Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal

Consumer behavior is an important management field, the study and application of which can provide a lot of insight and value to the marketers. This research paper is based mostly on the existing theories and models of consumer behavior. The first part looks for external factors influencing consuming behavior at various stages and the second applies theories to a well known business organization, L’Oreal.

Consumer Behavior

Hawkins (2008) says that the consumer decision making process is often the result of a single problem however, at other times consumption decision is based on a number of factors. The example provided by Hawkins (2008) to explain the difference actually helps the reader in better analyzing the types of consumption requirement. Running low on gasoline while driving leads to a single factor consumption decision whereas the realization of an aging automobile, growing feeling of inadequacy or low self esteem lead to a multi factor consumption decision regarding a commodity or a service.

For the marketers of an organization, it is important to take into consideration both the types of consumption such that the overall sales of that organization are increased. Consumers are the end point of the supply chain processes. They actually are the magnetic force for all kinds of manufacturing, production and retailing processes that are taking place in a market or in an industry. The stronger the magnetic force in fact, the better will be the overall processes of production, manufacturing and retailing. It is therefore important for the organizations to capture as much of that attraction of the customers as possible. One simple reason for that is that customers are the ones that provide revenue to the business. An interesting quote by Jeff Bezoz, the CEO of Amazon.com says that it is actually the customers of the organization that give the business the money to operate and not the competitors of the organization and thus, all the strategies that the organization makes to improve the business performance (or market capitalization) should be oriented towards the customers (Stockport, 2009).

This idea then forms the core of the field of consumer behavior. Consumer behavior, initially stemming out of the study of micro economics has actually gotten extensive and intensive enough to be termed as a completely independent study of management sciences and one that can have serious policy implications for a business entity.

Consumer behavior holds that the purchasing decision of the consumer can actually be analyzed through various models and theories and using those findings, a business can orient its market plan to gain competitive advantage in the market. A number of external and internal factors become a part of understanding how and why consumers making purchasing decision, using decisions and disposing off decisions and how preferences and tastes as well as norms, cultures, peer pressures and traditions become a part of this decision making process (Lamb, Hair, McDaniel, 2011).

Since it has now been established that a number of internal and external factors play a role in influencing the consumers in their consuming decision, the breakdown of each factor is possible. As far as a business organization and more precisely the strategic managers or the marketers of the organization are concerned, external factors are the ones which they have the power over and thus they can influence the attraction felt by consumers for the product being marketed. However, before the marketing managers can actually pin point the external factors and manipulate them, each stage of the decision making process of the consumers needs to be analyzed.

Analysis of how external variables are used by marketers to influence consumer decision making at the various stages of the consumer decision making model. Illustrations through examples

Nominal Decision Making Process

Hawkins (2008, p. 561) identifies the nominal decision making process and defines it in the following words,

“Nominal decision making, sometimes referred to as habitual decision making, in effect involves no decision per se….A completely nominal decision does not even include consideration of the “do not purchase” alternative. For example you might notice that you are nearly out of Aim toothpaste and resolve to purchase some the next time you are at the store. You don’t even consider not replacing the toothpaste or purchasing another brand.”

According to Hawkins (2008) then a nominal decision making process can be broken down further into brand loyal decisions and repeat decisions.

For the marketers, development of brand loyalty is another arena that is receiving significant attention mostly because of its importance that has been highlighted through the theories of consumer behavior. The more the consumer feels loyal to the brands, the lesser he or she will actually consider buying another brand and thus the number of secure sales for the organization will increase and in the longer run, the provision of stability of revenue for the organization will also be enhanced.

The example for the nominal decision making process has already been highlighted by reviewing Hawkins (2008) however to provide another example is the purchase of soaps, bottled milk, tea brand, coffee brand or sanitary pads. Mostly, for all of these products, the consumer mechanically throw these products into the shopping cart without even considering that just right to the brand that they picked lies another, probably better brand. Development of this behaviour in the consumers requires effort and strategy from the marketing manager of the business organization.

Five Step Decision Making Model

Next is the five step decision making process as studied by Lamb, Hair and McDaniel (2011). In this model, the first step is the recognition of need of a product or service by the consumers. The second is the information search, third the evaluation of alternatives and fourth the purchase of the commodity or service. Finally, the fifth step is the post purchase behaviour. In regards to the model however, the following has been said (Lamb, Hair and McDaniel, 2011, p. 189),

“The five steps represent a general process that can be used as a guide for studying how consumers make decision. It is important to note though that consumers’ decisions do not always proceed in order through all of these steps. In fact, the consumer may end that process at any time or may not even make a purchase.”

