Consumerism Effect on Culture

Consumerism and its Effect on Culture

Consumerism is the human culture that encourages consumers to purchase and acquire products in a bid to keep the trade alive (Apecsadmin, 2016). In a society that operates by consumerism culture, there are more adverts and competitive prices that are aimed to make the consumers purchase more products and create existent demand. Currently, the resources’ consumption is alarming. “About 59% of the world’s resources are consumed by 10% of the population” (Greentumble Editorial Team, 2016). This culture comes with a range of pros and cons. It makes the community to perceive purchasing and acquisition of materials as happiness rather than satisfaction of needs. The members can easily judge their colleagues on their materials such as fashion and automotive.

As a result, there is increased unnecessary purchase by those who have which in turn increases pressure on the existing natural resources. The consumerism behavior is more rampant in the US and the United Arab Emirates. Research has shown that if everyone’s consumption scale was equivalent to that of an average American, we would require 4 planets to sustain our lifestyle (Greentumble Editorial Team, 2016). As per this research, the consumerism causes more cultural harms than benefits (Shah, 2005).

Consumerism causes destruction to the environment in the long run. The human population has insatiable cravings for resources which makes increases the pressure on the natural and man-made resources. Whether the required resources are natural or man-made, there is a direct or indirect impact on the world resources. In case of food products, they are mostly derived from farms and where they are manufactured; there is environmental degradation that results from disposal of industrial waste.

There is increased cultivation of land to satisfy the demands and in the process sustainable farming methods are not practiced since the aim of the farmers is to make profit. Farming is accompanied by expansion and land clearance which is achieved via deforestation therefor causing climate changes. Other farming practices like livestock and poultry farming has also been associated with environmental degradation which also have negative cultural effects (Shah, 2005).

Consumerism Demand

Since some plants are more demanded than others, those whose demand is high are cultivated in expense of others leading to loss of plants diversity. It also leads to cultivation of non-food crops such as sisal and flowers which are in demand and therefore hunger is the long run outcome. Another example is where these animals consume a lot of water and also cause pollution to the water sources.

Most interestingly is the finding that some of these animals are fed with more grains while some poor persons are starving in some part of the world.The poor lacks any otherwise than to believe that money brings happiness making them to be willing to do anything to acquire financial properties. There is communal disintegration and loss of unity where some animals are valued by their owners, more than fellow human beings (Shah, 2005).

The culture is also one of the leading causes of poverty. The gap between the rich and the poor is widening as time goes by. The population now perceives and judges their colleagues on their material possession which is very evident from the dressing to gadgets possession. There is this mindset that exists to those who ‘have’ that the poor can use the resources to be rich too.

However, this is not applicable as there is resources inequalities between different regions and individuals. The widening gap between the rich and poor is so wide that when the rich are disposing the leftovers some have nothing to eat. A saddening case is where some spend their cash on relatively useless products such as ice cream while others cannot afford a basic lunch. However, this is perceived to be normal particularly in the US (Shah, 2005).

Cultural effects are also a function of health issues, joblessness and rural-urban migration. Consumerism causes health problem to the poor due to malnutrition and to the rich due to over consumption. Over-consumption health issues are those related to obesity and dormant lifestyle. The rich have a tendency of eating at wish and driving right from their door-step to their different destination. As a result, they have high chances of contracting lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and heart diseases. The rate of joblessness may increase due to reduced compensation rates and increased workloads as the poor compete for these opportunities to make their ends meet.

There is also increased rural-urban migration as most people move to the urban places to try their luck. This causes labor imbalance in the rural areas where there are productive farms as most people travel to the urban area. Food shortage is the outcome and as the law of supply and demand indicates, food prices rise as a multiplier effect of consumerism (Shah, 2005). To neutralize this effect, the people have to have a means of buying and acquiring these foods for their survival.

The rich got some high purchasing powers and may displace the poor from their native land. The likely outcome is that the rich may not use the land on productive manner such as food production but instead build an expensive home causing food shortage. On the side of the minority, they will be forced to migrate to other unfavorable places such as near wildlife increasing the cases of human wildlife conflict (Shah, 2005).

Consumerism Marketing Dissertations
Consumerism Marketing Dissertations

Environmental degradation and cultural effects are also caused by mineral and fuel excavation. Consumerism causes increased demand on automotive and electronics. With the emergence of industrious countries such as China, there is increased excavation to meet the demand for metals. Research has indicated that the current generation has broken the past consumption. Sustainability calls for use of resources without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

It is however clear that with the current consumption rates, the future generations’ abilities to meet their future needs are compromised by the consumerism and capitalism culture. One of the fueling factors of this culture is that the developed countries are the ones advocating for sustainability and minimal use of resources. These efforts are seen as neocolonialism as these developed nations already used resources to develop their states but they want to regulate other states. Worse still is the case of European countries who amassed resources from other countries to attain their status (Shah, 2005).

