Cloud gaming has increasingly become one of the most popular technological advances in IT and has seen a massive increase in start-up companies. Many subscribers have been attracted to a majority of public gaming companies; a move that has shown success on the services being offered by cloud gaming. However, by pushing services for the cloud gaming, many barriers have created a stabling blocks in the success to its propelling. The objectives of this dissertation is to bring forth the prospect of the cloud gaming at the same time pointing out research problems that may have emerged over the wide spectrum of the various directions; those that are inclusive of video coders, distributed systems, visualisation, resource allocation, human-interaction, and quality of experience, not forgetting dynamic adaptations. The main approach to the research is based on the way service providers will move forward in offering high quality services; since this far, cloud gaming remains a profitable and promising business in the new technologically advanced world. The facts about cloud gaming remain that more fresh ideas shall come in to capitalise the profuse and elastic cloud resources for the purposes of better clouding experiences and further see such ideas to be associated with the challenges in the coming years.
The dissertation aims at offering information about cloud gaming for the purpose of elaborating the vast field of its continued improvements. In concern to this, the research will highlight the various games available through cloud gaming; hence, forming the ground for discussion and exploration. Further, the research will also provide ways that cloud games can be enhanced for efficiency and validity realised from the expert opinion. The primary objective of this study is to explore cloud gaming with the intention of demonstrating the emergent technological advances which are being adopted in gaming.
Cloud gaming entails the inclusion of online streaming of video games and music in technological devices such as TVs, Personal computers, tablets, by using cloud services such as YouTube, Netflix, Amazon among others. In light of this, cloud gaming is known to contribute to the convenience with large clouds being managed and libraries that have a vast collection of the games and high possibility making it impossible to resist.
With cloud gaming availed by many service providers, it becomes possible to stream video games from the Internet. Besides, with the inclusion of 3D games such as Fortnite, the gaming quality is enhanced with the utilisation of either wired or wireless connections. However, bearing in mind that internet users endorse the concept, it becomes important to investigate the cloud gaming technologies to demonstrate the potential and its magnificent performance. As such, a study to bridge the knowledge gap about cloud gaming is imperative as it will provide more information to the public domain while also publicising the potential of cloud gaming.
Qualitative research that seeks the opinion of technological experts and conventional gamers becomes useful to provide an analytical insight about cloud gaming. As such, in a bid to make improvement in cloud gaming performance, the study also contains a conclusion that forms a basis for making recommendations. Additionally, the expert opinion on the best way to improve cloud gaming is imperative. Moreover, the adoption of modern technology that enhances the speed and quality of the gaming will be elaborated in the various ways.
Experiences by users in games and in particular interactive gaming systems have developed to be a real spotlight among researchers. In the field of cloud gaming, various factors have the likelihood of affecting the quality of user experience. Studies on the measurement of quantitative methods for the user experience are largely depended on skewed factors that are inclusive of response time and quality of graphics or the quality of videos received. Response time in cloud gaming is the real total duration that has elapsed from the control command of the user takes place to match video or graphic structure showing on the screen of the device under usage. Response time in cloud gaming is influenced by various parameters of the network such as bandwidth, delay, packet loss and jitter. Moreover, the quality of the received video game is subjective to the quality of image in every structure and the effortlessness of all other structures, which are similarly, altered by the video settings, for example, resolution and rate of data.
1 – Introduction
2 – Aims and Objectives
Statement of Problem
3 – Methodology
Outline of the Research
Approaches to the Research
Strategies of the Research
Structured Interview Design and Validation
5 – Literature Review
Introduction of Cloud Gaming
Terminologies in Cloud Computing
Cloud Deployment Models
Cloud Delivery Models
Infrastructure as a Service (Iaas)
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Software as a Service
Related Technologies and Definitions
Cloud Computing Supporting Technology
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)
Thin Client Platform
Technology Acceptance Model
Applicability of TAM
Applications to the Research
Summary of user Related Issues
6 – Main Research Questions and Data
Automatic Upgrades and Updates
Limited Choice Games
Availability of Internet
7 – Data Analysis
Bandwidth and Latency
Automatic Updates and Upgrades
Risk of Viruses
Benefits of Thin Client
Features Emanating from Open-ended Questions
Attitudes on Using the Technology
Summary of Factors and Conditions Forming the User Attitude
8 – Conclusion
Contribution of the Dissertation
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A Study of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Implementation and Critical Factors that Affect Chinese Small-Medium Enterprise
Title: ERP Dissertation Enterprise Resource Planning. Following the global economic recession caused by several economic crises during the first decade of the twenty-first century, the business world market has become more intensely competitive, but also more cooperative between organizations and firms, in order to achieve their goals and reach the next level. SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises) have become one of the most significant forces in leading the economic recovery globally and domestically, as they occupy a large percentage of every domestic economy in the world.
It was quoted by U.S. Presidential candidate Romney in 2012, when running for election, small businesses are the foundation of our nation’s economy. He raised the importance of SME’s development as being crucial, having a strong effect on the economy. Meanwhile, the usage of the ERP (enterprise resource planning) has developed widely. It has been recognised as an effective tool for use by both large organizations and SMEs to improve their performance in the complexity of business expansions, following many real life experiences and experiments over decades. ERP’s implementation and effect on success and failure has been studied by many experts in recent years and is becoming a popular topic in the business field.
At the same time, ERP system implementation’s critical factors and their adoptions have also been reviewed by practitioners worldwide. Therefore much effort has been made on improvements, following many reconsiderations and gap fittings. China, as one of the industrialized nations and being the second-largest economy in the world, is predicted to close the growth gap with the U.S. by 2030. Hence, the examination of ERP system circumstances as they relate to Chinese SMEs has been noted as a critical area for business development, and studying Chinese ERP implementation in SMEs will provide more insights for future development and expansion in business.
