Intellectual Property Business Environment

Intellectual Property

The existing competitive business environment requires the entrepreneurs to identify unique problem-solving strategies to make them overcome competition. Hence, it is vital for them to protect their exclusive creation from other parties who can benefit from the knowledge. Plainly, intellectual property is a new invention that results from the creativity of an individual who has full entitlement to it. Such ideas need protection to deter other parties from using them in making a profit without the consent of the owner. Particularly, the possessors need a statutory protection of their products by registering them to ensure that they can legally claim the ownership of the invention. Different intellectual properties provide complete cover to various kinds of new ideas. Considerably, Sam had an intellectual property right over the list he created despite committing a tort by shoving Natalie.

Specifically, there are four broad categories of intellectual property which include copyright, patent, trademark, and trade secret (Posner, 2005, p. 66). Markedly, copyright deals with the original works of authors, film producers, or programmers. Thus, they include books, movies, computer programs, and articles among others. Ideally, a patent is an invention of an object that improves its performance. On the other hand, trademark involves symbols, words, or a phrase that uniquely identifies a person or a company. Finally, trade secrets are secret formula or information possessed by an individual to gives him or her competitive advantage over others. Sadly, the information that falls under this category are not original enough to merit the protection of copyright, neither are they novel to sufficiently guarantee a patent protection. Nevertheless, the endorsement of the federal law limits the theft of trade secrets (Kinsella, 2001, p. 5). Agreeably, Sam’s client list falls into this category since it gave him an advantage over other employees and he needed to keep it private, justifying his actions by copying the files without the knowledge of the authority.

Essentially, the law provides for the best plans to incorporate in safeguarding the fresh ideas that other people may steal. As in the case with Sam, he had his client list that he did not want any other party to access. Since he did not want to follow the lengthy procedure that the law requires in registering newfound knowledge, he decided to keep the data without the assistance of the authority. Unfortunately, his choice proved costly because he stored the data in the workstation of ABC Paper Corp. Interestingly, keeping the data in the computers of the company gave the firm a right to the information therein (Posner, 2005, p. 68). Therefore, leaving his client list in that location granted the company all the rights over the details in his file. Consequently, Sam was to communicate with the relevant authorities regarding the information stored on their computers rather than sneaking into the room of equipment and plugging in his drive. Thus, the first unethical act committed by Sam was accessing the room and the computers without authorization.

Moreover, plugging a drive into the computer of the firm was unethical. Most enterprises forbid employees from plugging in external drives into the company’s computer system since such actions lead to loss of valuable information, access to private data, the spread of malicious software, or spying the network. Given that Sam was committing a prohibited activity, Natalie had to act. Since he suspected that he had committed an offense, he resolved to run away instead of explaining his actions to Natalie. As a result, Sam’s behavior confirmed to the boss that he had been compromising the security of the company. Unfortunately, he shoved Natalie aside in her attempt to prevent him from escaping. Undoubtedly, all the negligent acts of Sam were unethical. Henceforth, although he sought after his client list, the procedures he used convicted him for criminal activities.

Intellectual Property Business Environment
Intellectual Property Business Environment

In essence, the government has established laws to protect the public from undue injuries. Accordingly, tort laws safeguard and handle the treatment of the injured individuals due to the recklessness of another party. A tort occurs when a person inflicts an injury on another person and the latter sues for the damages caused (“Babcock Law Firm,” 2017). Usually, an injury case can result in different categorizations that require the law to have defined procedures for handling each occurrence. As a result, tort lawsuits are the largest group of civil litigation (“Babcock Law Firm,” 2017). However, there is three generalization of the types of injuries handled by the law namely negligence, intentional torts, and strict liability.

Accordingly, intentional torts result from the purposeful engagement in an activity that can cause damage to another person. For instance, initiating a fight against another person exposes the offender to an intentional tort. On the other hand, negligence tort illustrates the every citizen has the moral code of conduct that one should follow. Failure to adhere to such rules poses a risk to other individuals and can lead to injuries or damages. The occurrence of these injuries does not rely on the planned activities of the offender but the carelessness of the party and failure to grant the obligation owed to another. Agreeably, this is the most common type of tort (“Babcock Law Firm,” 2017). Undoubtedly, Sam committed negligence tort when he shoved Natalie aside while escaping interrogation. He did not intend to injure her, but the push caused the concussion. In truth, Sam failed to follow the procedures of safeguarding his data and acquiring the same. Therefore, he resolved to other activities that threatened another party, Natalie. Truly, he was the only offender who committed a tort.

Most of Sam’s actions subjected him to criminal liability. Specifically, he plugged in his external drive to the computer without the authorization of the firm. After that, he decided to run away when the boss arrived to investigate the matter. He was supposed to explain the issue to Natalie instead of fleeing. Escaping made him guilty of committing an unknown offense. During his escape he shoved Natalie aside, committing the negligence tort. Hence, due to the illegal entry into the company’s workstation, copying the data, and causing injury to Natalie, Sam was criminally liable for his acts.

