Diversity Adaptation Inclusion Nursing Education

Diversity, Adaptation, and Inclusion in Nursing Education

This annotated bibliography will present analysis and review of some sources relating to adaptation, diversity, and inclusion in nursing education. Globalization has resulted in nursing schools experiencing diverse students’ population with learners who are culturally and linguistically diverse. The annotated bibliography will present measures that would enhance the adaptation of learners from culturally and linguistically diverse setting, challenges faced by these students and measures to improve the learning experience and performance. Also, the annotation will address diversity issues, policy implications and intervention measures for promoting workforce diversity through a diverse learning environment for nursing learners.

Gerrish, K. (2004). Integration of overseas Registered Nurses: Evaluation of an Adaptation Programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(6), 579–587.

Gerrish (2004) conducted a study to investigate adaptation program for nurses working oversea. These nurses normally experience challenges before adapting to new environment featured by different cultural setting and operational standards for nurses. With the current globalization trends, there has been increasing oversee nurse recruitment to address the significant staff shortage in United Kingdom healthcare sector that has resulted in theemergence of adaptation programs for nurses from other countries seeking experience and allow them to be acknowledged by the Nursing and Midwifery Council. Gerrish (2004) article collects data from different previous studies on independent evaluation of the adaptation programs for the overseas Registered Nurses who are offered by large acute healthcare facilities. Basing on the review, the study reported evaluation programs by focusing on objectives, overall success rate and outcomes from the stakeholders’ perspective.

Gerrish (2004) integrated a pluralist evaluation research model developed to facilitate the identification of the criteria that interested parties used in the judgment of success rate of adaptation programs. After identification of the success of the program, it is used in judging the program in question. Due to the nature of the study, a qualitative research method is applied to address the challenges faced in implementation of the program and measures to address the success of the program. A focus group approach is preferred in data collection where in-depth interviews were set to collect the data for analysis. Gerrish (2004) targeted oversea nurses, senior nurse managers, educators and ward managers. The study took a period of 12 months to complete data collection where the analysis was done through the development of principles for dimensional analysis. Criteria of success approach were crucial in identifying the views from the stakeholders that guided in the development of overall success of the adaptation program. After the analysis of data, results of the study were developed which helped in creating a holistic view of the adaptation programs in the United Kingdom.

The results indicated that five success meanings were developed comprising of gaining professional registration, reducing the nurse vacancy factor, fitness for practice, promoting the organizational culture that is based on diversity value and equality of opportunity. Gerrish (2004) also found that organizational context, features of their work environment and level of support influences the ease of gaining United Kingdom registration and their integration into the nursing workforce. From the article, Gerrish concluded that developed countries should take into account support for nurses sourced from the global market to facilitate their adaptation to environment featured by different social and cultural settings. This article is crucial in research involving nurses’ sourced from oversea by presenting challenges, opportunities and threats faced by the oversea nurses. The study provides crucial information relating to factors that are essential in enhancing the adaptation of these nurses through the provision of the necessary support. The article is also relevant in presenting different considerations that should be taken into accounting supporting adaptability of these nurses to the new environment.

Jeong, S. Y.-S., Hickey, N., Levett-Jones, T., Pitt, V., Hoffman, K., Norton, C. A., & Ohr, S. O. (2011). Understanding and enhancing the learning experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students in an Australian bachelor of nursing program. Nurse Education Today, 31, 238–244.

Jeong et al. (2011) conducted a study investigating measures of enhancing learning and performance of nursing students in a culturally and linguistically diverse environment.Nurses and nursing students are faced with the different cultural setting, which influences their adaptation and performance. The article review experience of nursing students in Australia who are from different cultural backgrounds. The challenges do affect not only the nursing learners but also the academic and clinical staff. A pilot study is conducted to review the perceptions from learners’ approach and another school academic and clinical staff perspective. This is crucial in identifying the challenges faced by clinical staff, academic staffs, and learners.

To attain the study objectives, Jeong et al. (2011) applied qualitative research methodology in collection and analysis of data. The article had its target as learners from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. The participants in the study comprised of learners classified as CALD who were attending their education in Australian universities. Academic staff who taught CALD learners were also integrated into the research. The study had a total of 18 participants comprising of 11 CALD students, four academic staff members, and three clinical facilitators. Qualitative research is appropriate when investigating aspects that require understanding the feelings and perception of the participants through a face to face interview where in-depth data is collected.

Jeong et al. (2011) developed interesting findings relating to measures that can address challenges faced by nursing students, clinical staff and educators with experience in learning or teaching in culturally and linguistically diverse environment. Focus groups were integrated into data collection process to enhance the quality of data collected. After the research Jeong et al. (2011) found that there were four themes crucial in addressing challenges under investigation. These themes comprise of English language competence level, isolation feelings and perception, limited opportunities in the learning process and inadequate of the university support. The effects of these challenges comprised of financial, social and intercultural contexts and political setting that learners experience. The article is significant when addressing the challenges faced by students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.

Additionally, the article utilizes an adequate number of participants which helps in identification of appropriate research data for analysis. The research is crucial to educators, clinical staff and policy makers relating to insights that facilitate the development of effective learners’ adaptation initiatives to promote an efficient environment for all culturally and linguistically diverse learners. The sample size for this article was efficient considering that qualitative studies require in-depth analysis, which is possible with a small sample of participants. The choice of research method in the article presents an opportunity for addressing challenges that students may suffer in silence, which would lower the productivity and performance of nursing students during practice. The article forms a foundation for further studies on the perspective of adaptation initiatives for learners in a cultural and linguistically diverse environment to aid both learners and academic staff.

