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Title: Reflective Model and Belbin Theory. In offering the best services in a healthcare facility, there is the high need to have in place an efficient and effective teamwork that can always be in appropriate position to address various health complications and circumstances (Firth-Cozens, 2001). Eras are gone when dentists and doctors and other healthcare professionals in health organizations would be in any better position to offer quality healthcare services on their own that could end up fulfilling the expectations of patients. This as an evolutionally has been triggered further by the rising universal demand for new levels of patient care services and this calls for a parallel medical care expertise development which possesses huge focus on teamwork strategy that is essentially centered on the patient outcomes (Belbin, 2012).
Deploying the Reflective Model
This idea is contained in the Belbin’s model of roles of a team. Just as significant, one is always about to realize that every function that is needed in order to realize the objectives of the team, they are conducted to completion and in the best possible manner. This paper will reflect on a particular case that happened in a health care setting involving the code blue team in which case a failure in team work and corporation almost put the entire team at risk and in the process liking the life of a patient. The case will further be reflected by use of Gibbs model of “learning by doing.”
When I completed my medical course, I joined the Mega Health facility in the capacity of a nurse specifically as a member of code blue unit. With the code blue team I was made to realize some of the responsibilities and situations that are involved in that particular unit in the hospital environments.
Code blue is a medical term utilized referring that a particular patient suffers from cardiopulmonary arrest that requires quick responses by performing resuscitation with immediate effect. The initial resuscitation process is however required to be conducted by the first medical staff that is present at the time of occurrence. Later, the code blue team is needed to take over the resuscitation treatment.
During this particular day, 65 year old woman was brought to the facility suffering from cardiopulmonary arrest. Unfortunately, at that particular time the nurse on duty was attending to other patients in the ward. I myself was assisting the doctor on another patient who required a chest surgery.
Even though my unit was on heart patients, there were no specified guidelines that gave specific job descriptions of the nurses within the facility. After the patient had stayed for almost five minutes I was called upon to come and assist. As my first time encounter of such an event I called the other nurses in circulation. When the senior nurse finally arrived, she started on checking the patient pulse and compressions.
Since there was no nurse assigned with the documentation and follow up of the patient, one of the nurses sent me to the second respondent to alert them for appropriate preparations. Since it was not recorded I described the patient’s condition as a heart attack.
When the patient was finally taken to the second respondent she was directed to the intensive care unit ICU. This was a huge mistake as at that moment the patient required a complete resuscitation procedure conducted to her but it was not done. Later the patient got worse and she was referred to the provincial general hospital where she received the complete resuscitation treatment and she recovered.
It was only then that we realized the poor system in our teamwork within the code blue team and through our director we acknowledge to the family and solved the issue. The general feeling was that an error had been done and the justice of the patient had been compromised
From that incident it was very clear that teamwork in code blue team at our facility was failing and the entire arrangement had not done anything commendable. Understanding of the Belbin’s model is of immense importance for our team to make any improvements. In our team we require specified team positions since this would act as a strategy to deal with our responsibilities and our team members.
First teamwork is very crucial as it would have helped assisted bring a balance of what one does respect to what others are assigned. The other role is on specialist which our team was lacking. If we had a specialist among us they could have contributed to the entire group the technical abilities and knowledge. This in effect will impact positively on the safety of patients and their overall outcomes.
In combination with the Gibbs reflective model, one member of team can assist other members to construct sense of the circumstances so as to make them understand their responsibilities on what they have achieved and what they could improve in the days to come (Quinton, & Smallbone, 2010).
In this particular case, the main factor that had hindered a better performance in the code blue team poor teamwork. The poor performance displayed by the team was mainly caused by lack of clear job descriptions for different members of the group. For instance, there was no nurse who was assigned the role of follow up and recording every detail of the patient.
The situation could be improved by laying down clear job description for every member in the team. Additionally, no verbal communication should be allowed whenever directives are conveyed regarding the requirements of patients. Adherence to these improvements would lead to reduced confusion, better understanding of the patients’ needs and thus positive patient outcomes.
