Maslow Hierarchy of Needs

Application of Hierarchy of Requirements by Maslow in Ads

Title: Maslow hierarchy of requirements in advertising. The pyramid of requirements was developed in the 1940s by Abraham Maslow, and its theory is still suitable today for the understanding of management guidance, personal inspiration, and personal development. Maslow ideas in the hierarchy of needs of the employer’s responsibility to offer a work environment that enables and encourages employees to have their unique potential fulfilled are more related today.

There are various versions of Maslow’s pyramid of requirements explained by other scholars which have additional levels to the original model (Ciobanu and Ciobanu, 2015). The levels in Maslow’s order of needs are; safety needs, psychological needs, social needs, self-actualization needs, and esteem needs. The paper will discuss two international advertisements in relation to the Maslow’s needs Hierarchy, analysis of publications by use of market segmentation concepts, the international version of the ad, and the differences of the ads internationally, and finally the marketing and psychology aspects utilization in the advertisement for change.

Cadbury chocolate advertisements cater to the safety need in the hierarchy which is essential for making a buyer decide to purchase the product (Wells, 2015). Chocolates are known as friendship and love signs. There is social needs fulfillment in the Cadbury ads as there are special boxes provided by Cadbury used for the celebration of cultural events festivals that unite people giving a feeling of belongingness and love.

Maslow and Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola ad appeal to different needs at various levels of Maslow’s hierarchy. Coca-Cola makes its products to appear the most effective quencher of severe thirst as most of its ads are done in summer places such as baseball games, hence fulfilling the psychological need of its customers (Marlow, 2015). Coca-Cola ads portray the consumption of sodas at a family gathering of the party which emphasizes unity thus meeting the social belonging and love needs for its customers. In the Coca-Cola ads, sodas seem a famous symbol that brings respect and admiration to those who use them hence fulfilling esteem and self- actualization need.

Market segmentation is the combination of various customers into general needs and similar response to a marketing action. To segment a market there are different conducts to consider including psychographics, which looks into client’s psycho group, demographics, that concentrates on the type of client and behavior which bases on the actions of the client.

Coca-Cola organization uses consumer division of criteria and market into various clusters like profile, social and psychographic. Consumer value creation in Coca-Cola and good performance is a tragedy to convince people to buy their products. In its official website, the company outlays its pride in its partnership with the Olympic Games strengthening its reputation. In Coca-Cola ads, its seen people in summer quenching their thirst using Coca-Cola (Laudan, 2015).  Its slogan of “open happiness with Coca-Cola” helps increase its sales as it shows highlights the consumption of Coca-Cola in family gatherings and parties. The Coca-Cola ads align with the company’s mission in that it refreshes an individual’s body mind and spirit, it makes a difference by creating value to customers and inspires happiness and optimism moments through actions and brands.

A Coca-Cola advert takes place in Naples, Italy where Simone Rugiati famous chef creates a dining room that is flashy and invites passersby to join him. They all wait after the chef sets a makeshift table and posts a sign saying “let’s eat together” they all enjoy the Coca-Cola Happiness table.

Coca-Cola international ad “teach the world to see” symbolizes a delightful and multiculturalism that is angelic. It portrays the Coca-Cola image as uniting people. Also, Coca-Cola presents an image of individuals that are bright future-oriented and are part of the process of its success (Aeschelmann, and Carus, 2015). Although the ad was American viewers targeted it has a universal and global message that makes people feel like it was made for everyone. Marketing and psychology are utilized in the Coca-Cola ad to bring emotional change in the viewers to boost its market, for instance when the Coca-Cola company changed its ad from “open happiness” to “taste the feeling” there was maintenance if happiness focus with people connecting and engaging in activities. This portrays the feeling of belonging and love.

Evidently, Maslow’s needs hierarchy is vital in marketing advertisement as the company’s show concern in various needs of its customers as outlined in the levels of hierarchy. The Coca-Cola international ad caters for psychological, social, emotional, esteem, and self- actualization needs. Cadbury chocolate advertisements cater to the safety and social needs of its customers. When the hierarchy of needs is considered in the advertisements, the firms can meet their missions on sales and marketing.

References

Aeschelmann, F., and Carus, M., 2015. Biobased building blocks and polymers in the world: capacities, production, and applications–status quo and trends towards 2020. Industrial Biotechnology11(3), 154-159.

Ciobanu, C. I., and Ciobanu, O. M., 2015. The Impact of Eco-marketing in Qol Improvement. Calitatea16(S1), 672.