Boughton, M. A., Halliday, L. E., & Brown, L. (2010). A tailored program of support for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) nursing students in a graduate entry Masters of Nursing course: A qualitative evaluation of outcomes. Nurse Education in Practice, 10, 355-360.

Boughton, Halliday, and Brown (2010)conducted a study investigating the significance of support programs for learners from culturally and linguistically diverse setting. The article defines the common support programs initiated to address the challenges faced by learners and teaching staff. Nursing learners enrolled for a program in culturally and linguistically different environment experience challenges that affect their learning outcomes and performance. The target population in the article were nursing students who were enrolled in 2-years accelerated Master of Nursing program from the faculty of nursing, University of Sydney. Also, the article aimed at examining the pedagogical aspects that affect the delivery of educators and nursing clinicians. The research identified gaps in the literature relating to the integration of CALD training in the learning process to improve the learning outcomes of learners from culturally and linguistically diverse environment.

Boughton, Halliday and Brown (2010) identified that learners from culturally and linguistically diverse settings are sometimes entitled to a program to facilitate their adaptation to the new environment. For the purpose of the article, the authors integrated their research into a program involving CALD interventions that took place during semester 1 in 2008 run by three academic staff members from series of workshops aimed at addressing challenges faced by learners from CALD setting. The article drew findings from both primary and secondary sources taking account evidence in existing literature. Selection of the research participants was on a voluntary basis where a total of 34 participants from different countries who were willing to join the program. A qualitative research method in collection and analysis of data allow the researcher to collect non-verbal feelings of the participants that help in the acquisition of crucial data regarding the participants. The qualitative method requires in-depth analysis that helps in establishing reality concerning the research aim and objectives. Positive results were collected relating to the impact that CALD program had on students’ adaptation to the Australian culture and language. To evaluate the impact, the researchers grouped the participants depending on the benefits that they got from the CALD program regarding enhancing their academic potential, students learning experience and clinical placement initial experience.

Diversity in Nursing Education
Diversity in Nursing Education

In the discussion, Boughton, Halliday and Brown (2010) integrated results from the primary data and critical analysis of existing studies. The in-depth literature review from the article helps in the acquisition of data that from secondary sources, which is crucial in the analysis. Integrating literature review to empirical evidence facilitates in identifying deviation of the primary results by using the previous studies as a datum. Additionally, qualitative studies involve in-depth analysis of data. This method was appropriate for this study to determine the significant impact that perception and feelings have on the research. Furthermore, the choice of the interview as data collection tool facilitates in seeking clarifications from the participants in case of an ambiguous answer and questions during the research process.

Bleich, M. R., Macwilliams, B. R., & Schmidt, B. J. (2015). Advancing Diversity Through Inclusive Excellence In Nursing Education.Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(2), 89–94.

Bleich, Macwilliams and Schmidt (2015)conducted a study investigating the measures of promoting diversity through enhancement of nursing education. With increased global movement of professionals in search of employment and nursing education, there is need to develop a diverse workforce that can serve employees from different cultural settings. However, only a few studies integrate the inclusion during recruitment and retention strategies for the improvement of academic learning outcome. The article addressed the organizational initiatives that promote diversity and inclusion in nursing education as supported by Association of American Colleges and Universities. The article addresses the inclusive excellence that builds an effective learning environment for diverse learners’ needs. There are six strategies for diversity and inclusion that are investigated basing on the authors’experiences, behavioral and structural concerns such as admission processes, community absence, invisibility, tokenism, promotion and tenure, and exclusion. The article was aiming at identifying behavioral and structural adaptations that are within the nursing education setting for the advancement of inclusion and diversity. Identifying different factors that inhibit or enhance an organization with diverse learners is significant in the current study.

The study integrates secondary data retrieved from previous studies in drawing the discussion and conclusions. In-depth analysis of the factors that influence diversity in the nursing education are analyzed. The study integrates step by step procedure of development an inclusive setting for nursing education. The study is crucial in presenting the step-to-step procedure of development of the effective framework for implementation of diversity in nursing education. Bleich, Macwilliams and Schmidt (2015) presented strategies for promoting diversity and inclusivity comprising of improving the admission process, reduction of the inevitability of the underrepresented cohorts, the establishment of support community, enhancing equity in the promotion and the tenure structures, and discouraging tokenism. These initiatives are drawn from different past studies that took into account the crucial elements of diversity.