Consumerism culture has also led to exporting pollution from the developed states to the developing countries. Excessive consumption has increased the pollution rates from industrial wastes. Regulations are in place to regulate pollution where the firms are required to develop more efficient ways of processing their products when their emission exceeds a certain limit. Instead of improving their systems, some firms are opting to move some of their manufacturing branches to the developing countries where there are fewer regulations and lower pollution impacts.

Due to this, the developing countries manage to maintain serene environment in the expense of poorer states in the name of foreign investment. The culture also promotes some inhumane activities such as exporting potentially dangerous materials to be recycled in the poorer states such as computer monitors. These activities are hazardous to the local community and may lead to health problems. However, these countries of origin do not care about these as they are not concerned by the needs of others (Shah, 2005).

Consumerism has also triggered social injustices revolving around poverty, land control and ownership. The ideology has increased desire for wealth which causes some sort of jealous. Individuals want to be rich while others are poor so that they can control them. They are willing to make money even via unethical means. For instance, instead of preventing a disease outbreak, some want it to occur so that they can supply medicine to the affected region and make money in their private healthcare facilities. In all these cases the developed nations’ population is to blame (Shah, 2005).

Consumerism and Purchase Power

The emergence of purchase driven economy has also presented a risk to the consumers. The marketer already know that the consumers are purchase driven and therefore they want to come up with affordable products. In the process they may compromise quality for example in the health sector. The low quality electronics may cause health problems or disasters such as fire while poor quality health services may cause drug resistant form of diseases or deaths (Logan, 2016). The ideology is also associated with moral implications. This occur where the population perceive money as the source of happiness while this is not the case always.

Money is good but may not buy sleep, good health among other valuables (Apecsadmin, 2016). Poor working environment and compensation scale may arise as company owners attempt to lower the prices of they products to attract a bigger market. “The culture undermines the social cohesion due to internalization of highly destructive values of replacing everything with money” (Logan, 2016).

The common trend with this ideology is based on human psychology and sociology studies. Human beings are insatiable in their desires and therefore it is believed that demand will exist in the presence of supply. “Consumers were acting unwisely that consumer behavior perhaps did not solve to advance their standards of living or more general goals was generally dismissed as paternalist” (Goodwin, Nelson and Ackerman, 2008).

The extreme desire of acquiring properties will cause the consumers to go against some doctrines such as that that requires people to avoid coveting in the Christianity religion. Covetousness a may encourage some criminal activities such as robbery and interfere with the existing cultures. As a result, the moral standards are eroded and decay and turmoil of families, neighborhoods and the society (Teshome, 2017).

With all the above mentioned cons of consumerism, it also has some few pros. When correctly implemented, it may cause the consumers to purchase more and this is an advantage to businesses. It may reduce the costs of living due to the drop of commodity prices in the market. The increased demand will also call for more manpower and this may leads to increased employment opportunities. For these pros to be realized, consumerism has to be managed as contrary may happen for example increase of workloads instead of employing more personnel (Apecsadmin, 2016).

In my opinion, consumerism is not a good idea as its cons exceeds its cons. It leads to perceiving money as the source of happiness. It has contributed to the widening gap between the rich and the poor. There is significant degradation of environment due to inappropriate consumption of use of resources. It has caused rural urban migration as people move to try their luck.

Researchers have clearly indicated that our consumption exceeds the historical records and should we continue in the same way, we’ll definitely compromise the ability of the future generations to meet their own need. The ideology has also increased the health issues from malnutrition and over consumption. It also causes unfair competition where the rich continues to rich while the poor continues to be poor.

The possession own money among other resources make the owners feel a kind of superiority and despises the less fortunate. The ideology causes corruption of morals as the desire for wealth exceeds and the poor attempt to look for alternative means of acquiring wealth. There is resources inequality between the developed and the developing countries. The developed countries takes advantage of their position to transfer their waste to the developing countries.

References

Apecsadmin. “6 Pros and Cons of Consumerism.” (2016). This articles has been written   organization site’s admin. It covers the various pros and cons of consumerism though in brief and therefore facilitated writing of this paper.

Goodwin, Neva, et al. “Consumption and the Consumer Society.” (2008). This reference is relevant as it elaborates the relationship between consumption and the consumer society. It reveals the rationale behind different consumption patterns. The paper’s subject is also covered by this source and from the fact that it is an academic article, its information is reliable.

Logan, T. Collins. “What are the advantages and disadvantages of consumerism?” (2016). This reference is very brief but direct to the point. In this source source, you will find the pros of consumerism.

Shah, Anup. “Effects of Consumerism.” Glabal Issues (2005). This article by Shah is a scholarly article that is very wide in scope. For instance, it has been cited in most parts of this paper. It has provided solution to various dimensions of this paper.

Team, Greentumble Editorial. “The Negative Effects of Consumerism.” (2016). This reference by the Greentumble editors is very relevant. It has concentrated on the negative effects of consumerism supporting the paper’s thesis statement. Compared to the other sources, this particular source is focused to the main topic.