To review ERP implementation success models and critical factors for SMEs from existing literature
To identify the factors that effect ERP implementation in Chinese SMEs
To Evaluate the ERP implementation factor’s influences through interview of Chinese SME users
To recommend how to adopt ERP in Chinese SMEs
Objectives of the Study
Structure of Dissertation
2: Literature Review
ERP Systems implementation Success Models
Critical Factors on ES implementation affect to Chinese SMEs
Implementation costs to SMEs
Lack of top management support
Resistances in workplace
Data Accuracy from legacy system
Literature Review Summary
3: Research Methodology
Quantitative Research Methods
Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison
Review Methodologies From Previous Studies
Research Question Design
The Strategy Of Asking Questions
Top Management Support
Resistance In Work Place
Culture Clash And Organizational Culture
6: Recommendations and Limitations
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An m-commerce (mobile commerce) business model allows customers to complete every steps of the commercial transaction by utilising mobile phones rather than visiting to the physical or brick and mortar store. The experts of technology predict that the mobile wireless communications by 2020 are possibly to be available to anywhere and anyone throughout the globe at very low cost. But it is important to develop and maintain the trust and satisfaction of customers as well as reducing their risks involved in online payments and transactions. It is specifically true in case of cross-border consumption, as less familiarity with the overseas systems and policies makes it more complex for end users to comprehend their rights and easily use mobile devices for online purchasing. In this regards, the report here is inculcating about development of m-commerce by scrutinising the enabling tools, the mobile commerce impact on the business world and the evolving battle of Android and Apple IOS. Also, the online security issues and ethical and legal concerns for the sellers are discussed at the end.
Use of m-commerce technology and its effects on future retailers
Systems and devices based on mobile techniques are now a part of daily life. These systems and devices include pagers, cellular phones, two-way radios, cordless telephone, remote systems of car locking, baby crib monitors, a system of wireless networking, electronic monitoring devices for parolees and GPS (global positioning system) based maps and locators. Sometimes such systems and devices facilitate undertaking existing activities more efficiently and effectively; at other times, they also allow completely distinct and novel activities (Sahaand Mukherjee, 2003).
The advancement in wireless techniques increased the users of mobile phones and given pace to rapid development of the economy with the effective utilisation of such devices. A type of e-commerce, i.e. dealing through mobile terminals is developed, which is referred to mobile commerce. According to Sadeh (2002) m-commerce more widely characterises as the emerging services and set of applications that can be accessed by people from their smart and internet enabled cell-phones. Basically, the m-commerce occurs in a strategic platform, which is referred to a ‘mobile portal’. There fourth-generation (4G) and third-generation (3G) systems of mobile communication provides a high level of commonality of global roaming capability, which is supporting a wide multimedia and internet services and applications with higher rates of data (Sadeh, 2003).
Due to its intrinsic characteristics, like personalisation, ubiquity, dissemination and flexibility, the m-commerce promises unprecedented market potential of business, high profitability and great productivity. The crux of e-commerce revolves around the idea to reach employees, suppliers as well as customers regardless of places where they are situated. It is about transferring correct information to right place at an exact time. Such mobile commerce flexibility is made possible through the convergence of enterprise applications, internet and wireless techniques (Siau, Ee-Peng and Shen, 2001).
Also, the mobile explosion over last some years has been surprising. It is expected that in the current year around twenty billion of cell phones will be sold. It is not just there is increasing production of mobile phones rather the human being is increasingly relying upon them. In fact, in US there are nine out of 10 customers keeping their mobiles phones 24/7 in reach. It has great ramifications for the retailers, specifically for the online commerce, where 30% of US e-commerce already accounts for m-commerce and is estimated to develop 300% quicker than the traditional e-commerce. The individuals rely on their cell phones all through the day. In actual fact, 91% use their phones while accomplishing some other tasks (Kumar, 2016). Since, the human beings are becoming more reliant on the mobile devices; they are expecting to get exactly what they required in the period when they actually need it. Such mobile mind-set of customers’ presents for the retailers ‘unprecedented opportunities to engage with their clients on cell phones and which also enables the brands to give their consumers exactly what they require instantly.
However, there is a challenge for several retailers that well-known approaches to adapt desktop experiences to cell phones, i.e. an appropriate Web design fall short when it comes to contextual experiences delivery. In order to keep up with the need of their customers during their smart phone moments, retailers need to solve response limitations, for instance, by MEO (mobile experience optimisation) on the top area of their responsive websites (Rigby, 2011).
The retailers are also losing $18 billion on annual basis because of the abandonment of their shopping cart. Moreover, it has been shown by research that over 2 out of 3 users who add any item in their online shopping cart just leave without actually buying it. Even the numbers are worse on smart phones where the rates of conversion are 70% less than the desktop. But 2015 was considered as a pivotal period for the shopping by using mobiles. For instance, in the season of holiday, smart phones play an important role than ever, with 82% improvement in revenue due to the 45% increase in traffic on mobile. In fact, the mobile phone generates 57% and more traffic and nearly 30% revenue during the holidays (De Silva, 2015). Moreover, with m-commerce expected to increase more quickly than the traditional e-commerce, the more retailers will focus on executing a seamless experience of checkout in the coming period.
Figure 1: Monthly US visitors across retail websites. (Source: Smith, 2014)
The concept of mobile commerce will possibly emerge as a main focus of the telecommunication sector and the business organisations in the immediate future. The experience of offline shopping covers huge range of emotions by comprising several forms of social interactions with human beings (Tauber, 1972). On the contrary, the experience of online shopping might be viewed as lacking sociability and human warmth, as it attempts to be more anonymous, automated and impersonal (Wangand Emurian, 2005). The experiences attained while shopping comprise positive emotions that have been linked to several important results, like increased time spent at the store, increased spending and improved level of purchasing (Jones, 1999). Moreover, the social aspects of shopping have been considered as the main contributor towards customers’ favourable connection with the retailers.
