply result in social isolation, although can also manipulate other health developmental facets. In view of the fact that social isolation hampers individual’s psychological health, international students who either outline poor associations or have complexity in outlining sound associations with their parents, friends or teachers, will unavoidably suffer developmental self-possession whereas others advancement towards adulthood in general.

In fact there is extremely little information on the connection linking social isolation and social independence achievement, particularly for the period of the primary school years once group work is exploited in the learning state of affairs (Healy, 2008). An extra inclusive approach, taking into consideration the causal aspects of social isolation, the results of social isolation on health accomplishment and the processes of interference might be extremely useful.

References

Johnson,  D.W, (2009) An educational psychology success story: Social interdependent theory and cooperative learning. Educationally researcher, pp 365- 379

Mark, M. M., Donaldson, S. I., & Campbell, B. (2011). Social psychology and evaluation. New York: Guilford Press.

Agarwal, R., & Nagar, N. (2011). Cooperative learning. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications.

Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning: 1. (2012). New York: Springer.

Coleman, P. T. (2011). Conflict, interdependence, and justice: The intellectual legacy of Morton Deutsch. New York, N.Y: Springer.

Gillies, R. M., Ashman, A. F., & Terwel, J. (2008). The teacher’s role in implementing cooperative learning in the classroom. New York: Springer.

West, M. A., Tjosvold, D., & Smith, K. G. (2005). The essentials of teamworking: International perspectives. Chichester, England: Wiley.

Thanh, P. T. H. (2014). Implementing Cross-Culture Pedagogies: Cooperative Learning at Confucian Heritage Cultures. (Implementing cross-culture pedagogies.) Singapore: Springer.

Healy, L. M. (2008). International social work: Professional action in an interdependent world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

DeZure, D. (2000). Learning from change: Landmarks in teaching and learning in higher education from Change magazine, 1969-1999. Sterling, Va. [u.a.: Stylus Publ.

Information Resources Management Association. (2014). Computational linguistics: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications.

Baker, T, & Clark, J. (2010) Cooperative learning- a double-edge sword: A cooperative learning model for use with diverse student groups. Intercultural education, 21(3), pp 257-268

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Dissertation Organized Crime London

Social Impacts Relating to Increased Organized Crime – Case Study into the City Of London

Organized crime involves numerous criminal agents that work together in criminal activities. London has been considered as the criminal capital of Europe due to the high level of organized crime activities. London’s attractiveness for organized crime is due to its large population and its well established international transport infrastructure. The aim of this project is to determine the social and cultural factors that influence the increasing organized crime activities. As per the literature review, organized crime groups engage in numerous activities including theft, people smuggling, sex trafficking and fraud. All of these activities have numerous negative social and economic impacts on the London society.

The study utilizes secondary sources of data due to the magnitude of the research population. Only reputable third party sources of secondary data were used. The study’s findings showed that demographic factors such as poverty, high crime rate and family stress factors are the key contributors to the rise of organized crime in London. In addition, the study found out that organized crime is a result of systematic processes that entails complex interconnections between individual, cultural and social factors over the course of an individual’s life. These factors are family, disorders, education, substance abuse and inheritable gene traits.

Organized Crime London
Organized Crime London

The study recommends that a witness protection program be reinforce in the city of London in order to protect those who are willing to come forward and cooperate with law enforcement agencies against organized criminal gangs. The second recommendation is that laws should be enacted that allow law enforcement agencies to navigate through the limitations of the existing statute. Finally, the dissertation recommends that all stakeholders should be integrated in the process of combating organized crime in London.

Dissertation objectives

  • To establish the criminal activities that are on the increase due to the activities of organized crime syndicates within London
  • To establish the social and cultural factors within London that are attributed to the rise in organized criminal activities
  • To understand how these identified social and cultural factors can be mitigated to reduce crime activity within the greater London region

Dissertation Contents

Introduction
Research Aims and Objectives

Literature Review
Organized Crime in London
The Criminal Activities of London crime groups
People Smuggling
Sex Trafficking
Drug trade
Excise fraud and smuggling
Fraud and Theft
The social and economic cost of organized crime

Research Methodology
Approach to Data Analysis
Approach to Write Up and Discussions
Limitations
Ethical Considerations

Findings and Analysis
Criminal Activities that are on the Rise in London due to Crime Syndicates
Social-Cultural Factors that Contribute to Increased Criminal Activities in London
The Mitigation Measures to the Social Cultural Factors that Contribute to Crime in London

Conclusion

Recommendations

References

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