UK Fashion Changes in the Clothing Market

UK Fashion Clothing Market

The UK fashion clothing market has been hit by many changes in the last decade. The UK’s plan to exit from the European Union has been one of the main changes that are facing business in the UK. The EU has been regulating trade in its member states and the UK’s exit will present a new environment for fashion retail market in the country (Dhingra, Ottaviano, Sampson, & Reenen, 2016). UK Fashion retailers have been enjoying free trade under the membership of the EU. In the past cloths are presented in shops where buyers could come and buy. Then come e-commerce. Cloths are sold over the websites and marketing is done through social media, a change that many clothing retailers are struggling to come into terms with. The economic recession presents an environment where businesses struggle to grow due to low sales and the high cost of doing business. This report will refer to Zara fashion Company to analyze the key changes in the UK fashion clothing market and suggest strategies to fix the changes.

UK Fashion – An Introduction to Zara Fashion Company

Rosali Mera and Amancio Ortega founded Zara in 1975 in Galicia, Spain, under the name Zorba. They later changed the name to Zara after noticing that there was a bar several meters away which had the same name. The company opened many other outlets in Spain during the 1980s. During the 1980s, Ortega started using a group of designers rather than individual retailers to respond to the new trends in the market in the fastest way possible. He also introduced information technologies to reduce lead times. In 1988, the company started to expand internationally and by 2011, the company had many retailing shops in the UK, China, Estonia, Russia, Philippines, South Korea, India, Australia, and South Africa. The company sells over 480 million clothing items every year in its shops.

In 2010, the company launched an e-commerce site where the cloths can be sold. The site was available in the UK, Germany, France, Portugal, and Italy. After five years, its online services extended to all other countries where it has shops. In 2014, RFID technology was made available in its shops. RFID technology involves fixing RFID chips on clothes before they are sold which notify them when a cloth is sold for an immediate replacement.

Zara retails on both men and women clothes. Children cloths are also sold under the name Zara Kids (Zara.com, n.d.). Zara uses consumer trends in the market to supply the clothes. The company spends less than 15 days before new cloths reach the shops after they have been manufactured.

Changes within the UK Fashion Retail Market

Economic Changes

A report made by the World Bank puts the UK at number fifth in the world of the largest economies. The high population of the UK and enabling infrastructure enables smooth business which makes the country attain the fifth largest GDP in the world after the US, Japan, and Germany. However, the UK was hit by the economic recession in 2008 and the recessionary conditions are just decreasing gradually. Zara has been storing new clothes in its shops twice a week but during the recession period, the target could not be achieved. The recession period presented a high cost of living to citizens making it difficult to buy cloths every time. Zara had to store its clothes in stores for a longer period than expected.

Another economic change that has hit the UK market is increased inflation rates. The inflation rate in the UK reached 3.1% percent in November 2017. This increase in inflation rates translated to increased prices on clothes which make it difficult for consumers to purchase the clothes (Cowling, Liu, Ledger, & Zhang, 2015). Zara stores cloths which have been manufactured in its plant in Spain. The inflation rates in the UK makes the cost of importation to be high which forces the company to sell its cloths at higher prices than before. The consumer confidence in the UK is depreciating due to an unexplained increase in the company’s products. The company is struggling to restore consumer confidence and at the same time sell at prices that can make it make profits.

Corporate taxes has been increasing in the UK. The corporate taxes were 17% at first before they increased to 19% and now the Labour Party promises to increase the corporate taxes from the current 19% to 21%. The corporate taxes are one of the largest expenses of the company as they account for 19% of the profits that are made. Increasing the corporate taxes will lead to a reduction of the amount of money that is shared to the owners of the business (Suárez Serrato, & Zidar, 2016). They increase the cost of doing business which forces retail companies to increase their prices.

Political Changes in UK Fashion

The UK is set to exit from the EU. The company faces uncertainties of whether the importation tariffs will increase and by how much. The company sells which have been manufactured in Spain cloths in its UK shops. The UK and Spain being member states of the EU enjoy free trade. By free trade policies of the EU, the company pays zero importation tariffs to import its goods to the UK. This means that it can sell the sale the cloths at the same prices as those in Spain.

However, the UK’s exit from the EU (Brexit) will come with changes in trade terms which will include the introduction of importation tariffs since the UK will no longer be a member state of the EU. The companies will have to pay importation tariffs for the goods imported from Spain. This will increase its cost and make the company increase the price of clothes. Selling the cloths at high prices than those of the competitors like Arcadia UK fashion group which sell clothes made in the UK will have adverse effects on its business.

The pre-Brexit policies have not been formulated which brings further uncertainties about how the business will be done after the UK withdraws from the EU. The minister of trade in the UK held a meeting with the UK Fashion and Textile Association in December 2018. However, a clear direction was not given to the fashion retailer on how they will do their business after the Brexit.

Technological Changes

The UK provides one of the fasted bandwidths on the continent. The penetration of smartphones in the country has been high in the last decade. This enabling environment has made people within the market to change their shopping preferences to online shopping. People are now preferring to shop over the websites (Peng, An, & Vecchi, 2017). UK Fashion retail companies are facing this challenge by investing in e-commerce and launching shopping websites. Zara has never been left out in this campaign and in 2014, it launched its online boutique in the UK.

Environmental Changes

The recessionary period in the UK presents an environment where business finds it difficult to grow at the expected rate. In as much as Zara Company want to expand by opening more sales in the UK, the environment discourages such a move. The recessionary environment also makes it difficult to make the expected prices and abide to its policy of replacing the stocks twice a week.

Legal Changes

In May 2018, General Data Protection Regulatory (GDPR) came into force. The policy requires every social media firm and e-commerce sites to be transparent on how customers data is used. Zara Fashion Company is affected by the regulation since it owns an online boutique launched in 2014. To avoid litigations, the company should adhere to the General Data Protection Regulatory (GDPR) regulations. In April 2018, the bill passed by the UK parliament came into force. The bill required that all companies whose employee turnover is above 250 to publish the details of the employees including their gender and their salaries. This new rule affects Zara because it has more than 250 employees.

Social Changes

Unlike Spain where the market comprises of one main race with similar culture, the UK market features multi-ethnic cultures. The market has different design needs which should be fulfilled. Different people living in the UK have different design preferences.