Even though recent studies play a critical role in the research process, it should be accompanied by empirical results that improve the quality of data presented. Reliance on previous studies maybe misleading since the earlier studies could measure different elements that are not significant in the current study. Despite these challenges in the article, it present information that is crucial in the development of a foundation for more in-depth studies that incorporate primary sources of data. In studies relating to measures of enhancing diversity and principles in nursing education, the article by Bleich, Macwilliams and Schmidt (2015) is crucial in determining gaps in the previous studies that future research should address. In addition, the article could be effective in the presentation of effects of failing to integrate diversity principles in nursing education where diverse cultures are present. Strong self-awareness and self-esteem are crucial for learners within a diverse society to be incorporated into an efficient learning environment and demonstrate effective learning and productive environment.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2015). The Changing Landscape: Nursing Student Diversity on the Rise. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing(AACN) (2015) present review of policy on diversity in American nursing colleges. The report compiles evidence based on recent studies and available policies on the significance of cultural diversity understanding in the nursing workforce in the development of culturally sensitive patient care observing crucial patients’ safety and service quality. The data and analysis are dependent on the U.S. Census Bureau that classified differential cultural settings in the United States where groups that are racially underrepresented forms more than a third of the entire population. The report expresses the commitment of American Association of Colleges of Nursing in promoting diversity and inclusion in all nursing colleges.

The report presents a valuable source of data from primary sources like government websites relating to diversity in nursing education. To ensure the validity of data submitted, the AACN present results of previous reports from reliable sources that cite issues relating to diversity in American nursing colleges.

To address the initiatives by the government, AACN present two reports compiled by NAS in 2004 addressing measures to improve the diversity in the healthcare sector. Also, AACN also reviewed a report by NAS in 2010 on advancing nursing through enhancement of its leadership role through the development of the competent and diverse workforce. The research also presents the trends in changes in the level of diversity across learners undertaking Baccalaureate, Masters,Ph.D. and DNP programs in nursing for the period between 2011 and 2015. Also, the report presents diversity trends across all the states in the US. This helps the future studies in identifying the diversity trends across the American States diversity commitment in promoting the needs of all learners.

Apart from variations in diversity from 2011-2015 and regional diversity levels, ACCN report took into account variations in diversity across programs, which is crucial in informing researchers and policy makers on the degree of diversity in nursing education in the United States depending on the extent of learning. Furthermore, the report presents the diversity on gender-based variations. The report also illustrates the measures that the Federal and local governments would integrate into nursing schools to promote diversity in learning institutions for nurses. From 2006 to 2015, the research cites that there has been a drop in grant funding programs.  Understanding these challenges and opportunities relating to diversity in nursing education will enhance in effective decision-making regarding policy interventions appropriate to address the diversity issues in nursing education. This report is essential in developing valid arguments relating to interventions for diversity in American nursing education. The report presents a valuable source of information on trends based on annual grants allocation, gender, and level of study, which will guide the development of policy measures to encourage diversity in nursing education.

In conclusion, the five studies identify the nursing discipline as a complex profession that entails the harmonization of work culture, private life, societal obligations, and work schedule. Collectively, the authors concur that professional nurses and nursing students specialize in a demanding profession. The health care industry demands that the practitioners commit themselves to the responsibilities by preparing to work for extended hours under congested schedules. Therefore, the work environment prompts the governing institutions to consider improving expertise and the support infrastructure in order to enhance the efficacy of the healthcare service providers. In spite of the incongruousness in specific and general objectives, the studies converge into a common point of focus involving manipulating the parameters of interest to improve the performance of nurses. Jointly, the authors view the quality of nursing as a function of dedicated endeavors to establish support institutions, education programs, and cultural learning.

Nurses are mobile in nature as the occupation dictates. The interventions would enable the medical professionals to adapt new environments and avoid culture shock. New work environments expose the nurses to challenges in learning the ways of life of the inhabitants. The situation grows severe in workstations where the health care seekers subscribe to a foreign language. At this point, intervention programs and special education programs tailored to specific settings are vital to improving the performance of the personnel within the restrictive workplace. Additionally, the studies venture into using qualitative approaches to explore the parameters of interest. The commonality portrays a similarity in the five research works highlighting that most elements in nursing are non-quantitative.

As long as the authors agree on the complexity of the discipline, discrepancies emerge pertaining to the most suitable intervention strategies. The influence of the studies on the nursing practice significantly relies on an integrated method of implementing the findings. In other words, the observations made from each of the studies are solely dependent on the contributions of the rest. Furthermore, the authors base the studies on different scopes and parameters. Focusing on culture, education, and support programs exposes the incongruousness underlying the pursuit of knowledge. Through the principal areas of focus, the general objectives of the research works differ considerably from one study to another. The specialization undermines the view of mutual relationships in the rudiments of nursing.

The five articles are exclusively vital in enabling efficient nursing services. The diverse objectives pursued by the researchers present nursing practice as a multi-disciplinary subject comprising of equally important parameters. In a real sense, nursing profession describes a collection of medical subjects that equip the facilitators with immense knowledge essential for dealing with a myriad of scenarios in the healthcare industry. More important are the elements that the articles discuss as significant in enhancing nursing. Education denotes one of the traditional methods of knowledge acquisition. Training remains a viable approach to improve professionalism. Nursing professionals require excellent training to improve the quality of the service.

The education programs enhance the adaptation mechanisms of the medical personnel to various environments. As nurses move from one workstation to another, the environmental setting changes drastically prompting swift adjustment. Cultural learning denotes one of the most vital considerations since nurses interact with culturally diverse populations. The support institutions formulate and implement policies and programs aimed at enhancing the workplace for nursing professionals. Therefore, the articles discuss valuable factors essential for facilitating exemplary therapeutic services.

References

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2015). The Changing Landscape: Nursing Student Diversity on the Rise. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing.