Laudan, R., 2015. Cuisine and empire: Cooking in world history (Vol. 43). Univ of California Press.

Marlow, M. L., 2015. The American Dream? Anti-immigrant discourse bubbling up from the Coca-Cola ‘It’s Beautiful’advertisement. Discourse and Communication9(6), 625-641.

Wells, L., 2015. Photography: a critical introduction. Routledge.

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Sample Dissertations University Students

The Benefits of Buying Sample Dissertations

Title: The Benefits of Buying Sample Dissertations. During times of uncertainty during your studies, it is becoming more commonplace for university students to look at options to help them with their studies. The first port of call is often the internet, searching for material that would help in certain areas of study. Another method students undertake is to look at existing material that has been submitted in their own area of study.

This is something I did throughout my time spent in education but you have to be smart enough not to plagiarism any material. I often looked at assignment and dissertations that have been submitted into universities across the world. I refer to this as looking at sample dissertations. There are many sites that offer existing dissertations for students to reference but there are times when this material is outdated or unfit. Many university libraries grant access to dissertation repositories but not all are that great.

This is where students start to search for sample dissertation on offer from online suppliers or document sharing sites. In fact, these sample dissertation providers do more than you might think such as supporting students with their studies while providing on topic sample dissertations relevant to their subject.

Sample-Dissertations-University
Sample-Dissertations-University

Why Buy A Sample Dissertation?

How exactly do buying sample dissertations help university students, though? What are some of the reasons why students should look at buying such a product? These are some common questions among university students who contemplate buying sample dissertations online. We have outlined some reasons why students should look at obtaining online reference material including prewritten assignments, existing research offered by university libraries and online sample dissertations.

Buying sample dissertations in your chosen subject area can be more helpful than material on offer at your university or college library. You will be surprised by the number of university students who have submitted a thesis or dissertation along the same lines as your dissertation topic or title. I found many dissertations written in my subject field along with references that I had not encountered before. This is a very good reason why to look into sample dissertation during your studies.

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Many students who have obtained prewritten academic material often say that it has helped them to understand how to structure their own dissertation.  Many students write their own dissertation based on the research of other students and academic professionals. Sometimes it can be prove more valuable that sitting with a dissertation supervisor or steering group.

Another reason of buying sample dissertations is that you get to learn from university students who actually passed. You’re not asking anyone to write a dissertation for you – this is wrong. If I can write a dissertation from start to finish in just under one week so can you.  Sample dissertation helped me do this and achieve a high grade. Asking someone to write you material leaves you at a huge disadvantage.

Purchasing a prewritten sample dissertation is a proven way to gain valuable help with your writing skills and can be a great tool for improving learning. However, you should never buy a sample dissertation to submit as your own work as you will fail your degree without a shadow of a doubt.

Buying Sample Dissertations Can Save Time, Energy And Money

Buying sample dissertation online not only saves your time and energy but also money as you are not paying someone to write a thesis or dissertation for you. Online dissertation services such as www.study-aids.co.uk provide a great service and vast collection of sample dissertations for you to asses and sensibly use during your studies.

Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism is using the work of another person without giving the originator credit. There are different kinds of plagiarism; accidental plagiarism is a situation when you are not sure when to cite, summarize what a common knowledge is ending up renewing an old information, deliberate plagiarism; is copying the exact content of another person they way it is without making any changes. This is something that you need to consider when using sample dissertations and the work of others.

It is important to keep accurate sources of your own work, in order to be properly to attribute the exact words ideas you draw from them. When using sample dissertations be sure to record the exact page numbers if you dealing with a quotation. Paraphrasing is another way of avoiding plagiarism, as there is nothing wrong by summarizing other peoples work as long as you attribute the ideas to them. Quotation is away to which guidance from various departments in the institutions are given. Any direct inline quotations (that is quotations inserted in sentence) of someone else’s words must be put into quotation marks and attributed to their original author.

It is advisable to use a more strategic approach to dissertation writing. Always include full citation details for your sources and ensure that you note down the page number of each argument or quote you select. Stay on topic and to the main points, and summarise arguments in your own words as this helps you to understand them. Try not to approach any dissertation as a third person.