All in all, intellectual property ensures that the new works of people are safe from access by other individuals. Accordingly, Sam’s client list merited trade secret protection since it gave him a competitive advantage over others. Throughout his dealings, Sam faced criminal liabilities which include a negligence tort when he caused injury to Natalie. Therefore, his poor plans in protecting his intellectual property put him at risk of prosecution.

References

Kinsella, N. S. (2001). Against intellectual property. Journal of Libertarian Studies, 15(2), 1-53.

Posner, R. A. (2005). Intellectually property: The law and economics approach. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(2), 57-73.

The 3 different types of tort law. (2017). The Babcock Law Firm LLC.

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Business Management Essay Topics University

Business Management Essay Topics

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Business Management is an essential part of any organisation and there are many elements of Business Management. By browsing our collection of business management essay topics, you will get ideas for your Business essay through the following Business subjects: Global Business, Business Strategy, Corporate Social Responsibility, Change Management, Project Management, Organisational Behaviour, Leadership, Globalization, Strategic Management, Entrepreneurship, Technology and Innovation Management. We hope you find the business management essay topics you are looking for.

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MBA Change Management Assignment: Snap-on Incorporated. For an organisation to remain competitive, flexible in changing market conditions and at the forefront of their particular market segment, change has become an essential part of the management process. Change does not necessarily have to form part of the day-to-day operations once a particular activity has been agreed. However, to prevent as little disruption to normal business practices as is completely necessary the resultant effect of the change must form part of the organisations longer term, three to five year, strategy. Snap-on Incorporated is a global leader and developer of automotive diagnostic solutions and, over the last several years, has been faced with stiffening competition and the threat of new entrants from diverse markets. Snap-on Incorporated has throughout this time been reorganizing its facilities in order to sustain these challenging times and prepare itself for long term growth. It is now time to review how the recent change activities have aligned Snap-on Incorporated to ensure long-term success. [2,000 words]

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Business Management Essay Topics
Business Management Essay Topics

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Global Business Management Essay Topics

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University Business Management Essay Topics

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MBA Global Business Context: Retail Banking Industry; Focusing on the Changes in the Market Industry and Cross Border Restructuring. For the past ten years a serious changes have been occurring in the banking industry. Significant transformations can be noticed in the financial sector market structure due to the mergers and acquisitions. Decrease in credit institutions operating in the Western Europe and noticeable increase in concentration and competition. Additionally the total value of assets increased in all examined countries. Western Europe market as a whole saw an increase of almost 100% in the asset value. The total number of operating banks declined to around 7000 institutions, a decline of 30% during the time period. The concentration ratio increased in majority of the countries with Estonia and Netherlands holding the biggest CR5 ratios. The number of micro and macro environmental factors contributed to the changes in the industry. The most influential and therefore important were political factors, including changes in regulations and policies regarding consolidation in the banking sector. Economic, Social and Technological factors were less effective with economic growth being the most influential force [2,800 words]

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MBA Business Management Essay Topics

Global Business: Russia’s Accession to the WTO Discuss Barriers and Opportunities of This Entrance. Russia’s entrance in the World Trade Organization is very actual issue today and this is very important for Russian business and economic environment. This issue is important also for the other countries which are members of the WTO, because World Trade Organization’s main objective is to develop and facilitate open international trading system and adjudicate trade disputes between or amongst member nations. As the Georgia is the member of the WTO it is very important for us, whether Russia will enter this organization or not. The main purpose of our project is to discuss positive and negative consequences for Russia that might result from entering the WTO, will they gain much by entering this organization or they will not. We will discuss why President Vladimir Putin made it a top priority to enter the World Trade Organization [3,000 words]

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Managing Culture using Hofstede’s 5 Cultural Dimensions & Trompenaar’s 7 Cultural Dimensions. Power Distance means the less powerful members of organizations accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. In high power distance countries, such as India, Mexico and South Korea, employees always accept and obey superior therefore the organization’ structure is centralized and tall. On the other hand, the structure of low power distance countries, for instance Finland, Ireland and Austria, is flat and decentralized. Universalism versus Particularism, universalism search for general rules and applies judgment to every circumstance. While, particularism look for finding exemption and judgments are influenced by relationships and environments [3,500 words]

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A Strategic Analysis of United Parcel Service (UPS). United Parcel Service (UPS) is one of the oldest and most successful courier companies in the world. It was founded in the year 1907 and started as a messenger company in the United States of America. Sine their humble beginnings UPS has grown from strength to strength to a $36 billion dollar corporation. UPS is a multinational company and is one of the world’s most recognized and admired brands around the globe. They are also one of the largest package delivery companies in the world and a major competitor of FedEx and DHL in supply chain management operations. Every day, they manage the flow of goods, funds, and information in more than 200 countries and territories worldwide [5,500 words]

