Reliability and Validity Academic Research

Reliability and Validity

Inter-rater reliability

Reliability and Validity in Research – This is a statistical concept in the field of research whereby a particular phenomenon is being evaluated or rated by various raters. It is, therefore, the extent or degree to which there is an agreement in the rating scores amongst the multiple raters, which brings about homogeneity and unanimity amongst these raters. To measure inter-rater reliability, it entails taking the total number of ratings in a particular judgment conducted, as well as the counting the accumulative ratings are done in the rating exercise. The total number of agreements is then divided by the total number of ratings and converted into a percentage to give the inter-rater reliability. McHugh (2012) provides a good example of how inter-rater reliability is calculated by reviewing the various methods that have been stipulated by scholars previously.

Test-retest reliability

This is also another reliability aspect. Test-retest reliability is the extent or degree to which results obtained from a particular test (which is similar) and consistent over time. In test-retest reliability, a similar test is administered to the same people in two or more instances and then the results are evaluated. To measure the test-retest reliability, there are two primary formulas applied. The first formula, which is better applied in instances where two tests were conducted in the Pearson Correlation formula that tests how well two sets of data correlate.

The other method is intraclass correlation formula that is applicable where more than two tests were administered. These formulas help calculate the test-retest coefficients that range between 0 and 1. In his article on validity and reliability in social science research, Drost (2011) provides the various reliability and validity aspects and gives detailed examples of the test-retest reliability measurement.

Face validity

Face validity, which is also referred to as the logical validity, entails the extent or degree to which an evaluation or investigation intuitively seems to quantify or measure the variable or rather the theory that it is objectively meant to measure. This, therefore, means that face validity is when a specific evaluation or assessment tool does what it is meant to do to provide results. To measure face validity, one can engage in the assessment of the concepts or ideas to be measured against the theoretical and practical applications.

Predictive validity

This is the measure of how accurate or effective a given value from a research study is and can be used in the future or rather to predict future patterns in the field studied. In their research on the predictive validity of public examinations (Obioma & Salau, 2007) use the predictive validity aspect to predict how the performance of students in public examinations will affect their future academic performances in the university and college level.

Concurrent reliability and validity

This entails the degree to which current test results relate to results from a previous test. For instance, if in the measurement of an individual’s IQ test are taken at two varied intervals, concurrent validity is measured through comparing on how closely similar are these results from the two tests. A good example of research that has employed the use of concurrent validity is the research done by (Tamanini et al., 2004) on the Portuguese king’s health test performed on women after stress. The researchers indicate how this test is applied and measured by using it as their primary test in their research.

Addressing the issues of reliability and validity

On most qualitative researchers, the nature of the data is more important to the researcher than the other descriptive elements of the research. This, however, does not rule out the need for conciseness in the descriptive sections. Reliability in research entails the concerns the stability, consistency of the data as well as homogeneous repeatability of the results if several tests are done (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber 2014). On the other hand, validity entails the accuracy and integrity of the data or results collected from the various tests that a researcher performs. Various researchers address these issues of validity and reliability in different ways, based on the purpose and the kind of research they carry out.

The authors, Obioma & Salau, (2007), go down to research on the effects of public examinations on the future academic performance of students. The focus here, therefore, is more on the data validation to ensure that their conclusions, as well as the outcomes of the results, have the required accuracy and integrity to validate their arguments. The two authors and researchers have applied the aspects of predictive and concurrent validity in their research. In regards to the use of predictive validity, this is where their research question is based on.

Reliability and Validity Research
Reliability and Validity in Research

They have made sure that the data or the arguments that they bring forth as substantially valid and convincing to attain the objective of predicting the future academic performances of the children who undertake the public examinations that are governed by the various bodies in the country. They have however not applied any reliability aspects in their research. At least not anyone that can be easily identified.

In the book by Drost, he has touched on both aspects; validity and reliability. In this book, he has not presented it in a research form but rather brought it out to the readers in the form of a review of both aspects of research, but on the dimension of social sciences. For instance, she has covered the various instances of both validity and reliability, by providing real-life examples and the various methods that can be used to measure the respective instances of both aspects. She approaches the concepts of validity and reliability from a general perspective whereby she accounts for the reasons as to why researchers, especially in education and social sciences, should adopt a culture of ensuring validity and reliability in their results. He explains the various instances of reliability and provides formulas and tools that can be effectively applied to measure these instances. She also provides the various elements that can impact the level of validity and reliability of data or results in research.