Sample Dissertations Features and Aspects

Features of sample dissertations, final year projects and extended reports can cover the following:

  • It is undertaken in your final year of undergraduate study, or in postgraduate education
  • It is linked to both current theory and practice
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  • Students will be required to undertake more independent research into subjects which may not have been taught or may have been covered in a range of modules throughout your program of university or college study
  • The dissertation word count is usually much higher than for a standard report
  • Your dissertation requires a Project Proposal in order to gain approval for your key concepts before you start.

There is no doubt using sample dissertations will help develop your report writing skills. Quality sample dissertations should always contain sections including introduction, research methodology, results and conclusions research investigation undertaken – do try to avoid any sample dissertation that does not include all sections commonly found in a thesis or dissertation.

Referring to the work of others will enable your supervisor to assess the way you have approached your investigation, collected your data and evaluated your results in your own research. Dissertations demonstrate skills in: planning, organizing, researching, problem solving and time management as well as oral and written communication skills. They also demonstrate in-depth subject knowledge.  We hope you have a better understanding of the benefits of sample dissertations and how they can assist students in their studies.

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Reflective Model Belbin Theory

Reflective Model and Belbin Theory

Title: Reflective Model and Belbin Theory. In offering the best services in a healthcare facility, there is the high need to have in place an efficient and effective teamwork that can always be in appropriate position to address various health complications and circumstances (Firth-Cozens, 2001). Eras are gone when dentists and doctors and other healthcare professionals in health organizations would be in any better position to offer quality healthcare services on their own that could end up fulfilling the expectations of patients. This as an evolutionally has been triggered further by the rising universal demand for new levels of patient care services and this calls for a parallel medical care expertise development which possesses huge focus on teamwork strategy that is essentially centered on the patient outcomes (Belbin, 2012).

Deploying the Reflective Model

This idea is contained in the Belbin’s model of roles of a team. Just as significant, one is always about to realize that every function that is needed in order to realize the objectives of the team, they are conducted to completion and in the best possible manner. This paper will reflect on a particular case that happened in a health care setting involving the code blue team in which case a failure in team work and corporation almost put the entire team at risk and in the process liking the life of a patient. The case will further be reflected by use of Gibbs model of “learning by doing.”

Description

When I completed my medical course, I joined the Mega Health facility in the capacity of a nurse specifically as a member of code blue unit. With the code blue team I was made to realize some of the responsibilities and situations that are involved in that particular unit in the hospital environments.

Code blue is a medical term utilized referring that a particular patient suffers from cardiopulmonary arrest that requires quick responses by performing resuscitation with immediate effect. The initial resuscitation process is however required to be conducted by the first medical staff that is present at the time of occurrence. Later, the code blue team is needed to take over the resuscitation treatment.

During this particular day, 65 year old woman was brought to the facility suffering from cardiopulmonary arrest. Unfortunately, at that particular time the nurse on duty was attending to other patients in the ward. I myself was assisting the doctor on another patient who required a chest surgery.

Reflective Model Belbin Theory
Reflective Model Belbin Theory

Even though my unit was on heart patients, there were no specified guidelines that gave specific job descriptions of the nurses within the facility. After the patient had stayed for almost five minutes I was called upon to come and assist. As my first time encounter of such an event I called the other nurses in circulation. When the senior nurse finally arrived, she started on checking the patient pulse and compressions.

Since there was no nurse assigned with the documentation and follow up of the patient, one of the nurses sent me to the second respondent to alert them for appropriate preparations. Since it was not recorded I described the patient’s condition as a heart attack.

Feeling

When the patient was finally taken to the second respondent she was directed to the intensive care unit ICU. This was a huge mistake as at that moment the patient required a complete resuscitation procedure conducted to her but it was not done. Later the patient got worse and she was referred to the provincial general hospital where she received the complete resuscitation treatment and she recovered.

It was only then that we realized the poor system in our teamwork within the code blue team and through our director we acknowledge to the family and solved the issue. The general feeling was that an error had been done and the justice of the patient had been compromised

Evaluation

From that incident it was very clear that teamwork in code blue team at our facility was failing and the entire arrangement had not done anything commendable. Understanding of the Belbin’s model is of immense importance for our team to make any improvements. In our team we require specified team positions since this would act as a strategy to deal with our responsibilities and our team members.

First teamwork is very crucial as it would have helped assisted bring a balance of what one does respect to what others are assigned. The other role is on specialist which our team was lacking. If we had a specialist among us they could have contributed to the entire group the technical abilities and knowledge. This in effect will impact positively on the safety of patients and their overall outcomes.