Bleich, M. R., Macwilliams, B. R., & Schmidt, B. J. (2015). Advancing Diversity Through Inclusive Excellence In Nursing Education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 31(2), 89–94.

Boughton, M. A., Halliday, L. E., & Brown, L. (2010). A tailored program of support for culturally and li nguistically diverse (CALD) nursing students in a graduate entry Masters of Nursing course: A qualitative evaluation of outcomes. Nurse Education in Practice, 10, 355-360.

Gerrish, K. (2004). Integration of overseas Registered Nurses: evaluation of an adaptation programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(6), 579–587.

Jeong, S. Y.-S., Hickey, N., Levett-Jones, T., Pitt, V., Hoffman, K., Norton, C. A., & Ohr, S. O. (2011). Understanding and enhancing the learning experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students in an Australian bachelor of nursing program. Nurse Education Today, 31, 238–244.

Other Relevant Blog Posts

Nursing Dissertation Topics

Nursing Operating Budgets

Nursing Dissertation Topics

If you enjoyed reading this post on diversity, adaptation, and inclusion in nursing education, I would be very grateful if you could help spread this knowledge by emailing this post to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.

Basic Cognitive Neuroscience Diseases

Basic Cognitive Neuroscience Diseases

Cognitive neuroscience is the study of the neurobiological substrates which is responsible for human cognition and seeks to reveal the neural circuits hidden in the human mental processes. This included learning, perception about things and events, and attention. The focus of the cognitive neuroscience researchers understands the brain mechanism responsible for auditory functions, musical processing and emotional exhibitions (Mataró, 2017).

Cognitive neuroscience also seeks to understand the neural mechanisms that enable predictive processes and the effects they might have on perception. It also sees to how the predictions that were formulated can influence the understanding of our environment. It is also included in this study, the calculation strategies used in solving arithmetical problems, and the level of difficulties that mathematics enthusiasts face when engaged in numerical analysis.

Neuropsychology is a clinical application of findings in the field of neuroscience. It seeks to know how brain disorders or brain injuries can cause a defect in cognitive functions and human behavior. Another area in neuroscience is the analysis which happened to cognitive ability resulting from aging and deteriorative illness, and also the mechanism used in brain reorganization following a fatal brain injury (Mataró, 2017). It studies how cognitive function can be improved in patients who have slight cognitive deficiency through the use of non-invasive stimulated techniques. Part of the neuro-scientific studies is finding out the effects of cerebrovascular diseases and that of the neuroprotective interventions in neurobiological mechanisms such as cognitive training and physical exercises.

Other research areas have their focus on the differentiating factors in central nervous system functioning of people with normal weight and obese (overweight), as well as the coexistence of severe mental disorders and substance use disorders. It also does the analysis of learning disorders such as nonverbal learning disability and dyslexia.

Some of the techniques used by neuroscientists include genetic studies, cognitive test, and neuro-imaging techniques likes of magnetic resonance imaging.

Neuro-imaging is conceived as techniques which are used in producing brain images without necessarily performing surgery on patients with brain damages or problems, nor cutting of the skin, or any form of contact with the endo-body (Jnguyen, 2012).

Neuro-imaging techniques give doctors and neuroscientists the clear view of activities and problems occurring in the brain without carrying out brain surgery on the patient (Demitri, 2016). There are more than five safe neuro-imaging techniques used in medical facilities throughout the world, but three are most common. These techniques include; functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Computerized Tomography (CT), and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (Jnguyen, 2012). Others include electroencephalography (EEG), Magnetoencephalography (MEG), and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) (Demitri, 2016).

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a technique of measuring the activities of the brain, through the analysis of how blood is flowing in the brain. An MRI scanner detects changes in blood oxygenation and flow that occurs as a result of neural activity. This is because, when the brain is at work, it uses more oxygen at the active area. (Demitri, 2016).

A functioning MRI scanner uses a strong electromagnet which helps to generate forms strong magnetic field within the scanner. It causes randomly spinning protons in the brain which align with the direction of the field. Also, the proton will continue to spin while they are in alignment and exhibits a wobbling top behavior. The frequency of their wobbling is referred to as resonance.

The protons, when placed in a strong magnetic field and energy, is delivered to them at a particular resonant frequency, they will absorb energy with a great efficiency. In MRI, radio waves are used to provide the force needed to make the protons move (Jnguyen, 2012).

The benefits of using fMRI include the fact that it does not involve radioactivity, and there have been no reports of side effects resulting from the use of magnetic field and radio waves. Also, fMRI is not expensive, non-invasive, and readily available and provide a wide range of excellent temporal and partial resolution.

Computerized Tomography (CT)

Computerized tomography is a neuroimaging technique that makes use of x-rays in generating pictures of the inside of the body. It gives a picture of the human brain in accordance with the differential absorption of x-rays. It has been used widely in medical diagnosis to plan, guide and monitor brain therapy.

A computerized tomography makes use of X-rays placed at different angles to produce images of the human brain.

When conducting computerized tomography scans, a movable x-ray source will be rotated around the subject’s head. Detectors are put in place to record the intensity of the rays that are transmitted while the computer simultaneously combines the snapshots taken by the movable x-ray machine and arrange them to form a 3D cross-sectional image. This can be used by the doctors and researcher to get more information about the brain (Jnguyen, 2012).