In conclusion, the concepts of validity and reliability are important in research. The researcher from various fields should adopt a culture of achieving these concepts in the results they obtain during their research. As Drost argues it, strong support for the validity and the reliability of research not only makes the research highly validated or otherwise believed in but also limits the possible critiques that the research may face. It fills the gaps that may be identifiable in the research. A researcher should be able to understand the various instances of both reliability and validity as well as know when it is appropriate to apply what instance in the research.

References

McHugh, M. L. (2012). Interrater reliability: the kappa statistic. Biochemia Medica, 22(3), 276-282.

Drost, E. A. (2011). Validity and reliability of social science research. Education Research and perspectives, 38(1), 105.

Obioma, G., & Salau, M. (2007). The predictive validity of public examinations: A case study of Nigeria. Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council (NERDC) Abuja.

Tamanini, J. T., Dambros, M., D’ancona, C. A., Palma, P. C., Botega, N. J., Rios, L. A., & Netto Jr, N. R. (2004). Concurrent validity, internal consistency and responsiveness of the Portuguese version of the King’s Health Questionnaire (KHQ) in women after stress urinary incontinence surgery. International Braz j Urol, 30(6), 479-486.

LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2014). Reliability and validity. G. LoBiondo-Wood & J. Haber. Nursing research. Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice, 289-309.

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Critical Thinking and “What-If” Analyses

Critical Thinking and “What-If” Analyses in Management Decisions

Title: Critical Thinking and “What-If” Analyses in Management Decisions

“No problem can be solved by the same consciousness that created it.”

          – Albert Einstein

“We are approaching a new age of synthesis. Knowledge cannot be merely a degree or skill . . . it demands a broader vision, capabilities in critical thinking and logical deduction without which we cannot have constructive progress.”

   – Li Ka Shing

“To every complex question there is a simple answer and it is wrong.”

          – H. L. Mencken

In its simplest interpretation, we all apply critical thinking in our daily lives, often without even giving a nod to the process we use to arrive at routine decisions. The common characteristics of basic decision making that we all use are so elementary: Gathering information and keeping informed about areas of interest and the particulars to be considered before arriving at a decision; asking questions to ensure we clearly understand pertinent factors; brainstorming; weighing the evidence we have gathered, utilizing a “tried and true” method we have adopted or usually rely on, and – in so doing – determining what is actually relevant to the problem or decision at hand; taking historical elements into account, but assessing facts within their current context; seeking to discern the truth of any claims or assertions, and determining if bias exists that would affect facts or outcomes.

This pattern is repeated for all decisions, from the smallest – for instance, what apparel to wear, in light of planned physical activities or appropriateness for an event – to the most important of decisions, such as whether or not to propose or accept an offer of marriage, or what university to attend.

From a more sophisticated perspective, the simple steps commonly used to arrive at a decision can be deconstructed as

  • Systematic questioning
  • Structured problem solving
  • Risk assessment and management
  • Progressive decision-making
  • Management of thought process
  • Arrival at a solution and implementation

Brainstorming can help determine the appropriate framework of inquiry necessary to gather the most pertinent information, which depends, of course, upon the answers being sought. Methodology used in the problem solving process provides the structure, and there are several methods and systems that can be utilized depending on the nature and scope of the factors to be evaluated, and their relationship, if any. The broader the criteria and more interrelated the particular set of decision problems and apparent alternatives, and the more variable in number and threat level the kinds of risks to be considered, the more complicated the methodology must be in order to assimilate all pertinent information and accommodate as many options and outcomes as is possible. Once again, brainstorming is required to envision all potential perils or disruptive forces that might impinge upon the success of an entity or endeavor.

Critical Thinking and “What-If” Analyses in Management Decision Making
Critical Thinking and “What-If” Analyses in Management Decision Making

A simple outranking of one outcome above the next is a concept that provides a variety of alternatives responses and outcomes to unintended events, pairing alternatives to determine the better performing of each pair. Upon determining which alternative is more effective, or outranks the other, these assessments of problem-solving or responsive value can be aggregated into a ranking or partial-ranking scheme which, although it may not deliver a definitive answer, offers a reduced “shortlist” of acceptable alternatives.