International Trend Analysis – The Evolution of Green Cars. Change is a phenomenon that affects all aspects of life. In the business sector, change determines the directions taken by business venture. The survival of any business venture is largely dependent on how the sector responds to change. There are trends in a business environment that acts as indicators of the possible events in a sector. The current automobile industry is a product of trends in the world social economic front for the last century. The car has become an integral part of modern society and therefore subject to the changes in every society. Source of energy to the automobile engine has been subject to different market trends. The history of the car is characterized by shifts from the steam driven engine where coal was the major energy source to use of oil [4,000 words]

International Business Management Essay Topics

MBA Change Management Assignment – Leadership challenges to the communication silos in business organizations. Overcoming numerous barriers in organizational communication is one of the major challenges for managers in business organizations. In business literature, a silo is defined as an organizational entity that resembles as an information container working as a communication barrier to other organizational entities. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the communication silo and its cause and impact on Royal Greenland and to provide suggestions to overcome this barrier. The method of the research is qualitative where a cumulative method of data collection and analysis were followed. It has been found that Royal Greenland lack of a proper corporate culture, and the communication silo existed in every corner of the organization, where the senior managers were actively involved [6,000 words]

Analysis of Apple Inc. business Strategic Unit (iPad unit) Apple is an American-based multinational company that deals in the sale and design of personal computers, computer software plus a range of hand-held gadgets. Apple Inc. is best known for its hardware products branded as Macintosh. Started in 1976 by Steve Jobs, Apple has grown to become one of the current day’s iconic designers of consumer electronics. Although Apple deals in a wide range of products, the company treats every product line in a unique way.  Each product of Apple is treated as a standalone business unit. This report singles out the Ipad product of Apple Company and analyses this business unit in terms of its strategic competitive position, its external environment and the value addition proponent of its strategic position. This report is based on the UK market [3,000 words]

Case Study of the Strategy Adopted by Japan Airlines Corporation. By external and internal analysis as well as SWOT analysis, the report points out the strength and weakness of JAL, analyses the opportunities and threats of JAL, and puts forward the three key strategic issues confronted by JAL, i.e, financial crisis, lack of capital, overdue liabilities and the inability to maintain sustainable development; the decrease in attendance due to external factors such as economic crisis and security issues, etc; redundant organization structure, low efficiency in operation, high human resource cost, all of which lead to heavy burden on the JAL. By Ansoff Matrix analysis, the report puts forward the three strategic options faced by JAL: market penetration, market development and diversification. By comparative analysis, the report indicates the adoption of market penetration strategy would be the optimal choice for JAL and there are two issues to be resolved if JAL adopts market penetration strategy [3,000 words]

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MBA Operations Management Essay. Operational Management is a subject which applies for every organization as well as for individuals, from accomplishment of organizational goals to run the day-to-day operational activities. In this report author will discuss an operational issue which face by a leading Sri Lankan financial institute. And currently they are experiencing some bottleneck effects along their lending process and it started to cause long delays which lead to unsatisfied customers, time waste as well as frustration among staff members. Through this report author will describe what the causes for process constraints are and propose a set of recommendations and processes with the use of operational management theories to overcome these issues [4,500 words]

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IKEA Business Strategy. IKEA is Swedish furniture emporium. Nowadays, IKEA has become the largest furniture and household goods emporium in the world, the range of products IKEA offers focuses on better design and function at a lesser price. It offers smart home furnishing solutions for all areas of a house. The brand caters to the likes and needs of different people; for those who prefer a romantic touch, to the minimalist and everyone in between. In order to give the people a better everyday life, IKEA asks the customer to work as a partner [5,000 words]

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Decision Making Leadership Development

Decision Making, Leadership Development and Business Ethics at Boeing

Title: Decision Making Leadership Development. The Boeing Company is an American organisation which has been manufacturing aircraft, rockets and satellite for a considerable period of time. In the early 21st century, it had faced several problems regarding its ethical policy. With reference to the case i.e. Boeing: How Low Can They Flow? It has been ascertained that at the end of 2003, the board of directors sacked its chief financial officer Michel Sears and Vice President Darleen Druyun for their unethical approaches towards the organization. Accordingly, the study intends to comprehensively explore the case in terms of certain crucial parameters including effect of the issues faced by Boeing on its stakeholders along with offering optimal solution to address the situation among others.

With regard to discrepancies ascertained, the department of justice accused Michel Sears and Darleen Druyun on the basis of unauthorized discussion with a supplier during the contract review process about employment opportunity. Specifically, it had happened during the contract between Boeing and United States’ Air Force during the deal of 767 airborne refueling tankers. As per the investigation, it has been revealed that Druyun had lobbied with the political parties for competing Airbus’s bid for a military tanker contract.

After exposing the scandal, Druyun admitted that she had considered this high priced tanker deal as a gift before she started working with them. Apart from this, it was also exposed that Sears and Druyun had interconnections in between their family. The entire set of information had been exposed through the memo which had been written by the Air force e general counsel. After exposing the evidence in front of Boeing’s management, Sears and Druyun had tried to cover-up their unethical activities’ clue. On the other hand, Boeing had started reinvestigation about them thoroughly. After conspiracy both of them had been penalized financially and also sent to prison for rehabilitation. Moreover, the chairman of Boeing Philip Condit had mentioned that the responsibility of the organization was to prevent the unethical operations.