Cognitive Neuroscience Diseases Dissertation
Cognitive Neuroscience Diseases Dissertation

Advantageously, computerized tomography scan is painless, cost effective and fast in usage. It can provide images of bones, tissues and blood vessels simultaneously. However, the patient is exposed to the risk of cancer as result of exposure to radiation from the x-ray scanner.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Positron Emission Tomography uses tracers or radioactivity labeled molecules in the blood stream which have been taken up by active neurons. When these materials become decay as a result of radioactivity, a positron will be emitted; this can be picked up by the detector. PET studies the flow of blood through the brain and the metabolic activities of the brain which helps to picture changes in biochemical processes of the brain (Demitri, 2016). PET is however used to indicate whether the brain is functioning properly.

The trace is a substance like glucose which can be broken down into the activities of cells in the body, where it is labeled with a radioactive isotope. The risk involved is very low because the amount of radiation is low and the isotope can be easily removed from the body by urination.

When the tracer is introduced into the bloodstream, the isotope will start to decay which makes it less radioactive later. During this process, a positron is released, and when it collides with an electron, it will produce gamma ray as a result of the positron and electron eliminating one another. The two produced gamma rays will travel in opposite directions and they will try to leave the patient’s body. These rays can then be detected by two detectors set at 1800 from each other, and it is recorded as a coincidence event. The computer will then determine the source of the gamma rays in the subject’s brain and then generate a 3D image.

As an added advantage, PET can detect other diseases in the body system which often occurs before one can observe the changes in the anatomy. Also, the movement of the subject does not affect the quality of the output, although the image may not be very clear in some cases. Also, the use of radiation can be injurious to the subject’s health.

These are some of the popular techniques used by neuroscientists in neuroimaging, all of them have their own advantage and their disadvantages. However, they are used in the treatment of neuro-diseases such as Alzheimer, Dementia, and Parkinson.

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease has been found to be a generic cause of dementia, and it has been confirmed to be responsible for about 50% of identified dementia cases. This is because a loss of memory is the symptom that is mostly identified with affected patients (EssayEmpire, 2017).

 Alzheimer is known to be a progressive and degenerative disease known to cause sporadic regression in the cognitive ability of an individual. It is identified by the prevalence of neuron and synapse loss. It often leads to the appearance of plaques and tangles (B-amyloid and tau aggregate) in the human brain (Bussey, 2015).

The German physician and neuropathologist, Alois Alzheimer was the first to identify the presence of plaques and tangles in the human brain. In 1907, he carried out an autopsy on a woman who died of dementia, and he discovered the occurrence of histopathologic alterations in form of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques.

Another characteristic of this disease is the change in the function of the affective domain; the patient tends to be partial in judgment and reasoning. In addition, the patient may have a defect in his language function, constructional abilities.

Dementia

Dementia is a gradual and persistent occurrence of deterioration in the cognitive function of human brain. It affects the intellectual abilities and behavioral pattern of an individual. It can affect the individual’s ability to excel in certain daily activities like housekeeping, driving, attending social functions, keeping daily sales record etc. Changes are also noticed in personality and the individual’s emotions (CNADC, 2017).

As against the widespread beliefs, dementia is not peculiar to aging, it results from diseases which affect the brain. The influence of dementia is felt on all aspects of mind and behavioral pattern, including language ability, ability to give concentrations, visual perception, temperament, memory, sound judgment ability, social interaction etc.

Dementia should however not be perceived as a single disease, it is a combination of signs and symptoms indicating multiple diseases or even injury in the brain (CNADC, 2017).

Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease is a disorder caused by degeneration of the nervous system and affects the mostly the motor system (NINDS, 2016). It cannot be easily detected as the symptom comes very slowly as one grows in age. The first sets of signs that occur include shaking of the arms and legs, difficulty in walking and slow movement. With this is thinking and behavioral problems, depression, and anxiety are also noticed with people suffering from Parkinson disease. Also, Parkinson patients tend to suffer a lack of sleep, sensory problems and emotional problems (Sveinbjornsdottir, 2016).

The causes of Parkinson disease has been traced to both genetic and environmental factors. They are easily transferred among generations especially in families where it has been occurring. Also, when an individual is exposed to some form of pesticides or he has a brain injury, he is likely to have Parkinson disease. However, smoking tobacco or consuming coffee does not really have any effect on the likelihood of suffering from the disease (Kalia & Lang, 2015).

References

Bussey, T. (2015) Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved April 29, 2017, from Translational Cognitive Neuroscience Lab.

CNADC. (2017) Memory, Dementia & Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved April 27, 2017, from Northwestern Medicine | Northwestern University.

Demitri, M. (2016, July 17) Types of Brain Imaging Techniques. Retrieved April 28, 2017, from Psych Central.

EssayEmpire. (2017) Alzheimer’s Disease Research Paper. Retrieved April 29, 2017, from Research Paper.

Jnguyen. (2012, April 02) Neuroimaging. Retrieved April 29, 2017, from Huntington’s Outreach Project for Education.

Kalia, L., & Lang, A. (2015) Parkinson’s disease. Lancet (London, England), 896 – 912.

Mataró, M. (2017) Cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology. Retrieved April 29, 2017, from Institut de Neurociencies.

NINDS. (2016, June 30). Parkinson’s Disease Information Page. Retrieved July 18, 2016

Sveinbjornsdottir, S. (2016) The Clinical Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Neurochemistry, 318 – 324.