A significant challenge is faced by the online sellers in making their virtual outlets socially rich as well as in making their services and products appear eye catching to the target customers (Kim, 2002).
In future, it would be hard to earn maximum profits and retailers will be challenged to become more smart venders. Also, they will be required to identify unique methods of reaching customers and more effective methods of measuring their marketing attempts performances. Furthermore, mobile will cease being a developing channel of marketing and will become essential for the retailer to market their brand and measure themselves. Therefore, those who will be fail to integrate and adopt today’s customers’ mind-set for mobile will become the casualties of shift in next digital paradigm (Fulgoniand Lipsman, 2016).
Figure 2: US retail sales growth rate by channels. (Source: McDermott, 2014)
How the battle between Android and Apple IOS will evolve in next five years
In the year 2007, Apple released iPhone based on their iOS mobile operating system. A year later after the grand reception of the revolutionary smart phones by Apple, Google launched Android mobile operating system under an open source license. Since then, Apple and Google have been engaged in a fierce competition for the mobile phone market share around the world. A broader view suggests that the battle between the two has been resulted in offering of more and more alike services. It happened due to borrowing features from each other’s and providing basic Smartphone functions like web browsing, app permissions and running, file sharing in similar ways. Though in recent times, the customer preference to select one of the two primarily depends on add on services and apps that comes along with them ranging from email, cloud services to VR and even mobile payment solutions (Tilson, Sorensen and Lyytinen, 2012).
One of the key differences between Android and iOS remains that Apple’s applications are tied to and updated at the same time as the mobile OS, whereas Google’s applications update are customizable and left on the choice of customers. Another key difference in the line is that use of Android applications across several devices such as Smartphone, laptops, tablets or desktops is smooth whether customers use these devices from the same manufacturer or not. On the other hand Apple doesn’t like their customers to switch the manufacture because Apple produces all these devices itself. Therefore, it’s easier to work across these devices if made by Apple and harder to get out of the Apple’s ecosystem.
Apple took similar approach with the iPhone as they took with their desktop operating system Macintosh. They launched a revolutionary device for a much higher price than existing products with outstanding features and capabilities. On the other hand, Android took approach similar to that of Microsoft and became like “Windows” of the smart phone operating system. The open source license enabled a lot of manufacturers to offer low-cost devices with same features as Apple. As a result, Google’s Android compete Apple’s iOS with its increased percentage of market share in year 2012.
Though, studies suggest that with respect to e-commerce transactions, Apple’s iOS is still ahead of Android in developed economies and average order value around the world. Even though, top choice of customers in m-commerce remains Apple but in reality the Android adoption has increased over the years. With respect to current annual traffic growth, Android’s rate 56% is ahead of Apple’s 33%. Also, the customers are using cell-phones and tablets to shop across mobile sites and apps that ultimately create challenge to the mobile strategies of retailers.
Consumers are also using both tablets and smart phones to shop across apps and mobile sites, which adds complexity for retailer mobile strategies. These trends suggest that, in the longer term it is expected that Android customers will become highly valuable and companies around the globe which offers m-commerce services would design their products specifically for Android customers. The online venders are required to explore such trends and change their m-commerce approach to create a strong presence on every device and platform with a reliable experience to users (Kenney and Pon, 2011).
The potential customers of mobile payments services are from the 25 to 34 years of age group, with 78% in this age group. Furthermore, the most purchased services are music, which is followed by books, travel tickets, electronic products and apparel. Study also reveals that mobile purchase choices is more dependent on convenience rather than price because users are selecting high-value items like hotels, train tickets and clothing together with the economic products. In conclusion it can be said that consumers are growing more comfortable shopping on mobile and Apple mobile payment buyers spend more time and money than Android mobile payment buyers.
Security, legal and ethical issues in m-commerce
The e-commerce implementation comprises several legal issues. These issues can be classified in varied manner, such as jurisdiction over trades, internet gambling and encryption policies. On the contrary, the ethical issues are concerned with what is considered to be wrong and right. There are many significant policy issues raise by the mobile commerce, specifically in relation to inadequate disclosure of information, unsolicited sales and minor protection. Besides this, SMS spam and unauthorised use are some additional issues (Mehra, 2015).
A high risk of crime is being carried by the wireless network. Hackers can erase and steal data and information from the cell-phone devices and disrupt the traffic on wireless network by overloading it with phone messages and information. The mobiles are also infected by virus, which cause them to randomly switch of or erase all information and addresses from it. Based on the surveys of Georgia Tech (1997 and 1998), the internet face most significant issues in relation to privacy, taxation, encryption, navigation and censorship (Niranjanamurthy and Chahar, 2013).
In particular, the privacy has long been a social and legal issue in many countries. With the increasing and broad use of e-commerce and internet, the privacy issue becomes more challenging. In this regards, an organisation known as the Electronic Privacy Information Centre is constantly working on safeguarding the privacy (ROTENBERG et al., 2003). The e-commerce security is an important portion of Information Security framework and is especially pragmatic to the constituents that creates impact on the electronic commerce including Data security, Computer Security and several other wide Information Security framework realms. The security at e-commerce has its own specific nuances and is considered as the key visible security constituents, which influence the end user by their day to day payment transactions with the organisation. Therefore, security and privacy in today’s internet era are the main consideration for e-commerce and m-commerce technologies (Massoud, n.d).