At the same time, a former executive of Boeing Larry Satchell had also been charged earlier during 1999s due to the conspiracy to violate United State (US) procurement laws. It also happened during the Condit’s period. During his tenure, several issues that occurred had enforced Boeing to become highlighted in front of media. Difference between the male and the female employees’ salaries had been one of the key incidents among them. As a result, The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Program (OFCCP) under the U.S. Labour Department had charged Boeing and Condit had paid to settle that issue. In addition, in terms of airplanes cost recovering purpose, it had also come into focus. Even in case of personnel issues such as marriage and relationship, Condit had created conflict in Boeing. During the end of 2003, he had resigned from the post of chairman of Boeing. During his era, several personalities had complimented Boeing organization inversely.

After him, Harry Stonecipher had taken the responsibility of Boeing. During his period, Boeing had come up with couple of ethical programs to ensure the organizational discipline. The new chairman Lewis Platt had declared the zero tolerance policy for unethical behaviour. During that period in 2004, Stonecipher had taken extra responsibility for his employees at Boeing. Subsequently, in the year 2005, he had resigned from the post of Chief Executive Officer (CEO). Platt, the chairman of Boeing, stated that Stonecipher was having an extramarital affair with a Boeing female employee. Besides, he had also criticized about Stonecipher. In the middle of 2005, James McNerney had been appointed as the CEO of Boeing. After his joining, firstly McNerney had settled the Lockheed Martin’s stolen paper issue, due to which U.S. Air Force had suspended Boeing. McNerney through this settlement wanted to ensure the protection of unethical behaviour at Boeing. After a long time, in 2008, Boeing had attempted to enter into a large deal with Air Force to build refuelling tanker, but it was not successful. At that stage, U.S. Air Force had made an alliance with Northrop Grumman. Finally, it was observed that in the year 2011, U.S. Air Force confirmed the deal with Boeing, as it was lucrative one than that of Airbus.

Discussion of the Stakeholders Affected

According to the analysis of Boeing’s ethical conduct of its employees, it has been found that there were certain complexities that emerged for the stakeholders. The decisions of the stakeholders can affect an organization in both ways. Consequently, it can be also asserted that good practice in case of decision making in an organization can influence the work environment in a positive manner. In accordance with French Philosopher-mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623-62), the ethical decision making is related with the six steps. Those are mentioned below:

  • Perception
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Choice
  • Action
  • Learning

These are the factors that can be deemed as best practices through which the stakeholders can protect the ethical conduct of an organization. In this case, aircraft manufacturing company Boeing’s stakeholders’ such as employees, suppliers and consumers among others had been affected in several ways. In order to find those reasons, first of all, it was observed that there was an unauthorized discussion about employment opportunity. Besides, it has been also observed that during 1999s when Boeing had differentiated the salary of its male and female employees’, they were also noticeably affected. Moreover, the unethical approaches of the former CEOs Condit and Stonecipher with the internal organizational employees’ of Boeing can be termed as a key factor affecting the vital stakeholders of the company i.e. employees at large. Furthermore, due to the Lockheed Martin’s stolen paper issue, key stakeholders had been also affected in a bigger way and in order to settle that issue the organization had paid a substantial amount.

How the Company or Individual Should Prioritize Stakeholders

For maintaining the goodwill of the organization and good crisis management, prioritizing the key stakeholders is needed mostly. In order to find the stakeholders prioritizing process, it has been observed that it can be ethically maintained through BSR five steps approaches. This approach is emphasised below:

Engagement Strategy. In order to prioritize key stakeholders such as employees, suppliers and consumers among others first of all Boeing needs to set its vision. In addition, it needs to define the criteria for engagement mechanism and  it must have to keep focus on short and long term goals. Moreover, it should also  ensure the equality of stakeholders. Furthermore, identifying the opportunity to achieve the goals and planning for the future engagement ought to be key facets.

Stakeholder Mapping. It is a collaborative process, through research, debate and discussion, it helps to determine the key list of stakeholders. It can be segmented into four divisions. These include identifying, analyzing, mapping and prioritizing.

Preparation. It brings knowledge to fulfillment of a plan or project. It helps to ensure the engagement with stakeholders which in turn facilitates  to conduct the entire process successfully.

Engagement. After the preparation in case of Boeing for its stakeholders, it needs to  thoroughly work through  the planning stages. This is the moment when facilitation truly counts.

Action Plan. In case of engagement failure, it will help to avoid the pitfall. This step helps to develop a plan whose aim is to find the engagement with the stakeholders through communication.

This is the process through which Boeing can ensure the priority of stakeholders (Morris and Baddache, “Back to Basics: How to Make Stakeholder Engagement Meaningful for Your Company”).

What Is The Optimal Solution?