Other Relevant Blog Post

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Schizophrenia Assignment

Nursing Dissertation Topics

I hope you enjoyed reading this post on Cognitive Neuroscience Diseases. There are many other Nursing Dissertation Titles that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Schizophrenia Assignment

The many aspects of mental health education among mental health consumer groups or their families; case study of Schizophrenia

The traditional format of the health care involves a clinician or a health worker being the major decision making factors on the modality of treatment, with a relatively insignificant proportion of inputs from the consumers. However, in modern settings such inputs from the targeted consumer population are highly appreciated, especially in chronic and debilitating disease management, where concerted efforts of the clinical staff, patients and their families is essential in tackling the disease. A key to such inputs and interactions is to raise the awareness of the targeted consumers or their families on the various aspects of the disease, its monetary and social costs, as well as to raise the psychological acceptance of the patients in the society. Mental health is one such area where beneficiary interactions between the patients/caretakers and the providers of health services on the many aspects of the decision making could be of maximum utility. This is because of mental health disorders are not only generally chronic in nature, but also because social interactions play equal role as much as medicine in the successful treatment of the disease.

Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating mental health disorder, with an abnormal social behaviour and failure of objective thinking. Confused state of mind, hallucinations, abject thinking and lack of motivational thinking are some of the general symptoms of the disease. There is also a higher rate of suicidal thinking among the schizophrenic patients. While both a genetic makeup as well the conditions of upbringing have been shown to influence the disease, the general understanding is that schizophrenia is a syndrome, with multiple or complex causative factors. Due to the complex and the chronic nature of the disease, prolonged or even lifelong treatment is essential. In addition, social rehabilitation as well as sympathetic public perception and counselling are extremely necessary for the successful management of the disease condition. Due to the generally poor social interactions and abject thinking, it is important that the patients and associated family members or caregivers are aptly educated on the various available modalities of therapy as well as being provided with the necessary moral support of the institutions and health workers who are involved in the treatment of the patient.

Benefits of educating the consumers of schizophrenia treatment

Close observation, sympathetic care, timely therapeutic interventions are extremely essential for schizophrenia cases and it is important that the care givers are also educated on the many aspects of successful and prolonged care. In many developing countries, the family of the patient is the primary effectors for the care of the patient due to constraints of money, lack of physician’s effective attention time and poor number of supporting staff. In such a scenario proper education of the consumers not only ease the process, but also helps in relieving the psychological distress of the patient. Proper education also helps in dealing with the caregiver’s stress and maintaining a healthy environment around the patient who needs a social support more than the medicines. If the family of a patient is properly educated, they are well informed about the illness and are more “skilled” to deal with their deceased relative. Moreover, it also helps in a smooth process of settling insurance claims, money management and availing welfare benefits from the designated agencies. At a national level, there should be a streamlined education program and a process so that each care giver knows which physician to consult, how to reach the hospital for consultation, and how to mange the initial expenditure. It is essential to consider the psycho-sociological impact of the nature of this syndrome.

Potential barriers to effective education with the selected group

Schizophrenic patients generally have poor social interactions, and some of the symptoms such as suicidal instincts, auditory hallucinations and abject thinking, make the sufferers alienated from the general population where the patients form part of.  Such alienation at work place, educational institutions or close societies could be detrimental for the patient and could in turn lead to increased social reticence and suicidal tendencies. Similarly, like other chronic mental health disorders, the family members of schizophrenic patients face unfriendly behaviour from close societies, in addition to the difficulties in managing the patients. In totality, a schizophrenic patient’s family is itself not in a healthy frame of mind and hence special concerns or skills should be employed to properly educate them. Caregivers at hospitals, mostly have to deal with a higher number of patient’s per head basis and are already under stress. Money is another potential barrier and the caregivers also point to the need of proper transport, medical insurance and food in developing countries. Most of the time in a developing country, it is a cultural problem, the family is not highly educated and if the case is the first in their family, they do not know how to proceed at the first hand. Effective communication skills to a larger group with different social background are another potential barrier in a multiethnic, multilingual society such as India and Australia. Education cannot be provided to each and every individual on a personal basis in highly populated societies where the patient load is higher. Hesitation to participate in a community based rehabilitation program is another constraint as you have to convince maximum number of the individuals to get educated and participate in such an event. ‘Self determined medical discontinuation’ is another hindrance as many patients would stop consulting the physician and discontinue taking their psychotic medication. Hence, the patients should be educated on a recurrent basis and should be informed well that even if they think they are healthy they should continue their follow up management. Schizophrenia patients also suffer from a vocational impairment due to various reasons and according to the social drift hypothesis they are driven towards are social backwardness. This has to be addressed not only by proper education from therapy point of view, but also from the point of view of vocational empowerment. Psychosis and Schizophrenia in children poses an additional barrier as it shows a worse prognosis and educating the consumer in such cases needs special skills.

Skills required by the nurses

Schizophrenia cases involved an enhanced psychological stress and many a times the situation gets complicated by the family attitude, patients’ failure to adhere to the treatment regime, tolerability issues, embarrassment and recurrence. In such a scenario the educating nurse should exhibit an exceptional degree of restraint, compose in their behaviour and control of their own stress.