However, this model does provide important steps that can be used by the marketers to create external influence on the consuming behaviours of the customers. Baker (2003) says that these five stages together are affected by a number of external and internal factors. These factors include the cultural, social, individual and psychological factors and are actually applicable to all the stages of the consumer decision making process. Therefore, if the customers are to use factors to influence the consumer decision making process, these factors are to be manipulated. For the purpose of this section of the research report, only external factors will be analyzed for each stage of consumption of the goods and services.

The first step is the recognition of needs. This is actually the first and the most important step that the marketers can use to attract the customers and thus gain competitive advantage and even first movers advantage in the market. This is possible by making the customers realize the need for the product that the firm is offering. Hawkins (2008, p. 565) says that,

“Marketers often attempt to cause consumers to recognize a potential problem for which the marketer has a solution…this sometimes involves making consumers aware of problems well before they arise.”

The important word here is “potential”. The usual way through which the problem solving approach goes is to at first recognize the problem and then solve it. Providing external stimulus on the need recognition stage of the decision making process, marketers are actually making the customers create a problem in their head that they did not realize existed before. Obviously this can be both real and imaginary but there is no necessity that the consumer knew of the solution to the problem before. For example, the invention of diapers stimulated the need recognition stage of the decision making process. Before that for centuries, mothers and maids were using cloth and plastic panties for their babies and everything seemed to go fine. With the advent of diapers however, it became almost a necessity. Something without which bearing a child seemed like a serious problem.

Similarly, the marketers can influence the information search stage of the consumer decision making process by providing to the consumers the necessary information through various media. Nowadays, television advertisement, billboards and internet are the favorite sources of providing the consumers with the information about the product and how that product is the one that the consumers require in solving the problem. For example when proctor and gamble came up with the diapers, pampers, they needed to provide the useful information to the consumers about the product. So that the customers who have already realized this problem and were looking for a solution find it in the shape of pampers. This then can require free samples and other promotion techniques as well. As of today however, the techniques that remain dominant have been mentioned.

The marketers can influence the third step that is of alternative evaluation by allowing the customer, through efficient marketing strategies to realize that the product the firm is offering is the best one for the consumer.  The external factor used here can be the help of celebrities to promote a product. Knowing that a specific product works better than anything else for something well known and looked up to can actually lead the consumers to be inclined more towards the purchase of that product.

On the fourth stage of the consumer decision making model, prices are the factors that need to be considered and used by the marketers. The consumers should know that the price they are paying for the product is actually worth it. Here, the factor and consciousness of social class can play an important role. The effect of social class on consumer behavior, apart from the direct relationship of income levels and value of consumption, there is also a direct relationship till the upper class between the realization of social class and the desire to mobilize in the social class hierarchy and the value of consumption (Loudon, 2007). It has been noted that the upper, upper middle and the middle class seriously dreams of being recognized as the elite (how o not really care about the prices but about the quality) make more expensive purchases of the products or services to reinforce their social class image in the society.

Select a company or not-for-profit organisation that you are familiar with and critically evaluate how a specific consumer behavioral theory or model can aid in understanding consumers’ actions. Demonstrate how this then guides the practical implementation of marketing strategy in your chosen organisation.

The Organization

The business entity selected for the purpose this section of the report is L’Oreal Paris. This is the largest beauty and cosmetics brand in the world. In 2009 L’Oreal completed its hundred years and recognizes its moves in the business world as that of being adventurous. L’Oreal (2011) notes that above and beyond that financial success that the organization has achieved, the journey of L’Oreal has been marked by a quest for innovation, a quest for excellence, a question for the purpose of actually existing in the market and finally a quest for diversity in regards to the range of cultures, preferences and tastes of women around the globe.

Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal
Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal

This organization has actually celebrated beauty around the globe. L’Oreal has a huge international presence and operates in five continents of the worlds excluding Antarctica and Australia from the list. By the global 100, this beauty brand was actually ranked amongst the world’s 100 most sustainable business organizations. Moreover, this organization in 2011 has been presented with the best financial performance by the Boursoscan (L’Oreal, 2011).