According to the analysis, it has been observed that there were multiple difficulties faced by Boeing. Even it has been also seen that within 18 months Boeing had appointed the third CEO for its unethical activities inside the organization. In order to prevent the ethical indiscipline, organisational decision-makers need to prioritize all challenging values and standards of organization behaviour. A common set of ethical standards can be developed to guide decisions when conflicting obligations, cost-benefit trade-offs, and challenging value choices are to be seen. These aspects are  illustrated below:

  1. Problem Awerness
  2. Problem Definition
  3. Decision Making
  4. Action Plan Implementation
  5. Follow Through

These are the optimum solutions which can prevent Boeing from unethical conduct and ensure leadership development in case of decision making (McGraw-Hill, “Ethical Problem-solving and Decision Making”).

Figure 1: The Rational Problem Solving Process/ Optimal Solution

Decision Making Leadership Development
Decision Making Leadership Development

Source: (Mcgraw-Hill, “Ethical Problem-Solving And Decision Making”).

An Optimal Solution?

This optimal solution can help Boeing to resolve the lingering multifaceted problems and eliminate the discrepancy between actual and desired outcomes. The prime responsibility of the decision making authority is to identify the actual problems and in order to do that gathering problem awareness is required. Through communication and monitoring process, it can be done. It will be useful because after identifying the issue trust needs to be established for assuring that the causes of disputes can be resolved. Clarifying the objective can also help to understand the problem otherwise it will be difficult to identify the core issues. Evaluating the current turbulent situation is also helpful for Boeing to identify the problem, because comparing the predetermined performance and earlier performance will enable to directly define the difference. Moreover, it can be asserted that identifying the problem can facilitate to understand the entire viewpoint.

On the other hand, through problem definition, problems can be analysed and it will also help to determine whether Boeing has agreed to solve the problem or not. However, decision making is also a very crucial task. It can help to establish a decision depending upon the situation. Besides, it can also aid Boeing to decide a way from various alternatives by evaluating those alternatives. Finally, it can facilitate to choose a better alternative plan.

Even action plan implementation is very essential for a firm as in initial phase it helps to assign the tasks and responsibilities in keeping with short-term objectives. During this process, it will also facilitate to schedule those tasks in an organized manner. This approach related to Boeing can directly and indirectly enable to fortify the organizational situation along with ensuring the level of commitment of key organisational stakeholders. Furthermore, it can also help to active the plan of resurrection of Boeing from the faced difficulties perfectly.

Consequently, the conclusive part in this solution approach is follow-through. It can help Boeing to evaluate its own decision making system. Through determining the actual performance and measuring the results, Boeing can take desired actions. It is almost like a feedback process through which Boeing can review its own leadership policies and ethical conducts for future period.

How Are the Various Stakeholders Effected and Why?

From the analysis of The Boeing Company’s case, it has been apparently observed that, various stakeholders are affected due to a number of key reasons. In order to discuss those unethical issues, first of all, it has been found that Boeing had suffered because its former CEO Sears and Vice President (VP) Druyun had been engaged in an unauthorized discussion about employment opportunity and during that time Druyun had lobbied with the political parties for competing Airbus’s bid for a military tanker contract.

Moreover, during Condit’s leadership, conflict had been raised in terms of male and female salaries discrepancy. Consequently, U.S. Labour Department had charged Boeing. In addition, he had also involved with an unethical issue for engaging in a relationship with the female employee of Boeing. As an effect, both of them i.e. Condit and the female employee involved had been fired from the organization.

Even after Condit’s period, the unethical approaches had continued in Boeing. Stonecipher had joined with several promises but he was unsuccessful to accomplish them. Within a short span, it had been exposed that Stonecipher was having an extramarital affair with a Boeing’s female employee. This kind of undesirable conduct by an organisation head affected different stakeholders of Boeing including its other employees as the image of the company got tarnished by a considerable extent. Moreover, Lockheed Martin’s stolen paper issue had been also happened at the same time; due to which U.S. Air Force had suspended Boeing from any short of business deals. This factor was a major setback for the company and its key stakeholders such as suppliers as they were deprived of placing their prominence in a competitive market.

Proactive Steps The Company Could Take To Avoid Similar Issues In The Future

With regard to avoiding these kinds of unethical conducts in the future, Boeing should take few precautions. Firstly, it should choose the right person as a leader who always intends to uphold strong ethical conduct as his/her main priority. Prior leadership experience should be provided greater emphasis to lead the organisation through complex and uncertain business environment. Besides, Boeing has to be stricter about its ethical conducts in terms of business dealings. In case of business deals with the suppliers or clients, Boeing should not only rely on one person instead it should give the responsibility to the top management council, where the decision will be taken by the discussion of the council members. Consequently, in case of employee selection, Boeing should follow the approaches laid down by best practices. Additionally, in case of women related scandals, it should react strictly to settle the issues and set examples for future ensuring zero tolerance. These are the key precautions Boeing should consider for future conducts to avoid the unethical scenarios in case of leadership development.

Works Cited

“Ethical Problem-Solving and Decision Making.” McGraw-Hill. n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2014.

Morris, Jonathan, and Farid Baddache. Back to Basics: How to Make Stakeholder Engagement Meaningful for Your Company. 2012. Web. 22 Apr. 2014.