Reflective Model Conclusion
the incident the close assessment revealed that if a better functional teamwork
with effective control and coordination was in place there could have been positive
outcomes from the situation. Whenever a particular team of workers performs at
its best levels, it becomes apparent to observe that every member in that team
follows a clear guideline which directs them to performing clearly described
The other crucial role of coordinator was lacking in our team. If this was present, this is the individual who could have checked on the process and assist the other members in clarifying their intent and give a summary of what every individual requires (Clements, Dault, & Priest, 2007).
The need for a universally effective teamwork in healthcare environments is on the rise and this has resulted because of the ever growing co-morbidities and the amounting cases of complexities that require special health care. In Gibb’s theory, this is addressed on description of the situation to the team members.
team needed an effective implementer who could have acted a practical manager (Aritzeta,
Swailes, & Senior, 2007). They could ensure that all plans and thoughts are
converted into conveniently executable roles. A mentor would analyze such circumstances
and give the best next step to follow whenever a hitch occur in the process.
is an essential component in a health care facility as it determines the overall
performance and reputation of workers and the organization. Belbin’s theory and
Gibb’s reflective model are important a tool that assists team members to have a
deeper thought and understanding of the manner in which they should respond to
various medial circumstances. In so doing, everyone is able to learn from whatever
happened in the past or in the present so that they can minimize the chances of
the same mistake occurring in the future.
A., Swailes, S., & Senior, B. (2007). Belbin’s team role model:
Development, validity and applications for team building. Journal of Management
Studies, 44(1), 96-118.
R. M. (2012). Team roles at work. Routledge.
D., Dault, M., & Priest, A. (2007). Effective teamwork in healthcare: research
and reality. Healthcare Papers, 7(I), 26.
J. (2001). Interventions to improve physicians’ well-being and patient care.
Social science & medicine, 52(2), 215-222.
Quinton, S., & Smallbone, T. (2010). Feeding forward: using feedback to promote student reflection and learning–a teaching model. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 47(1), 125-135.
An instructional theory refers to a theory that provides clear guidance on how to assist individuals learn and develop. Instructional theories center on how to design material for enhancing the education of individuals. They differ from learning theories in the sense that while learning theories explain how learning occurs, instructional theories stipulate how to assist individuals to learn.
Stated differently, instructional theories, as informed by learning theories, delineate the core teaching approaches (such as worked examples versus partial solutions, lecture versus cooperative activities, immediate versus deferred reinforcements) that may be included in a lesson. Instructional theories are usually normative and situation specific. The field of instructional science deals with understanding and improving instructional methods to make them more appealing and effective (Edgar, 2012, p. 2).
The origins of instructional theories can be traced to formative endeavors by educational psychologists to map out the link between psychology and the pragmatic application of instructional theory in education settings. John Dewey (1910) and Edward Thorndike (1913) are two important theorists who envisaged a special connection between instructional theory and educational practice (Dijkstra, Schott, Tennyson & Seel, 2012, p. 3). The connection between the philosophical perspectives and instructional theories is obvious. For instance, learning activities in a traditional classroom are centered on and controlled by the instructor, who presents the materials to be learned and prescribes the kinds of learning activities that students engage in.
Learners are expected to read and analyze the information (through homework and classroom activity) until they master it. Knowledge is regarded as a commodity to be passed from the teacher to the learner. In sum, instructional theories identify methods of instruction (ways of supporting and facilitating learning), as well as the circumstances in which the methods may or may not be used.
A Perspective on the Connection
between Theory and Practice
The connection between instructional theories and pedagogical practices is made complex by a number of factors. It can be perceived that pedagogical practices should be founded on the best instructional theories available, but this relationship may not be as simple. Educational practices are likely to be informed by philosophical beliefs than by empirical evidence and theoretical discernment of learning. Learning institutions are established according to the various cultural and community beliefs and worldviews, the human nature, as well as what are to be learned. They also differ with respect to their beliefs regarding teaching and learning, although philosophical convictions frequently come first (Duffy & Jonassen, 2013, p. 17).
All instructional programs and educational systems incorporate some instructional theory, even though such theory is in most instances implied and frequently goes unnoticed. Vastly different classrooms materialize from different philosophical views. For instance, if one is of the conviction that knowledge is produced anew by each student, that a student’s mental activity decides what he or she learns, and that learning happens from engaging in authentic assignments in a social atmosphere, then the resultant classroom is likely to involve learners working on projects and learning in groups.