The overview of the organization notes that for a century the organization has been pushing back the boundaries of science to invest and meet the aspirations of millions of women and men (L’Oreal, 2011). L’Oreal seeks to provide the best cosmetics to the world in terms of quality, safety and efficacy. In 2010, the business had consolidated sales figure of 195 billion Euros. Currently, the organization is managing 23 global brands in 130 countries of the world and registered 612 patents in the year 2010 (L’Oreal, 2011).

Theory of Consumer Behavior

Behavioral School of Thought: Classical Conditioning

In regards to the core behavioral theories, Schiffman (2008) notes that there are a number of routes through which the conditioning of consumers to buy a particular product can be done. The first route is the classical conditioning in which the consumer links a certain response to a product. For example, in regards to L’Oreal, classical condition will be that using the Voluminous Mascara introduced by the organization, the eyelashes will actually look darker and prettier and the result will be similar to what Ashwariya Rai puts on her eyes. The conditioning stimulus here will be the darker, more volume eyelashes like the ones that Ashwariya Rai appears with. Through the advertisement then the unconditioned response of the consumer who needs to buy mascara turns into a conditioned one.

Behavioral School of Thought: Cognitive Associative Learning

Next, Schiffman (2008) studies the cognitive associative learning behavior. According to this view, the relationship or (congruity) between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus influences the expectations which in turn influences the behavior of the being. This theory believes that the actions that occur after certain stimuli have been provided are in fact learned and occur because of the increase in knowledge. For example in the example above, the purchase of mascara would occur because knowledge about the qualities of the product has been gained. Unlike the cognitive associative behavior however, the classical conditioning believes that the reaction that occurs is actually reflex.

Economic Theory of Consumer Behavior

Apart from these theories, one consumer behavior theory that actually stems out economics more than psychology is the theory of consumer behavior. Irwin (2005) says that the consumers according to the model provided in this theory consumes at a point where there occurs an intersection between the consumer indifference curve (the choice curve of the customer where combinations of consuming two alternative goods achieve the same level of utility or satisfaction to the customer) and the budget constraint of the individual (as understood mostly by the current income levels of the person or the saved up income from a previous period).

This model assumes that the consumers are rational individuals who are responsive to a price change of products and who also have complete information about the product and the alternatives. Also it is assumed that the individual under question is subject to a budget constraint and that he or she has to manage more than one thing in a given period of time speaking financially.

Attitudes in Consumer Behavior

Perner (2011) however studies the theory of consumer behavior which says that the problem solving approaches of the consumers are actually internal (made up of the memory and thinking process of the individuals) and external (made up of the word of mouth, the media, the store visits and the trials amongst others). In this theory then, the evaluating behavior of the individuals are made up either compensatory, non compensatory, hybrid or abandoned strategy. The first one is the decision based on overall value of alternatives. The non compensatory evaluation requires that the consuming decision meets at least one important criterion and the hybrid is a combination of compensatory and non compensatory evaluation types. Finally, the abandoned strategy is when the consumer finds the initial criteria unrealistic and proceeds to a less desirable solution to the problem. Next, Perner (2011) notes that the consuming behavior of an individual is seriously affected by the attitudes of that individual; and that in turn attitudes are affected by the intentions, the beliefs and the feelings about a particular brand.

 As far as L’Oreal is concerned, consumer behavior can be understood critically through these four theories and the findings can be further used to design a strategy to expand the consumer market and the competitive advantage of the market.

Recommended Marketing Strategies

Starting with the attitudes of the consumers, L’Oreal can be added by understanding what beliefs individuals have about the products and services that the brand itself and that the competitors of the brand provide. This can be measured and analyzed through the attitude measure developed by Perner (2011). Next, the feelings of the consumers can be understood through this attitude model. For example, a fan of Ashwariya Rai, or Penelope Cruz (the brand ambassadors of L’Oreal) will feel a push for consuming the product after aggressively understanding how they feel for the product. Also, being there for a century, this brand is also a name through the generations. Understanding those feelings of the consumers will help steer the marketing plan of the organization towards a greater organizational performance overall.

Next, the theory of consumer behavior includes the importance of prices of the product. This is actually one of the core consumer behavior theories and is the most detail about the behaviors of the individuals. In this regard the organization can use the theory to understand what effect a price change of the products and services has on the sales of the organization and the demand of the consumers. Make up, after a certain limit is usually a luxury for individuals and L’Oreal is an expensive brand.