Changes within the Micro Environment

Changing trends in the UK Fashion Market

The designs in the clothing market are subject to change within a short period of time. If the clothes are not sold within a short period of time they become useless to the customer and they might never be sold (Grewal, Roggeveen, & Nordfält, 2016). The company uses a group of designers to design every new design that is introduced as a tactic to respond to the changing trends in the market. The company also sells the cloths within a week to avoid cloths saying for long in the shelves which might render them useless. The RFID tag on clothes can monitor the clothes that have spent a long period in the shelves and change them.

Change in Marketing Strategies

Two decades ago Television sets and the print media were the well-known and reliable marketing channels. However, the changes in technology have brought digital marketing where marketing can be done over the internet. Social media marketing is also a new trend in fashion marketing. Social media sites are being used to market fashion products. Links are created on social media pages which lead the user to the website of the retail company (Okonkwo, 2016).

Increased Competition in the Retail UK Fashion Market

The UK market has too many too many fashion companies which bring undue competition in the market. The competition has led to a reduction of prices by some fashion retailers. Large discounts are also being offered to lure customer.

Online shopping

Over the last decade, consumers have a switching motive from shopping in the malls to shopping over the e-commerce sites. Some customers prefer online shopping to shopping in the shops. Retailers in the UK fashion market are exerting pressure by using e-commerce sites to sale their products. The company’s in the market are now required by the standards set by the level of competition to have both selling channels. Zara Company uses its online boutique to respond to such changes in selling strategies. The company has now used its online platform for a period of four years.

UK Fashion Dissertation
UK Fashion Dissertation

Strategies and Tactics to Employ

Open a manufacturing plant in the UK

Zara Company depends on clothes that are made in Spain and transported to the UK. After the UK’s exit from the EU, there will be tariffs imposed on the imports. The tariffs will increase the price of clothes imported by Zara Company. To avoid import tariffs Zara should retail on cloths made in the UK rather than importing its stock from Spain. Zara has four manufacturing plants where its cloths are made. The plants are in Spain, Morocco, Portugal, and Turkey. The cloths made in Spain are freely exported and sold in European Union member states including the UK, Spain being a member of the EU. However, after the Brexit, it will not be easy to transport them under free trade terms to the UK.

Staff Training

One of the challenges in retail fashion market is the ever-changing trends in the market. A new design can register large sales today and become an old fashioned cloth with a year. If such cloth spends a year on the shelves without beings customers will start ignoring it for new fashions. Although Zara has been using trend in the market to sell its clothes, staff training is essential. The staff should be trained on how to respond to ever-changing trends in the fashion market (Dillenburger, 2017). With the incorporation of new technologies in its business process, the company should also train its staff on how to use the new technologies.

The interaction of the staff with customers is also very important in ensuring that the customer buys the product and that the customer is maintained to purchase in the future. The staff should be trained on how to interact well with the customers. Every staff member should be trained in good customer relations.

Using both traditional marketing strategies and Digital Marketing

Both digital marketing and traditional channels like print media and television sets are useful when making advertisements. The company should employ both channels to boost its sales without ignoring either of them. Many people use the internet on daily basis and targeting those people through digital marketing is a wise idea. However, the two channels are not mutually exclusive and television sets, radios, and the print media can be used to reach people. Many people use these channels and digital marketing should never be used in place of them.

Forecasting

Every part of the world has cloths which are highly preferred to others. The company should be carrying research on which clothes to sell to a particular ethnic group as the market in the United Kingdom comprises of many cultures. This will reduce the risks associated with clothes being on the shelves for many days.

Continuous innovation

People in business are continuously innovating new strategies to make more sales. Retailers are not an exception and they should be innovative enough to be ahead of their competitors. A big challenge that is facing the retail market in the UK is increased competition from other retailers. Innovation is a tool that can be used to reduce competition. Innovation can involve using a shared economy by using the resources of other firms to boost sales. There are online platforms which sell various products without being fashion retailers or specializing in a particular product. Zara should partner with such firms so that the firms can be selling the products of Zara on top of Zara’s online boutique.

Recommendations

The Zara Company has tried to be innovative by introducing RFID chips to monitor the movement of cloths and introducing Zara online boutique to boost its online sales. The company and other fashion companies in the UK market should use the following challenges to meet the changes in the fashion market.

  • The company should open a manufacturing plant to avoid import tariffs after the Brexit. The UK might impose tariffs on the goods imported from Spain after the UK’s exit from the EU.
  • The company should use a variety of channels to make sales. Online shopping and shopping in the shops are all important.
  • Digital marketing is becoming popular in the retail market. The company should use both digital marketing and traditional forms of marketing.
  • Innovation is the best tool to use to have a competitive advantage over other companies. The company should be continuously innovating to meet the challenges in the market.
  • Having litigations against a company risks its existence and loss of funds through settling fines. The company should comply with the regulations set by the relevant authorities. It should be transparent on user data usage and should publish the details of its employees.

Conclusion

The changes in the fashion market have been a challenge to Zara and other companies in the market. The Brexit has also brought confusion about how cross border trade will be after the UK withdraws from the AU. Zara retails on clothes which have been by its plant in Spain which puts it under a threat of incurring import tariffs to the UK just after the Brexit. This threat can be met by setting up a manufacturing plant in the UK. Considering all channels in selling products and all forms of marketing can help the company meet the challenges in the market.

Bibliography

Cowling, M., Liu, W., Ledger, A. and Zhang, N., 2015. What really happens to small and medium-sized enterprises in a global economic recession? UK evidence on sales and job dynamics. International Small Business Journal33(5), pp.488-513.

Dhingra, S., Ottaviano, G.I., Sampson, T. and Reenen, J.V., 2016. The consequences of Brexit for UK trade and living standards.

Dillenburger, K., 2017. Staff training. In Handbook of Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder (pp. 95-107). Springer, Cham.

Grewal, D., Roggeveen, A.L. and Nordfält, J., 2016. Roles of retailer tactics and customer-specific factors in shopper marketing: Substantive, methodological, and conceptual issues. Journal of Business Research69(3), pp.1009-1013.

Okonkwo, U., 2016. Luxury fashion branding: trends, tactics, techniques. Springer.

Peng, F., An, N. and Vecchi, A., 2017. Cross-Cultural Study of Online User Behavior in Fashion E-Commerce: A Comparison of Britain and China. In Advanced Fashion Technology and Operations Management (pp. 277-293). IGI Global.

Suárez Serrato, J.C. and Zidar, O., 2016. Who benefits from state corporate tax cuts? A local labor markets approach with heterogeneous firms. American Economic Review106(9), pp.2582-2624.