In combination with the Gibbs reflective model, one member of team can assist other members to construct sense of the circumstances so as to make them understand their responsibilities on what they have achieved and what they could improve in the days to come (Quinton, & Smallbone, 2010).

Analysis

In this particular case, the main factor that had hindered a better performance in the code blue team poor teamwork. The poor performance displayed by the team was mainly caused by lack of clear job descriptions for different members of the group. For instance, there was no nurse who was assigned the role of follow up and recording every detail of the patient.

The situation could be improved by laying down clear job description for every member in the team. Additionally, no verbal communication should be allowed whenever directives are conveyed regarding the requirements of patients. Adherence to these improvements would lead to reduced confusion, better understanding of the patients’ needs and thus positive patient outcomes.

Reflective Model Conclusion

After the incident the close assessment revealed that if a better functional teamwork with effective control and coordination was in place there could have been positive outcomes from the situation. Whenever a particular team of workers performs at its best levels, it becomes apparent to observe that every member in that team follows a clear guideline which directs them to performing clearly described responsibilities.

The other crucial role of coordinator was lacking in our team. If this was present, this is the individual who could have checked on the process and assist the other members in clarifying their intent and give a summary of what every individual requires (Clements, Dault, & Priest, 2007).

The need for a universally effective teamwork in healthcare environments is on the rise and this has resulted because of the ever growing co-morbidities and the amounting cases of complexities that require special health care.  In Gibb’s theory, this is addressed on description of the situation to the team members.

Action

The team needed an effective implementer who could have acted a practical manager (Aritzeta, Swailes, & Senior, 2007). They could ensure that all plans and thoughts are converted into conveniently executable roles. A mentor would analyze such circumstances and give the best next step to follow whenever a hitch occur in the process.

Teamwork is an essential component in a health care facility as it determines the overall performance and reputation of workers and the organization. Belbin’s theory and Gibb’s reflective model are important a tool that assists team members to have a deeper thought and understanding of the manner in which they should respond to various medial circumstances. In so doing, everyone is able to learn from whatever happened in the past or in the present so that they can minimize the chances of the same mistake occurring in the future.

References

Aritzeta, A., Swailes, S., & Senior, B. (2007). Belbin’s team role model: Development, validity and applications for team building. Journal of Management Studies, 44(1), 96-118.

Belbin, R. M. (2012). Team roles at work. Routledge.

Clements, D., Dault, M., & Priest, A. (2007). Effective teamwork in healthcare: research and reality. Healthcare Papers, 7(I), 26.

Firth-Cozens, J. (2001). Interventions to improve physicians’ well-being and patient care. Social science & medicine, 52(2), 215-222.

Quinton, S., & Smallbone, T. (2010). Feeding forward: using feedback to promote student reflection and learning–a teaching model. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 47(1), 125-135.

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Instructional Theories Learning Development

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Instructional Theories Learning Development

An instructional theory refers to a theory that provides clear guidance on how to assist individuals learn and develop. Instructional theories center on how to design material for enhancing the education of individuals. They differ from learning theories in the sense that while learning theories explain how learning occurs, instructional theories stipulate how to assist individuals to learn.

Stated differently, instructional theories, as informed by learning theories, delineate the core teaching approaches (such as worked examples versus partial solutions, lecture versus cooperative activities, immediate versus deferred reinforcements) that may be included in a lesson. Instructional theories are usually normative and situation specific. The field of instructional science deals with understanding and improving instructional methods to make them more appealing and effective (Edgar, 2012, p. 2).

The origins of instructional theories can be traced to formative endeavors by educational psychologists to map out the link between psychology and the pragmatic application of instructional theory in education settings. John Dewey (1910) and Edward Thorndike (1913) are two important theorists who envisaged a special connection between instructional theory and educational practice (Dijkstra, Schott, Tennyson & Seel, 2012, p. 3). The connection between the philosophical perspectives and instructional theories is obvious. For instance, learning activities in a traditional classroom are centered on and controlled by the instructor, who presents the materials to be learned and prescribes the kinds of learning activities that students engage in.

Learners are expected to read and analyze the information (through homework and classroom activity) until they master it. Knowledge is regarded as a commodity to be passed from the teacher to the learner. In sum, instructional theories identify methods of instruction (ways of supporting and facilitating learning), as well as the circumstances in which the methods may or may not be used.