Teshome, Mengisteab. “Culture of Consumerism Effects and Society.” (2017). This article by the Ethiopian Government Press takes a new perspective on the subject matter. It has analyzed the effects of consumerism in the society and how it is being utilized by marketers.

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Computer Science Ethics Project

Computer Science Ethics

Title: Computer Science Ethics. As time progresses and moves forward the human race is always maintained in the mindset and zone of development. Humans are always seeking to reach higher grounds in every field unleashing a new dawn on the planet with the future realm. Technology is one of the main things that progress frequently with new fields being introduced day by day which helps the planet understand a lot of different things about our universe together with easing our daily work and routine. Ever since the introduction of the machinery to our planet humans have been fond with the fact that some physical object can carry out the same work intended for us without having to worry one bit about the outcome or what is happening in the process.

Times kept progressing and the reality has changed to the virtual world where humans focused on creating means to envision the unknown and to achieve your work in a virtual world called the internet which is now the most commonly used technology in the world. However, one of the main tools that helps in making all of this possible is the computer science and software engineering fields as a whole.

These two professions or fields are the essence and core of the machinery and the virtual world even though they are staged on what they call “the backend” of the whole project. A computer scientist is the person who developed lines of code, in a certain coding language, that when put together can form a functional asset.

This asset can be a software, a program, a website or even something as big as the internet. It should be stated that the most wanted jobs on earth through the past 5 years and the next 10 years is going to revolve around computer scientist and software engineers as this is current century we live in and this is the leading technology for humans at the moment leading for more need of computer science ethics. The programmer holds the power to shape the software as intended together with collecting personal information from the users and can easily track the tasks being conducted by the users as well. This gives them a huge room and deal over owning a software, service or even a website as they hold many priceless data.

There might be millions of software engineers out there in the world with high paying jobs and capabilities that can rule this world. However, with great power comes great responsibility as there are many different setbacks and hard situations that such people face while carrying out their job which might change their whole life. This is due to the fact that such jobs have the opportunity to collect any type of personal data needed from the users of the particular product they are developing.

Computer Science Ethics and the British Computer Society (BSC)

As a simple example, Facebook has a database that saves your e-mail, phone number, interests, likes, photos and almost everything you are interested in. Imagine what would happen if fakebook gives this information about you to a certain person; it kills all the privacy you should have as a person. This leads us to the most controversial topic related to software engineering which is the different ethical issues that circulates the profession as a whole. These kinds of ethical issues can be met and faced in various different forms which are hard to keep track off and should be respected at all times to protect the information of users and other stakeholders.

The main basic mean that helps a programmer in maintaining healthy ethics in this job would be the British Computer Society code of conduct (BCS) which is a book that holds the basic rules and ethics of being a programmer together with the dos and don’ts that should be carried on. Furthermore, it states what would be the consequences of breaching the code of conduct in full details helping the programmer understand the importance of the ethics.

This code of conduct has four main points that forms the ethics that should be followed together with somehow detailed information of each point. The first main point stated in the BCS is to respect and have regards towards the public interest of the society. This would mean to respect certain points like public health, privacy, rights of third parties and to never discriminate between people while conducting the work.

The second point to look out for in the BCS is to focus on the professional competence and integrity. This point holds within it the guidelines on which you should accept a task or not, based on your skills and knowledge. Furthermore, it speaks out to the professional work frame that you should always have like delivering work on time and always accepting criticism no matter what. This point might be common between any code of conduct in the world regardless of the profession. The third point included in the BCS revolves around the responsibility that the programmer has towards the authorities. This point is important as it assess the fact that programmers should not get involved in tasks that might affect any authority out there and should respect the laws in that certain place.

Furthermore, it speaks out generally on respecting the authority that you are working for prohibiting you from sharing the information to a different authority or causing a conflict between authorities. Last but not least, the BCS tackle the point of the programmer’s responsibility to the profession itself. This would mean to be effective and efficient at all times and try to show good case practices to other people in order to promote and encourage outsiders to join the software engineering society.

This BCS should be kept in mind at all times by any programmer no matter how big or small the task is without any exceptions as following the guidelines stated above is the key to a healthy and ethical work journey. On the other hand, not compelling with the states guidelines of the BCS would led to severe legal issues and might probably stop you from being able to work again in this field.

This code of conduct forms the general frame of situations that might be faced during the conduction of your profession together with a general idea on how to take decision regarding accepting jobs. However, it does not include every single event you might face in your life as a programmer which forms a problem for software engineers especially in this modern era due to the different small loopholes that exist in this field. This has led many different programmers to be confused regarding their decision making and the extent to which they can carry on their job. Other reasons why programmers break the code of conduct would be different incentives that might be introduced by the client, which is usually the case with money.