In this manner, the students are able to discuss how best to tackle problems or consult on the meaning of various concepts. There is a consistency between theoretical beliefs and pedagogical practices. However, the question concerning which comes first is not always clear since evidence exists that people seek out and agree to information that affirms their preexisting beliefs while rejecting those that do not conform to such beliefs.
There exists a reciprocatory link between theory and practice. A common conviction is that knowledge flows from systematic theories to the advancement of effectual practices, that effective instructional theories inform sound pedagogical practices (Leong & Austin, 2006, p. 7). However, science does not always work in such a linear manner. An examination of both social and physical sciences reveals that ideas frequently derive from observation and interrogation of naturally occurring events. Scientific theories often come from attempts to find practical solutions to problems, such as asking the question “what is the best approach of teaching the concept of osmosis?”.
Established pedagogical practices that teachers have been found to be effectual should be used as sources of ideas in coming up with a practicable instructional theory. A final caveat in comprehending the connection between theory and practice involves acknowledging that the learners are more important than the instructor in deciding the material to be learned. However, this is not to say that the teacher’s role is unimportant, only that the perceptions, previous knowledge, and beliefs of learners should dictate what and if they learn things related to the teacher’s instructional goals.
This theory deals with the manner in which individuals perceive and
use information to explain events (Higgins & LaPointe, 2012, p. 1). It
looks at what information is collected and how it is treated to shape a causal
judgment. Heider (1958) first proposed the attribution theory, although other
psychologists such as Weiner (1974) and Jones et al (1972) developed a
theoretical framework that later became a key research model in social
psychology. Heider offered a discourse on what he termed as “commonsense” or
“naïve” psychology. According to his perspective, individuals are similar to
recreational scientists, attempting to understand the behavior of other
individuals by gathering and analyzing information until they obtain a
reasonable cause or explanation.
Instructional Theories – Key Statements and Assumptions
Attribution theory concerns itself with how people construe events and how this construal relates to their thoughts and behaviors. The theory presumes that individuals try to determine why people behave in the manner that they do. An individual seeking to understand why other people or person behaved in a certain manner may attribute one or several causes to the behavior (Erbas, Turan, Aslan & Dunlap, 2010, p. 118). Heider proposed that individuals usually make two kinds of attributions, namely internal attribution and external attribution.
Internal attribution involves the deduction that a person is acting in a certain manner because of some inherent attribute about the individual, such as personality or attitude. Conversely, external attribution involves the assumption that a person behaves in a certain manner due to the circumstances that he or she is undergoing. Attributions are also considerably affected by motivational and emotional drives (Higgins & LaPointe, 2012, p. 3). Faulting other people and evading personal blame are existent convenient and self-serving attributions.
Individuals also tend to make attributions in defending against what they perceive as attacks. People sometimes even blame victims for their circumstances as they seek to distance themselves from thoughts and feelings of suffering the same predicament. Lastly, individuals also tend to assign less variableness to other people than themselves, viewing themselves as more versatile and less conventional compared to others.
A three-stage process forms the basis of an attribution. First, the individual must observe or perceive a behavior. Second, the individual must trust that the behavior was deliberately performed, and lastly, the individual must establish if he or she believes that the other person was coerced into performing the behavior (in such a scenario, the cause will be attributed to the circumstances) or not (where the action will be attributed to the other individual). Weiner’s attribution theory focused on achievement. He identified effort, aptitude, task complexity, and luck as essential factors that affect attribution for achievement (Higgins & LaPointe, 2012, p. 2). Attributions are categorized under three underlying dimensions, which include stability, controllability, and the locus of control (Jarvis, 2012, p. 148).
The stability dimension looks at whether causes remain constant or change with time. For example, effort may be categorized as internal and variable while aptitude may be categorized as a constant, internal cause. Conversely, controllability contrasts causes that are within the control of an individual, such as skills, from those that one is not able to control, such as mood, ability, the actions of other individuals, and luck. Lastly, the locus of control dimension is divided into two poles, which include external and internal locus of control.