A Perspective on the Connection between Theory and Practice

The connection between instructional theories and pedagogical practices is made complex by a number of factors. It can be perceived that pedagogical practices should be founded on the best instructional theories available, but this relationship may not be as simple. Educational practices are likely to be informed by philosophical beliefs than by empirical evidence and theoretical discernment of learning. Learning institutions are established according to the various cultural and community beliefs and worldviews, the human nature, as well as what are to be learned. They also differ with respect to their beliefs regarding teaching and learning, although philosophical convictions frequently come first (Duffy & Jonassen, 2013, p. 17).

All instructional programs and educational systems incorporate some instructional theory, even though such theory is in most instances implied and frequently goes unnoticed. Vastly different classrooms materialize from different philosophical views. For instance, if one is of the conviction that knowledge is produced anew by each student, that a student’s mental activity decides what he or she learns, and that learning happens from engaging in authentic assignments in a social atmosphere, then the resultant classroom is likely to involve learners working on projects and learning in groups.

In this manner, the students are able to discuss how best to tackle problems or consult on the meaning of various concepts. There is a consistency between theoretical beliefs and pedagogical practices. However, the question concerning which comes first is not always clear since evidence exists that people seek out and agree to information that affirms their preexisting beliefs while rejecting those that do not conform to such beliefs.

There exists a reciprocatory link between theory and practice. A common conviction is that knowledge flows from systematic theories to the advancement of effectual practices, that effective instructional theories inform sound pedagogical practices (Leong & Austin, 2006, p. 7). However, science does not always work in such a linear manner. An examination of both social and physical sciences reveals that ideas frequently derive from observation and interrogation of naturally occurring events. Scientific theories often come from attempts to find practical solutions to problems, such as asking the question “what is the best approach of teaching the concept of osmosis?”.

Established pedagogical practices that teachers have been found to be effectual should be used as sources of ideas in coming up with a practicable instructional theory. A final caveat in comprehending the connection between theory and practice involves acknowledging that the learners are more important than the instructor in deciding the material to be learned. However, this is not to say that the teacher’s role is unimportant, only that the perceptions, previous knowledge, and beliefs of learners should dictate what and if they learn things related to the teacher’s instructional goals.

Attribution Theory

This theory deals with the manner in which individuals perceive and use information to explain events (Higgins & LaPointe, 2012, p. 1). It looks at what information is collected and how it is treated to shape a causal judgment. Heider (1958) first proposed the attribution theory, although other psychologists such as Weiner (1974) and Jones et al (1972) developed a theoretical framework that later became a key research model in social psychology. Heider offered a discourse on what he termed as “commonsense” or “naïve” psychology. According to his perspective, individuals are similar to recreational scientists, attempting to understand the behavior of other individuals by gathering and analyzing information until they obtain a reasonable cause or explanation.

Instructional Theories – Key Statements and Assumptions

Attribution theory concerns itself with how people construe events and how this construal relates to their thoughts and behaviors. The theory presumes that individuals try to determine why people behave in the manner that they do. An individual seeking to understand why other people or person behaved in a certain manner may attribute one or several causes to the behavior (Erbas, Turan, Aslan & Dunlap, 2010, p. 118). Heider proposed that individuals usually make two kinds of attributions, namely internal attribution and external attribution.

Internal attribution involves the deduction that a person is acting in a certain manner because of some inherent attribute about the individual, such as personality or attitude. Conversely, external attribution involves the assumption that a person behaves in a certain manner due to the circumstances that he or she is undergoing. Attributions are also considerably affected by motivational and emotional drives (Higgins & LaPointe, 2012, p. 3). Faulting other people and evading personal blame are existent convenient and self-serving attributions.

Instructional-Theories-Learning-Development
Instructional-Theories-Learning-Development

Individuals also tend to make attributions in defending against what they perceive as attacks. People sometimes even blame victims for their circumstances as they seek to distance themselves from thoughts and feelings of suffering the same predicament. Lastly, individuals also tend to assign less variableness to other people than themselves, viewing themselves as more versatile and less conventional compared to others.

A three-stage process forms the basis of an attribution. First, the individual must observe or perceive a behavior. Second, the individual must trust that the behavior was deliberately performed, and lastly, the individual must establish if he or she believes that the other person was coerced into performing the behavior (in such a scenario, the cause will be attributed to the circumstances) or not (where the action will be attributed to the other individual). Weiner’s attribution theory focused on achievement. He identified effort, aptitude, task complexity, and luck as essential factors that affect attribution for achievement (Higgins & LaPointe, 2012, p. 2). Attributions are categorized under three underlying dimensions, which include stability, controllability, and the locus of control (Jarvis, 2012, p. 148).