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I hope you enjoyed reading this post on changes in the UK fashion and how it affects the clothing market. There are many other titles available in the Marketing Dissertation Collection that should be of interest to marketing students and practitioners. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of marketing such as branding, corporate advertising, marketing strategy and consumerism to name a few. I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Marketing Concepts Research Dissertations

Marketing Concepts

Title: Marketing Concepts for Marketing Students. Marketing is a mode of communication that exists between an individual or a company and their clients with the intention of selling them their products and services. Being able to communicate the value of a company or an individual’s product or service is a significant aspect or element of marketing. As such, various marketing concepts that including advertisement, promotion, marketing mix, marketing research, pricing, packaging, personal selling, brands, business markets, buying behaviors of customers, retailing, sales management, distribution channels, global markets, innovations, and trends in marketing, among others exist. In particular, this research paper presents an evaluation of marketing mix, market research, and pricing with an intention of creating a further understanding of the concepts. The general understanding is that marketing defines everything under the management process via which merchants and services provided move from being mere concepts to the point where they reach the end users or customers.

Marketing Mix

This concept defines a planned or scheduled mix of the controllable fundamentals of the marketing plan of a product commonly referred to as 4Ps: promotion, product, place, and price. These elements are continuously attuned until the correct recipe that meets the desires of the customers purchasing the product is established, while yielding optimum profit.

In some cases the ‘P’ of product is replaced with presentation. With a combination of the 4Ps, business managers have to avail the right products in the right location or place, at the right timing and price. Essentially, a business is compelled to develop a product that a specific segment or group of personalities want, avail it for sale at a location that those personalities regularly visit, and tag a cost on it or price it such that its value matches the actual value that they feel they obtain from it; and actually implement all this within a duration or time when they are in demand. This whole concept defines marketing mix.

Luan and Sudhir (2010) argue that the 4Ps act as the parameters that an organization’s marketing manager regulate or control, based on the external and internal constraints of the business or marketing surrounding (environment). The objective is to come up with decisions that focus the 4Ps on the clients in the market that is targeted with an intention of creating a perceived product value and give a positive feedback.

In their discussions, Luan and Sudhir (2010) define a product as tangible objects, including services, which are offered by a company or an individual. Decisions that marketing managers can make on products include, but are not limited to choosing a brand name, packaging, warranty, functionality, accessories, services, styling, repairs, quality, support, safety and styling of the product.

Place defines where buyers obtain a good or service from. Under the element of ‘place,’ a variety of questions can be asked to meet the quest or need of customers (Luan & Sudhir, 2010). For instance, a marketing manager may want to know how to access the right and best distribution channel, determine whether to use sales force, or may be become part of a trade fair, make online product submissions, or better yet still mail product samples to catalogue organizations or companies. Imperative to note under this concept is equally determining what one’s competitors are doing, how they do it, the lessons that can be learnt from their actions, and finally determine a differentiation formula.

Pricing or the cost charged for a service obtained or a product purchased is equally a significant element of the 4Ps. According to O’Cass and Heirati (2015), one requires to work extra hard to determine what customers really want, in addition to identifying where a majority of them do their routinely shopping. Important to note is that getting just one of this elements wrong could be a recipe for disaster. For instance, a product might be priced too high or too low with an intention of attracting clients, but if the target group have no capacity to afford the costly product or its too much cheap or below their standard, then the product might not be bought or assumed to be of low quality respectively (O’Cass & Heirati, 2015). Essentially, getting right the marketing mix acts as a leading edge where any marketing manager should begin when thinking through their plans to offer a particular service or product, and it majorly helps them evade simple mistakes.

Within the context of marketing mix, the element of ‘promotion’ takes into consideration the numerous dimensions of marketing communication, and specifically the communication of the details of the product or service with the intention of achieving a positive response from the customers (Powers & Loyka, 2010). Decisions that can be made under marketing promotion or communication include whether to use a push, pull, or other forms of promotional scheme, identifying the modes of doing adverts, sales improvements and promotions, publicity works and public relations, the budget for marketing communication, in addition to making use of individual selling strategies or a sales team (Powers & Loyka, 2010).

Generally, the elements of marketing mix are used to help marketing managers to successfully position their goods and services, or what could be referred to as market offers. The aforementioned elements or the 4Ps of marketing are used by marketing managers to define their marketing options based on their product, place, price, and promotion (4Ps). This kind of model can be used when an individual is making plans for a completely new business venture, in the evaluation of an already existing business offer or product, and finally in the optimization of the effect or impact of a venture in regard to a targeted market.

Product; the product refers to the physical commodity that is sold to the market by the seller. The product forms an important element in the marketing mix because it gives different products the require matrix. The product might occur both in physical and invisible form. Products which are visible might be categorized further on the basis of service, warranty, packaging and stature. Product differentiation is based on increased level of appearance and product formation.

Price; price is the amount of money which is paid as an exchange of the products. Prices vary due to the quality and quantity of commodities and services. The major reason why price forms an extensive aspect of marketing is because of the relationship between the price levels and the movement of goods from one location to the next. Price includes discounts, leases, promotion, and profits. Marketing mix has been related to the number of companies which operate within the designated places. This is the most significant element among the 4Ps of marketing mix because it is the only one that generates an income for the company. The other three elements actually have impacting costs when implemented. For instance, it will cost the business money to design and develop or produce a new product, distribute it, and finally promote it in the market.

Promotion; Promotion refers to the marketing of products to the designated buyers and sellers. Since prices could be extremely large, marketing is an important concept because it helps to eliminate any disadvantages related to the product. The major role of promotion is to reduce competition between different products. Promotion also helps in determination of the worth of other customers in relation to the to the promotion and advertising decisions.

Marketing Concepts Research

Marketing managers are in need of data or information so that they successfully introduce a service or product that would create a lasting value in the mind of clienteles (McDaniel & Gates, 2005). However, the opinion of value is personal, and whatever clients attach so much value to this year may be completely different from what they would attach value in the coming years or years. In this manner, the attributes that create a perception of value cannot merely be deduced from ordinary information.

Rather, a marketing manager must collect and analyze data. The objective of the concept of marketing research is to provide managers with the facts in addition to informing their direction or decisions, more specifically those that involve marketing choices. In order to fully benefit from the concept of marketing research, the individuals that make use of the collected data have to understand the process of carrying out the research in addition to considering its limitations (Malhotra, 2010).