Application of the Attribution
Weiner’s Attribution Theory has found widespread application in various fields, including clinical psychology, law, and education. Weiner contended that causal attribution determines how people react to achievement and failure. For instance, a student is not likely to experience a sense of pride and accomplishment if he or she receives an A grade from an instructor who gives only higher grades. Conversely, a higher grade from instructors who issues few high grades is likely to lead to immense satisfaction to the student (Weiner, 1980, p. 362).
Students with higher academic achievements and high self-esteem often attribute their superior performance and achievements to internal, established, and intractable factors such as aptitude while attributing failure to internal, tractable factors such as task complexity and the level of effort. For instance, students experiencing recurring failure in numeracy are likely to consider themselves as being less proficient in arithmetic.
This self-perception of numeracy ability evidences itself in the learner’s prospects of success on numeracy tasks, as well in their thoughts on failure or success in the same tasks. Similarly, learners with learning disabilities are more likely to attribute their failure to ability, which is an intractable factor and not effort, which is more tractable.
The Elaboration Theory
This theory holds that to optimize learning, instruction should be prepared in an order of increasing complexity. For instance, when teaching procedural tasks, it is important to present the simplest adaptation of the task first. The lessons that follow should present additional adaptations until all the tasks have been taught. In all the lessons, the teacher should remind the students of all tasks taught (synthesis or summary). An important view of the Elaboration Theory is the observation that the student needs to develop a purposeful context for the assimilation of consequent skills and ideas (Nenkov, Haws & Kim, 2014, p. 769). Therefore, the Theory deals solely with organizational approaches at the macro level.
It stipulates that the instruction begin with an overview that provides knowledge of a few simple but general ideas, with the rest of the instruction presenting exhaustive ideas that expound on earlier ones. The Elaboration Theory includes three models of instruction, as well as systems from stipulating these models based on instructional goals.
Similar to other models of instruction, the three components comprise strategy components. It is imperative to note that the Elaboration Theory is not fixed, but continues to improve as studies expose weak strategy aspects that should be purged from the model and novel strategy aspects that ought to be included into the models.
The Models of the Theory
The three models of the elaboration include procedurally organized model, the conceptually organized model, as well as the theoretically organized model (Reigeluth, 2013, p. 368). A procedurally organized learning program, such as a regression analysis course, would teach the least complex and most generally applicable processes and procedures first, with the rest being taught as is necessary in attaining the same purpose but under different and more challenging conditions.
Conversely, a course in genetics may utilize a conceptually organized model where the general concepts are presented first. Lastly, a course in introductory microeconomics would probably utilize a theoretical structure where the fundamental principles (such as marginal costs, costs and opportunity costs, scarcity, rational choices, etc.) are taught first.
Application of the Elaboration
The theory may be applied to the design of instruction, particularly
in the cognitive domain. Instruction is more effectual when it adheres to an
elaboration strategy, that is, the use of epitomes comprising analogies,
motivators, syntheses, as well as summaries. For instance, nearly all economic
principles may be explained as elaborations of the classic law of demand and
supply, including taxation, regulation, and monopolies.
Problems with the Instructional Theories and Recommendations
Elaboration theory contends that the structure of content should be made plain and overt to learners through a number of organizers and synthesizers. This view is rather problematic in the sense that presenting learners with an outline that reflects the text structure is likely to encourage memory-level indoctrination and encumber the transfer of the memorized material to problem-solving assignments. Such likely negative outcomes of explicit teaching structure might be because of the continuous knowledge-of-result feedback that is usually characteristic of motor learning tasks. It is uncontested that learning may not occur when learners are able to decipher things effortlessly.
As it is currently constituted, the Elaboration Theory is more of an instructional design procedure than a theory. It provides precise steps for structuring instruction. Such a procedural approach presents two principal problems. First, the procedural directions prescribed beforehand often go beyond the knowledge base regarding instructional and learning processes and are frequently at variance with such knowledge and second, those tasked with designing instructions are disposed to adhere to models in a general, principle-based manner notwithstanding the procedural stipulations.
The theory should be redeveloped into a series of guiding rules that are lucidly referenced to instructional and learning processes. A rule-based formulation will permit instructional designers to adapt the theoretical constructs to a wider variety of situations.