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Management of Organisational Change

Management of Organisational Change

The management of organisational change is very important for the long run success and sustainability of the business. Business that has loyal workers will have the process of change management easily adopted. People of the organisation may be resisting change that will pose threats for the organisation. The highly competitive industry and dynamic environment requires the organisations to manage change properly. There are many theories and approaches developed by the hard work of researchers that have developed guidance for the organisation for adopting the appropriate practices that would increase the chances of the organisation to manage change in an effective and efficient manner (Taylor, P. & Hirst, J. (2001).

The process of change management involves changes in the direction, capabilities and structure of the organisation (Moran & Brightman, 2011). The study conducted by Burnes (2004) states that the change is an inevitable thing that will take place in the life of an organisation having an impact on the operational and the strategic level of the business.

The organisation should rigorously research about the future of the business so that proper planning is conducted that will enable the organisation to achieve the objectives of the business. The main emphasis was laid around the fact that the change in the organisation cannot be just focused without the organisational strategy being considered. It is very important that the business has aligned the objectives of the employees with the organisational objectives to increase the chances of success and growth. Businesses that are not effectively running have identified certain issues that restrict them to adapt to the changes that are essential for the long run success and growth of the business.

Graetz (2000) has identified that the information revealing about the increasing trend towards globalisation, the deregulation, growing knowledge of the employees, changes in social and demographic trends all over the world have led to a change in the perspective of the leadership of the organisation to consider change management very important. The advancements around the world regarding the trends and the globalisation have not been ignored by the business organisations.

Change management is crucial for businesses as there are many factors that have to be considered. Information not shared properly with the employees of the organisation so it will not motivate the employees to contribute towards the efforts of the organisation to manage change effectively. The work of Balogun & Hope (2004), have shared the results of about 70 percent organisations that are not capable of successfully implementing change in the organisation.

There is work conducted by the people in the past regarding change management. It has been identified that the change that takes place has been equal to the level of change in the environment of business in the current time (Balgon & Hope, 2004; Carnall, 2003). The change that takes place in the organisation has been considered to have all shapes, forms and sizes.

There can be drastic changes in the structure of the organisation, the product line can be diversified further and the number of employees needed for the different positions in the organisation can also change with time. The high level of competition in the industry has created certain challenges for the organisations to acquire the best possible talent in the industry to support the organisation. The information that is available for the organisations is very important for the people to improve the operations of the business in the long run (Kotter, 1996).

The change management is a crucial factor for the business organisations because that is the requirement for businesses to stay in competition. There has been a high level of focus on the importance of the management of change in the organisation but there is less empirical research conducted to support the topic (Guimaraes & Armstrong, 1998).

The work of Senior, (2002) has identified the three categories that are focused from the perspective of the characteristics of the change. The important concepts like total quality management (TQM) and the business process re-engineering (BPR) along with other initiatives for the change have not been focused very much. The main area of focus for the organisation is the sustainability and the long run growth of the business so the management of change is crucial (Pettinger, 2004).

The work of Rieley & Clarkson, (2001) has clarified that constantly changing organisations are not performing well because it is very difficult to manage change that is taking place regularly. The routine work performed by the employees of the organisation allows them to learn from their mistakes and specialise in the tasks they perform so it is difficult to adapt to new changes in the organisation. If the business has the ability to identify methods that would enable the organisation to manage change effectively that will be fruitful.

Luecke, (2003) states that changing environment has allowed employees to mould with the surroundings to adapt properly to the business changes to be able to survive in the competitive industry. The work of Nelson, (2003) has clarified that the change in the organisation does not occur in a steady manner as the level of change that is experienced varies with the nature of the business, changes in technology and the degree of competition in the industry. Many organisations have developed proper plans and implemented the effective strategies developed by skilled managers to adopt change and manage it properly.

Grundy (1993) has been able to identify that the process of change can be manipulated by the organisations by dealing with changes in a proper way by ensuring that the incremental and slow change is taking place at the right time as the organisation prepares the required human resource and other resources for the change management. When the level of change is viewed from the perceptive of the cause of change then Bamford & Forrester, (2003) have identified several factors that the organisation toward the process of change. The planned process of dealing with the change that is going to take place in the organisation is the appropriate strategy as it allows the business to identify the most appropriate practices that will guide the organisation for dealing with the change effectively. If the change is taking place that will result the organisation to pass through different states of changes so it is crucial to deal with it properly to shift the business from an unsatisfactory place to a desirable state (Eldrod & Toppett, 2000).

The planned change approach was developed by Lewin, (1946) having the background in the study of intergroup and interpersonal relationships in the community. According to the study the individuals have to understand the importance of three main steps for the management of change that include the level of unfreezing present, moving to the new level and then refreezing the current level. It is a good way to discard the previous information to be open to understand and properly manage the new information that is being shared with the employees.