Yet, let’s move forward and discuss the different and most common situations out there which modern programmers face regarding maintaining their ethics. To begin with, the first main faced problem by programmers, as stated before is the fact that they have log files. These log files are records of literally every single step taken by the users of the certain software which can act as a tracker to the users. These files are important to help the programmer debug the system if it faced any type of problem.

However, having these files would mean that the programmer can see exactly what is being done by the users, thus it kills any privacy the user has the right to have.An example of a business that deals with log files in a smart way is Snapchat. Snapchat deletes log files the second it has been dealt with by the intended user, which from a programmer’s point of view is a very weak system. Yet, the users have loved and respected the idea of the privacy and the system that forgets easily.

This might not seem as a big deal when you look at the smaller picture, but you need to understand that these types of personal information in the wrong hands might affect the users in many different ways negatively. Imagine the insurance company gained more information about the smoking situation of a certain client, they will be sure to increase the rates in no time.

The second ethical issue faced by programmers worldwide is the fact that all the different clients out there are always looking to suck up money out of the pockets and wallets of users as a whole. This forces some programmers to change their business model from a service to an ATM machine that only allows depositing the money.

There is generally no free service on the internet, but actually the non-free service is already ready but it is being promoted for free in order to attract the highest number of users and then slowly charging fees for the same service that was free a week ago.In order to prevent any problems from happening, programmers should include a tiny timeline which shows when will the charges be set on this product in order to absorb any shock that will affect the people. This dilemma generally evolves to a bigger problem which is the fact that most business out there do not earn enough money from their online services if they keep it for free.

This may lead to a model being conducted by the firm that allows the sharing of the user’s information in order to make more money from interested partners. This is a dilemma due to the fact that the programmer should achieve their job by fulfilling the needs of the client while still maintaining the right privacy for the users and not breaching the code of conduct. This forces the any software engineer to focus on what is asked of him and to ensure that such situations are communicated clearly to the users beforehand in order to rationalize the problem.

Computer Science Ethics Project
Computer Science Ethics Project

Moving on the third point and a very important point to keep in mind while programming, is the concept of protection and the different layers of security that should be available and included over the user’s data. There is no doubt that involving protection is a must over the programmer to be able to protect the data of the users of the certain software.

However, the problem arises when the programmer keeps asking himself if this is enough protection or should there be more layers to protect the user and their work. If a programmer does not provide the right protection for the users of his program then he is definitely violating the BCS and is not showing right work ethics. However, the point at which enough protection is subtle is relative and different from one person to the other and from one task to the other. This forms the problem as in moments a programmer can claim that he has done enough to protect the users rights yet a user can claim that they need more privacy.

Furthermore, the problem in adding more security layers is weak and slow performance that will be obtained from the service. Hence, a solution like double-encryption for example, might not be the best idea out there even if it is suitable for the users themselves. To make matters worse, any mistake or problem in the final algorithm will stop the whole system and can only be undone by restarting the whole algorithm and system.

Adding to much security to a service, limits the programmer from adding tons of features that would take the product to the next level thus some programmers might not care about security as much as they would care about adding more modern features to their users.

Moving on to the next ethical issue faced by programmers which is the decision on whether to fix bugs in the algorithm or not. You might ask yourself “why wouldn’t the programmer fix the bugs in their own system?” Well, you need to understand that most bugs are too hard to understand and analyze and even harder to be solved as it needs efforts to go through the whole algorithm and deep thinking on the method of solving.

This fact causes tons of different bugs worldwide left unhanded by the engineers as it is not of a great concern. However, is it ethical to not solve all bugs that arise and leave a few problems met by the user as is? This is where the programmers get stuck and have different point of views. Yet, with all the contradicting point of views, the scenario most of the times turns out with no action taken because there is no definitive action to actually take. You, as a programmer, are obliged by the BCS to always do your best and solve any problem that arises according to the professional ethics law.

However, it is not always the case nor is it always solvable by humans, which is what programmers consider as an exceptional case. The dilemma keeps growing on the fact that the size of the problem is only relative to the software engineer himself and may differ from one person to the other, showing no clear guidelines on when to leave bugs as is and when to start taking a step to solve the problems.

Another different ethical problem would be the range of algorithm expansion. This is quite similar to the past two points, where having more lines of code increases the chances for facing more problems and aiding individuals to misuse the algorithm in many different way. It is truly not the responsibility of the programmer at all if other people misuse his software or algorithm by any mean however, he should at least do his part in providing the right algorithm with the best efficiency.

A tiny example would be the laptop’s camera which has an LED associated with turning on the camera as an indication. However, if you surf through the algorithm of this system, you might find a loophole to help you decouple the LED from the camera allowing you or anyone else to hack the device and spy on the target. The challenge here would be for the programmer to anticipate the different problems that might be met through their software and try to find an alternative to coding which can solve the problem. The solution here was the oldest type of camera which was the shutter camera which had a physical gate blocking the lenses which can only be removed by the user of the laptop.