The Component Display Theory
This theory was developed by David Merrill (1983) and delineates the microelements of instruction, that is, particular ideas and means of teaching them (Reigeluth, 2013, p. 279). The theory categorizes learning as bi-directional and comprising of content (concepts, facts, processes, principles, and procedures) and performance (memory and generalities). It identifies four principal forms of presentation, which include rules, examples, recall, and practice.
Rules refer to expositive presentation of generality while examples are expositive presentation of occasions and instances (Duncan & Goddard, 2011, p. 80). Conversely, recall is inquisitory or probing generality while practice refers to probing instances. The Component Display Theory also includes secondary presentation forms, which include goals, mnemonics, preconditions, as well as feedback. The theory stipulates that instruction is only effective as long as it contains all essential primary and secondary forms. Therefore, a comprehensive lesson would comprise of a goal, followed by a permutation of rules, examples, practice, mnemonics, recall, and feedback that are task-specific and appropriate.
CDT further proposes that for a given goal and student, there exists a distinctive combination of the various forms of presentation that leads to the most effectual and successful learning experience. In addition, a number of assumptions underlie the Component Display Theory. While there are several varieties of memory, the theory holds that algorithmic and associative memory structures have direct connections to the performance aspects of Find/Use and remember correspondingly. While algorithmic memory is made up of outlines or rules, associative memory consists of successive levels of network structure. The differentiation between the Find and Use performances lies in the use of extant rules in processing inputs compared to forming new rules through the restructuring of existing ones.
Application of the CDT
The Component Display Theory
has found extensive usage in applied instructional design. It was employed in
designing the TICCIT computer-based instructional system (Choi, 1986, p. 40). One
of the key roles of instruction is to foster active mental processing by the
learner. Evidence exists that there is a direct correlation between the quality
and quantity of learning and cognitive processing of pertinent information by
the student. Nonetheless, proper use of attention focusing information, as well
as an experiential environment, may improve the requisite mental processing,
thereby improving the level of learning. Because computers are interactive, the
execution of this active involvement becomes easier than is the case with other
Limitations of the CDT
There exist at least for different elements of instruction that
impinge in student performance, including the organization of instruction, the
method of instruction delivery, student motivation, and the method used in
managing the interaction between the instruction and the student (Choi, 1986,
p. 43). Further, instructional organization may be classified into two distinct
categories, which include organizing instruction on a set of topics and
organizing it on one topic. The Component Display Theory only examines the
organization of instruction on one topic. Although the theory covers only a
single, limited facet of instruction, its meticulous procedures offer
instructional designers ways of producing effectual instruction within this
Instructional Theories Conclusion and Thoughts
The basic aim of instructional theories is to enhance the quality of instruction. A learning-focused instructional theory should provide guidelines for designing learning environments that can offer the proper combinations of self-direction, empowerment, structure, guidance, and challenge. It must also include guidelines for aspects that have been mostly ignored in instructional design, which include deciding among the various instructional approaches, including project-based learning, tutorials, problem-based learning, and simulations.
The needs for learning have increased and, therefore, new paradigms must provide guidelines for promoting social, emotional, spiritual, attitudinal, and ethical development, as well as an intricate understanding, meta-cognitive strategies, complex cognitive tasks, and higher-order critical thinking skills in the cognitive sphere. Various instructional theories must provide guidelines in every of the above spheres of learning and development.
Choi, S. Y. (1986). Application of Component
Display Theory in Designing and Developing CALI. Calico Journal, 3(4), 40-45.
Dijkstra, S., Schott, F., Tennyson, R. D.,
& Seel, N. M. (2012). Instructional Design: Volume I: Theory,
Research, and Models:volume Ii: Solving Instructional Design Problems.
Hoboken, NJ: Taylor and Francis.
Duffy, T. M., & Jonassen, D. H. (2013). Constructivism
and the technology of instruction: A conversation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Duncan, S. F., & Goddard, H. W.
(2011). Family life education: Principles and practices for effective
outreach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Edgar, D. W. (2012). Learning theories and
historical events affecting instructional design in education: Recitation
literacy toward extraction literacy practices. Sage Open, 2(4), 1-9.