Burns and Bush (2000) describe the process of marketing research to include the collection, analyzing and interpreting data or information as regards a market, and in regard to the services or products to be offered for sale in that market, plus about the history, current and possible clients for the service or product ; research delving into the desires of the targeted market of business, characteristics, location, and needs of the targeted business market, the overall industry, in addition to the specific competitors that the business has (Burns & Bush, 2000).

The foundation of all the successful business ventures is accurate and detailed information since it issues a wealth of data or information as regards prospective and existing clients, the competitors, and the general industry. It gives business owners the freedom to determine the viability of a business before committing considerable amounts of money or resources to the business venture.

Marketing research provides a marketing manager or the overall company with the relevant information that would help them solve their likely future challenges, more so in the marketing segment, which makes it a critical aspect in the process or managing and planning a business venture (Burns & Bush, 2000). In actual sense, business strategies that include market segmentation (spotting particular groups within a target market) in addition to product differentiation, which simply means identifying the distinguishing factors of a business’ products or services as compared to those offered by competitors, are completely impossible to establish or develop minus doing a marketing research (Zarrella & Zarrella, 2010).

Marketing research entails two major forms of data, namely primary and secondary information. Primary data refers to the results of a research that a business owner decides to compile in person, or perhaps indirectly hire a different individual to perform the action of collecting information. Contrarily, secondary data makes reference to the information that is already compiled and organized in a specific format minus the researcher’s involvement. Sample secondary sources include reports from trade unions or associations, government agency studies, in addition to other business ventures within the same industry. Secondary data is commonly used in this process.

Marketing Concepts Research
Marketing Concepts Research

For marketing managers, the significance of research is not only limited to learning but also a vital element when making good managerial decisions. Essentially, marketing research provides individuals with a general picture of what is taking place or likely to happen. If implemented well, marketing research avails offers as regards the alternative choices or decisions that can possibly be made within a company. For example, a properly done research can offer managers alternative methods on how to enter new markets and as well help them introduce new products. Marketing decisions are known to be less risky, more so when the marketing manager has a variety of options to choose from.

Marketing research is considered as the foundation of business marketing. Marketing decisions require to be substantiated through research so that the customers view the business as favorable. In addition, marketing research can help a business stand up to other external pressures in addition to competition. The general understanding is that all the areas covered under marketing, in addition to making marketing decisions, ought to be supported with some degree of research.

Even though marketing research is significant in making marketing decisions, it does not require any further elaboration to attain its purpose. Many a time, taking time to do a quick search via the internet will avail the required data or information. However, there comes a time when more complex processes of research are requisite, in addition to understanding the correct method of conducting a research, whether they are doing the work at a personal level or have hired someone to do it can make the projects much more successful.

Trends in Marketing

The current decade has seen an increased number of innovations. The innovations in marketing have seen increased incorporation of technology and marketing. Several trends have developed for the past five years and their impact on marketing has been massive. The trends include;

Virtual reality; virtual reality emerged in the late 2000. Virtual reality incorporates online marketing of products with virtual content. Virtual reality encourages each firm to provide its customers with a 360 immersive story. The engagement between the commercials provides a call to action procedure in each firm. Increased online marketing has resulted in increased use of apps like Facebook to make sales. Facebook has been at the forefront in provision of marketing for various products.

Social media marketing; Google has revolutionized marketing strategies for the past three years. Increased level of functionality and presence of Facebook and twitter in the search engines has increased the marketing probabilities of different companies. The major revolution accompanied by these marketing strategies is the increased level of procedural sales that have increased the sales in different companies. Digital migrations and increased connectivity of social media sites has been the major reason why social media marketing has gained much more ground.

In a recent study, Facebook has been voted as the most appreciated social site among the other sites. Incorporation of advertising portals in Facebook has helped many business advertisements to receive much more attention. The conversion portal on Facebook includes the dominant pictures that could be included when making promotion on Facebook. The attribution model on twitter and Facebook is shown by the existence of both the website and an email which is used to log in. The attribution panel provides an extensive channel that is important for the formation of correct provisions. Twitter and Facebook have been the foremost media sites to embrace development of an expensive direct channel. The direct provision of advertisement is an essential strategy developed by Facebook in order to achieve this.

Green marketing; Global warming is a major topic in 21st century. Increased demand for proper products has seen increased embrace of for green products. Green products mean that the world is resolving to use products that don’t emit much carbon or excessive methane. The target audience for green products revolves around increased appreciation for products that use less energy and don’t emit any poisonous gases to the environment. The concept of green energy has been used in marketing especially for products that use power. Increased appreciation for clean energy has led to reduced number of products that use black energy. Green energy has been used by majority of firms to increase the level of marketing (Blick, 2008).

Marketing automation; marketing automation is mostly based on the production of content based advertisement methods in the markets. The current market systems have been based on the increased level of competition that has been witnessed in production procedures. Marketing automation is a new concept because it has based its advertisement modes on content reproduction and analysis. Increased level of production has increased the number of sales per production unit. Improved marketing choices have increased the level of sales funnel within certain regions. Sales automation has led to increased sales in different firms because of the increased level of segmented customer levels (In, 2015).

Better relationship marketing; relationship marketing refers to the relationship between the buyers and the sellers in the appropriate way. Over the past years, increased level of relationship marketing has led to increased number of sales. In the past five years, better relationship marketing has been revolutionized through better marketing. Marketing dynamics for a long time have been based on the relationship between consumer surpluses and producer surpluses. Producer surplus means that there is a sale of an extra unit of production. Better relationship management limits the number of sales per unit to a specified number only.

The dynamics of marketing have been improved through better relationship management. Better relationship management has been enhanced by the adoption of smartphone technology. Smart phones possess apps which have been utilized by different companies in order to make increased sales per unit. A consumer who possesses a strong internet connection is likely to access more services. Dynamic trends in the marketing field have led to increased sales. The marketing of concepts through automation could be altered through the use of increased investment in content management and analysis. The concepts on marketing have been enhanced through the development of extensive development.

Marketing Concepts References

Burns, A. C., Bush, R. F., & Sinha, N. (2000). Marketing research (pp. 599-602). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Zarrella, D. (2010). The social media marketing book. Beijing: O’Reilly.

Blick, D. (2011). The ultimate small business marketing concepts book. Surrey: Filament Publishing.

O’Cass A, Heirati N. (2015) Mastering the complementarily between marketing mix and Customer-Focused capabilities to enhance new product performance. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing.

In Tsiakis, T. (2015). Trends and innovations in marketing concepts and information systems.

Luan, Y. J., and Sudhir, K. 2010. “Forecasting Marketing-Mix Responsiveness for New Products,” Journal of Marketing Research (47:3), pp. 444-457.