Progressive decision-making tackles one element at a time, in order of importance, placing decisions in a sequence that comprises a plan of avoidance, attack or defense in the face of envisioned obstacles or other developments. Management of the thought process provides a discipline that enables a rational approach to even the most upsetting of possibilities, removing emotion to thereby clarify thought and enable focus. Arrival at a solution and implementation, perforce, requires that the number of likely risks and feasible alternatives be winnowed and refined, to arrive at those scenarios that are most credible, so that they may be addressed in some detail.

Decision Making Criteria

When facing single criterion or limited-criteria problems and decisions a number of relatively simple methods are available to determine the alternative offering the best value or outcome. Elementary decision tools include decision trees that sequentially branch one decision into the next in a basic “this, therefore that” progression; decision tables of alternatives, pro-con analytical comparisons maximax/maximin strategies, cost-benefit analyses. contingency planning, what-if analysis.

All are elementary pencil-to-paper analyses, simple enough to calculate manually, with no need of sophisticated mathematical skill or computational resources.

Multi-attribute optimization problems such as those that are often addressed by planning departments and larger businesses and organizations often reflect a finite number of criteria but an infinite number of alternatives that are feasible.

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Maslow Hierarchy of Needs

Application of Hierarchy of Requirements by Maslow in Ads

Title: Maslow hierarchy of requirements in advertising. The pyramid of requirements was developed in the 1940s by Abraham Maslow, and its theory is still suitable today for the understanding of management guidance, personal inspiration, and personal development. Maslow ideas in the hierarchy of needs of the employer’s responsibility to offer a work environment that enables and encourages employees to have their unique potential fulfilled are more related today.

There are various versions of Maslow’s pyramid of requirements explained by other scholars which have additional levels to the original model (Ciobanu and Ciobanu, 2015). The levels in Maslow’s order of needs are; safety needs, psychological needs, social needs, self-actualization needs, and esteem needs. The paper will discuss two international advertisements in relation to the Maslow’s needs Hierarchy, analysis of publications by use of market segmentation concepts, the international version of the ad, and the differences of the ads internationally, and finally the marketing and psychology aspects utilization in the advertisement for change.

Cadbury chocolate advertisements cater to the safety need in the hierarchy which is essential for making a buyer decide to purchase the product (Wells, 2015). Chocolates are known as friendship and love signs. There is social needs fulfillment in the Cadbury ads as there are special boxes provided by Cadbury used for the celebration of cultural events festivals that unite people giving a feeling of belongingness and love.

Maslow and Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola ad appeal to different needs at various levels of Maslow’s hierarchy. Coca-Cola makes its products to appear the most effective quencher of severe thirst as most of its ads are done in summer places such as baseball games, hence fulfilling the psychological need of its customers (Marlow, 2015). Coca-Cola ads portray the consumption of sodas at a family gathering of the party which emphasizes unity thus meeting the social belonging and love needs for its customers. In the Coca-Cola ads, sodas seem a famous symbol that brings respect and admiration to those who use them hence fulfilling esteem and self- actualization need.

Market segmentation is the combination of various customers into general needs and similar response to a marketing action. To segment a market there are different conducts to consider including psychographics, which looks into client’s psycho group, demographics, that concentrates on the type of client and behavior which bases on the actions of the client.

Coca-Cola organization uses consumer division of criteria and market into various clusters like profile, social and psychographic. Consumer value creation in Coca-Cola and good performance is a tragedy to convince people to buy their products. In its official website, the company outlays its pride in its partnership with the Olympic Games strengthening its reputation. In Coca-Cola ads, its seen people in summer quenching their thirst using Coca-Cola (Laudan, 2015).  Its slogan of “open happiness with Coca-Cola” helps increase its sales as it shows highlights the consumption of Coca-Cola in family gatherings and parties. The Coca-Cola ads align with the company’s mission in that it refreshes an individual’s body mind and spirit, it makes a difference by creating value to customers and inspires happiness and optimism moments through actions and brands.

A Coca-Cola advert takes place in Naples, Italy where Simone Rugiati famous chef creates a dining room that is flashy and invites passersby to join him. They all wait after the chef sets a makeshift table and posts a sign saying “let’s eat together” they all enjoy the Coca-Cola Happiness table.