Schizophrenia Assignment
Schizophrenia Assignment

Since the patient itself and its family have an educational gap with respect to the medical field, a nurse should have the ability to bridge the gap between a layman and a professional. The nurse should have exceptional communication skills, should be available during off hours, should be willing to tolerate seemingly off the subject queries and should be able to understand the needs of the consumer. Most of the needs of the consumers are related to money, medical reimbursement and insurance issues and as such the nurse should be well acquainted with the relevant subject, although not directly related to medicine. Many a time’s patients are unwilling to adhere to the schedule. The severity of the side effects of the schizophrenia treatment such as sedation, weight gain or pain etc is the major concern of the patients. The nurse should in such cases educate the patient as well as their family about the alternative methods such as long acting injectable (LAIs) instead of oral therapy, etc. Nurse should be able to identify the patient’s strength area and make use of that strength for proper counselling approach. It has been observed that the preferences of patients and their family doctors vary, say for example, patient does not like the idea of shared care records while the health practitioner advocate for it. In such case the responsibility of the educating nurse is to ensure that patient and their family members are educated in the benefits of community participation. In many cases of patients undergoing treatment with the second generation antipsychotics, we have to induce them for a regular exercise schedule. Nurses should be able to motivate the patients and hence a nurse should also have motivational skills. Proper fitness is also required as the nurse should lead by example, that regular exercise is beneficial.

Conclusion

Schizophrenia is not only a medical problem, but a socioeconomic crisis. It not only harms the patient per se, but also affects its family as well as the whole community. Consumer education that involved counselling of the patient as well as educating the family and involving the whole community is an important tool for improved outcome. It not only reduces the stress environment, but also helps in improving adherence to the treatment regime, delaying the reduction in the social attainment, delay in the loss of cognitive skills and improve the overall status. Nurses imparting the education hence have an added social responsibility in addition to their medical duty and thus should be equipped with special communication skills. Controlling the stress, inspirational and motivational behaviour and above all a positive attitude is the most important requirement.

References

Beebe, L. H., Smith, K., Burk, R., McIntyre, K., Dessieux, O., Tavakoli, A., Velligan, D. (2011). Effect of a motivational intervention on exercise behavior in persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Community Ment Health J, 47(6), 628-636.

Brooke-Sumner, C., Petersen, I., Asher, L., Mall, S., Egbe, C. O., & Lund, C. (2015). Systematic review of feasibility and acceptability of psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 19.

Chen, M., Wu, G., Wang, Z., Yan, J., Zhou, J., Ding, Y., Song, L. (2014). Two-year prospective case-controlled study of a case management program for community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia. Shanghai Arch Psychiatry, 26(3), 119-128.

Geerts, P., Martinez, G., & Schreiner, A. (2013). Attitudes towards the administration of long-acting antipsychotics: a survey of physicians and nurses. BMC Psychiatry, 13, 58.

Girma, E., & Tesfaye, M. (2011). Patterns of treatment seeking behavior for mental illnesses in Southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based study. BMC Psychiatry, 11, 138.

Heresco-Levy, U., Ermilov, M., Giltsinsky, B., Lichtenstein, M., & Blander, D. (1999). Treatment-resistant schizophrenia and staff rejection. Schizophr Bull, 25(3), 457-465.

Karthik, M. S., Warikoo, N., Chakrabarti, S., Grover, S., & Kulhara, P. (2014). Attitudes towards antipsychotics among patients with schizophrenia on first- or second-generation medications. Indian J Psychol Med, 36(3), 288-293.

Kasckow, J., Appelt, C., Haas, G. L., Huegel, S., Fox, L., Gurklis, J., Daley, D. (2012). Development of a recovery manual for suicidal patients with schizophrenia: consumer feedback. Community Ment Health J, 48(5), 564-567.

Kendall, T., Hollis, C., Stafford, M., Taylor, C., & Guideline Development, Group. (2013). Recognition and management of psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ, 346, f150.

Kheirabadi, G. R., Rafizadeh, M., Omranifard, V., Yari, A., Maracy, M. R., Mehrabi, T., & Sadri, S. (2014). Effects of needs-assessment-based psycho-education of schizophrenic patients’ families on the severity of symptoms and relapse rate of patients. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res, 19(6), 558-563.

Kreyenbuhl, J., Buchanan, R. W., Dickerson, F. B., Dixon, L. B., & Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research, Team. (2010). The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): updated treatment recommendations 2009. Schizophr Bull, 36(1), 94-103.

Li, Z., & Arthur, D. (2005). Family education for people with schizophrenia in Beijing, China: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry, 187, 339-345.

Nazareth, I., King, M., & Davies, S. (1995). Care of schizophrenia in general practice: the general practitioner and the patient. Br J Gen Pract, 45(396), 343-347.

Omranifard, V., Yari, A., Kheirabadi, G. R., Rafizadeh, M., Maracy, M. R., & Sadri, S. (2014). Effect of needs-assessment-based psychoeducation for families of patients with schizophrenia on quality of life of patients and their families: A controlled study. J Educ Health Promot, 3, 125.

Pjescic, K. D., Nenadovic, M. M., Jasovic-Gasic, M., Trajkovic, G., Kostic, M., & Ristic-Dimitrijevic, R. (2014). Influence of psycho-social factors on the emergence of depression and suicidal risk in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Danub, 26(3), 226-230.