Erbas, D., Turan, Y., Aslan, Y. G., &
Dunlap, G. (2010). Attributions for Problem Behavior as Described by Turkish
Teachers of Special Education. Remedial and Special Education, 31(2), 116-125.
Higgins, N. C., & LaPointe, M. R. P.
(2012). An individual differences measure of attributions that affect
achievement behavior: Factor structure and predictive validity of the academic
attributional style questionnaire. Sage Open, 2(4), 1-15.
Leong, F. T. L., & Austin, J. T. (2006). The
psychology research handbook: A guide for graduate students and research
assistants. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Nenkov, G. Y., Haws, K. L., & Kim, M. J.
(2014). Fluency in Future Focus: Optimizing Outcome Elaboration Strategies for
Effective Self-Control. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(7), 769-776.
Reigeluth, C. M. (2013). Instructional-design theories and models: An Overview of Their Current Status. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Impact of Recruitment Practices on Employee Retention: A Case Study of Community Nurses in the NHS
This dissertation is based on evaluating the effect of recruitment practices on the retention rate of an organisation. The study focuses on the health sector on NHS and analyses the reason for the high turnover rates of the NHS nurses. Thus, the report is dedicated to the analysis of secondary qualitative and quantitative in finding the effect of the recruitment practices on retention rate in NHS nurses. The report shows the recruitment practices of NHS and the possible reasons for their high turnover.
The study has allowed evaluation of the recruitment and selection practices that have an impact on the retention of the community nurses in the NHS. The reasons of increasing employee turnover or lack of retention as found in the research are; poor recruitment planning, the wrong expectation of job roles and responsibilities, ineffective communication of job roles, and lack of use of technology to express the company’s culture, norms, and facilities. The high turnover rate is linked to the recruitment practices using the literature review of the past studies. The study found a difference in the actual practices and advertised practices of National Health Services.
This is one of the many reasons the NHS nurses are dissatisfied in their workplaces. In the NHS, internal recruitment effectiveness is a primary driver of motivation of nurses and consequently to their retention. The study suggests areas for improvement in the recruitment practices in terms of addressing diversity, regional shortcoming, technology usage, internal recruitment effectiveness, national and international recruitment, and demographic balance.
To explore the impact of recruitment on retention in the NHS
To evaluate the existing recruitment practices that drive the retention of NHS nurses
To make appropriate recommendations for effective recruitment practice that contribute to the retention of community nurses in the NHS
To achieve the research objectives, the following research questions are set:
Research Question 1: What are the recruitment practices for community nurses in the NHS?
Research Question 2: How the existing recruitment practice are relevant to employee retention on NHS focus?
Research Question 3: Which of the best recruitment practices should NHS adopt that retain in the NHS?
1 – Introduction Background of the study Purpose of research Research questions and objectives Rationale of research
2 – Literature Review Human resource management Recruitment Retention Recruitment process Sources of recruitment Methods of recruitment Recruitment challenges Selection practices Initial screening and application form Assessment centres and psychological testing Interview Employee turnover Employee Retention factors Compensation, reward and recognition Promotion and work-life balance Training and development Job motivation and satisfaction Job characteristic model Herzberg motivation theory Job satisfaction and employee retention
3 – Research Methodology Research design and approach Descriptive research Research approach: Inductive vs deductive Research methods Research strategy Data collection and sources Study population Data analysis
4 – Data Analysis Community nursing expectations framework Quantitative data Community nurses as a proportion of the total workforce Demographics of community nurses Workforce statistics and shortfalls of community nurses Percentage change in community nurses Joiner and leaver of community nurses Turnover rate for community nurses Workforce nationality and overseas employees Qualitative data HR planning context Recruitment and selection practices Retention practices and Rate at NHS Retention issues and challenges for community Nurses NHS
5 – Result and Discussions Summary of quantitative and qualitative findings Evaluation and discussion of results
6 – Conclusion and Recommendations Conclusion Recommendations
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Benefits and Risks of Outsourcing to Low Cost Countries
Apparel and luxury value chains have come up with strategies so as to be cost competitive, increase the income, and expand the market for their goods. Outsourcing the end-to-end supply chain means that activities of an organization are carried out by an external company that specializes in these activities (Pickles et al., 2015). More so, a company can pay attention to its key competencies satisfy consumers, and be more flexible in maintenance and operation of its supply chain.