To keep up its market share and to not lose to organizations which are charging a lower price for similar products through the substitution and the income effect it is important for the management of the organization to carefully consider the underpinnings of the theory of consumer behavior. For this purpose, if the price of the good is actually not that far away from the actual investment put into the product in terms of research and development and manufacturing, the organization can actually use the coin of high quality. The perception of consumer about the quality of the product is a vital asset when an organization is designing its price and marketing policies. The better the consumer perceive the quality of a product to be, the more he or she will be willing to spare for that product because they will know that the money is being well spent and that there will be no hazardous consequences of using a particular product.

Conclusion

Nelson (1970) studies that the consumers are continuously busy in the choice making between different products however, the consequences of these choices are dimly known by them. One of the reasons is that they lack full knowledge about the price and quality of the product. The marketers of a business organization then can utilize the consuming behavior and the attitudes of the consumers for the purpose of attracting the maximum share of revenue for the organization.

This research paper studied how the marketers can actually use external factors including the social class, peer pressure, celebrity following and fashion trends to influence the consuming behavior of the consumers.

The second part of the research report analyzed the various theories of consumer behavior. Those theories then were in critically used to apply for the case of L’Oreal Paris, one of the largest multinationals in the world. Dholakia et al (2010) says that in the case of multimedia and multi channel organization like L’Oreal, the analysis of consumer behavior is different than the usual analysis. Finally, for the applied consumer behavior theories, a number of marketing strategies were recommended for L’Oreal.

References

Baker, D. (2003) Consumer Decision Making. 4th Ed. USA: South Western.

Dholakia, H. et al. (2010) Consumer Behavior in a Multichannel, Multimedia Retailing Environment. Journal of Interactive Marketing, Volume 24 (2), Pages 86-95.  

Hawkins (2008) Consumer Behavior. 6th Ed. India: Tata McGraw Hill

Irwin (2005) Theory of Consumer Behavior. USA: McGraw Hill.

Lamb, C., Hair, J. and McDaniel C. (2011) Essential of Marketing. 7th Ed. USA: South Western.

L’Oreal. (2018). L’Oreal Website

Nelson, P. (1970) Information and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 78 (2), pp. 311-329

Prener, L. (2011) The consumer Behavior: The psychology of marketing.

Schiffman, L and Kanuk, L. (2007) Consumer Behavior. 9th Ed. India: Pearson Education Inc

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Digital Branding Marketing Dissertation

Digital Branding – The Impact of Digitization on the Branding Process: Economic Opportunities and Risks

Digital Branding – The emergence of digital economies and markets has necessitated companies to rethink how they influence and create consumer impressions. Even today, consumers are still brand thinking is still exist just as in the traditional days. However, today, the competition is much stiff and the market much complex. Brands have to depend on social media to engage their consumers, sell their products and also create a following. Today, a brand is seen as a competitive edge of reference, a guarantee to consumers for long term sustainability and security, and dedication to delivering emotional, functional and economic benefits. Such a definition only increases obligations for business to perform, keep innovating while simultaneously keeping cost down. Overall, branding is just a way to justify the price, the quality, functionality, and the product appeals.

To achieve this, companies, even the biggest of them all must depend on digital channels to establish responsive engagement programs for communicating their justifications. However, for the process to be effective, they must understand the consumer because contemporary branding must adopt a consumer centric approach. More importantly, branding is about creating an exceptional experience and lasting impressions in the minds of consumers. Basically, a firm must be able to command attention of consumers with each new product, invention or development. Companies such as Apple who are the global leaders in sale of electronics are able to command such attentions. They have been able to establish themselves as an authority in the field of electronics. Essentially, this is the goal of every small or large corporations. Each company wants to have a dominating factor that differentiates themselves from competitors. This is why there is so much potential in digital branding. They have no boundaries when it comes to engaging consumers.

Dissertation Research Questions

  • How can digital branding contribute to SME’s growth, development and capacity to compete in today’s markets?
  • What inputs and factors determine successful digital branding?
  • Which process of digital branding holds merits in garnering more opportunities and eliminating risks?
  • What is the best way to increase conversation rates to more sales, better visibility and consumer engagement?
  • How to make digital branding data actionable?