Vargas, G., Strassnig, M., Sabbag, S., Gould, F., Durand, D., Stone, L., Harvey, P. D. (2014). The course of vocational functioning in patients with schizophrenia: Re-examining social drift. Schizophr Res Cogn, 1(1), e41-e46.

Zargham-Boroujeni, A., Maghsoudi, J., & Oreyzi, H. R. (2015). Focusing on psychiatric patients’ strengths: A new vision on mental health care in Iran. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res, 20(3), 340-346.

View Nursing Dissertations Here

Nursing Dissertation Topics

Outstanding Nursing Dissertation Topics

I have been asked to assist a handful of students regarding nursing dissertation topics. As mentioned in other posts, our website will not write a nursing dissertation for you but we will point you in the direction of existing research. Firstly, your nursing dissertation is an extensive research project on a related topic of your choice relevant to your studies. Ordinarily, your nursing dissertation will contain precise knowledge in that specific area of research. For instance, you will emphasize clear objectives of the research that you are doing and keep the research on-topic. Be mindful that you need to engage your research and your knowledge with the reader. An integral part of your research is to choose an appropriate nursing dissertation topic. It is the first step toward starting your nursing dissertation and you should not deviate away from your chosen topic. A recommended method of finding a suitable nursing dissertation topic is to examine your existing knowledge in a particular field.

If you have knowledge in patient care it may be worthwhile developing a nursing dissertation topic in this field of study. You will be familiar with key research, prominent authors and you will be comfortable in using existing literature and research in this field. You may find that you will lift a lot of pressure if you are comfortable writing about a particular field of nursing that is familiar. You will need to expand on your existing knowledge and turn this into an impactful nursing dissertation topic.

There is no doubt that your nursing dissertation topic will fall into a specific area of nursing. As a nursing student, or practitioner what is important to you in the health and nursing environment? Maybe there is something that you see in patients that you think is worth exploring in greater depth? There are many areas of nursing for you to explore, these areas may include: child care, mental health, pediatric nursing, clinical management, midwifery or future nursing trends in a particular region. The brainstorming process will help you to write a creative and attractive piece of research.

Nursing Dissertation Topics
Nursing Dissertation Topics

I had a conversation with a nursing student who currently works within the NHS in the United Kingdom and she recommends formulating a nursing dissertation topic on practices, procedures or interventions that are of a particular interest in the field of nursing. She went on further to say that researching something that you do not have a connection with can be daunting, you must have a connection with the research you are undertaking. The nursing dissertation topic must be of interest to you and engage the reader. I must add that the nursing student in question completed a BA (Hons) Nursing Studies degree with first first-class honors.

Possible Nursing Dissertation Topics

Below is a list of nursing dissertation topics that may prove useful to you. I do hope you take inspiration from these dissertation topics in an attempt to stimulate your writing process from the outset. Please be mindful that the below nursing dissertation topics have been submitted to universities and are offered as a guide for reference purposes.

Nursing Dissertation – Levels of Stress among Experienced Nurses

Nursing Dissertation – Prevalence of Schizophrenia in Urban Regions

Nursing Dissertation – The Expanding Role of Mental Health Nurse Prescribing

Nursing Dissertation – Predisposing Risk Factors of Breast Cancer

Nursing Dissertation – Nursing Shortages and Counter Solutions

Nursing Dissertation – Analysis into the Place of Ethnic Minorities in Nursing and Midwifery NHS Workforce

Whether you choose to write your nursing dissertation on the topics above or if you have come up with your own nursing dissertation topic, you need to ensure that you write your research on something you are interested in and knowledgeable on. As previously mentioned you can alleviate a lot of pressure when writing research on a field of nursing you are familiar with. It is worthwhile noting that writing a nursing dissertation topic is similar to writing a dissertation in another discipline as it has the same form of structure and layout. There will be an introduction, literature review, hypothesis, methodology, data analysis, results and findings and bibliography sections. However, the initial step is to select a suitable nursing dissertation topic from the outset, you will subsequently develop a research proposal on what you have established as your nursing dissertation topic.

Nursing Dissertation Help

Always keep close to your designated dissertation supervisor. You never know when you need their advice and guidance – this support is priceless. A dissertation supervisor can always put you back on track especially if you deviate away from your chosen nursing dissertation topic. Also, you will get help on your nursing dissertation structure. This is essential as you do not want to write a nursing dissertation using a bespoke structure, this will ultimately lower your overall grade.

You need to dedicate time to your nursing dissertation proposal. You will find that your dissertation proposal is a key milestone in your research project. It should be succinct and will describe the statement of intent for your nursing dissertation. Your supervisor will have a clear understanding to what you are researching and what the dissertation aims and objectives are. A synopsis of the hypotheses should be included in the dissertation proposal.

Fully utilize readily available information. You will find that you will have a plethora of nursing related research at your disposal, utilizing this research will be a key component of the literature review contained within your nursing dissertation. You need to ensure you do not plagiarize any material and reference all material in accordance with your university’s guidelines. I suggest using online libraries for current research such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), EBSCO and JSTOR. It is safe to say that your university will access to these resources and it will benefit your nursing dissertation topic as you will be referencing credible material.

I hope you enjoy reading this post and that you have added confidence in wiring your own nursing dissertation topic. I would be grateful if you could leave a comment below.