The stability dimension looks at whether causes remain constant or change with time. For example, effort may be categorized as internal and variable while aptitude may be categorized as a constant, internal cause. Conversely, controllability contrasts causes that are within the control of an individual, such as skills, from those that one is not able to control, such as mood, ability, the actions of other individuals, and luck. Lastly, the locus of control dimension is divided into two poles, which include external and internal locus of control.

Application of the Attribution Theory

Weiner’s Attribution Theory has found widespread application in various fields, including clinical psychology, law, and education. Weiner contended that causal attribution determines how people react to achievement and failure. For instance, a student is not likely to experience a sense of pride and accomplishment if he or she receives an A grade from an instructor who gives only higher grades. Conversely, a higher grade from instructors who issues few high grades is likely to lead to immense satisfaction to the student (Weiner, 1980, p. 362).

Students with higher academic achievements and high self-esteem often attribute their superior performance and achievements to internal, established, and intractable factors such as aptitude while attributing failure to internal, tractable factors such as task complexity and the level of effort. For instance, students experiencing recurring failure in numeracy are likely to consider themselves as being less proficient in arithmetic.

This self-perception of numeracy ability evidences itself in the learner’s prospects of success on numeracy tasks, as well in their thoughts on failure or success in the same tasks. Similarly, learners with learning disabilities are more likely to attribute their failure to ability, which is an intractable factor and not effort, which is more tractable.

The Elaboration Theory

This theory holds that to optimize learning, instruction should be prepared in an order of increasing complexity. For instance, when teaching procedural tasks, it is important to present the simplest adaptation of the task first. The lessons that follow should present additional adaptations until all the tasks have been taught. In all the lessons, the teacher should remind the students of all tasks taught (synthesis or summary). An important view of the Elaboration Theory is the observation that the student needs to develop a purposeful context for the assimilation of consequent skills and ideas (Nenkov, Haws & Kim, 2014, p. 769). Therefore, the Theory deals solely with organizational approaches at the macro level.

It stipulates that the instruction begin with an overview that provides knowledge of a few simple but general ideas, with the rest of the instruction presenting exhaustive ideas that expound on earlier ones. The Elaboration Theory includes three models of instruction, as well as systems from stipulating these models based on instructional goals.

Similar to other models of instruction, the three components comprise strategy components. It is imperative to note that the Elaboration Theory is not fixed, but continues to improve as studies expose weak strategy aspects that should be purged from the model and novel strategy aspects that ought to be included into the models.

The Models of the Theory

The three models of the elaboration include procedurally organized model, the conceptually organized model, as well as the theoretically organized model (Reigeluth, 2013, p. 368). A procedurally organized learning program, such as a regression analysis course, would teach the least complex and most generally applicable processes and procedures first, with the rest being taught as is necessary in attaining the same purpose but under different and more challenging conditions.

Conversely, a course in genetics may utilize a conceptually organized model where the general concepts are presented first. Lastly, a course in introductory microeconomics would probably utilize a theoretical structure where the fundamental principles (such as marginal costs, costs and opportunity costs, scarcity, rational choices, etc.) are taught first.

Application of the Elaboration Theory

The theory may be applied to the design of instruction, particularly in the cognitive domain. Instruction is more effectual when it adheres to an elaboration strategy, that is, the use of epitomes comprising analogies, motivators, syntheses, as well as summaries. For instance, nearly all economic principles may be explained as elaborations of the classic law of demand and supply, including taxation, regulation, and monopolies.

Problems with the Instructional Theories and Recommendations

Elaboration theory contends that the structure of content should be made plain and overt to learners through a number of organizers and synthesizers. This view is rather problematic in the sense that presenting learners with an outline that reflects the text structure is likely to encourage memory-level indoctrination and encumber the transfer of the memorized material to problem-solving assignments. Such likely negative outcomes of explicit teaching structure might be because of the continuous knowledge-of-result feedback that is usually characteristic of motor learning tasks. It is uncontested that learning may not occur when learners are able to decipher things effortlessly.

As it is currently constituted, the Elaboration Theory is more of an instructional design procedure than a theory. It provides precise steps for structuring instruction. Such a procedural approach presents two principal problems. First, the procedural directions prescribed beforehand often go beyond the knowledge base regarding instructional and learning processes and are frequently at variance with such knowledge and second, those tasked with designing instructions are disposed to adhere to models in a general, principle-based manner notwithstanding the procedural stipulations.