The work of Bullock & Batten, (1985) has been highly appreciated regarding the management of change for the organisation as they have developed a four phased model for the planned changes that need to take place in the organisation that involve the exploration, planning, action and integration. The model has laid major emphasis on the process of change that allows the organisation to move from one place/state to another that enables the managers or leaders of the business to adapt to certain changes that are very important for the business.

Though the model has gained respect of the researchers in the past but has also faced criticism for the model being focused on the incremental changes taking place at the small scale level, condition that is considered is that organisations are operating in constant environment and movement takes place from one stage to another. The process of change that takes place in the organisation is not taking place in a step by step or predefined manner so it is crucial that effective planning is done to incorporate the needs of the stakeholders of the business in the change management process so it can take place in a successful manner.

The proper manner to adapt to changes for the business organisation is to not take the concepts of change in isolation rather develop a set of integrated steps that can ensure that the performance of the business will be good. The information that is being shared by the employees for developing a strategy for the effective management of change is crucial. If the leadership allows the employees to have a say in the decision making process that will increase the motivation, commitment and loyalty of the employees of the business.

The importance of sincere employees that are willing to support the organisation in good and bad times cannot be ignored so it is the responsibility of the human resource management department of the organisation to ensure that the employees are very much satisfied with the performance of the managers (Dawson, 1994). The growth and career development opportunities in the organisation should be developed for the welfare and growth of the employees. As the skilled workforce of the organisation will feel comfortable with the practices of the organisation there are higher chances that such businesses will be able to perform well in the industry.

Management of Organisational Change
Management of Organisational Change

To properly manage the change in the organisation by dealing with high level of uncertainty and the complexity a business must emphasise on the development of the open learning systems so that employees are acquainted with the skills, experiences and abilities that are crucial for the growth, expansion, survival and sustainability of the business (Dunphy & Stace, 1993). There are no proper rules that have been developed for guiding organisations properly to deal with the process of change properly but still it is imperative that business organisations continuously work on strengthening the business procedures and operations in a manner that will ensure the proper flow of operations enabling the business to cope with change effectively (Pettigrew & Whipp, 1993).

Conclusion

Change is inevitable in the dynamic environment, globalisation and high degree of competition in the industry. It is imperative that organisations develop proper plans for dealing with change in an effective manner. The business organisations that are dealing with the change properly have achieved high level of success as they are able to guide the employees in a successful manner towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of the business. There are many theories and approaches that are developed for the guidance and direction to be provided to businesses but it depends on the nature of the business and the industry in which the business is operating to adopt the proper procedure. The successful businesses emphasise on motivating their employees so that they can adapt to changes properly and perform well in the business environment.

References

Balogun, J. and Hope Hailey, V. (2004), Exploring Strategic Change, 2nd edn (London: Prentice Hall)

Bamford, D. R. and Forrester, P. L. (2003) ‘Managing planned and emergent change within an operations management environment’, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23(5), p. 546–564

Bullock, R. J. and Batten, D. (1985), It’s just a phase we’re going through: a review and synthesis of OD phase analysis’, Group and Organisation Studies, 10(December), pp. 383–412

Burnes, B. (1996) ‘No such thing as a “one best way” to manage organisational change’, Management Decision, 34(10), pp. 11–18

Burnes, B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th edn (Harlow: Prentice Hall).

Carnall, C. A. (2003), Managing Change in Organisations, 4th edn (Harlow: Prentice Hall)

Davidson,M. C. G. and De Marco, L. (1999) ‘Corporate change: education as a catalyst’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management  , 11(1), pp. 16–23.

Dawson, P. (1994) Organisational Change: A Processual Approach (London: Paul Chapman).

Dunphy, D. and Stace, D. (1993) ‘The strategic management of corporate change’, Human Relations, 46(8),pp. 905–918

Edmonstone, J. (1995), ‘Managing change: an emerging consensus’, Health Manpower Management, 21(1),pp. 16–19

Eldrod & Tippett, (2002), ‘The “death valley” of change’, Journal of Organisational Change Management, 15(3), pp. 273–291

Graetz, F. (2000), ‘Strategic change leadership’, Management Decision, 38(8), pp. 550–562

Grundy, T. (1993), Managing Strategic Change (London: Kogan Page)

Guimaraes, T. and Armstrong, C. (1998) ‘Empirically testing the impact of change management effectiveness on company performance’, European Journal of Innovation Management, 1(2), pp. 74–84

Kotter, J. P. (1996), Leading Organisational Change (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press).

Luecke, R. (2003), Managing Organisational Change and Transition (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press)

Moran, J. W. and Brightman, B. K. (2001) ‘Leading Organisational Change Career Development International, 6(2), pp. 111–118

Nelson, L. (2003) ‘a case study in Organisational Change: implications for theory’, The Learning Organisation, 10(1), pp. 18–30

Pettigrew, A. M. and Whipp, R. (1993), Managing Organisational Change for Competitive Success (Cambridge: Blackwell)

Pettinger, R. (2004), Contemporary Strategic Management (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan)

Rieley, J. B. and Clarkson, I. (2001), ‘The impact of change on performance’, Journal of Change Management, 2(2), pp. 160–172

Senior, B. (2002) Organisational Change, 2nd edn (London: Prentice Hall)

Taylor, P. and Hirst, J. (2001), ‘Facilitating effective change and continuous improvement: The Mortgage Expressway’,Journal of Change Management , 2(1), pp. 67–71

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Community Leadership Dissertation

Community Leadership

Community leadership is a vital consideration by most organization management. For an organization to survive in today’s ever changing environment, both internally and externally, it has to be ready to respond to these changes appropriately. The module of community leadership focused on leadership theories based on learning efforts to breed leaders who will be responsible in creating, formulating, and making decisions that develop not only the company but also the social well being of the community dwellers.