Apparel and luxury industry is very volatile today, frequent changes in expenses, risks, and demands for materials and goods as well as the changes in factors like international business environment are some of the challenges affecting the end-to-end supply chain. Anything that halts or reduces the movement of material, as well as the apparel and luxury goods, are considered a problem to the supply chain (K3SoftwareSolutions, 2017).
Apparel and luxury companies have been able to expand their supply chain to many different countries and migrating to outsource manufacturing which has seen reduction in the cost of production. This strategy has promoted division of labor throughout the end-to-end supply chain by allowing company to concentrate on principal business undertakings. The organization is allowed to concentrate on its core competencies while specialist suppliers are given non-core undertakings (Handfield, 2017).
Suppliers who can carry out the processes more efficiently are tasked with this role and therefore outsourcing in low cost countries helps make the supply chain more effective. International brands have been allowed to create a completely responsive supply chains as well as bringing apparel and luxury products of low price to the shelves of stores (Handfield, 2017). Low priced goods are as a result of using external company’s expertise, knowledge and links to make cost-effective plans. Besides, time is economized since the time taken in designing, and delivering new clothes and luxury products to the market has been reduced from over a year to only a few weeks (Handfield, 2017).
Through outsourcing in low-cost countries, companies have been able to achieve effective processes, low-priced goods, and consumer satisfaction leading to outstanding performance and strategic advantage. Supply chain also becomes more flexible as the company has freedom to choose who they can do business with. Also, outsourcing enables the end-to-end supply chain of the organization to be more traceable (Robinson, and Hsieh, 2016).
Despite the benefits, an organization exposes their brands to great risks through outsourcing because it becomes a supply chain against supply chain. When going after cheap labor, apparel and luxury companies have been putting immense pressure on the suppliers who in turn are ready to reduce their invested capital to have low costs (Handfield, 2017). So as to compete with other businesses in the low-cost countries, suppliers forwent investments and labor practices that reduces the safety standards in a company and this is likely to damage the brand image of the apparel.
Poor working conditions in the apparel and luxury industry so as to maintain common local codes in low-cost countries is a disadvantage to the supply chain (Handfield, 2017). Another challenge to the supply chain is the abroad manufacturing delays. Apparel and luxury stores that are in western countries are progressively relying on the clothes and accessories from countries like China. Most newcomers to the industry may be found off guard by the delayed manufacturer (K3SoftwareSolutions, 2017). Moreover, damaged shipments and some that get lost is another menace to the apparel and luxury industry. Possible unseen costs such as inflated shipping price can result.
Besides, there are possible setbacks to the supply chain for instance late receiving of inventory leading to consumer dissatisfaction, loss of income and problems in the end-to-end supply chain. Problems may also arise during integration of the two Apparel and luxury companies affecting supply chain. If the hired company economize, use cheap materials or even fail to assess risk fully, the supply chain will be affected due to decreased sales and brand equity (Meeken, 2013).
in low-cost countries helps Apparel and luxury companies be more efficient in
their operations because they concentrate of core competencies and they can
produce cheaper clothes and accessories as well as satisfying consumers,
therefore, affecting supply chain positively. However, there are risks involved
such as pressuring suppliers to reduce investment capital to keep low costs.
More so, companies adopt common local standards which can ruin the brand image
and problems in the hired company can also affect the organization negatively.
Handfield, R. (2017, August 23). Needed: A New Way to Manage Risk in Low Cost Countries. Supply Chain Resource Cooperative.
K3 Software Solutions, (2017, December 8). Supply Chain Challenges in Apparel Industry and How You Can Fix Them. Fashion ERP.
Z. (2013, June 13). The Risks and Benefits of Outsourcing Supply Chain
J, Plank L, Staritz C, Glasmeier A (2015) Trade policy and regionalisms in
global clothing production networks. Camb J Reg, Econ Soc 8(3):381–402
Robinson, P. K., & Hsieh, L. (2016). Reshoring: a strategic renewal of luxury clothing supply chains. Operations Management Research, 9(3-4), 89-101.