The last two main problems worth mentioning that every programmer can relate too easily is the data requests dilemma and the forces by the nature of the internet. Concerning data requests, it is always relative on to which extent should the programmer defend the customers. For most website and service that works by collecting data (during the sign up process) there comes a time where your company will be asked to provide or sell this data to the government or any other interested party. Here rises a huge conflict between compiling with what is asked from a legal entity and preserving the privacy of your users.

The problem is the fact that it is almost impossible to go toe to toe with the legal entities or the governmental authorities as the process will take too much effort and probably all of your funds. Usually companies that go through this situation tend to leave the firm or just comply as it is always hard to do anything else. The second point for concern is the method of interacting with the nature of the internet as this modern invention is full of hassles. Simply, as an international law student would be aware, each and every country has its own set of laws. Laws might be almost similar but only between countries of the same level.

Trying to develop a software or a service might mean that the initial privacy and ethical standards that a programmer would provide would be enough to suite only the needs of the users of the local country concerned. However, when this product expands, the programmer is stuck, not knowing whether to set terms relevant to this country or the other one. Furthermore, there might be a lot of collisions between what is needed from one government and what is not essential for the other. Thus, it is impossible to have a software or algorithm that can fit all the different standards and it’s always a hassle to find the right guidelines which will help you benefit as much people as possible.

These were just a few of the many different situations, problems, hassles and loopholes that are likely to be face and common between all software engineers and programmers worldwide. With this being said, it is important to find the right way to answer and assess such problems as there should be a solution taken to solve for all this.

It is important to consider and keep in mind the ethics of work and code of conduct at all times while trying to perform the job and while taking decisions in order to at least tone decrease the margin for any issues that might arise. The best practices out there is to always understand who are the audience for this certain product on the long run, hence trying to always set your algorithms initially to fit all standards. Furthermore, a good programmer should always have a clear look towards the future of the product and the development that might arise.

This is because development of a product is usually the factor that starts the breakdown of certain rules and ethics. It is important for the programmer to always include in the contract biding between them and their client, firm clauses that stops any future amendments to change important security features. The main point behind the ethics and the code of conduct is to mainly preserver the privacy of the users together with the credibility and integrity of the software engineer. The best advice out there to any programmer is to always be open and honest to the users and clients. Being open with all the problems and the different under staged deals that are being communicated by other firms or governmental entities. Having the people observe what is happening is a key that will have all your users aid you and stand beside or just accept the terms as they know how you are bounded.

Regardless of the presence of a solution or not, it is a must over all software engineers to respect and follow the BCS code of conduct at all times as the oath they swore is of important honor. However, speculations by time has been surrounding the code of conduct due to outdated clauses that it holds and a lot of people has suggested a few changes to the code of conduct which will help more specific ideas be tackled rather than just a general vague concept. Different conferences have been held every once in a while in order to discuss these ideas and quite few minor changes has been accompanied as a conclusion and this is something we are much more looking forward to. The best part is that the process of amendment takes place in certain overseas conferences that holds hundreds of worldwide software engineers. This would mean, that your voice as a programmer will be heard and what you have been put through can actually be prevented from happening again.

As a conclusion, there are a lot of different problems and hard-ons that a software engineer might face though out their professional career despite the amazing perks that this career might provide. As stated earlier, with great power comes great responsibility and it is important for all employees out there to show respect towards the responsibility put upon them. The setbacks can range from personal decision-making situations where the programmer has to choose whether to put more effort in a certain task or not, while other situations might be forced by external factors whether it’s the client, other buyers or the government itself.

Such external factors are harder to deal with, however there should be great precautions taken by the engineer even before the problem arise which can at least give them a starting push when in face of trouble. There should be no exception at all times to break the code of conduct no matter what the case is and this is what is being taught to all graduated programmers as it is the essence of a successful work life.-

References

Botting, R. J. (2005). Teaching and learning ethics in computer science. Proceedings of the 36th SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education – SIGCSE 05.

Kizza, J. M. (2016). Computer Science Ethics and Ethical Analysis. Ethics in Computing Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science, 17-38.

Miller, K. (1988). Integrating Computer Science Ethics into the Computer Science Curriculum. Computer Science Education, 1(1), 37-52.

1981 British computer society conference. (1981). Computers in Industry, 2(4), 311-312.

British Computer Society. (n.d.). International Year Book and Statesmen Whos Who.

Alpert, S. A. (1996). Doctoral essays in computer ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics, 2(2), 225-247.

The ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. (2004). Computer Science Ethics Handbook, Second Edition CD-ROM.

Sillars, M. (2002). The British Computer Society industry structure model. IEE Seminar Technical Competence Frameworks – seeing through the fog.

Bynum, T. W. (2000). Special section on computer ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics, 6(2), 205-206.

Quinn, M. J. (2006). On teaching computer ethics within a computer science department. Science and Engineering Ethics, 12(2), 335-343.