In addition to above, the privacy concerns in m-commerce have been also identified in revealing less trust in several contexts, like commerce, electronic health records, technology of e-recruitment and social networking that directly influence the response of end-users. Furthermore, the main and constant concern for the online retailers is security that restrict organisation and customers engaging via e-commerce. Also, the web e-commerce applications handle payments by electronic transactions as well as using debit and credit cards and online banking and PayPal are closely linked with the compliance issues (Mennecke and Strader, 2003).
Moreover, shopping online through websites includes several steps to buy a commodity with complete security and safety. The online mobile transactions require customers to reveal a large number of sensitive personal data to the seller by placing themselves at a great risk. Thus, comprehending and gaining trust of customers is significant for the m-commerce regular development. Also, the function of electronic payment in online shopping is the main issue to ensure that customers are convenient and fast as well as to ensure the parties secrecy and safety to a transaction that requires a complete electronic systems of trading (Caudill and Murphy, 2000).
It can be concluded that e-commerce is mainly considered as the products selling and buying over the internet, but any transaction which is solely accomplished through electronic systems can be called as e-commerce. The concepts of m-commerce and e-commerce is playing a great role in today’s retail businesses, as people utilising mobile devices for their transactions and purchases are regularly increasing around the globe. However, the e-commerce is not free from several securities, ethical and legal issues, due to the unauthorised use, destruction, alteration and access over the retailers’ site. The fraudsters are continuously looking to take benefit of online shoppers, who are liable of making novice errors.
Some common mistakes that leave customers at risk include shopping on insure websites, leaving the devices open to viruses and providing too much sensitive or personal information. Therefore, the online retailers are require to apply proper ethical standards to their online transactions and selling practise, in order to gain customers trust and offer them safe and secure shopping method. It is because all the business aspects are greatly affected by ethics. Also, it creates impact on the brand image and subsequently the advertising, marketing and selling functions of the business. Thus, in order to keep up and increase revenue with growing mobile uses and online shopping behaviours of customers, the sellers needs to consider code of conduct related to m-commerce operations.
Caudill, E.M. and Murphy, P.E., 2000. Consumer online privacy: Legal and ethical issues. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 19(1), pp.7-19.
De Silva, G.H.B.A., 2015. Determinants of Online Buying Behavior.
Fulgoni, G.M. and Lipsman, A., 2016. The Future of Retail Is Mobile. Journal of Advertising Research, 56(4), pp.346-351.
Jones, M.A., 1999. Entertaining shopping experiences: an exploratory investigation. Journal of retailing and consumer services, 6(3), pp.129-139.
Kenney, M. and Pon, B., 2011. Structuring the smartphone industry: is the mobile internet OS platform the key. Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, 11(3), pp.239-261.
Kim, Y.K., 2002. Consumer value: an application to mall and Internet shopping. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 30(12), pp.595-602.
Kumar, H., 2016. Mobile Commerce Trends to Buy Into. The Experience, M-Commerce.
Massoud, S.L., n.d. Ethical and Legal Issues in E-Commerce.
McDermott, J., 2014. The future of retail in 5 charts.
Mehra, J., 2015. E-commerce: Opportunities and Challenges. The International Journal of Business & Management, 3(1), p.182.
Mennecke, B.E. and Strader, T.J. eds., 2003. Mobile commerce: technology, theory, and applications. IGI Global.
Niranjanamurthy, M. and Chahar, D.D., 2013. The study of e-commerce security issues and solutions. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, 2(7).
Rigby, D., 2011. The future of shopping. Harvard Business Review, 89(12), pp.65-76.
ROTENBERG, M., BUTLER, A., MCCALL, G., HORWITZ, J. and HUSBAND, D., 2003. Electronic Privacy Information Center.
Sadeh, N., 2003. M-commerce: technologies, services, and business models. John Wiley & Sons.
Saha, D. and Mukherjee, A., 2003. Pervasive computing: a paradigm for the 21st century. Computer, 36(3), pp.25-31.
Siau, K., Ee-Peng, L. and Shen, Z., 2001. Mobile commerce: promises, challenges, and research agenda. Journal of Database management, 12(3), p.4.
Smith, C., 2014. THE E-COMMERCE REPORT: Mobile Is Giving Traditional Retailers A Chance To Bounce Back These Holidays.
Tauber, E.M., 1972. Why do people shop. The Journal of Marketing, pp.46-49.
Tilson, D., Sorensen, C. and Lyytinen, K., 2012, January. Change and control paradoxes in mobile infrastructure innovation: the Android and iOS mobile operating systems cases. In System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 1324-1333). IEEE.
Wang, Y.D. and Emurian, H.H., 2005. An overview of online trust: Concepts, elements, and implications. Computers in human behavior, 21(1), pp.105-125.
I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on the evolution of M-Commerce. There are many other titles available in the IT Dissertation Collection that should be of interest to information technology and computer science students and information technology professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of information technology such as Network Security, Information Systems, ERP, Software, IT Infrastructure, Programming, Telecommunications, eLearning, eCommerce, Wireless Networks and Systems Analysis. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.
Assignment Title: Information Systems Overview. With the passing time, business markets are becoming more complicated and financially complex. Management authorities are trying to find out different ways to stay in advantageous position in the market. An information system is considered as a well-known tool, which is helpful to gather necessary information from the market and contributes actively in the management decision making. According to Baskerville and Wood-Harper (206), there are different types of the information system that are helpful to generate information for specific users depending on their needs. Information systems can be used in day to day work or for a long term planning. Development of information systems are important in terms of improving the decision making management and stay ahead in the competition. Since change is a constant scenario in the business market, the information systems need to go through development continuously.
Managing an information system and its development is costly. However, it is not only important but also crucial to consider information system properly. It is mainly because the growth of the organization or industry is hugely dependent on the information systems used by the management. According to Ward and Peppard (2016), the information should be utilized by the directorate as well as by the employees. It is found that some information systems are developed to aid the management in decision making where the some of the other information systems are designed to meet the needs of the employees.