Coca-Cola international ad “teach the world to see” symbolizes a delightful and multiculturalism that is angelic. It portrays the Coca-Cola image as uniting people. Also, Coca-Cola presents an image of individuals that are bright future-oriented and are part of the process of its success (Aeschelmann, and Carus, 2015). Although the ad was American viewers targeted it has a universal and global message that makes people feel like it was made for everyone. Marketing and psychology are utilized in the Coca-Cola ad to bring emotional change in the viewers to boost its market, for instance when the Coca-Cola company changed its ad from “open happiness” to “taste the feeling” there was maintenance if happiness focus with people connecting and engaging in activities. This portrays the feeling of belonging and love.

Evidently, Maslow’s needs hierarchy is vital in marketing advertisement as the company’s show concern in various needs of its customers as outlined in the levels of hierarchy. The Coca-Cola international ad caters for psychological, social, emotional, esteem, and self- actualization needs. Cadbury chocolate advertisements cater to the safety and social needs of its customers. When the hierarchy of needs is considered in the advertisements, the firms can meet their missions on sales and marketing.

References

Aeschelmann, F., and Carus, M., 2015. Biobased building blocks and polymers in the world: capacities, production, and applications–status quo and trends towards 2020. Industrial Biotechnology11(3), 154-159.

Ciobanu, C. I., and Ciobanu, O. M., 2015. The Impact of Eco-marketing in Qol Improvement. Calitatea16(S1), 672.

Laudan, R., 2015. Cuisine and empire: Cooking in world history (Vol. 43). Univ of California Press.

Marlow, M. L., 2015. The American Dream? Anti-immigrant discourse bubbling up from the Coca-Cola ‘It’s Beautiful’advertisement. Discourse and Communication9(6), 625-641.

Wells, L., 2015. Photography: a critical introduction. Routledge.

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Sample Dissertations University Students

The Benefits of Buying Sample Dissertations

Title: The Benefits of Buying Sample Dissertations. During times of uncertainty during your studies, it is becoming more commonplace for university students to look at options to help them with their studies. The first port of call is often the internet, searching for material that would help in certain areas of study. Another method students undertake is to look at existing material that has been submitted in their own area of study.

This is something I did throughout my time spent in education but you have to be smart enough not to plagiarism any material. I often looked at assignment and dissertations that have been submitted into universities across the world. I refer to this as looking at sample dissertations. There are many sites that offer existing dissertations for students to reference but there are times when this material is outdated or unfit. Many university libraries grant access to dissertation repositories but not all are that great.

This is where students start to search for sample dissertation on offer from online suppliers or document sharing sites. In fact, these sample dissertation providers do more than you might think such as supporting students with their studies while providing on topic sample dissertations relevant to their subject.

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Sample-Dissertations-University

Why Buy A Sample Dissertation?

How exactly do buying sample dissertations help university students, though? What are some of the reasons why students should look at buying such a product? These are some common questions among university students who contemplate buying sample dissertations online. We have outlined some reasons why students should look at obtaining online reference material including prewritten assignments, existing research offered by university libraries and online sample dissertations.

Buying sample dissertations in your chosen subject area can be more helpful than material on offer at your university or college library. You will be surprised by the number of university students who have submitted a thesis or dissertation along the same lines as your dissertation topic or title. I found many dissertations written in my subject field along with references that I had not encountered before. This is a very good reason why to look into sample dissertation during your studies.

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Many students who have obtained prewritten academic material often say that it has helped them to understand how to structure their own dissertation.  Many students write their own dissertation based on the research of other students and academic professionals. Sometimes it can be prove more valuable that sitting with a dissertation supervisor or steering group.

Another reason of buying sample dissertations is that you get to learn from university students who actually passed. You’re not asking anyone to write a dissertation for you – this is wrong. If I can write a dissertation from start to finish in just under one week so can you.  Sample dissertation helped me do this and achieve a high grade. Asking someone to write you material leaves you at a huge disadvantage.

Purchasing a prewritten sample dissertation is a proven way to gain valuable help with your writing skills and can be a great tool for improving learning. However, you should never buy a sample dissertation to submit as your own work as you will fail your degree without a shadow of a doubt.

Buying Sample Dissertations Can Save Time, Energy And Money

Buying sample dissertation online not only saves your time and energy but also money as you are not paying someone to write a thesis or dissertation for you. Online dissertation services such as www.study-aids.co.uk provide a great service and vast collection of sample dissertations for you to asses and sensibly use during your studies.

Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism is using the work of another person without giving the originator credit. There are different kinds of plagiarism; accidental plagiarism is a situation when you are not sure when to cite, summarize what a common knowledge is ending up renewing an old information, deliberate plagiarism; is copying the exact content of another person they way it is without making any changes. This is something that you need to consider when using sample dissertations and the work of others.

It is important to keep accurate sources of your own work, in order to be properly to attribute the exact words ideas you draw from them. When using sample dissertations be sure to record the exact page numbers if you dealing with a quotation. Paraphrasing is another way of avoiding plagiarism, as there is nothing wrong by summarizing other peoples work as long as you attribute the ideas to them. Quotation is away to which guidance from various departments in the institutions are given. Any direct inline quotations (that is quotations inserted in sentence) of someone else’s words must be put into quotation marks and attributed to their original author.

It is advisable to use a more strategic approach to dissertation writing. Always include full citation details for your sources and ensure that you note down the page number of each argument or quote you select. Stay on topic and to the main points, and summarise arguments in your own words as this helps you to understand them. Try not to approach any dissertation as a third person.

Sample Dissertations Features and Aspects

Features of sample dissertations, final year projects and extended reports can cover the following:

  • It is undertaken in your final year of undergraduate study, or in postgraduate education
  • It is linked to both current theory and practice
  • University students have more choice as to the dissertation topic and methodology, and will decide on the aims and objectives of the study at hand
  • Students will be required to undertake more independent research into subjects which may not have been taught or may have been covered in a range of modules throughout your program of university or college study
  • The dissertation word count is usually much higher than for a standard report
  • Your dissertation requires a Project Proposal in order to gain approval for your key concepts before you start.

There is no doubt using sample dissertations will help develop your report writing skills. Quality sample dissertations should always contain sections including introduction, research methodology, results and conclusions research investigation undertaken – do try to avoid any sample dissertation that does not include all sections commonly found in a thesis or dissertation.

Referring to the work of others will enable your supervisor to assess the way you have approached your investigation, collected your data and evaluated your results in your own research. Dissertations demonstrate skills in: planning, organizing, researching, problem solving and time management as well as oral and written communication skills. They also demonstrate in-depth subject knowledge.  We hope you have a better understanding of the benefits of sample dissertations and how they can assist students in their studies.

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Reflective Model Belbin Theory

Reflective Model and Belbin Theory

Title: Reflective Model and Belbin Theory. In offering the best services in a healthcare facility, there is the high need to have in place an efficient and effective teamwork that can always be in appropriate position to address various health complications and circumstances (Firth-Cozens, 2001). Eras are gone when dentists and doctors and other healthcare professionals in health organizations would be in any better position to offer quality healthcare services on their own that could end up fulfilling the expectations of patients. This as an evolutionally has been triggered further by the rising universal demand for new levels of patient care services and this calls for a parallel medical care expertise development which possesses huge focus on teamwork strategy that is essentially centered on the patient outcomes (Belbin, 2012).

Deploying the Reflective Model

This idea is contained in the Belbin’s model of roles of a team. Just as significant, one is always about to realize that every function that is needed in order to realize the objectives of the team, they are conducted to completion and in the best possible manner. This paper will reflect on a particular case that happened in a health care setting involving the code blue team in which case a failure in team work and corporation almost put the entire team at risk and in the process liking the life of a patient. The case will further be reflected by use of Gibbs model of “learning by doing.”

Description

When I completed my medical course, I joined the Mega Health facility in the capacity of a nurse specifically as a member of code blue unit. With the code blue team I was made to realize some of the responsibilities and situations that are involved in that particular unit in the hospital environments.

Code blue is a medical term utilized referring that a particular patient suffers from cardiopulmonary arrest that requires quick responses by performing resuscitation with immediate effect. The initial resuscitation process is however required to be conducted by the first medical staff that is present at the time of occurrence. Later, the code blue team is needed to take over the resuscitation treatment.

During this particular day, 65 year old woman was brought to the facility suffering from cardiopulmonary arrest. Unfortunately, at that particular time the nurse on duty was attending to other patients in the ward. I myself was assisting the doctor on another patient who required a chest surgery.