The theory should be redeveloped into a series of guiding rules that are lucidly referenced to instructional and learning processes. A rule-based formulation will permit instructional designers to adapt the theoretical constructs to a wider variety of situations.

The Component Display Theory

This theory was developed by David Merrill (1983) and delineates the microelements of instruction, that is, particular ideas and means of teaching them (Reigeluth, 2013, p. 279). The theory categorizes learning as bi-directional and comprising of content (concepts, facts, processes, principles, and procedures) and performance (memory and generalities). It identifies four principal forms of presentation, which include rules, examples, recall, and practice.

Rules refer to expositive presentation of generality while examples are expositive presentation of occasions and instances (Duncan & Goddard, 2011, p. 80). Conversely, recall is inquisitory or probing generality while practice refers to probing instances. The Component Display Theory also includes secondary presentation forms, which include goals, mnemonics, preconditions, as well as feedback. The theory stipulates that instruction is only effective as long as it contains all essential primary and secondary forms. Therefore, a comprehensive lesson would comprise of a goal, followed by a permutation of rules, examples, practice, mnemonics, recall, and feedback that are task-specific and appropriate.

CDT further proposes that for a given goal and student, there exists a distinctive combination of the various forms of presentation that leads to the most effectual and successful learning experience. In addition, a number of assumptions underlie the Component Display Theory. While there are several varieties of memory, the theory holds that algorithmic and associative memory structures have direct connections to the performance aspects of Find/Use and remember correspondingly. While algorithmic memory is made up of outlines or rules, associative memory consists of successive levels of network structure. The differentiation between the Find and Use performances lies in the use of extant rules in processing inputs compared to forming new rules through the restructuring of existing ones.

Application of the CDT

 The Component Display Theory has found extensive usage in applied instructional design. It was employed in designing the TICCIT computer-based instructional system (Choi, 1986, p. 40). One of the key roles of instruction is to foster active mental processing by the learner. Evidence exists that there is a direct correlation between the quality and quantity of learning and cognitive processing of pertinent information by the student. Nonetheless, proper use of attention focusing information, as well as an experiential environment, may improve the requisite mental processing, thereby improving the level of learning. Because computers are interactive, the execution of this active involvement becomes easier than is the case with other instructional media.

Limitations of the CDT

There exist at least for different elements of instruction that impinge in student performance, including the organization of instruction, the method of instruction delivery, student motivation, and the method used in managing the interaction between the instruction and the student (Choi, 1986, p. 43). Further, instructional organization may be classified into two distinct categories, which include organizing instruction on a set of topics and organizing it on one topic. The Component Display Theory only examines the organization of instruction on one topic. Although the theory covers only a single, limited facet of instruction, its meticulous procedures offer instructional designers ways of producing effectual instruction within this limited domain.

Instructional Theories Conclusion and Thoughts

The basic aim of instructional theories is to enhance the quality of instruction. A learning-focused instructional theory should provide guidelines for designing learning environments that can offer the proper combinations of self-direction, empowerment, structure, guidance, and challenge. It must also include guidelines for aspects that have been mostly ignored in instructional design, which include deciding among the various instructional approaches, including project-based learning, tutorials, problem-based learning, and simulations.

The needs for learning have increased and, therefore, new paradigms must provide guidelines for promoting social, emotional, spiritual, attitudinal, and ethical development, as well as an intricate understanding, meta-cognitive strategies, complex cognitive tasks, and higher-order critical thinking skills in the cognitive sphere. Various instructional theories must provide guidelines in every of the above spheres of learning and development.

References

Choi, S. Y. (1986). Application of Component Display Theory in Designing and Developing CALI. Calico Journal, 3(4), 40-45.

Dijkstra, S., Schott, F., Tennyson, R. D., & Seel, N. M. (2012). Instructional Design: Volume I: Theory, Research, and Models:volume Ii: Solving Instructional Design Problems. Hoboken, NJ: Taylor and Francis.

Duffy, T. M., & Jonassen, D. H. (2013). Constructivism and the technology of instruction: A conversation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Duncan, S. F., & Goddard, H. W. (2011). Family life education: Principles and practices for effective outreach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Edgar, D. W. (2012). Learning theories and historical events affecting instructional design in education: Recitation literacy toward extraction literacy practices. Sage Open, 2(4), 1-9.