From the study of Melville (2010), it is noticed that employees in different levels bear various types of responsibilities. Therefore, when the position of an employee changes, it is found that the information systems can help that employee to learn about the increased responsibilities. Unlike the employees, the supervisors and other operational managers use a different type of information systems. Although various types of information systems exist in the business management out of which four kinds of information systems are considered as the most important. These four types of information systems may include transaction process system, management information systems, decision support systems and executive information systems. These four types of information systems also help to cover all of the functional areas within a business such as sales and marketing, finance and accounting, product manufacturing and human resource.
With the support of this research, it is tried to explain the importance of information systems within a business structure. Among the different types of information systems, four major types of information systems are selected and discussed in this essay. Advantages and disadvantages of using information systems can be identified. It can be assumed that a set of recommendation scan be developed based on the findings of the work.
The purpose of the current essay is to understand the importance of information systems in terms of producing more accurate and targeted information about customers, markets, suppliers and competitors to improve the decision making capabilities of the business.
To identify the relevant types of information systems in business
To understand the impact of different types of information systems on business
To determine advantages and disadvantages of using information systems
Identification of the various types of Information Systems
As opined by Bonham-Carter (2014), different types of information systems can be identified through a classification procedure. In business management, classification of information systems is a process that helps to determine and categorize the information systems in such a way that they can be treated as a group. The authors mentioned that the classification of information systems is a bit confusing because any natural law does not control the information systems but the human factors (Watson, Boudreau and Chen, 2010). A “type’ of information systems is just a “concept,” which is developed based on the kinds of information need by the authority or client. Therefore, it can be said that depending on different concepts of information required the information systems can be categorized. As opined by Ian (2010), one of the oldest methods, which is widely used to classify the information system is the pyramid model.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Information System
The achievement and benefits of an organization are hugely dependent on their skills of using the information systems. The purpose of using information systems is to deliver the right information to the right person so that it can enhance the decision-making system. Following are the advantages and disadvantages identified of using the information systems.
There are many benefits of using the information system. These advantages may include the improvement of communications, reduction of globalization and cultural gap and development of new job roles. With the implementation of the information system, the management can share the information and develop a good employee relation within the organization (Urquhart, Lehmann and Myers, 2010). On the other hand, the use of information technology helped an organization remain open for 24×7 in all over the world. It is also proved as helpful to manufacture cost effective products within minimum time. The application of information systems promotes effective work culture within the organization, which in turn improves the decision making process. Although many of the employees get frustrated to use information systems, it is found that the development of frustration is the result of inadequate training and poor performances of systems.
The numbers of disadvantages of using the information systems are also not negligible. The major disadvantage of using the information systems is the increase of lack of job opportunity and unemployment.
With the help of information systems, most of the paper workers can be completed within short time, and the financial transaction can be easily calculated without the involvement of any extra employees. With the implementation of higher technologies, the organizations tend to decrease their employee number. Apart from that, the implementation of information systems globalized the business system, which may experience dominance of greater power on the weaker one, which can hamper the decision-making system. With the use of information systems, the communication mode of business is becoming English. Therefore, people with lack of English proficiency are suffering to get a job. The expense of implementing information systems is too heavy for many organizations. Therefore, strong economic backup required before implementing an information system.
Transaction Process System
Transaction processing system is concerned as an information system that contributes towards the collection, modification and retrieving of the data transaction for a concerned enterprise. The system is efficient for the production of the accurate data related to consumers and suppliers that are essential for the businesses. This system is associated with providing the reliable processes transaction towards the commercial organizations that ensure the consumers’ order met on time (Stair and Reynolds, 2013). It is also concerned with the partners and suppliers to get the payment and make the payment on time. Thus, it has ensured a vital portion of the effective business management process for the business organizations.
It is associated with several characteristics that enable the transaction processing systems to offer the deals with the consideration of smooth flow of data and maintain the progression of the process throughout the enterprises. Rapid processing feature enables the system to perform the transactions instantly, reliability incorporate comprehensive safeguard to the disaster recovery system to make it error free, and standardization process helps in the process to acquire identical data for each transaction regardless of the consumers (Siponen and Vance, 2010). Apart from this controlled access, atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability helps in the process of batch processing and real time processing of the information.
Management Information Systems (MIS)
Management information system is capable of providing the managers of an organization, the ability to organize, evaluate and effectively manage the departments within the organization. MIS is providing the tool towards the managers with a computer-based system. The principal purpose of the system is concerned with providing the managers the opportunity to make strategic, tactical and operational decisions to manage the data with efficient and productive manner (Chaffey and White, 2010).
It is necessary for the managers to rely on the particular data associated with the consumers, suppliers and competitors that enable the business managers of all level to rely on the reports generated by the system. Besides, MIS is effective enough that it helps in the process of evaluating the daily activities of the business and concentrate on the problems that enable the managers to make decisions and track progress in the firm.
Moreover, it is considered as the broadly used three-resource based system that required for effective organizational management. These resources are based on people, information, and technology. It is concerned with the computer automation service that contributes towards the quality and efficiency determination of the business operation and improves the human decision making capabilities (Chen et al., 2010).
Decision Support Systems
Decision support system is mainly considered as the set of the related computer program and data that assist the business organizations to analyze and make a decision within the internal operations. The program is capable of collecting the data related to consumer and suppliers and present the data towards the management to make the decision-making process easy.
It is different from the operational application and rather known as the informational application. Considering the application of the DSS at the enterprise level, it has been found that it serves as an informational application (Galliers and Leidner, 2014). With the aid of the informational application, DSS helps in the process to gather information related to comparative sales figures of every week; revenue figures projected based on the new product sales assumptions, and provide data related to the consequences of the previous experiences (Rainer et al., 2013).