According to (Stacy, 2011), an organization moves will experience difficulties in its entire operation; production, processing, procurement, supply and sale if its leadership does not incorporate a culture of community leadership in its managing. For example, an organization should make efforts to involve other companies in the industry, its supply chain, its employees behavior both at work and home as well as all its stakeholders towards actions that the planets important resources, improving the surrounding physical state as well as dealing with the  social problems of people living around that environment such as poverty.

According to Stacey (2011), community leadership starts from the down level of micro organizational behavior. It deals with individual employee’s behavior examining what motivates or de motivates him. Micro communities also looks at how an employee’s differences in the ability affects his productivity and how they view their work as well as the effect of the perception of their job on their behavior(Stacey, 2011). She concludes that Different personality features of employees have a significant impact on the organization just the same way different people have on each other.

A leader should also consider the Meso community of the organization.  According to Stacy (2011), meso organizational behavior deals with people’s behavior when working together or general human behavior in groups. She emphasizes that knowledge of meso organisational behavior enables a leader to determine a combination of skills among group, members that raise their performance, what kind of socialization motivates staff as well as how managers can determine the potential leader when dealing with promotion.

Community Leadership
Community Leadership

Macro community is aimed at comprehending an organisational behavior on the entire organization and the effects as well as the relationship between the company and the outside environment, (Schneider & Somers, 2006). They argue that the concept of macro organisational community is based on such disciplines as: sociology, which deals with the structure, organisational relationship as well as the social status; anthropology, which deals the cultural influences of both the organization and outside community as well as symbolism; political science, which deals with theories on power, mediations as well as conflict resolution and; economics, which balances competitiveness and efficiency. They further hypotheses that effective macro organizational practices can enable management to answer questions related to; power distribution in the company and how to maintain it, conflict resolution, strategies that can be used to coordinate work activities, how the company will be structured to control its internal and external environment (Schneider & Somers, 2006).  The indicate that effective macro organisational leadership can be manifested in an organization that has en effective coordination and cooperation in its departments and groups,  the application of both formal and informal ways in interorganizational communication as well as effective relationship between the organization and its specific relation to the environment .

Lichtenstein, B.B. et al. (2006) argues that community leadership should not be based on the view of pure formal organizations or even community organizations but should rather be based on a combination of the two which results to efficient management that balances the two sides, thus enabling organizations to not only achieve their goals but also operate in a sustainable environment. He however notes that community leadership may be hindered by several factors such as: higher resources needed to develop and maintain community projects and programs, especially by small organizations; hindrance by some communities for organizations intended or commences project or service delivery and; displacement of the growth paradigm with globalization paradigm.

Uhl-Bien & Marion (2009) hypothesizes that the culture of an organization is vital when dealing with community leadership. The culture of an organization does not only reflects on attitudes, philosophies and values but also  influences  the manner in which the organization’s staff interact with the management, between themselves and other stakeholders in and out of the organization. Since community leadership has to address this interaction, it is vital for the organization to instill a culture of responsibility to the external factors of the organization on in its staff.

According to Uhl-Bien & McKelvey (2007), in community and leadership, various teams, programs, and projects should be created in order to drive the different agendas of the company to success. Sustainability teams should be created to enhance implementation, execution, and completion of started projects and programs. Creating teams of employees committed to different organisational projects and initiatives is a vital method of creating synergy, speeding implementation, and enhancing team spirit. These sustainability teams represent different organisational departments such as production, sales and marketing, supply chain, as well as customer care thus enabling the organization’s balanced relationship to the external environment.

References

Lichtenstein, B.B. et al. (2006) ‘Complexity leadership theory: an interactive perspective on leading in complex adaptive systems’, Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 8 (4), pp.2-12.

Schneider, M. & Somers, M. (2006) ‘Organizations as complex adaptive systems: implications of complexity theory for leadership research’, The Leadership Quarterly,17 (4), pp.351-365.

Stacey, R.D. (2011) Strategic management and organisational dynamics: the challenge of complexity. 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson

Uhl-Bien, M. & Marion, R. (2009) ‘Complexity leadership in bureaucratic forms of organizing: a meso model’, The Leadership Quarterly, 20 (4), pp.631-650.

Uhl-Bien, M., Marion, R. & McKelvey, B. (2007) ‘Complexity leadership theory: shifting leadership from the industrial age to the knowledge era’, The Leadership Quarterly, 18 (4), pp.298-318

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