Erbas, D., Turan, Y., Aslan, Y. G., & Dunlap, G. (2010). Attributions for Problem Behavior as Described by Turkish Teachers of Special Education. Remedial and Special Education, 31(2), 116-125.

Higgins, N. C., & LaPointe, M. R. P. (2012). An individual differences measure of attributions that affect achievement behavior: Factor structure and predictive validity of the academic attributional style questionnaire. Sage Open, 2(4), 1-15.

Jarvis, M. (2012). Teaching psychology 14-19: Issues & techniques. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Leong, F. T. L., & Austin, J. T. (2006). The psychology research handbook: A guide for graduate students and research assistants. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Nenkov, G. Y., Haws, K. L., & Kim, M. J. (2014). Fluency in Future Focus: Optimizing Outcome Elaboration Strategies for Effective Self-Control. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(7), 769-776.

Reigeluth, C. M. (2013). Instructional-design theories and models: An Overview of Their Current Status. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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Recruitment Practices NHS Dissertation

Impact of Recruitment Practices on Employee Retention: A Case Study of Community Nurses in the NHS

This dissertation is based on evaluating the effect of recruitment practices on the retention rate of an organisation. The study focuses on the health sector on NHS and analyses the reason for the high turnover rates of the NHS nurses. Thus, the report is dedicated to the analysis of secondary qualitative and quantitative in finding the effect of the recruitment practices on retention rate in NHS nurses. The report shows the recruitment practices of NHS and the possible reasons for their high turnover.

The study has allowed evaluation of the recruitment and selection practices that have an impact on the retention of the community nurses in the NHS. The reasons of increasing employee turnover or lack of retention as found in the research are; poor recruitment planning, the wrong expectation of job roles and responsibilities, ineffective communication of job roles, and lack of use of technology to express the company’s culture, norms, and facilities. The high turnover rate is linked to the recruitment practices using the literature review of the past studies. The study found a difference in the actual practices and advertised practices of National Health Services.

This is one of the many reasons the NHS nurses are dissatisfied in their workplaces. In the NHS, internal recruitment effectiveness is a primary driver of motivation of nurses and consequently to their retention. The study suggests areas for improvement in the recruitment practices in terms of addressing diversity, regional shortcoming, technology usage, internal recruitment effectiveness, national and international recruitment, and demographic balance.

Dissertation Objectives

  • To explore the impact of recruitment on retention in the NHS
  • To evaluate the existing recruitment practices that drive the retention of NHS nurses
  • To make appropriate recommendations for effective recruitment practice that contribute to the retention of community nurses in the NHS
  • To achieve the research objectives, the following research questions are set:
  • Research Question 1: What are the recruitment practices for community nurses in the NHS?
  • Research Question 2: How the existing recruitment practice are relevant to employee retention on NHS focus?
  • Research Question 3: Which of the best recruitment practices should NHS adopt that retain in the NHS?
NHS-Recruitment-Practices-Dissertation
NHS-Recruitment-Practices-Dissertation

Dissertation Contents

1 – Introduction
Background of the study
Purpose of research
Research questions and objectives
Rationale of research

2 – Literature Review
Human resource management
Recruitment
Retention
Recruitment process
Sources of recruitment
Methods of recruitment
Recruitment challenges
Selection practices
Initial screening and application form
Assessment centres and psychological testing
Interview
Employee turnover
Employee Retention factors
Compensation, reward and recognition
Promotion and work-life balance
Training and development
Job motivation and satisfaction
Job characteristic model
Herzberg motivation theory
Job satisfaction and employee retention

3 – Research Methodology
Research design and approach
Descriptive research
Research approach: Inductive vs deductive
Research methods
Research strategy
Data collection and sources
Study population
Data analysis

4 – Data Analysis
Community nursing expectations framework
Quantitative data
Community nurses as a proportion of the total workforce
Demographics of community nurses
Workforce statistics and shortfalls of community nurses
Percentage change in community nurses
Joiner and leaver of community nurses
Turnover rate for community nurses
Workforce nationality and overseas employees
Qualitative data
HR planning context
Recruitment and selection practices
Retention practices and Rate at NHS
Retention issues and challenges for community Nurses NHS

5 – Result and Discussions
Summary of quantitative and qualitative findings
Evaluation and discussion of results

6 – Conclusion and Recommendations
Conclusion
Recommendations

References

Appendix

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