DSS is considered as the broad scope application of the Management Information System that helps in the process to report on the performance based on cost and profitable or unprofitable projects. Applications of the DSS system in the organizations have indicated that it is a powerful tool as it depends on the OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies (Bharadwaj et al., 2013). It provides the permission of browse, query, analyzes and summarizes the large extent of data with interactive and dynamic way.
Executive Information Systems
Executive Support System is concerned with the application of the executive information system that associated with the development of facilitating and supporting the senior executive information that maintains the decision-making needs of the organization. The system is capable enough that it maintains the access balance between the internal and external information and keep it coordinated to achieve the organizational goal (Teece, 2010). ESS is concerned with various characteristics that help the organization keep track of the information related to the business such as consumer and suppliers data. Informational features help in the process to produce relevant information; orientation characteristics offer secure access to data, managerial characteristics supports the need and executive capabilities offers the telecommunication capacity to be implemented in the enterprise (Boehm and Thomas, 2013).
Also, the development of the ESS is mainly based on the integration and aggregation of data that mainly display the pattern to the enterprise to understand better. Moreover, the application of the ESS is beyond the EIS that include the communication extent, office automation process, and provide the analysis support to the enterprise to make an effective decision (Willcocks, 2013).
Green Information Technology
Green IT is associated with maintaining the positive relationship between the environment and the use of the computers. The process is helping the organization in the aspect of managing the corporate social responsibility efficiently. This information technology is concerned with the energy related issues such as rising cost of the energy, power limitation, and enhancement of the performance demand. It has enabled the organizations to concentrate towards the design, manufacturing, disposal and reallocation extent to reduce cost and maintain effective consumer relationship (Laudon and Laudon, 2011).
The extent of the IT solutions that Green IT provides is associated with the data that metering energy concern and the network coverage. As for example related to the application of the Green IT, it has been found that arrangement of the video conference has reduced the carbon emission by reducing the travel expenses and transportation reduction. The basic working pattern of the Green IT system is associated with asset removal and logistics maintenance (Vom Brocke and Rosemann, 2010). On the other hand, pickup, sorting, and data destruction is concerned with asset tag removal and detailed reporting process. It also provides the disposition option to the organizations as it enables the company to recycle, lease return and employee purchase processes in the organization.
From the overview of the different types of information systems, it can be said that all of these information systems are essential for the growth of the organization. The use of information systems contributed in the globalization of the business management. The advanced use of information system already proved as beneficial for the extensive growth of the organizations.
The authors who worked in the field of business management identified several types of information systems. It is found that the types of the information system are dependent on the concepts of information required by the employees and the management authority. There is a misconception existing regarding the necessity of information systems. Previously it was assumed that only the management authority and operation management required the information systems. However, later it is proved that the use of information systems by the employees is also beneficial in terms of improving the responsibility senses among the employees. From the study of previous authors, it is found that employees are promoted from one level to another. With the help of information systems, the employees can quickly identify and understand their new job roles and responsibilities.
With the help of pyramid model, the authors showed the classification of information systems. Four major types of information systems are identified that are widely used in the business sector, such as Transaction Processing System, Management Information System, Decision Support System and Executive Information System. All of these information systems are helpful in the collection of valuable data for a particular organization and improve their decision-making system. The Transaction Processing System or TPS is considered as a computerized system, which performs and controls information (transactions) that are required in business. Mainly it is a fund that the TPS accumulate and process the business transaction data. Therefore, it can be said that this particular information system is controlled by the management authority or the operation management of a particular company.
Certain changes in the transaction process can be easily evaluated with the Transaction Processing System. On the other hand, the Management information system or MIS is helpful to accumulate and process information that is required in the management of an organization. It is found that the management information system extract and process the data obtained from the Transaction Processing System. This information system helps the managers to direct the organization and control the functional areas in a better way.
This information system is also beneficial to of accurate feedback and offers pre-specified reports to the different level of managers. On the other hand, the decision support system is identified as an interactive information system, which is important to develop models and data manipulation tool regarding helping the managers in semi-structured and unstructured situations. Apart from these systems many other systems are identified that can have an impact on the decision-making systems, such as communication systems, office automation systems, and expert systems. However, several flaws of introducing the information systems are also identified such as increase of unemployment, security issues (data breaching) and expenses of implementing information systems.
Despite the positive sides of implementation of information systems, it can be said that few challenges are limiting the efficiency of information systems. Following are the recommendations offered based on the flaws identified in the implementation process of MIS.
It is found that the use of information systems is constrained within the hand of managers and the operation management. The limited use of information may be influencing the decision-making process, but it is certainly not helpful for the overall growth of the company. To maintain overall growth within the organization, different level of the information system should be accessed by the employees. The use of information system by the employees helps them to monitor their growth rate and understand their job responsibilities easily.
The information system is dynamic in nature based on the changes occurring in the universe. It is sometimes difficult to the managers to keep pace with the sudden changes that took place in information systems. Henceforth, strategies should be taken by the managers so that can easily tailor the available information and use them effectively. Strategies should be taken to remain up to date with the current market situation.
Different departments use information systems in a different way, which may affect the decision-making system. In order to improve the decision making system, it is important to maintain a proper alignment and communication between different departments. Henceforth, steps should be taken to align the strategic plan of the various departments with the business objectives. Matching the current capabilities of the organization with the future needs of the information technology is required.
Before implementation of the information system, it is important to identify the possible threats. With the help of information technology, an organization can evaluate the market risks and analyze the possible difficult situation. Implementation of information system without proper risk assessment can be limited its performance. On the other hand, an action plan should be developed to minimize the risks that are related to information systems.