Digital Branding Marketing Dissertation
Digital Branding Marketing Dissertation

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Problem Statement
Research Questions and Hypotheses
Research Questions
Hypotheses
Significance and Purposes of Dissertation
Methodology
Dissertation Structure
Limitation of Study
Definition

2 – Literature Review
Historical Review: Evolution of the Branding Process
Branding before the 1970s
Branding in the 1970s and 1980s
Branding in the 1990s and 21st century
Theoretical Review: Theories of Digital Branding
Customer Based Brand Equity Theory
Applying the Customer Based Brand Equity Theory
Empirical Literature
Dynamics of Digital Branding in an Interactive and Participative Business Environment
Digital Content and Online Presence
Digital Communication Model
Digital Customer Experience
Digital Branding Communication Tools
Content Branding
Social Media Branding
Brand Identity, Image, Trust, Loyalty, Reputation, Equity in Digital Era
Brand Identity
Brand Image
Brand Trust and Reputation
Brand Loyalty
Collaborative Branding
Corporate Branding
Consumer Behavior in Digital Marketing
Consumer Behavior and Behavioral Biases
Innovation in Digital Marketing – Brand Leveraging and Brand Building
The Red Bull’s Brand Leveraging Strategy
Innovative Brand Building
Content Integration – User and Firm Generated Content
User Generated Content (UGC)
Firm Generated Content (FGC)
Digital Branding Story Telling and Consumer Engagement
Storytelling in a Branding Perspective
Storytelling on Social Media Platforms
Brand Reputation Management – Organizational Rejoinders to Negative Brand Stories
Online Reputation Management
Monitoring – Analyzing – Influencing
Digital Branding Implication on Offline Brand Management

3 – The Ultimate Digital Process – Case Studies of Digital Market Leaders
Uber Digitalization Process
Amazon Digitalization Process
American Express Digitalization Process
Airbnb Digitalization Process
Tesla Digitalization Process

4 – Findings and Analysis: Economic Opportunities and Risks in Digital Branding
Statistics – Visual and Informatics
Data Tables, Figures, and Statistics
Confirmatory Analysis
Exploratory Analysis
Descriptive Analysis – Demographics, Quotations, Data Paraphrasing
Economic Opportunities in Digital Markets
Opportunities in Growth
Opportunities in Product Development
Opportunities in Service Improvement
Opportunities in Diversification
Opportunities in Lead Generation – Cross Sell, Upselling, and Retaining
Increase in Operational Efficiency
Finances – Higher Profits, Less Costs, Pricing, Underwriting
Brand Extension
Risks in Digital Markets
Risks in Reputation Management
Risks in Competition – b2b Engagement
Risks in Content Integration and Channel Conflict
Financial Risks – Budgets, Lower Revenue, Price Volatility
Cybercrime
Obsolete Models, Strategies or Products/Services
Inaction and Lower Retention
Distribution Challenges

5 – Discussion
Compare Findings to Theories
Brand Reputation
Brand Image
Brand Identity
Answering the Research Questions
Answering the Hypothesis
Practical Implications of Dissertation
Pedagogical Implications of Study
Future Areas of Research
Creating an Action Plan for Digital Markets

6 – Recommendations
Choosing a Brand Personality
Winning Strategies in Digital Markets
DRIP Framework
Blue Ocean Strategy
Literacy in Digital Branding
Creating Responsive Digital Platforms
Creating Digital Content
Integrating Digital Platforms

7 – Conclusions

Bibliography

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Gender Differences Social Media Dissertation

Cultural and Gender Differences in Information Sharing through Social Media

Dissertation Topic: Cultural and Gender Differences in Information Sharing through Social Media. The overall aim of the project is to take a closer look into the social media networking site Facebook and conduct my own research into how people generally use Facebook, the impact and implications Facebook has on a user, the thoughts on privacy with regards to Facebook and to see if a participants ethnic background has an effect on the way they use the site. I will also be analyzing both male and female participants to see if there are any significant differences with regards to their Facebook activity, what they post and what personal information they choose to share. During this study I will look closely into the attitudes of users when posting content, their own censorship and consideration for others when posting content of themselves and others.

At the end of this marketing dissertation I aim to have a clearer insight and a greater understanding into a users cultural or ethnic background and if this has any effect on the way that they use or see Facebook and if there are any outstanding correlations between variables also to see if there are any significant differences between male and female participants and how they use Facebook. Since the advancement of the Internet, Social Media has become a huge part to play in everyday life. Communication and Information sharing through different types of Social Media platforms is at its highest and more and more people are choosing to use these methods.