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Reliability and Validity Academic Research

Reliability and Validity

Inter-rater reliability

Reliability and Validity in Research – This is a statistical concept in the field of research whereby a particular phenomenon is being evaluated or rated by various raters. It is, therefore, the extent or degree to which there is an agreement in the rating scores amongst the multiple raters, which brings about homogeneity and unanimity amongst these raters. To measure inter-rater reliability, it entails taking the total number of ratings in a particular judgment conducted, as well as the counting the accumulative ratings are done in the rating exercise. The total number of agreements is then divided by the total number of ratings and converted into a percentage to give the inter-rater reliability. McHugh (2012) provides a good example of how inter-rater reliability is calculated by reviewing the various methods that have been stipulated by scholars previously.

Test-retest reliability

This is also another reliability aspect. Test-retest reliability is the extent or degree to which results obtained from a particular test (which is similar) and consistent over time. In test-retest reliability, a similar test is administered to the same people in two or more instances and then the results are evaluated. To measure the test-retest reliability, there are two primary formulas applied. The first formula, which is better applied in instances where two tests were conducted in the Pearson Correlation formula that tests how well two sets of data correlate.

The other method is intraclass correlation formula that is applicable where more than two tests were administered. These formulas help calculate the test-retest coefficients that range between 0 and 1. In his article on validity and reliability in social science research, Drost (2011) provides the various reliability and validity aspects and gives detailed examples of the test-retest reliability measurement.

Face validity

Face validity, which is also referred to as the logical validity, entails the extent or degree to which an evaluation or investigation intuitively seems to quantify or measure the variable or rather the theory that it is objectively meant to measure. This, therefore, means that face validity is when a specific evaluation or assessment tool does what it is meant to do to provide results. To measure face validity, one can engage in the assessment of the concepts or ideas to be measured against the theoretical and practical applications.

Predictive validity

This is the measure of how accurate or effective a given value from a research study is and can be used in the future or rather to predict future patterns in the field studied. In their research on the predictive validity of public examinations (Obioma & Salau, 2007) use the predictive validity aspect to predict how the performance of students in public examinations will affect their future academic performances in the university and college level.

Concurrent reliability and validity

This entails the degree to which current test results relate to results from a previous test. For instance, if in the measurement of an individual’s IQ test are taken at two varied intervals, concurrent validity is measured through comparing on how closely similar are these results from the two tests. A good example of research that has employed the use of concurrent validity is the research done by (Tamanini et al., 2004) on the Portuguese king’s health test performed on women after stress. The researchers indicate how this test is applied and measured by using it as their primary test in their research.

Addressing the issues of reliability and validity

On most qualitative researchers, the nature of the data is more important to the researcher than the other descriptive elements of the research. This, however, does not rule out the need for conciseness in the descriptive sections. Reliability in research entails the concerns the stability, consistency of the data as well as homogeneous repeatability of the results if several tests are done (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber 2014). On the other hand, validity entails the accuracy and integrity of the data or results collected from the various tests that a researcher performs. Various researchers address these issues of validity and reliability in different ways, based on the purpose and the kind of research they carry out.

The authors, Obioma & Salau, (2007), go down to research on the effects of public examinations on the future academic performance of students. The focus here, therefore, is more on the data validation to ensure that their conclusions, as well as the outcomes of the results, have the required accuracy and integrity to validate their arguments. The two authors and researchers have applied the aspects of predictive and concurrent validity in their research. In regards to the use of predictive validity, this is where their research question is based on.

Reliability and Validity Research
Reliability and Validity in Research

They have made sure that the data or the arguments that they bring forth as substantially valid and convincing to attain the objective of predicting the future academic performances of the children who undertake the public examinations that are governed by the various bodies in the country. They have however not applied any reliability aspects in their research. At least not anyone that can be easily identified.

In the book by Drost, he has touched on both aspects; validity and reliability. In this book, he has not presented it in a research form but rather brought it out to the readers in the form of a review of both aspects of research, but on the dimension of social sciences. For instance, she has covered the various instances of both validity and reliability, by providing real-life examples and the various methods that can be used to measure the respective instances of both aspects. She approaches the concepts of validity and reliability from a general perspective whereby she accounts for the reasons as to why researchers, especially in education and social sciences, should adopt a culture of ensuring validity and reliability in their results. He explains the various instances of reliability and provides formulas and tools that can be effectively applied to measure these instances. She also provides the various elements that can impact the level of validity and reliability of data or results in research.

In conclusion, the concepts of validity and reliability are important in research. The researcher from various fields should adopt a culture of achieving these concepts in the results they obtain during their research. As Drost argues it, strong support for the validity and the reliability of research not only makes the research highly validated or otherwise believed in but also limits the possible critiques that the research may face. It fills the gaps that may be identifiable in the research. A researcher should be able to understand the various instances of both reliability and validity as well as know when it is appropriate to apply what instance in the research.