Powers, T. L., & Loyka, J. J. (2010). Adaptation of marketing mix elements in international markets. Journal of global marketing, 23(1), 65-79.

Zarrella, D., & Zarrella, A. (2010). The Facebook marketing book. ” O’Reilly Media, Inc.”.

Malhotra, N. K. (2010). Marketing research: An applied orientation (Vol. 834).

McDaniel, C., & Gates, R. (2005). Marketing Research.

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Experiential Marketing Dissertation

Experiential marketing (EM) is known to increase overall and spontaneous brand awareness, purchases and recommendations by huge values in the market. This mode of marketing is fast gaining relevance in the market and becoming the necessary tool for marketers in general and specific for brand managers. With this importance, there has been a growing need for the use of experiential marketing in organizations thus indicating their relevance and effectiveness especially in the perishable market and the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. In determining the relevance and appropriateness of experiential marketing a relationship between the marketing strategy and other variables will be explored, the positive consequences of these variables on experiential marketing is to indicate the relevance and appropriateness of the marketing mode.

In regards to the effectiveness, relevance and appropriateness of experiential marketing, the study sought to establish the relationship between experiential marketing, the consumer behavior or the behavior of purchaser, experiential value and customer loyalty in the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. In executing the study, a population of 1090 respondents was evaluated with the survey design being cross-sectional. In this population a sample of 381 was drawn.

Questionnaires were administered to assist collect the responses. In establishing the relationship of the study, there was a rigorous data analysis that was carried out. The relationship would help determine the relevance, appropriateness and effectiveness of EM. From the study, the relationships between the experiential marketing, consumer behavior, experiential value and the loyalty of the customer were found to be positive and quite significant in determining the appropriateness of the marketing mode. Upon carrying out regression analysis, the results showed that EM, value and consumer behavior were significant predictors of customer loyalty. Given that the model used could only explain the customer loyalty of FMCG products by 45.8% in variance, the study recommends that further research should be done with other factors in place or put in consideration especially those that were not part of the model. In carrying out a further research, a longitudinal study is recommended.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To carry out a detailed literature review of previous literature concerning the effectiveness, appropriateness and relevance of integration experiential marketing in organizations.
  • To examine the appropriateness of EM
  • To establish the relevance of experiential marketing
  • To determine the potential effectiveness of
    EM and experiential value.
  • To determine the relationship between
    EM, experiential value and customer loyalty

Experiential Marketing Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Objectives
Research Questions
Scope of the Study
Subject scope
Geographical scope
Time Scope
Significance of the Study
Conceptual Framework

2 – Literature Review
Customer Loyalty
Experiential Value and Purchase Behavior
Experiential Value and Customer Loyalty
Purchase Behaviour and Customer Loyalty
Consumer Relationships and Emotions with Brands
Experiential Marketing Trend
Schmitt’s 5-Stages Experiential Marketing Strategy

3 – Methodology
Research Design
Study Population and Area
Sample Size and Sampling Technique
Data Sources and Data Collection Instruments
Measurement of variables
Validity and Reliability Instrument
Data Processing and Analysis
Limitations to the Study

4 – Analysis and Discussion
Survey results
The Relationship between the Study Variables
Customer Loyalty
EM and Purchase Behavior
EM and Experiential Value
EM, Experiential Value and Customer Loyalty
Regression Analysis

5 – Discussion
Customer Loyalty
EM and Purchase Behavior
EM and Experiential Value
EM and Experiential Value and Customer Loyalty

6 – Conclusions and Recommendations
Recommendations
Areas for further study

References

Appendix
Questionnaire

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Dissertation Topic Examples Marketing

It is vitally important that you gain access to dissertation topic examples marketing during your degree course notably in the final year.  To provide an overview of why and how dissertations are written: these need to be both professionally and academically presented.

Difference between reports and dissertation topic examples marketing

You may have developed your report writing skills in previous years; if not, please refer to our Report Writing resources. The good news is that the format and presentation is almost identical, but you will have additional sections.

A report is usually an end of module assignment with very clear guidelines from your Tutor. Features of dissertations, final year projects and extended reports:

  • Undertaken in your final year of undergraduate study, or in postgraduate education
  • Is linked to both current theory and practice
  • You will have more choice as to the topic and methodology, and will decide on the aims and objectives of your study
  • You will be required to undertake more independent research into subjects which may not have been taught or may have been covered in a range of modules throughout your programme of study
  • The word count is usually much higher than for a standard report
  • Often requires a Project Proposal in order to gain approval for your key concepts before you start.

Why find dissertation topic examples marketing?

dissertation topic examples marketing usually contain sections of writing to record the methodology, results and conclusions of an investigation. They are used to enable your lecturer to assess the way you have approached your investigation, collected your data and evaluated your results.

Dissertations demonstrate skills in: planning, organising, researching, problem solving and time management as well as oral and written communication skills. They also demonstrate in-depth subject knowledge.

Format of dissertations

  • Are written using formal academic language
  • Headings and sub-headings should be used
  • Bullet points or numbers can be used to list points
  • Are written to be discussed by more than one person
  • Show vigour in research
  • Drawings, graphs, statistics and other additional material can be added as appendices

Sections of a dissertation topic examples marketing

dissertation topic examples marketing can be written in a variety of ways depending on your subject area, and whether you have undertaken primary or secondary research. However the sections below are a general indication of what sections need to be included.

1. Title page

2. Abstract

3. Contents

4. Introduction

5. Aims and Objectives

6. Literature Review

7. Research Methodology

8. Ethical Issues

9. Results/Findings

10. Discussion/Analysis

11. Recommendations (if requested)

12. References

13. Appendices

1. The Title Page

The title should provide a clear indication of what the dissertation is about: it should be accurate and concise. The title page should also include the date the report was written, who wrote the report and who the report was for. Make clear the dissertation topic examples marketing.

2. Abstract (also known as Summary)

This is a summary of the whole report’s contents. Readers will decide whether to read the whole report based on the abstract and therefore it should be sufficient for them to understand what the report is about, including the results of the investigation.

The abstract is written after the rest of the report even though it is presented at the beginning. It should describe the work that has been carried out, not the work that will be carried out.

3 Contents

A list of contents is required and should be correctly formatted. See Student IT support on Managing Longer Pieces of Work.

4. Introduction

This gives the background to the investigation. It puts your investigation into context and gives the reader some idea of the value and importance of your work. It tells the reader why this is an important subject to investigate.