Cultural Gender Differences Information Sharing Social Media

This marketing dissertation aims to use a method that will help draw out concise results on how different cultures portray themselves through Social Media. This dissertation will consist of taking a close look as to how Social Media is used by individuals and the Social Media platform that has been chosen is Facebook. The dissertation will involve a number of phases; designing the specific method to collect the data required, carrying out the method, extracting the results collected from the method, finishing off with analysis and conclusiveness of the results. The outcome of this project is to be able to clearly differentiate between cultural groups and the way information is shared through Facebook.

Dissertation Aims

  • Gain an understanding between the use of Facebook among participants
  • Focus on ethnic background with regards to Facebook and the differences
  • Focus on the gender differences when using Facebook
  • Analyse and draw up valid conclusions based on Gender, Age, and Degree type and Personal preference i.e. Privacy on Facebook

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Overall aim of the project
Problem being addressed by the project
Motivations and usefulness of the project
Aims of the project

2 – Literature Review
Privacy on Facebook
Posting content to Facebook
Facebook Activity
Gender differences on Facebook
Cultures and Facebook

3 – Methodology
Research Methods
Individual Interviews
Focus Groups
Questionnaires
Methodology Choice
Construction of questionnaire
Data capture plan
Time length
Potential Challenges
Participants
Data

4 – Methodology Analysis
Overview of data collection
Questionnaire Responses
Data capture
Implications

5 – Facebook Results Analysis
Introduction
Gender
Gender and Privacy
Levels of concern with privacy on Facebook
Concerns of posting content on Facebook
Self-Censoring on Facebook
Posting personal information to Facebook
Sharing personal preferences on Facebook
The type of information publicised on Facebook
Facebook Friends
Ethnic Groups
Purpose for using Facebook and account creation on Facebook
The laws and restrictions on Facebook in China
Publicising information to Facebook based on ethnic background
Privacy concerns based on ethnic background
How participants portray themselves on Facebook
Degree Scheme
Consideration of others
Untagging a photo on Facebook
Gender and Ethnic Background
Sharing phone numbers and email addresses on Facebook
What participants Facebook Friends can see
Selecting the audience on your Facebook account

6 – Conclusion
Highlights of the project
Data Analysis
Background research
Self-reflection
Data collection
Questions
Feedback
Lessons learned
Original Objectives
Final statement

Bibliography

Appendix
Questionnaire

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Consumer Purchasing Behaviour Social Media

The Impact of Social Media in Influencing Consumer Purchasing Behaviour: A Study of Clothing Retailers

Title: Consumer Purchasing Behaviour and Social Media Influence. The impact of social media on the purchasing behaviour is an area of interest that has gained much interest and study in the 21st century. This research focuses in the ways in which social media has had an effect on the purchasing behaviour and most of the interest in the clothing and retail industry. The first part of the research will take a look at the various ways in which the social media influence has impacted on the purchasing behaviour. The different stages of purchase will be analysed in the background study, both before purchase, during purchase and after purchase behaviour and the influence of the different forms of social media on the same.

The data collection method that has been used during this research is the analytical study design. The researcher distributed questionnaires to a study sampled population, which consisted of university students at London South Bank University since they are considered to be the most consumers of social media. The results that were obtained indicted that social media has a very big influence on both the three stages of the purchase process. The recommendation, review and consumer motivation among others are the motivating factors that make the use of social media have a big influence on the purchasing behaviour of consumers.

Consumer Purchasing Behaviour Dissertation
Consumer Purchasing Behaviour Dissertation

This research will therefore have a big influence on the marketing strategy that will be used by future clothe retailers. It also gives an insight on the influence of technology and social media to be specific on the purchase behaviour of the modernised internet users. Therefore, more research should be done by clothe retailers on the best way to promote their businesses through social media.

Dissertation objectives

  • To determine the role of social media in influencing the pre-purchase phase of the consumer purchasing Behaviour lifecycle
  • To determine the role of social media in influencing the purchase phase of the consumer purchasing Behaviour lifecycle
  • To determine the role of social media in influencing the post-purchase phase of the consumer purchasing Behaviour lifecycle

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Background of the study
Statement of research
Study objectives
General objective
Specific objectives
Research questions
Significance of the study
The scope of the study
The study limitations
Research structure

2 – Literature Review
Social media
Social media marketing
Consumer purchasing behaviour
The role of social media in influencing the pre-purchase phase
The role of social media in influencing the purchase phase
The role of social media in influencing the post-purchase phase