References

McHugh, M. L. (2012). Interrater reliability: the kappa statistic. Biochemia Medica, 22(3), 276-282.

Drost, E. A. (2011). Validity and reliability of social science research. Education Research and perspectives, 38(1), 105.

Obioma, G., & Salau, M. (2007). The predictive validity of public examinations: A case study of Nigeria. Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council (NERDC) Abuja.

Tamanini, J. T., Dambros, M., D’ancona, C. A., Palma, P. C., Botega, N. J., Rios, L. A., & Netto Jr, N. R. (2004). Concurrent validity, internal consistency and responsiveness of the Portuguese version of the King’s Health Questionnaire (KHQ) in women after stress urinary incontinence surgery. International Braz j Urol, 30(6), 479-486.

LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2014). Reliability and validity. G. LoBiondo-Wood & J. Haber. Nursing research. Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice, 289-309.

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Critical Thinking and “What-If” Analyses

Critical Thinking and “What-If” Analyses in Management Decisions

Title: Critical Thinking and “What-If” Analyses in Management Decisions

“No problem can be solved by the same consciousness that created it.”

          – Albert Einstein

“We are approaching a new age of synthesis. Knowledge cannot be merely a degree or skill . . . it demands a broader vision, capabilities in critical thinking and logical deduction without which we cannot have constructive progress.”

   – Li Ka Shing

“To every complex question there is a simple answer and it is wrong.”

          – H. L. Mencken

In its simplest interpretation, we all apply critical thinking in our daily lives, often without even giving a nod to the process we use to arrive at routine decisions. The common characteristics of basic decision making that we all use are so elementary: Gathering information and keeping informed about areas of interest and the particulars to be considered before arriving at a decision; asking questions to ensure we clearly understand pertinent factors; brainstorming; weighing the evidence we have gathered, utilizing a “tried and true” method we have adopted or usually rely on, and – in so doing – determining what is actually relevant to the problem or decision at hand; taking historical elements into account, but assessing facts within their current context; seeking to discern the truth of any claims or assertions, and determining if bias exists that would affect facts or outcomes.

This pattern is repeated for all decisions, from the smallest – for instance, what apparel to wear, in light of planned physical activities or appropriateness for an event – to the most important of decisions, such as whether or not to propose or accept an offer of marriage, or what university to attend.

From a more sophisticated perspective, the simple steps commonly used to arrive at a decision can be deconstructed as

  • Systematic questioning
  • Structured problem solving
  • Risk assessment and management
  • Progressive decision-making
  • Management of thought process
  • Arrival at a solution and implementation

Brainstorming can help determine the appropriate framework of inquiry necessary to gather the most pertinent information, which depends, of course, upon the answers being sought. Methodology used in the problem solving process provides the structure, and there are several methods and systems that can be utilized depending on the nature and scope of the factors to be evaluated, and their relationship, if any. The broader the criteria and more interrelated the particular set of decision problems and apparent alternatives, and the more variable in number and threat level the kinds of risks to be considered, the more complicated the methodology must be in order to assimilate all pertinent information and accommodate as many options and outcomes as is possible. Once again, brainstorming is required to envision all potential perils or disruptive forces that might impinge upon the success of an entity or endeavor.

Critical Thinking and “What-If” Analyses in Management Decision Making
Critical Thinking and “What-If” Analyses in Management Decision Making

A simple outranking of one outcome above the next is a concept that provides a variety of alternatives responses and outcomes to unintended events, pairing alternatives to determine the better performing of each pair. Upon determining which alternative is more effective, or outranks the other, these assessments of problem-solving or responsive value can be aggregated into a ranking or partial-ranking scheme which, although it may not deliver a definitive answer, offers a reduced “shortlist” of acceptable alternatives.

Progressive decision-making tackles one element at a time, in order of importance, placing decisions in a sequence that comprises a plan of avoidance, attack or defense in the face of envisioned obstacles or other developments. Management of the thought process provides a discipline that enables a rational approach to even the most upsetting of possibilities, removing emotion to thereby clarify thought and enable focus. Arrival at a solution and implementation, perforce, requires that the number of likely risks and feasible alternatives be winnowed and refined, to arrive at those scenarios that are most credible, so that they may be addressed in some detail.

Decision Making Criteria

When facing single criterion or limited-criteria problems and decisions a number of relatively simple methods are available to determine the alternative offering the best value or outcome. Elementary decision tools include decision trees that sequentially branch one decision into the next in a basic “this, therefore that” progression; decision tables of alternatives, pro-con analytical comparisons maximax/maximin strategies, cost-benefit analyses. contingency planning, what-if analysis.

All are elementary pencil-to-paper analyses, simple enough to calculate manually, with no need of sophisticated mathematical skill or computational resources.

Multi-attribute optimization problems such as those that are often addressed by planning departments and larger businesses and organizations often reflect a finite number of criteria but an infinite number of alternatives that are feasible.