5. Aims and Objectives

You should have a clear statement about the purpose of your study (aim) and how you are going to achieve those aims (objectives). State what you are trying to achieve and how you will achieve it. This is a crucial part of the report as it will be judged on whether your aims and objectives have been achieved: ensure you are clear about the difference between these.

6. Literature Review

This informs the reader of the current thinking in your particular topic. It will place your research in context and show how you are building upon previous knowledge. This should also highlight any areas of contention. Ensure you cite your sources of information and reference your work.

7. Research Methodologies

This section is important because if you undertake inappropriate methodology your results and findings will be disputed. The reader needs to know what you did to find out information so they can make a judgement about the suitability of your methodology.

In this section, you state what you have done to achieve your aims, what you did to find information you need and why you did it.

The methodology section can be sub-divided into the following sub-sections:

A short section (one or two sentences) in which you make a clear and accurate statement outlining what sort of investigation you used. Justify your statements by referencing to best practice.

You should provide a brief description of who you used in your sample and why. The information should include the essential features of any respondents used.

• Who were the subjects of the study?

• How were they selected?

• How many were there?

Justify your decisions by referencing back to best practice.

Materials/Apparatus (if necessary)

What sorts of dissertation topic examples marketing material were used? For example, experimental stimuli, tests, questionnaires. If using established tests or materials, these should be fully referenced. Any apparatus used should be described accurately (you could use diagrams or photographs).

This should be a description of exactly how you carried out the investigation: what exactly happened during the investigation, from start to finish in enough detail to allow replication. Remember to use the passive voice (third person), past tense; for example: “The questionnaire was given to all 1st year students.” “The responses to each question were recorded using simple tally charts”.

The procedure does not have to take the form of an experiment; some reports document the findings of desk based research and extended literature reviews.

Method of Analysis

As your analysis is part of what you did, you should include a statement of what methods of analysis were used and why they were chosen (do not panic if the methodology section becomes long – it is quite normal for this section to sometimes be the longest section of the report).

8. Ethical Issues

All dissertations and investigations should consider ethical issues. You are expected to complete a Staffordshire University Ethical Approval form and have this signed off by your tutor. This should be included as an appendix. In your report you should make the reader aware of the possible ethical issues of your research and how you overcame these issues, for example: confidentiality, storage of data and so on.

9. Results/Findings (sometimes this section can be merged with Discussion and Analysis)

It tells the reader what you have found out and is objective. It states the findings of your research. You may include tables and graphs, but also explain the results in words. Any raw data should be included as an appendix.

10. Discussion/Analysis

This covers the interpretation of the results, evaluation of the theoretical significance of the findings and a general discussion of the investigation. It should answer questions such as:

• What has your investigation shown?

• Did it achieve its objectives?

• What theory/literature does it support or contradict?

• What are the most plausible explanations of your findings?

• Are there any possible criticisms of the investigation?

The discussion should also:

• Build on the material in the introduction and literature review

• Evaluate the adequacy of your methodology

• Suggest design features that may have affected the results

• Include whether the results would be different under different conditions

11. Recommendations

Use your findings and analysis to make recommendations in dissertation topic examples marketing. You may make the recommendation that further investigation is undertaken if you realise that there were gaps in your methodology or anomalies in your findings. Alternatively, you may advise that some actions be considered.

12. References

Make sure references are given correctly. All dissertation topic examples marketing must be reference in accordance to your university’s guidelines.

13. Appendices (content usually not included in the word count)

Do not put results here: only the raw data should be presented in an Appendix. Some other materials may be usefully included in an Appendix (for example, blank questionnaires, copy of written tests used). Remember not to include anything in an appendix that has not been referred to in the text.

References and further reading

Levin, P. (2011) Excellent Dissertations. Open University Press.

McMillan, K. & Weyers, J. (2011) How to Write Dissertations and Project Reports. (Smarter Student Series) Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

New dissertation topic examples marketing below

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Role of Social Media on Personal Branding

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Did you find any useful knowledge relating to dissertation topic examples marketing below in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.

Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal

Consumer behavior is an important management field, the study and application of which can provide a lot of insight and value to the marketers. This research paper is based mostly on the existing theories and models of consumer behavior. The first part looks for external factors influencing consuming behavior at various stages and the second applies theories to a well known business organization, L’Oreal.

Consumer Behavior

Hawkins (2008) says that the consumer decision making process is often the result of a single problem however, at other times consumption decision is based on a number of factors. The example provided by Hawkins (2008) to explain the difference actually helps the reader in better analyzing the types of consumption requirement. Running low on gasoline while driving leads to a single factor consumption decision whereas the realization of an aging automobile, growing feeling of inadequacy or low self esteem lead to a multi factor consumption decision regarding a commodity or a service.

For the marketers of an organization, it is important to take into consideration both the types of consumption such that the overall sales of that organization are increased. Consumers are the end point of the supply chain processes. They actually are the magnetic force for all kinds of manufacturing, production and retailing processes that are taking place in a market or in an industry. The stronger the magnetic force in fact, the better will be the overall processes of production, manufacturing and retailing. It is therefore important for the organizations to capture as much of that attraction of the customers as possible. One simple reason for that is that customers are the ones that provide revenue to the business. An interesting quote by Jeff Bezoz, the CEO of Amazon.com says that it is actually the customers of the organization that give the business the money to operate and not the competitors of the organization and thus, all the strategies that the organization makes to improve the business performance (or market capitalization) should be oriented towards the customers (Stockport, 2009).

This idea then forms the core of the field of consumer behavior. Consumer behavior, initially stemming out of the study of micro economics has actually gotten extensive and intensive enough to be termed as a completely independent study of management sciences and one that can have serious policy implications for a business entity.

Consumer behavior holds that the purchasing decision of the consumer can actually be analyzed through various models and theories and using those findings, a business can orient its market plan to gain competitive advantage in the market. A number of external and internal factors become a part of understanding how and why consumers making purchasing decision, using decisions and disposing off decisions and how preferences and tastes as well as norms, cultures, peer pressures and traditions become a part of this decision making process (Lamb, Hair, McDaniel, 2011).

Since it has now been established that a number of internal and external factors play a role in influencing the consumers in their consuming decision, the breakdown of each factor is possible. As far as a business organization and more precisely the strategic managers or the marketers of the organization are concerned, external factors are the ones which they have the power over and thus they can influence the attraction felt by consumers for the product being marketed. However, before the marketing managers can actually pin point the external factors and manipulate them, each stage of the decision making process of the consumers needs to be analyzed.