Improvement of the technology infrastructure is crucial to implement the information system quickly. Lack of proper technological infrastructure cannot ensure the proper outcome of information systems. Therefore, the organizations need to ensure that the performance of the available technical supports meets the department computing objectives. Apart from that, they need to adopt different hardware (advanced models), which are cost effective.
Maintenance of the system security is vital for an organization. With the implementation of the information systems, the organizations are becoming more dependent on the computers to keep their data and its logical result. The lower security system can lead to the security breaching, and the company can lose valuable information that can affect their market positioning. Procedures should be implemented to report, detect and respond the security threats. Firewalls should be activated that can control and limit internet protocols through the firewall.
The recruitment of physical security is also essential to secure the information technology and its related equipment from theft. Also, steps should be taken to maintain disaster recovery.
Baskerville, R.L. and Wood-Harper, A.T., 2016. A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. In Enacting Research Methods in Information Systems: Volume 2 (pp. 169-190). Springer International Publishing.
Beynon-Davies, P., 2013. Business information systems. Palgrave Macmillan.
Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O.A., Pavlou, P.A. and Venkatraman, N.V., 2013. Digital business strategy: toward the next generation of insights. Mis Quarterly, 37(2), pp.471-482.
Boehm, M. and Thomas, O., 2013. Looking beyond the rim of one’s teacup: a multidisciplinary literature review of Product-Service Systems in Information Systems, Business Management, and Engineering & Design. Journal of Cleaner Production, 51, pp.245-260.
Bonham-Carter, G.F., 2014. Geographic information systems for geoscientists: modeling with GIS (Vol. 13). Elsevier.
Chaffey, D. and White, G., 2010. Business information management: improving performance using information systems. Pearson Education.
Chen, D.Q., Mocker, M., Preston, D.S. and Teubner, A., 2010. Information systems strategy: reconceptualization, measurement, and implications. MIS Quarterly, 34(2), pp.233-259.
Galliers, R.D. and Leidner, D.E., 2014. Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge.
Ian, H., 2010. An introduction to geographical information systems. Pearson Education India.
Laudon, K.C. and Laudon, J.P., 2011. Management information systems (Vol. 8). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Melville, N.P., 2010. Information systems innovation for environmental sustainability. Mis Quarterly, 34(1), pp.1-21.
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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on Management Information Systems (MIS). There are many other titles available in the IT Dissertation Collection that should be of interest to information technology and computer science students and information technology professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of information technology such as Network Security, Information Systems, ERP, Software, IT Infrastructure, Programming, Telecommunications, eLearning, eCommerce, Wireless Networks and Systems Analysis. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.
Title: Network Design – When implementing a network in an organisation, there are some design issues that must be considered before implementation. The requirements of the network must be clearly defined and all the network components to be used have to be clearly defined. Some of the considerations are discussed below.
Network Design and Network Architecture
Network architecture is the infrastructure consisting of software, transmission equipment, and communication protocols define the structural and logical layout of a computer network. The mode of transmission of a network can be wired or wireless depending on the requirements in an organisation. There are various types of networks that can be applied in an organisation depending on the network size. Local area network (LAN) refers to network in a small geographical area, Metropolitan area network (MAN) refers to network in a city, and wide area network (WAN) refers to network that is spread geographically in a wide area. Among the three types of network, the company would implement LAN since it is only covering a small geographical area.
The transmission medium of a network can be wired or wireless. Wired medium involve use of coaxial cables or fiber-optic cables while wireless media involves wireless transmission of data. Depending on the bandwidth, throughput and goodput we are able to determine the best medium of transmission. Fiber optic cables have low signal loss since they avoid collision, and they are efficient in data transfer in high traffic networks. Coaxial cables are less expensive compared with fiber optic cables, but they have high signal loss caused by collisions. Wireless transmission is efficient in local area network where there are few computers.
Network Design Management Method
The management method of a network can be either peer to peer or client-server. Peer to peer is where there is communication between several computers without a central computer. Client-server is where each client is independent and a central server provides services to the clients. In a peer to peer network, many computers can share a single application installed in one computer. In a client-server, they are designed to support large number of clients where the clients do not share resources. The client-server model security is enhanced because security is handled by the server. It is also easy to upgrade a client server model to meet new requirements in an organisation.
Figure 1, a client server model
Network topology is divided into physical and logical topology. Physical topology refers to the way in which computers and other devices are connected. Logical topology describes the layout of data transmission in a network. Bus, ring, star and mesh topologies are the main types of topologies. Bus topology is a where all devices are connected with a single cable. The topology works for small networks, but it is slow and collisions are common. Ring topology is where the cable runs around where each node is connected to each other. There are fewer collisions compared with a bus topology. A token ring is used to avoid collision. In a star topology, all the devices are connected to a central hub. There is a central management making it is faster in upgrading, but failure of the central hub brings down the entire network. Mesh topology connects all the devices to each other for fault tolerance and redundancy to improve performance.
Network Design Security Requirements
Networks are frequently attacked by hackers and other malicious people. This makes security one of the key considerations when designing a network. To reduce the number of attacks on computer networks, the network should have firewalls, intrusion detection systems, VPN, and DMZ. These measures reduce the threat and detect malicious people in the network.
This refers to the ability of the network to grow. The network should be scalable enough to cater for growth in the network infrastructure.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
This is a design consideration where many computers in a private network access the network using one public IP address. This is a measure to enhance security in a network.
Figure 2, Network architecture
Figure 3, Showing how VPN is implemented
OSI Reference Model in Network Design
The OSI model has seven layers as highlighted in the diagram. The communication system is sub-dived into layers where each layer sends service requests to the layer below it and receives service requests from the layer above it (FitzGerald & Dennis, 2009).