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Maslow Hierarchy of Needs

Application of Hierarchy of Requirements by Maslow in Ads

Title: Maslow hierarchy of requirements in advertising. The pyramid of requirements was developed in the 1940s by Abraham Maslow, and its theory is still suitable today for the understanding of management guidance, personal inspiration, and personal development. Maslow ideas in the hierarchy of needs of the employer’s responsibility to offer a work environment that enables and encourages employees to have their unique potential fulfilled are more related today.

There are various versions of Maslow’s pyramid of requirements explained by other scholars which have additional levels to the original model (Ciobanu and Ciobanu, 2015). The levels in Maslow’s order of needs are; safety needs, psychological needs, social needs, self-actualization needs, and esteem needs. The paper will discuss two international advertisements in relation to the Maslow’s needs Hierarchy, analysis of publications by use of market segmentation concepts, the international version of the ad, and the differences of the ads internationally, and finally the marketing and psychology aspects utilization in the advertisement for change.

Cadbury chocolate advertisements cater to the safety need in the hierarchy which is essential for making a buyer decide to purchase the product (Wells, 2015). Chocolates are known as friendship and love signs. There is social needs fulfillment in the Cadbury ads as there are special boxes provided by Cadbury used for the celebration of cultural events festivals that unite people giving a feeling of belongingness and love.

Maslow and Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola ad appeal to different needs at various levels of Maslow’s hierarchy. Coca-Cola makes its products to appear the most effective quencher of severe thirst as most of its ads are done in summer places such as baseball games, hence fulfilling the psychological need of its customers (Marlow, 2015). Coca-Cola ads portray the consumption of sodas at a family gathering of the party which emphasizes unity thus meeting the social belonging and love needs for its customers. In the Coca-Cola ads, sodas seem a famous symbol that brings respect and admiration to those who use them hence fulfilling esteem and self- actualization need.

Market segmentation is the combination of various customers into general needs and similar response to a marketing action. To segment a market there are different conducts to consider including psychographics, which looks into client’s psycho group, demographics, that concentrates on the type of client and behavior which bases on the actions of the client.

Coca-Cola organization uses consumer division of criteria and market into various clusters like profile, social and psychographic. Consumer value creation in Coca-Cola and good performance is a tragedy to convince people to buy their products. In its official website, the company outlays its pride in its partnership with the Olympic Games strengthening its reputation. In Coca-Cola ads, its seen people in summer quenching their thirst using Coca-Cola (Laudan, 2015).  Its slogan of “open happiness with Coca-Cola” helps increase its sales as it shows highlights the consumption of Coca-Cola in family gatherings and parties. The Coca-Cola ads align with the company’s mission in that it refreshes an individual’s body mind and spirit, it makes a difference by creating value to customers and inspires happiness and optimism moments through actions and brands.

A Coca-Cola advert takes place in Naples, Italy where Simone Rugiati famous chef creates a dining room that is flashy and invites passersby to join him. They all wait after the chef sets a makeshift table and posts a sign saying “let’s eat together” they all enjoy the Coca-Cola Happiness table.

Coca-Cola international ad “teach the world to see” symbolizes a delightful and multiculturalism that is angelic. It portrays the Coca-Cola image as uniting people. Also, Coca-Cola presents an image of individuals that are bright future-oriented and are part of the process of its success (Aeschelmann, and Carus, 2015). Although the ad was American viewers targeted it has a universal and global message that makes people feel like it was made for everyone. Marketing and psychology are utilized in the Coca-Cola ad to bring emotional change in the viewers to boost its market, for instance when the Coca-Cola company changed its ad from “open happiness” to “taste the feeling” there was maintenance if happiness focus with people connecting and engaging in activities. This portrays the feeling of belonging and love.

Evidently, Maslow’s needs hierarchy is vital in marketing advertisement as the company’s show concern in various needs of its customers as outlined in the levels of hierarchy. The Coca-Cola international ad caters for psychological, social, emotional, esteem, and self- actualization needs. Cadbury chocolate advertisements cater to the safety and social needs of its customers. When the hierarchy of needs is considered in the advertisements, the firms can meet their missions on sales and marketing.

References

Aeschelmann, F., and Carus, M., 2015. Biobased building blocks and polymers in the world: capacities, production, and applications–status quo and trends towards 2020. Industrial Biotechnology11(3), 154-159.

Ciobanu, C. I., and Ciobanu, O. M., 2015. The Impact of Eco-marketing in Qol Improvement. Calitatea16(S1), 672.

Laudan, R., 2015. Cuisine and empire: Cooking in world history (Vol. 43). Univ of California Press.

Marlow, M. L., 2015. The American Dream? Anti-immigrant discourse bubbling up from the Coca-Cola ‘It’s Beautiful’advertisement. Discourse and Communication9(6), 625-641.

Wells, L., 2015. Photography: a critical introduction. Routledge.

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