Analysis of how external variables are used by marketers to influence consumer decision making at the various stages of the consumer decision making model. Illustrations through examples

Nominal Decision Making Process

Hawkins (2008, p. 561) identifies the nominal decision making process and defines it in the following words,

“Nominal decision making, sometimes referred to as habitual decision making, in effect involves no decision per se….A completely nominal decision does not even include consideration of the “do not purchase” alternative. For example you might notice that you are nearly out of Aim toothpaste and resolve to purchase some the next time you are at the store. You don’t even consider not replacing the toothpaste or purchasing another brand.”

According to Hawkins (2008) then a nominal decision making process can be broken down further into brand loyal decisions and repeat decisions.

For the marketers, development of brand loyalty is another arena that is receiving significant attention mostly because of its importance that has been highlighted through the theories of consumer behavior. The more the consumer feels loyal to the brands, the lesser he or she will actually consider buying another brand and thus the number of secure sales for the organization will increase and in the longer run, the provision of stability of revenue for the organization will also be enhanced.

The example for the nominal decision making process has already been highlighted by reviewing Hawkins (2008) however to provide another example is the purchase of soaps, bottled milk, tea brand, coffee brand or sanitary pads. Mostly, for all of these products, the consumer mechanically throw these products into the shopping cart without even considering that just right to the brand that they picked lies another, probably better brand. Development of this behaviour in the consumers requires effort and strategy from the marketing manager of the business organization.

Five Step Decision Making Model

Next is the five step decision making process as studied by Lamb, Hair and McDaniel (2011). In this model, the first step is the recognition of need of a product or service by the consumers. The second is the information search, third the evaluation of alternatives and fourth the purchase of the commodity or service. Finally, the fifth step is the post purchase behaviour. In regards to the model however, the following has been said (Lamb, Hair and McDaniel, 2011, p. 189),

“The five steps represent a general process that can be used as a guide for studying how consumers make decision. It is important to note though that consumers’ decisions do not always proceed in order through all of these steps. In fact, the consumer may end that process at any time or may not even make a purchase.”

However, this model does provide important steps that can be used by the marketers to create external influence on the consuming behaviours of the customers. Baker (2003) says that these five stages together are affected by a number of external and internal factors. These factors include the cultural, social, individual and psychological factors and are actually applicable to all the stages of the consumer decision making process. Therefore, if the customers are to use factors to influence the consumer decision making process, these factors are to be manipulated. For the purpose of this section of the research report, only external factors will be analyzed for each stage of consumption of the goods and services.

The first step is the recognition of needs. This is actually the first and the most important step that the marketers can use to attract the customers and thus gain competitive advantage and even first movers advantage in the market. This is possible by making the customers realize the need for the product that the firm is offering. Hawkins (2008, p. 565) says that,

“Marketers often attempt to cause consumers to recognize a potential problem for which the marketer has a solution…this sometimes involves making consumers aware of problems well before they arise.”

The important word here is “potential”. The usual way through which the problem solving approach goes is to at first recognize the problem and then solve it. Providing external stimulus on the need recognition stage of the decision making process, marketers are actually making the customers create a problem in their head that they did not realize existed before. Obviously this can be both real and imaginary but there is no necessity that the consumer knew of the solution to the problem before. For example, the invention of diapers stimulated the need recognition stage of the decision making process. Before that for centuries, mothers and maids were using cloth and plastic panties for their babies and everything seemed to go fine. With the advent of diapers however, it became almost a necessity. Something without which bearing a child seemed like a serious problem.

Similarly, the marketers can influence the information search stage of the consumer decision making process by providing to the consumers the necessary information through various media. Nowadays, television advertisement, billboards and internet are the favorite sources of providing the consumers with the information about the product and how that product is the one that the consumers require in solving the problem. For example when proctor and gamble came up with the diapers, pampers, they needed to provide the useful information to the consumers about the product. So that the customers who have already realized this problem and were looking for a solution find it in the shape of pampers. This then can require free samples and other promotion techniques as well. As of today however, the techniques that remain dominant have been mentioned.

The marketers can influence the third step that is of alternative evaluation by allowing the customer, through efficient marketing strategies to realize that the product the firm is offering is the best one for the consumer.  The external factor used here can be the help of celebrities to promote a product. Knowing that a specific product works better than anything else for something well known and looked up to can actually lead the consumers to be inclined more towards the purchase of that product.

On the fourth stage of the consumer decision making model, prices are the factors that need to be considered and used by the marketers. The consumers should know that the price they are paying for the product is actually worth it. Here, the factor and consciousness of social class can play an important role. The effect of social class on consumer behavior, apart from the direct relationship of income levels and value of consumption, there is also a direct relationship till the upper class between the realization of social class and the desire to mobilize in the social class hierarchy and the value of consumption (Loudon, 2007). It has been noted that the upper, upper middle and the middle class seriously dreams of being recognized as the elite (how o not really care about the prices but about the quality) make more expensive purchases of the products or services to reinforce their social class image in the society.

Select a company or not-for-profit organisation that you are familiar with and critically evaluate how a specific consumer behavioral theory or model can aid in understanding consumers’ actions. Demonstrate how this then guides the practical implementation of marketing strategy in your chosen organisation.

The Organization

The business entity selected for the purpose this section of the report is L’Oreal Paris. This is the largest beauty and cosmetics brand in the world. In 2009 L’Oreal completed its hundred years and recognizes its moves in the business world as that of being adventurous. L’Oreal (2011) notes that above and beyond that financial success that the organization has achieved, the journey of L’Oreal has been marked by a quest for innovation, a quest for excellence, a question for the purpose of actually existing in the market and finally a quest for diversity in regards to the range of cultures, preferences and tastes of women around the globe.

Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal
Consumer Behavior Decision Making L’Oreal

This organization has actually celebrated beauty around the globe. L’Oreal has a huge international presence and operates in five continents of the worlds excluding Antarctica and Australia from the list. By the global 100, this beauty brand was actually ranked amongst the world’s 100 most sustainable business organizations. Moreover, this organization in 2011 has been presented with the best financial performance by the Boursoscan (L’Oreal, 2011).

The overview of the organization notes that for a century the organization has been pushing back the boundaries of science to invest and meet the aspirations of millions of women and men (L’Oreal, 2011). L’Oreal seeks to provide the best cosmetics to the world in terms of quality, safety and efficacy. In 2010, the business had consolidated sales figure of 195 billion Euros. Currently, the organization is managing 23 global brands in 130 countries of the world and registered 612 patents in the year 2010 (L’Oreal, 2011).