3 – Research Methodology
Research Design
Population
Sampling Design
Sampling Frame
Sampling Technique
Data Collection Methods
Questionnaires
Research procedures
Data Analysis Methods
Limitations
Ethical Considerations

4 – Results and Findings
Description of the sample
Response Rate
Respondents’ gender
Social Media Sites
Time Spent on Social Media Sites
The role of social media on making purchase judgements
Frequency of Influence of Social media on purchase decisions in clothing Retail Industry
Social Media Influences on the Pre- purchase Stage Analysis in Clothing Retail Industry
Problem recognition
Information search
Evaluation of alternatives
Social Media Influence on the Purchase Stage Analysis in Clothing Retail Industry
Consumer Attitude in Purchase Stage
Consumer Motivation in Purchase Stage
Product Perception in Purchase Stage
Social Media Influence on the Post-Purchase Stage Analysis in Clothing Retail Industry
Feedback
Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
Product Performance

5 – Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations
Discussion
The role of social media in influencing consumer purchasing behaviour
Social media Influences on the Pre-purchase Stage
Social media Influences on the Purchase Stage
Social media Influences on the Post-Purchase Stage
Conclusion
The role of social media in influencing consumer purchasing behaviour in the clothing and retail industry
Social media Influences on the Pre-purchase Stage
Social media Influences on the purchase Stage
Social media Influences on the Post- Purchase Stage
Recommendations
Recommendations for further research

References

Appendix
Questionnaire

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Luxury Goods Consumer Purchasing Behaviour

Evolution in Consumer Experience and Purchasing Behaviour of Luxury Goods

Title: Consumer Experience and Purchasing Behaviour of Luxury Goods. This dissertation aims to determine whether behaviour changes in consumers have been affecting sales of luxury branded accessories over recent years. The research is significant to the luxury products particularly the sale of accessories within the fashion industry. The fashion and design industry stakeholders range from store-owners to merchandisers and business executives whose decisions reflect on the customer’s reactions and the behaviours toward product thus affecting sales of that particular product. The purpose of conducting this research is to find out whether the luxury products’ perception has depreciated over time due to impacts brought about by changes in customers’ behaviours. The research also aimed at determining whether luxury accessories have become readily available in the market and the impacts of the associated factors which make the brands less luxurious.

The consumer behaviour is basically affected by factors such as change in mode of communication, social networking, globalization, mass consumption, harmonization of the culture, e-tail, celebrity branding and the 2008 economic recession. The researcher has collected data from a wide range of literature such as academic sources and journals to help in finding out the main changes existing in consumers’ behaviour. These academic materials represent the theoretical section of this research. The research conducted involved carrying out interviews which were compiled per oral and written format. This were then sent to luxury retailers as a section of case study and later analyzed. The author finally managed to compare and contrast the obtained results on the theoretical analysis in parallel to the company case. The results were compared with a report conducted on luxury spending habits which have been published by the American Express representing part of this research discussion.

Luxury Goods Brands Dissertation
Luxury Goods Brands Dissertation

Dissertation objectives

  • To determine the consumer’s experience and purchase behaviour changes in the recent years within the luxury market
  • To find out whether the consumers’ behaviour changes phenomenon depreciates the luxury value of luxury brands
  • To find out whether the consumer experience and purchasing behaviour changes influenced consumption and consumerization of the luxury brands leading to the wider accessibility of luxury in the fashion industry

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Background of the study
The aim of the study
Objectives of the research
General objective
Specific objectives
Research questions
Research hypothesis
Research methodology
Expected outcomes
Problems and limitations
Theoretical framework

2 – Literature Review
Background information
The history and evaluation of luxury goods branding in high fashion
The key concepts
Accessories
The relationship between the price and quality in the luxury market
Globalization and changes in the luxury goods market communication
Social networking
Blogs
Mass consumption
The global marketplaces, global consumer culture and harmonization
E-tail
Celebrity branding and endorsement
Celebrities as a reference group
Celebrities as style icons
From the point of view of a fashion luxury brand
From the point of view of the luxury goods market as a whole
Future of the luxury products and market after the recession

3 – Research Methodology
Research Design
Data Collection Methods
Compiling Interviews
Sampling Frame
Piloting
Company Cases
ASOS
Helsinki 10
FINSK
Data Analysis
Limitations

4 – Data Findings and Analysis
Results
Discussion

5 – Conclusion
Recommendation
Scope for Future

References

Appendix
Questionnaires

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