Reflective Model Belbin Theory
Reflective Model Belbin Theory

Even though my unit was on heart patients, there were no specified guidelines that gave specific job descriptions of the nurses within the facility. After the patient had stayed for almost five minutes I was called upon to come and assist. As my first time encounter of such an event I called the other nurses in circulation. When the senior nurse finally arrived, she started on checking the patient pulse and compressions.

Since there was no nurse assigned with the documentation and follow up of the patient, one of the nurses sent me to the second respondent to alert them for appropriate preparations. Since it was not recorded I described the patient’s condition as a heart attack.

Feeling

When the patient was finally taken to the second respondent she was directed to the intensive care unit ICU. This was a huge mistake as at that moment the patient required a complete resuscitation procedure conducted to her but it was not done. Later the patient got worse and she was referred to the provincial general hospital where she received the complete resuscitation treatment and she recovered.

It was only then that we realized the poor system in our teamwork within the code blue team and through our director we acknowledge to the family and solved the issue. The general feeling was that an error had been done and the justice of the patient had been compromised

Evaluation

From that incident it was very clear that teamwork in code blue team at our facility was failing and the entire arrangement had not done anything commendable. Understanding of the Belbin’s model is of immense importance for our team to make any improvements. In our team we require specified team positions since this would act as a strategy to deal with our responsibilities and our team members.

First teamwork is very crucial as it would have helped assisted bring a balance of what one does respect to what others are assigned. The other role is on specialist which our team was lacking. If we had a specialist among us they could have contributed to the entire group the technical abilities and knowledge. This in effect will impact positively on the safety of patients and their overall outcomes.

In combination with the Gibbs reflective model, one member of team can assist other members to construct sense of the circumstances so as to make them understand their responsibilities on what they have achieved and what they could improve in the days to come (Quinton, & Smallbone, 2010).

Analysis

In this particular case, the main factor that had hindered a better performance in the code blue team poor teamwork. The poor performance displayed by the team was mainly caused by lack of clear job descriptions for different members of the group. For instance, there was no nurse who was assigned the role of follow up and recording every detail of the patient.

The situation could be improved by laying down clear job description for every member in the team. Additionally, no verbal communication should be allowed whenever directives are conveyed regarding the requirements of patients. Adherence to these improvements would lead to reduced confusion, better understanding of the patients’ needs and thus positive patient outcomes.

Reflective Model Conclusion

After the incident the close assessment revealed that if a better functional teamwork with effective control and coordination was in place there could have been positive outcomes from the situation. Whenever a particular team of workers performs at its best levels, it becomes apparent to observe that every member in that team follows a clear guideline which directs them to performing clearly described responsibilities.

The other crucial role of coordinator was lacking in our team. If this was present, this is the individual who could have checked on the process and assist the other members in clarifying their intent and give a summary of what every individual requires (Clements, Dault, & Priest, 2007).

The need for a universally effective teamwork in healthcare environments is on the rise and this has resulted because of the ever growing co-morbidities and the amounting cases of complexities that require special health care.  In Gibb’s theory, this is addressed on description of the situation to the team members.

Action

The team needed an effective implementer who could have acted a practical manager (Aritzeta, Swailes, & Senior, 2007). They could ensure that all plans and thoughts are converted into conveniently executable roles. A mentor would analyze such circumstances and give the best next step to follow whenever a hitch occur in the process.

Teamwork is an essential component in a health care facility as it determines the overall performance and reputation of workers and the organization. Belbin’s theory and Gibb’s reflective model are important a tool that assists team members to have a deeper thought and understanding of the manner in which they should respond to various medial circumstances. In so doing, everyone is able to learn from whatever happened in the past or in the present so that they can minimize the chances of the same mistake occurring in the future.

References

Aritzeta, A., Swailes, S., & Senior, B. (2007). Belbin’s team role model: Development, validity and applications for team building. Journal of Management Studies, 44(1), 96-118.

Belbin, R. M. (2012). Team roles at work. Routledge.

Clements, D., Dault, M., & Priest, A. (2007). Effective teamwork in healthcare: research and reality. Healthcare Papers, 7(I), 26.

Firth-Cozens, J. (2001). Interventions to improve physicians’ well-being and patient care. Social science & medicine, 52(2), 215-222.

Quinton, S., & Smallbone, T. (2010). Feeding forward: using feedback to promote student reflection and learning–a teaching model. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 47(1), 125-135.

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