Layer 1: Physical Layer
Physical layer refers to the hardware and all network devices used in the network. The layer defines the physical devices and the transmission medium. The layer receives service requests of the data-link layer and performs encoding and decoding of data in signals. Protocols in this layer include CSMA/CD, and Ethernet (Liu, 2009).
Layer 2: Data-Link Layer
Data-link layer receives service requests of the network layer and sends service requests to the physical layer. The main function of the data-link layer is to provide reliable delivery of data across networks. Other functions performed by the layer include framing, flow and error control, and error detection and correction. There are two sub layers of the data-link layer; media access control layer, and logical link control layer. Media access control performs frame parsing, data encapsulation and frame assembly. Logical link control is responsible for error checking, flow control and packet synchronisation. Protocols in this layer include; X 25, frame relay and ATM.
Layer 3: Network Layer
Network layer is responsible for managing all the network connections, network congestions, and packet routing between a source and destination. The layer receives service requests of the transport layer and sends service requests to the data-link layer. The main protocols in this layer are IP, ICMP, and IGMP.
Layer 4: Transport Layer
The main purpose of this layer is to provide reliable data delivery which is error free by performing error detection and correction. The layer ensures that there is no loss of data, and data is received as it was sent. The layer provides either connection-less or connection oriented service. There are two protocols in this layer: UDP and TCP.
Acknowledgements and windowing flow control
No reliable delivery
No acknowledgements and no windowing flow control
Layer 5: Session Layer
The main purpose of this layer is to establish and terminate sessions. The layer sets up and terminates connection between two or more processes. It also manages communication between hosts. If there is login or password validation, this layer is responsible for the validation process. Check-pointing mechanism is also provided by this layer. If an error occurs, re-transmission of data occurs from the last check-point. Protocols in this layer include; RIP, SOCKS, and SAP.
Layer 6: Presentation Layer
This layer is responsible for data manipulation, data compression and decompression, and manages how data is presented. The layer receives service requests of the application layer and sends service requests to the session layer. The layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the data in transmission. Data encryption and decryption (cryptography) is used to provide security in this layer. Protocols involved in this layer include; ASCII, EBCDIC, MIDI, MPEG, and JPEG.
Layer 7: Application Layer
This layer provides interaction with the end user and provides services such as file and email transfers. The layer sends service requests to the presentation layer. It has several protocols used in communication; FTP, HTTP, SMTP, DNS, TFTP, NFS, and TELNET.
Ethernet – provides transfer of information on Ethernet cable between physical locations
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) – used for data encapsulation in serial lines.
Point to point protocol (PPP) – this is an improvement of SLIP, performs data encapsulation of serial lines.
Internet Protocol (IP) – provides routing, fragmentation and assembly of packets.
Internet Control Management protocol (ICMP) – help manage errors while sending packets and data between computers.
Address resolution protocol (ARP) – provides a physical address given an IP address.
Transport control protocol (TCP) – provides connection oriented and reliable delivery of packets.
User datagram protocol (UDP) – provides connection-less oriented service and unreliable delivery of packets.
Domain name service (DNS) – provides a domain name related to a given IP address.
Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) – used in the management and control of IP addresses in a given network.
Internet group management protocol (IGMP) – support multi-casting.
Simple network management protocol (SNMP) – manages all network elements based on data sent and received.
Routing information protocol (RIP) – routers use RIP to exchange routing information in an internetwork.
File transfer protocol (FTP) – standard protocol for transferring files between hosts over a TCP based network.
Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) – standard protocol for transferring mails between two servers.
Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) – standard protocol for transferring documents over the World Wide Web.
Telnet – a protocol for accessing remote computers.
Figure 5 shows the TCP/IP architecture
Layer 1: Network Access Layer
This layer is responsible for placing TCP/IP packet into the medium and receiving the packets off the medium. This layer control hardware and network devices used in the network. Network access layer combines the physical and data-link layer of the OSI model.
Layer 2: Internet Layer
It functions as the network layer in the OSI model. The layer performs routing, addressing and packet addressing in the network (Donahoo & Calvert, 2009).
Layer 3: Transport Layer
The layer has the same functions as the transport layer in the OSI model. The main function of this layer is to provide reliable data delivery which is error free. The layer receives service requests of the application layer and sends service requests to the internet layer.
Layer 4: Application Layer
This is the layer that has applications that perform functions to the user. It combines the application, presentation and session layers of the OSI model.
TCP/IP Commands Used To Troubleshoot Network Problems
There are many TCP/IP commands that can be used to show that there is a break in communication. The commands are: PING, TRACERT, ARP, IPCONFIG, NETSTAT, ROUTE, HOSTNAME, NBSTAT, and NETSH.
Hostname is used to display and show the host name of the computer
Arp is used for editing and viewing of ARP cache.
Ping is used to send ICMP echo to test the reachability of a network
Event viewer shows all the records of errors and events.
Donahoo, M. J., & Calvert, K. L. (2009). TCP/IP sockets in C: Practical guide for programmers. Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann.
Fall, K. R., & Stevens, W. R. (2012). TCP/IP illustrated. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley.
FitzGerald, J., & Dennis, A. (2009). Business Data Communications and Network Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Leiden, C., & Wilensky, M. (2009). TCP – IP. Hoboken: For Dummies
Liu, D. (2009). Next generation SSH2 Network Design and Implementation: Securing data in motion. Burlington, MA: Syngress Pub.
Odom, W. (2004). Computer networking first-step. Indianapolis, Ind: Cisco.
Ouellet, E., Padjen, R., Pfund, A., Fuller, R., & Blankenship, T. (2002). Building a Cisco Wireless LAN and Network Design. Rockland, MA: Syngress Pub.
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