Theory of Consumer Behavior

Behavioral School of Thought: Classical Conditioning

In regards to the core behavioral theories, Schiffman (2008) notes that there are a number of routes through which the conditioning of consumers to buy a particular product can be done. The first route is the classical conditioning in which the consumer links a certain response to a product. For example, in regards to L’Oreal, classical condition will be that using the Voluminous Mascara introduced by the organization, the eyelashes will actually look darker and prettier and the result will be similar to what Ashwariya Rai puts on her eyes. The conditioning stimulus here will be the darker, more volume eyelashes like the ones that Ashwariya Rai appears with. Through the advertisement then the unconditioned response of the consumer who needs to buy mascara turns into a conditioned one.

Behavioral School of Thought: Cognitive Associative Learning

Next, Schiffman (2008) studies the cognitive associative learning behavior. According to this view, the relationship or (congruity) between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus influences the expectations which in turn influences the behavior of the being. This theory believes that the actions that occur after certain stimuli have been provided are in fact learned and occur because of the increase in knowledge. For example in the example above, the purchase of mascara would occur because knowledge about the qualities of the product has been gained. Unlike the cognitive associative behavior however, the classical conditioning believes that the reaction that occurs is actually reflex.

Economic Theory of Consumer Behavior

Apart from these theories, one consumer behavior theory that actually stems out economics more than psychology is the theory of consumer behavior. Irwin (2005) says that the consumers according to the model provided in this theory consumes at a point where there occurs an intersection between the consumer indifference curve (the choice curve of the customer where combinations of consuming two alternative goods achieve the same level of utility or satisfaction to the customer) and the budget constraint of the individual (as understood mostly by the current income levels of the person or the saved up income from a previous period).

This model assumes that the consumers are rational individuals who are responsive to a price change of products and who also have complete information about the product and the alternatives. Also it is assumed that the individual under question is subject to a budget constraint and that he or she has to manage more than one thing in a given period of time speaking financially.

Attitudes in Consumer Behavior

Perner (2011) however studies the theory of consumer behavior which says that the problem solving approaches of the consumers are actually internal (made up of the memory and thinking process of the individuals) and external (made up of the word of mouth, the media, the store visits and the trials amongst others). In this theory then, the evaluating behavior of the individuals are made up either compensatory, non compensatory, hybrid or abandoned strategy. The first one is the decision based on overall value of alternatives. The non compensatory evaluation requires that the consuming decision meets at least one important criterion and the hybrid is a combination of compensatory and non compensatory evaluation types. Finally, the abandoned strategy is when the consumer finds the initial criteria unrealistic and proceeds to a less desirable solution to the problem. Next, Perner (2011) notes that the consuming behavior of an individual is seriously affected by the attitudes of that individual; and that in turn attitudes are affected by the intentions, the beliefs and the feelings about a particular brand.

 As far as L’Oreal is concerned, consumer behavior can be understood critically through these four theories and the findings can be further used to design a strategy to expand the consumer market and the competitive advantage of the market.

Recommended Marketing Strategies

Starting with the attitudes of the consumers, L’Oreal can be added by understanding what beliefs individuals have about the products and services that the brand itself and that the competitors of the brand provide. This can be measured and analyzed through the attitude measure developed by Perner (2011). Next, the feelings of the consumers can be understood through this attitude model. For example, a fan of Ashwariya Rai, or Penelope Cruz (the brand ambassadors of L’Oreal) will feel a push for consuming the product after aggressively understanding how they feel for the product. Also, being there for a century, this brand is also a name through the generations. Understanding those feelings of the consumers will help steer the marketing plan of the organization towards a greater organizational performance overall.

Next, the theory of consumer behavior includes the importance of prices of the product. This is actually one of the core consumer behavior theories and is the most detail about the behaviors of the individuals. In this regard the organization can use the theory to understand what effect a price change of the products and services has on the sales of the organization and the demand of the consumers. Make up, after a certain limit is usually a luxury for individuals and L’Oreal is an expensive brand.

To keep up its market share and to not lose to organizations which are charging a lower price for similar products through the substitution and the income effect it is important for the management of the organization to carefully consider the underpinnings of the theory of consumer behavior. For this purpose, if the price of the good is actually not that far away from the actual investment put into the product in terms of research and development and manufacturing, the organization can actually use the coin of high quality. The perception of consumer about the quality of the product is a vital asset when an organization is designing its price and marketing policies. The better the consumer perceive the quality of a product to be, the more he or she will be willing to spare for that product because they will know that the money is being well spent and that there will be no hazardous consequences of using a particular product.

Conclusion

Nelson (1970) studies that the consumers are continuously busy in the choice making between different products however, the consequences of these choices are dimly known by them. One of the reasons is that they lack full knowledge about the price and quality of the product. The marketers of a business organization then can utilize the consuming behavior and the attitudes of the consumers for the purpose of attracting the maximum share of revenue for the organization.

This research paper studied how the marketers can actually use external factors including the social class, peer pressure, celebrity following and fashion trends to influence the consuming behavior of the consumers.

The second part of the research report analyzed the various theories of consumer behavior. Those theories then were in critically used to apply for the case of L’Oreal Paris, one of the largest multinationals in the world. Dholakia et al (2010) says that in the case of multimedia and multi channel organization like L’Oreal, the analysis of consumer behavior is different than the usual analysis. Finally, for the applied consumer behavior theories, a number of marketing strategies were recommended for L’Oreal.

References

Baker, D. (2003) Consumer Decision Making. 4th Ed. USA: South Western.

Dholakia, H. et al. (2010) Consumer Behavior in a Multichannel, Multimedia Retailing Environment. Journal of Interactive Marketing, Volume 24 (2), Pages 86-95.  

Hawkins (2008) Consumer Behavior. 6th Ed. India: Tata McGraw Hill

Irwin (2005) Theory of Consumer Behavior. USA: McGraw Hill.

Lamb, C., Hair, J. and McDaniel C. (2011) Essential of Marketing. 7th Ed. USA: South Western.

L’Oreal. (2018). L’Oreal Website

Nelson, P. (1970) Information and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 78 (2), pp. 311-329

Prener, L. (2011) The consumer Behavior: The psychology of marketing.

Schiffman, L and Kanuk, L. (2007) Consumer Behavior. 9th Ed. India: Pearson Education Inc

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Did you find any useful knowledge relating to consumer behavior in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.